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HUMAN PHYSICAL WORK MEASUREMENT
WITH ERGONOMIC APPROACH

A. OBJECTIVE
a. General Objective
1. Able to work measurement and use it by designing a working method
based on the principles of biomechanics.
2. Knowing the huge work load at the time of employment with the methods
of biomechanics.
3. Able to understand the human limitations of the work load imposed on
members of the human body.

b. Objective
1. Able to apply the methods of the Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) in
computing workloads, calculate the lifting index.
2. Able to provide recommendations expense items should be appointed by
the operator.

B. BASIC THEORY
1. Measurement Analysis of the Human Body Mechanics with
Biomechanics Method.
Biomechanics is one of four areas of information on the results of ergonomic
research. Research on human physical strength that includes the strength or
physical power of man when to work and learn how to work and the equipment
must be designed to fit the human physical ability while performing such work
activities.
In this biomechanical many disciplines that underlie and sustain the
development related to biomechanics. This discipline is inseparable from the
complexity of the problems addressed by the biomechanics of this. For more
details can be viewed chart (Figure 1.1) below:


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Figure 1.1 Biomechanics Science Diagram (Contini dan Drill, 1966)
1.1 Biomechanics Concept
Classification of Biomechanics are;
1. General Biomechanic
General Biomechanic Biomechanics is a part of about law and the basic
concepts that affect both human organic body in a position to persistent or
moving.
Divided into 2 terms ;
a) Biostatics is part of a general who only analyze the biomechanics of the
body at rest or moving in a straight line with uniform velocity (uniform).

b) Biodynamic is part of the general biomechanics associated with motion
,body movement without considering the style that happened (kinematic)
and movement caused by forces acting in the body (kinetic) (Tayyari,
1997).



Theoretical Mechanics Anthropometry
Bioinstrumentation
Anatomy
Kinesiology
Biomechanics
General Biomechanics
Biodynamics Biostatics
Biokinematics Biokinetics
Tool & Equipment design
Workplace design
Seating Devices Design
Manual Material Handling
Screening & assignment of
personal
Job design & redesign
Occupational Biomechanics
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2. Occupational Biomechanic.
Defined as part of applied biomechanics who studied the physical
interaction between workers with machines, materials and equipment in order
to minimize complaints of muscular skeletal system for labor productivity can
be increased. After seeing the classification then in our lab we categorized the
Occupational Biomechanics. To know more details here we will discuss about
the anatomy of the body that became the basis for calculating and analyzing
the biomechanics.

In this biomechanical involve many parts of the body parts that collaborate
to produce a motion which will be conducted by an organ that is a
collaboration between the bones, connective tissue (connective tissue) and
muscles that can be explained as follows:
1. Bone
Bone is a tool to reduce and distribute the force / stress on them. Large and
long bone serves to provide a comparison of expenses incurred on these bones.
Maybe in biomechanical applications are always associated with the human
skeleton, and therefore below are pictures of human skeleton (Eko Nurmianto,
1996).

Figure 1.2 Human Skeletal (Nurmianto, 1988)

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Bone is also always bound by the muscle, and connective tissue (connective
tissue), namely the ligaments, cartilage and tendon. Muscle function here to
maintain the position of your body to stay perfect attitude.
2. Connective Tissue
a. Cartilaginous
The function of the connection Cartilaginous is for a relatively small
movement.
Example: The connection rib (ribs) and the base of the rib (sternum)
Connection specific cartilaginous, among vertebrates (the joints of the
spine) that is known as interveterbratal disc, which consists of wrapping,
and surrounded by a core (core pulpy). Vertebrae also found in ligaments
and muscles. The existence of a relatively small movement in each joint,
can lead to the existence flexibility human body to bend, look up, and play.
While the disc function as vibration damper when humans move both
translation and rotation (Nurmianto, 1996).
b. Ligament
Ligaments serve as a liaison between the bone with a bone to the stability of
the connection (joint stability) or to establish the connection and attached to
the bone. Ligaments are composed of fibers which were located not parallel.
Therefore, tendons and ligaments are in elastically and also function to
resist deformation. The existence of a constant strains will be able to extend
the ligament and making it less effective in stabilizing the connections
(joints).
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Figure1.3 Hand Motion

