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Taking fieldbus H1 into Hazardous Areas

Foundation Fieldbus H1 Introduction

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How is fieldbus different from 4-20mA?


4-20mA
Power Supply
Power Supply

fieldbus

Input card

In a Fieldbus system, the power supply, field devices and input card are connected in parallel. In 4-20mA circuits, the power supply, field device and input card are connected in series.

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Expanded System View

TAG VALUE UNITS STATUS ALARM 15.3 mA

= LIC-012 = 70.34 = m3 = GOOD = Y/N

DCS: Limited system view. Does not include diagnostics and other information from field devices.

FCS: Expanded view. Field devices are part of the system.

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Advantages of fieldbus over 4-20mA


Measurement accuracy
Process variable is converted to digital value in the field device Value cannot be corrupted by leakage or electrical interference Allows tighter control of process

Better diagnostic information


Field device diagnostics result in maintenance savings No in range errors

Fewer wire terminations Cable savings


Multicore home run cable replaced by single twisted pair

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Physical Layer - specifications


IEC 61158 Physical Layer standard 31.25kb/s Up to 32 devices per segment - depends on several factors Shielded twisted pair - can use existing field wiring Power down the bus Up to 1900 metres with best cable - more with repeaters Intrinsically safe
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Device connection

Fieldbus in hazardous areas


SEGMENT Control system

24Vdc

Power supply & conditioner (FFPS) Integrated terminator


Wiring Hub

Trunk

CONTROL ROOM FIELD

Terminator

Spur

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Devices


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Fieldbus Electrical Circuit Diagram

Near-End Terminator

Far-End Terminator

Power Conditioner

Field Devices
9-32V 100 W
H1 Interface

+
-

Signal Isolation Inductors

100 W 1 mF

1 mF

1,900m max. Power supply, H1 interface card, field devices and terminators are all connected in parallel

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Fieldbus needs terminators

Fieldbus Host Control System

T
T
D

100W 1mF

Terminators are required, one at each end, to:


Provide matched line impedance to minimise reflections &

distortions, and
Define the impedance of the bus for conversion from current modulation to voltage modulation*

No more than 2 terminators may be used on one

segment
* FF devices transmit by modulating the current and receive by detecting the modulated voltage
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Wiring topologies
Trunk

Point-to-Point
Trunk

Bus with Spurs


Trunk

Daisy-Chain JB Chicken Foot or Tree

Trunk

Preferred
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Taking fieldbus H1 into Hazardous Areas

Selection of Power Supplies and Wiring Components

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Fieldbus in hazardous areas

Control system

24Vdc

Power supply & conditioner (FFPS) Integrated terminator

Trunk
Hazardous Area protection

CONTROL ROOM FIELD

Wiring Hub

Terminator

Spur

Hazardous Area protection FOUNDATION Fieldbus Devices


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Hazardous area

Methods of protection
Method of protection FISCO Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus barrier Ex d/Explosionproof Ex e/Increased safety Ex n/Nonincendive FNICO Ex nA Non-Arcing Ex nL Energy-Limited Zone 2 Division 2 Zone 1 Division 1

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Hazardous area protection


Two End user groups:
Use intrinsic safety or non-incendive field wiring
allows live working without gas clearance certificate eg. Aramco, BP, Bayer, Chevron, Mol, ONGC

Use Ex d/explosionproof or non-arcing


gas clearance certificate required for live working eg. Shell, Exxon Mobil

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Live working of field devices


High Energy Trunk Features No limit on number of devices Redundant power Limitations on live working Non-incendive spurs Fieldbus barrier Fieldbus barrier Fieldbus barrier* FISCO Energy Limited Trunk Limit number of devices Simplex power Live work trunk and spurs FNICO

Zone 2/Division 2 Zone 1 Zone 22/21 Division 1


* Fieldbus barrier is located in Division 2

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Non-arcing trunk with Non-incendive spurs


Control system

24Vdc 24Vdc

General purpose Fieldbus power supply


CONTROL ROOM High Energy Ex nA trunk Spur short-circuit protection in wiring hub makes spurs Ex nL FIELD

Live-workable Ex nL spurs Ex nL or Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus devices