That ligament can use to limitate the range of motion. Reach Limitation to
determine the space motion or activity described by the system of joints.
Simple joints on the elbows and knees. With the second reason is a
connection that restrict the movement of flexion (flexion). Elbow
connection provides free motion in the hand bones.
Arms and legs is a complex connection, which able to make 3dimensional
movement, Example: hand raised movement, elbow connection also
helped by the connection shoulder, the movement on its axis of rotation of
the whole hand and arm movements in connection wrist. Human hand has
a high flexibility in movement (Nurmianto, 1996).
c. Tendon
Serves as a liaison between the bone and muscle consists of a group of
collagen fibers which were located parallel to the length of the tendon.
The tendon tissue is in a group of fibers in an area where the friction force
must be minimized. The inside of this network issue synovial fluid for
lubrication (Nurmianto, 1996).
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3. Muscle
Discussing the problem of muscle conscious striatik muscle. Muscles are
formed on visber (fiber), with a length of 10-40 mm and 0.01 to 0.1 mm in
diameter and muscle energy source comes from the breakdown of energy-rich
compounds through aerobic or anaerobic process.
a. Anaerobic
That process of change of ATP to ADP and energy without oxygen.
Contained in muscle glycogen divided into energy, and form lactic acid. In this
process the lactic acid will provide indications of local muscle fatigue, because
lack of oxygen caused by lack of blood supply that is pumped from the heart.
For example, if there are movements that are sudden (abrupt), ran a short
distance (sprint), and so forth. Another cause is due to the prevention needs of
oxygenated blood flow in the presence of static muscle loads. Or due to
insufficient blood flow to supply oxygen and glycogen to release lactic acid.
b. Aerobic
That process of change of ATP to ADP and energy with the aid of oxygen.
Lactic acid produced by muscle contraction is quickly becoming oxidized and
aerobic conditions. So the workload is not too tiring going to take a while. In
addition, blood flow will be sufficient supply of grease, carbohydrates and
oxygen to the muscles. As a result of working conditions in long time will
cause the glycogen levels in the blood will decrease drastically below the
norm, and the opposite of lactic acid levels will increase, and if it is so then the
best way is to stop working, then rest and eat nutritious foods to form the sugar
content in the blood. Its process of muscle contraction that has been simplified
analysis of generating energy, and at the same time indicating the importance
of blood flow to muscles. Therefore the ergonomist should pay attention to
things like the following to the extent possible be avoided (Nurmianto, 1996):
a) Static Muscles Loads
b) Occlusion (blockage of blood flow) due to pressure, such pressure in terms
of seats in the popliteal (knee fold).
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c) Working with the arm above the elbow that causes blood flow to work
opposite the direction of gravity.

In the work environment concern of:
Muscle Work Strength:
a. Muscle work strength depend on :
1. Work position of body segment
2. Work movement direction.
3. The difference between the strength of body segments.
4. Age.
b. Cellerity and Accuracy.
c. Endurance body tissues to the load.

One thing that is important to know the appropriate type of muscle to
sustain static loads. Static load that occurs in all muscles must be minimized.
The force of muscle contraction occurs in the same cross-section comparable
with athwart. Muscle only has the ability to contract and relaxation when
moving in opposite directions against other muscles, known as an antagonistic
movement.
Biomechanics can be applied in [CHA91]: re-design of existing work, evaluate
jobs, manual material handling, loading static and time determination system.
The principles of biomechanics in the removal of the load [CHA91]:
1. Adjust the weight with the establishment of workers by considering the
transference frequency.
2. Take the advantage of two or more workers to move heavy items.
3. Change the activity which possible make it easier, lighter and not
dangerous.
4. Minimize the horizontal distance between the initial movement and the
destination in goods transference.
5. Material is located not higher than shoulder.
6. Reduce frequency of movement
7. Give a break
8. Apply job rotation on work which is requires a little effort
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9. Design a container to have a handle that can be held close to the body
10. Heavy objects placed knee to the removal does not cause back injury.

1.2 MECHANIC ANALYSIS
1.2.1 Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL)
Maximum permissible limit is the limit amount of compression force on L5/S1
segment of activity picked up in units of Newton standardized by NIOSH (National
Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) in 1981. Amount of compressive force
is less than 6,500 N at L5/S1. While the armed forces normal limits (the Action
Limit) is 3500 at L5/S1. Thus, if Fc <AL (safe), AL <Fc <MPL (be careful) and if
Fc> MPL (dangerous). The maximum limits allowable lifting force, which
recommended NIOSH (1991) is based on the compression force of 6500 N pd
L5/S1, but only 1% of women and 25% of men are expected to pass through this
lift restrictions.
It should be noted that the value of biomechanics analysis is the range of
posture or position of employment activity, the size of the load, and the measure of
a man who was evaluated. While the safety criteria are based on the compressive
load (compression load) on intebral Lumbar disc between the fifth and the first
sacrum (L5/S1). To know more clearly L5/S1 can be seen in Figure 1.5 below
Figure 1.5 Classification and codification of the vertebrae (Nurmianto, 1996)

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Analysis of various kinds of work that shows the pain (pain) is closely related
to the compression load (tap) that occurs in (L5/S1), according to Chaffin and Park
(1973). It was also discovered that 85-95% of disease on the disc hernias occurs
with relative frequency in the L4/L5 and L5/S1. Most of the diseases of the spine is
a herniated intervertebral disc in the discharge of the intervertebral nucleus
(nucleus Pulpy) caused by damage to the wrapping layer of the intervertebral disc.
Evans and Lissner (1962) and Sonoda (1962) conducted research to test press
on the spine (vertebrae). They found that a healthy spine is less susceptible to
hernia, but is more easily damaged / cracked if caused by the load borne by
segments of the spine (spinal) and which occurs with starting the destruction of the
top / bottom of spine segments (the end castilage -plates in the vertebrae). Small
cracks which occur in the vertebral would cause discharge from the vertebrae to the
disc and further into intervetrebae cause degeneration (damage) on the disk. From
this incident can be concluded that the degeneration is a prerequisite for the
occurrence of intervertebral disc hernia that will eventually become a common
cause of occurrence of pain in the lower back (low-back pain).
In a motion in muscular skeletal system, muscles react to the bone to control
the rotational motion around the connecting bones, some system of levers to
explain it. In this system the muscle acts as a mechanical system that serves to
supply the kinetic energy and angular movement.
In Figure 1.6 depicted a lever system found on the human body that performs
work activities.



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a. Lever System I :
Examples of the lever system I :
a. Triceps muscle pulls the ulna to move the elbow.
b. Quadriceps muscles pull the tibia through the patella to move the knee.

b. Lever System II :
Examples of the lever system II :
a. Biceps muscle pulls the radius to lift the elbow.
b. Brachial muscle pulls the ulna to lift the elbow.
c. Deltoid muscle pull the humerus to shrug
To obtain a simple description of the mechanisms of force (force), the
following are examples as follows:
Example case:
A body of work has amounted to 2 kg weight with one arm raised, arm weight, 25
N. load center distance arms against the central body burden as far as 30 cm, r = 5
cm, R = 13 cm.









F
L
r R
r R
F
L
(Lever System I)
r
R.L
F = (Lever System II)
r
L ) R r (
F
+
=
Figure 1.6 Lever system
W=25
P=2 kg
5 cm
13 cm
30 cm
F
J
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From the data above we can determine the force F which subjected the material to
arm the following:
N 140 20 - 25 - 185 J
: is force reaction the and
N 185
5
20) x (30 25) x (13
F
= =
=
+
=

We need to know that an operator works not only arms are out of energy, but other
body parts like the back, thighs, calves etc.
In biomechanical calculations to find the moment and style can be done by
calculating the force and moment by partial or calculate each segment that make up
the human body. The weight of each segment below is obtained from the
percentage multiplied by the weight of the person.


