Zone 2 Division 2

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Non-incendive spurs
Field instruments may carry any of the following approvals:
Intrinsically safe Non-incendive (North America) EEx nL (IEC)

Compliance with the following parameters is required:


Ui > or = fieldbus power supply max voltage

Recommend Ui > or = 32V If Ui = 24V use F801 module If Ui > or = 30V use F802 module
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Non-arcing trunk and spurs


Control system

24Vdc 24Vdc

Fieldbus power supply


CONTROL ROOM High energy Ex nA trunk FIELD No live working without power-down or gas clearance Ex nA spurs

Ex n or Ex d/Explosionproof Fieldbus devices

Zone 2 Division 2

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Ex d field devices in Division 1


Control system

24Vdc 24Vdc

Fieldbus power supply

CONTROL ROOM

High energy Trunk not live-workable Junction box: Ex d/Explosionproof or Ex e

FIELD Spurs not live-workable

Ex d/explosionproof Fieldbus devices


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Zone 1 Division1

Ex e/d field devices in Zone 1


Control system

24Vdc 24Vdc Fieldbus power supply

CONTROL ROOM Trunk not live-workable Junction box: Ex d/Explosionproof or Ex e FIELD

Field wiring hub EEx me approved

Spurs not live-workable

Ex d/explosionproof Fieldbus devices


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Zone 1

Typical FNICO installation


Control system

24Vdc 24Vdc

FNICO power supply CONTROL ROOM

Live-workable Ex nL trunk
FIELD

Live-workable Ex nL spurs

Ex nL or Intrinsically Safe Fieldbus devices

Zone 2 Division 2

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Typical FISCO installation


Control system

24Vdc 24Vdc

FISCO power supply CONTROL ROOM

GAS Zone 1 Division 1


Liveworkable Ex i trunk

DUST Zone 21

FIELD

Live-workable Ex i spurs

FISCO fieldbus devices

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Multi-drop capability
Direct parallel connection on safe area side

24Vdc 24Vdc

Trunk #2

Trunk #3

Intrinsically safe FISCO Fieldbus devices

Zone 1 Division 1

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FISCO for hazardous area applications


Intrinsic Safety preferred by many end users for protection of instrumentation in hazardous areas
Recognised as Safest possible technique Maintenance personnel dont need re-training on non-IS techniques Field enclosure smaller, lighter and less complex than alternative techniques using simple wiring hub

Simple safety documentation compared with earlier IS Fieldbus techniques Cable parameter calculations associated with conventional IS circuits are not needed Trunk cable lengths and segment loading adequate for many applications
Typically 8 devices with 830m trunk cable length in IIB gases Typically 5 devices with >640m trunk cable length in IIC gases

Multi-drop capability

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Fieldbus Barrier
Control system 24Vdc 24Vdc

GAS Zone 1 Division 2


High energy Ex e trunk

Fieldbus power supply CONTROL ROOM


FIELD

DUST Zone 21

Fieldbus barrier

Zone 1/0 Division 1


FISCO or entity fieldbus devices
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Live-workable Ex i spurs

Zone 21/20

High Energy Trunk for hazardous areas


Benefits of High Energy Trunk concept:
Redundant Fieldbus power supply can be used Typically 12 instruments (typically limited by cycle time) Fieldbus trunk is not energy-limited, so very long segment lengths can be supported Spurs connect to FISCO or Entity instruments; simple verification of intrinsic safety

Disadvantages of existing Fieldbus Barrier implementations:


Enclosure involves many components Solution is customized Field enclosure is large, complex, expensive Mix of protection methods within main enclosure compartment (Ex e trunk and Ex ia spurs) risks maintenance errors

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Taking fieldbus H1 into Hazardous Areas

Maintenance-friendly High-Power Trunk

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Legacy fieldbus barrier


Designed to provide high levels of energy in to the field by:
Using high-power FFPS Moving the IS interface into the hazardous area One Ex e trunk connection per module Enclosure needs extra terminals for:
Trunk separation to further barrier modules Field device connection

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Legacy Fieldbus barrier


Control system 24Vdc 24Vdc

GAS Zone 1 Division 2


High energy Ex e trunk

Fieldbus power supply CONTROL ROOM


FIELD

DUST Zone 21

Fieldbus barrier

Live-workable Ex i spurs

Zone 1/0 Division 1


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FISCO or entity fieldbus devices

Zone 21/20

Customised FBB enclosure


Custom-designed to suit project requirements:
Enclosure material Ex-protected isolating switch option Fixed terminator options Trunk and spur surge protection options Internal cable management Field wiring terminal options
Ex protected isolating switch option Spur surge protector option

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Trunk surge protection and optional combined fieldbus terminator

Additional terminals

Connections in customised systems

Number of terminals: Spur: + / - / Shield of FBB to + / - / Shield of Surge Protector. There are 12 spurs = 72 Spur: + / - / Shield of Surge Protector to + / - / Shield of screw terminal. There are 12 spurs = 72 Trunk: + / - / Shield of FBB to + / - of Ex de switch. There are 3 Trunks = 15 Trunk: + / - of Ex de switch to + / - / Shield of Ex e terminals. There are 3 Trunks = 15 Total = 72 + 72 + 15 + 15 = 174 terminals = 174 potential points of failure!

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12-spur SS enclosure
Live pluggable trunk surge protector (optional) Live pluggable Terminator Trunk terminals Trunk Terminal Assembly (TTA) housing

Live pluggable
6-spur Fieldbus Barrier modules Spur surge protector (optional)

Screwsecured, pluggable spur terminals

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6-spur GRP enclosure


Live pluggable trunk surge protector (optional) Live pluggable Terminator Trunk terminals Trunk Terminal Assembly (TTA) housing Live pluggable 6-spur Fieldbus Barrier modules

Spur surge protector (optional)

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9373-FB Series Fieldbus Barrier enclosure (12 spur)

Fieldbus control system (DCS)

24V dc Bulk power input

Increased safety (Ex e) High Energy trunk

General Purpose Fieldbus Power Supply CONTROL ROOM Fieldbus Barrier enclosure FIELD Zone 1

Intrinsically Safe spurs

Intrinsically safe FISCO or Entity Fieldbus Devices


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Compare size with legacy 12-spur solutions


Existing 12-spur solutions with Surge Protection 9373-FB 12-spur Fieldbus Barrier with Spur Surge Protection

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All images approx. to scale

Surely not!
950mm

Replace this...

.....with this

430mm

MTLs 9370-FB is up to 50% smaller than conventional Fieldbus Barrier implementations, leading to significant savings in infrastructure and installation costs
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But size doesnt matter!


All system components are pluggable, even in the hazardous area:
Safer, easier maintenance Allows expansion from 6 to 12 spurs per enclosure* Install trunk and/or spur surge protection modules during initial installation or as retro-fit Faster fault diagnosis by substitution
Fieldbus Barrier module

Spur surge protectors (one per spur) Fieldbus terminator Trunk surge protector

* Specify 9374-FB (12-spur) enclosure with 6 spurs


fitted; expand to 12-spurs by addition of second 9377-FB module
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Module carrier
Supplied as part of complete enclosure assembly 6-spur and 12-spur versions Provides mechanical and electrical mounting platform for 9377-FB Fieldbus Barrier module(s) Provides pluggable connections to fieldbus spurs Robust design Supports optional Spur Surge Protection modules
Integrated high integrity ground connection

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How are the modules hot pluggable?


Ex de plug/socket system Patented technology from Cooper Crouse-Hinds Integrated part of:
Fieldbus Trunk Terminator Trunk Surge Protector Fieldbus Barrier Module

Gas tight when inserting (Ex d) Mechanically designed for Ex e Allows removal of equipment without gas clearance or additional Ex de switches

Plug

Socket

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Simplified maintenance
Maintenance activity Remove and replace Fieldbus Barrier module Conventional Fieldbus Barrier enclosure Remove enclosure cover Select and operate appropriate isolating switch Open trunk terminal cover on barrier module Remove trunk wiring from terminals and secure Remove spur wiring from terminals and secure Remove and replace barrier module Reinstate trunk and spur wiring and close trunk terminal cover Operate isolating switch Replace enclosure cover
39

9370-FB Series Fieldbus Barrier enclosure Remove enclosure cover Loosen module screws Remove and replace barrier module Tighten screws Replace enclosure cover

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Reducing maintenance risk


I can open the enclosure door of the module main compartment and so Every and circuit within it only contains IS circuits it? is livethedoesnt shaded area
workable in the hazardous area

Mixing circuits that can be live-disconnected in a hazardous area with those that cant leads to unnecessary risks during field maintenance which is why all circuits and modules.

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Reducing maintenance risk


Non-live workable circuits are confined within the Trunk Terminal Assembly compartment and protected by a lockable cover. This only ever needs to be opened during installation and when the trunk cable fails and needs to be swapped over. On both occasions there is no power. Every module and circuit within the shaded area is live-workable in the hazardous area

Mixing circuits that can be live-disconnected in a hazardous area with those that cant leads to unnecessary risks during field maintenance which is why all circuits and modules in the main enclosure compartment are designed to be replaced while powered.
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Fieldbus H1 Physical Layer Diagnostics

User-Friendly Handheld, Periodic Diagnostics

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Reliability of fieldbus physical layer

At commissioning a few installation and device faults require correction After commissioning fieldbus segments run reliably
on 300 segment system about one physical layer problem needs resolving/year

Relcom fieldbus testers are estimated to be used on more than 90% of segments installed

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Commissioning Procedure
inspect wiring unplug power conditioner field connector
signal + to signal - >50kohm signal + to screen >20Mohm signal - to screen >20Mohm signal + to ground bar >20Mohm signal - ground bar >20Mohm screen to ground bar >20Mohm

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Common Faults
Shorts (between +, -, shield, ground)
water stray wire strands cable damage, etc.

Cable
non compliant water ingress routed near noisy cable/equipment too long

Intermittent connections
broken wires improperly connected shield loose connector/wire

Component failure
Power supply

Wiring component/terminator Field device

Terminator
missing/extra/failed wrong location

Power supply is not isolated

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Characteristics of user-friendly diagnostics

Easy to measure Easy to understand Gives definite indication of a problem Eliminates possible causes Actionable

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Fieldbus Diagnostic Measurements


Segment Voltage
Measure voltage on segment Noise measurement at n Hz Noise measurement at 31 kHz Noise measurement at 400kHz Maximum noise at each of Low, In Band, and High frequencies

Positive Short to Shield


Short circuit between these 2 cables

Low Frequency Noise

Negative Short to Shield


Short circuit between these 2 cables
Voltage is between 0.35 and 1 volt Number of messages that need to be sent more than once on the network Displayed for 1 hour Displayed for 1 hour

In Band Frequency Noise


High Frequency Noise

Device Signal Level

Peak Frequency Noise

Retransmissions

Live Device Count


Addition or removal of device on network

New Device

Device Removed

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Diagnostics using the FBT-6


Host control system Plant Resource ManagerTM (including fieldbus diagnostics)

Fieldbus power supply system

Segment 1 of 8

Field junction box

I/O & Controller

H1 Fieldbus

Basic failure alarms

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FBT-6 Hand-held Diagnostic Module

Commissioning Procedure
Connect fieldbus tester at each field device and at rack room Save data to FBT-6 memory Upload fieldbus tester data to PC via USB Store segment baseline data

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Typical faults found in commissioning

fieldbus shorts to cable screen due to poor installation


fieldbus cable strands shorting to cable shield

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Typical faults found in commissioning

screen grounded at more than one location when no plant equipotential ground
incorrect installation with screen grounded at devices or in junction boxes poor installation practice with loose strands intermittently connecting to ground

identify by inspection and measuring groundbar to screen resistance

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Typical faults found in commissioning

insufficiently tightened terminations faults in physical layer components


quality issue with batch of knife disconnects

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Typical faults found in operation


water in junction box, cable or device

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Typical faults found in operation


corroded terminals

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Typical faults found in operation


fieldbus short to cable screen

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Typical faults found in operation


electrical noise
welding cables on fieldbus cable trays variable speed drives installed with inadequate cable grounding

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Typical faults found in operation


faulty fieldbus device

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Periodic monitoring - pros & cons


Advantages Low cost No false alarms Monitor anywhere

Disadvantages Data collected manually Limited awareness of problems

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Fieldbus H1 Physical Layer Diagnostics

User-Friendly Online, Continuous Diagnostics

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On-line monitoring
Monitor diagnostic parameters all the time Diagnostic module attached to the network Reports parameters using separate bus infrastructure using fieldbus Diagnostic software standalone integrated in system instrument management software
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Diagnostics Diagnosticsusing using the the FBT-6 F809F


Host control system Instrument Management System (including fieldbus diagnostics)

Fieldbus power supply system

Segment 1 of 8

Field junction box

I/O & Controller

H1 Fieldbus

Basic failure alarms

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On-line FBT-6 Hand-held Diagnostic Module Diagnostic Module

MTL F809F on-line monitoring


Monitors parameters on 8 fieldbus segments Reports parameters over fieldbus
ie. It is a fieldbusTM H1 device

F809F

No Diagnostic software
Seamlessly integrated into IMS as FF H1 device

Open solution
FOUNDATION fieldbusTM H1 device easily integrates with all DCS Full device description support

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F809F diagnostic module


Resource block

segment transducer blocks


Fieldbus diagnostic module

Discrete input block - any parameter in alarm

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MTL F809F on-line monitoring


Future proof architecture
Fieldbus DTM support Enhanced eDDL support

Minimises total cost of ownership by integrating into fieldbus H1 system


No additional hardware costs No additional costs in installing, commissioning and maintenance of separate network Instrumentation team use same software for physical layer and fieldbus device diagnostics
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F809F measured parameters


Segment voltage Average and peak noise
Low frequency band FF signalling band High frequency band

Fieldbus to shield short circuits


+/- to shield

Device signal voltage


All devices Address of device having lowest voltage

Device retransmissions
Address of devices failing to respond to Pass Token messages from LAS

Address of fieldbus device most recently connected Number of devices recognised on bus Address of LAS
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F809F with Honeywell Experion PKS


Up to 10 discrete input blocks can be configured F809F device 8 segment transducer blocks

systems transducer blocks

Resource block

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F809F in Yokogawa PRM

Segment noise

Device 1 quality

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F809F in ABB 800xA

Power feed B voltage 0.4V

Power feed B low voltage alarm

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F809F trending in Invensys

Trending of fieldbus segment noise

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Segment alarms in Emerson Delta V

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Troubleshooting questions...

So what does the data all mean? Is anyone capable of diagnosing the data provided? What does the scope trace show us? Does anybody know what jitter is and what it means? Where do we look next? Can anybody find the manual? ?

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Characteristics of user-friendly diagnostics

Easy to measure Easy to understand Gives definite indication of a problem Eliminates possible causes Actionable

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User-friendly presentation
What we need is:
Home view for status summary Technicians view for current values , alerts and corrective actions Advanced configuration and set up view

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Simple: Home Page


Home view gives overview about system (FFPS) and all segments

Diagnostic module is a device on the Fieldbus port

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Simple: Technicians View

Device shows out of specification alarm.


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Simple: Advanced User


The Config/Setup tab allows to configure warning and alarm limits for each device.

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Simple: Advanced User


The Config/Setup tab provides a wizard to optimise alarm limits

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Open standards: NAMUR NE107


Diagnostic Categories
Failure Function Check

Out of Specification

Maintenance Required

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Namur NE107

Device overview lists all devices with tag and status. Only 3 devices on segment, only 3 devices displayed. Symbols and designations as per FF-912 and NAMUR NE107.
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Device OK

Device is ok.

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Device needs maintenance

Device shows needs maintenance alarm.

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DTM Segment View

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DTM Graphical View

Out of Specification Current value Needs maintenance

Good

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Enhanced EDDL
System TB block shows data for power supply

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Enhanced EDDL
System TB block config allows to set limits for fieldbus power supply

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Select segments to be monitored


Select which segments are monitored*

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FF Methods
EDDL can execute methods (wizards) Alarm optimisation wizard sets alarms for users set up

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Network diagnostic data: DTM

Device alarm help


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Troubleshooting guide

2009 General Assembly Yokohama, Japan

Export Baseline

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Segment Commissioning Report

Namur NE107 status symbols Current values Alert limits

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