Therefore, this is a computation (manually) in this practice, which is calculated for
each segment that affects the spine in lifting activities, except for segments of the
foot:
Figure 1.7 Percentage of body segments (Tayyari, 1997)

10,0%
4,3%
W
1,4%
8,4%
W
50,0%
W
2,2%
W
6,2%
W
2,8% 1,7%
W W
0,6%
W
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1. Palm Hand












2. Lower Arm



















ΣFy = 0
ΣFx = 0 -- no horizontal force
ΣM = 0
λ2 = 43%
W
LA
= 1,7% x W
body

F
ye
= Fyw + WL
A
M
e
= Mw + (W
LA
x λ2 x SL
2
x cosθ
2
)
+ (F
yw
x SL2 x cos θ
2
)

ΣFy = 0
ΣFx = 0 -- no horizontal force.
ΣM = 0
W
H
= 0,6% x W
body

F
yw
= Wo/2 + W
H
M
w
= (Wo/2 + W
H
) x SL
1
x cos θ
1
Fy
w
Fx
w
Wo
W
H
SL
1

Mw
u
1
Fye

Fxe

-Fyw

W
LA
SL2
λ2
-Mw
Me
-Fxw
θ
2

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3. Upper Arm











NB = Forces on the upper arm multiplied by two
Moment multiplied by two for a whole object


4. Back















ΣFy = 0
ΣFx = 0 -- no horizontal force
ΣM = 0
λ3 = 43,6%
W
UA
= 2,8% x W
body

Fy
s
= F
ye
+ W
UA
Ms = M
e
+ (W
UA
x λ3 x SL
3
x cosθ
3
)
+ (F
ye
x SL
3
x cos θ
3
)

Mt
ΣFy = 0
ΣFx = 0 -- no horizontal force.
ΣM = 0
λ4 = 67%
W
T
= 50% x W
body

F
yt
= 2F
ys
+ W
T
M
t
= 2Ms + (W
T
x λ4 x SL
4
x cos θ
4
)
+ (2F
ys
x SL
4
x cos θ
4
)

Fy
s
Fx
s
-Fye
W
UA
SL3
λ3
-Fx
e
-Me

Ms

θ
3

-Fxs
Fx
t
SL4
λ4
-Ms
-Fys
W
T

Fx
t
θ
4

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By using the technique of calculating the balance of forces on each segment of
the human body, the importance of the resultant moment at L5/S1. Then to achieve
the balance of the body in removal activities, the moment at L5/S1 was balanced
force on the spinal erector muscles (FM) is quite large and also the style of the
abdomen (FA) as the effect of abdominal pressure (PA) or abdominal pressure
which serves to help the stability of bodies because of the influence of the moment
and there are styles like the model in Pict 2.8 below.


Figure 1.8 Simple model of the lower back (low back) are studied by Chaffin for an
analysis of the activity Koplanar Static lift. (Chaffin, 1984)

Muscle force on spinal erector formulated as follows:
D F M E F
A S L M
. .
) 1 / 5 (
÷ =
(Newton)
FM = Muscle Force Spinal Erector (Newton)
E = Long Arm of the erector spinal muscle moment L5/S1
(Estimation 0.05 m source: Nurmianto; 1996)
M(L
5
/S
1
) = MT = resultant Moment in L5/S1
FA = Abdominal Force (Newton)
D = Distance from Abdominal Force to L5/S1 ( 0,11 m)
( Source:Nurmianto,1996)



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To find Abdominal Force (FA), so it is necessary to look for Abdominal Pressure
(PA) by the equation:
=
10
−4
43−0,36 (

+

5/1

1,8
75
(N/Cm
2
)

= (newton)

W
tot
=Wo +2 WH +2 W
LA
+2 W
UA
+Wt

Explanation:
PA = Abdominal Pressure
AA = Diaphragm large (465 cm
2
)
Θ
H
= Angle of abdominal Inclination
Θ
T
= Angle of foot Inclination
W
tot
= Overall force that occurred

Then Pressure Force/compression on L5/S1 is formulated as follows:

F
C
=W
tot
. cos u
4
– F
A
+F
m
(newton)














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Figure 1.9 Example of MPL.








3

2

1

4

H

T

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1.2.2 Recommended Weight Limit (RWL)
Recommended Weight Limit is the recommended limit load that can be
lifted by human without causing injury even though it is done repetitively in long
term. RWL is set by NIOSH at 1991 in United State.
NIOSH equities can be applied in the condition of:
a. The work load is static, no addition or subtraction load in the process.
b. The work load is lifted by two hands.
c. The lifting of work load is done in 8 hours (maximum).
d. The lifting of work load cannot be done while sitting or in knee condition.
e. Work station is not narrow.
Based on work system condition of work load lifting at process of tools loading
done by the workers in the experiment, the student measures the factors that
influencing the workload based on NIOSH (1991).
Picture 1.10 Recommended Weight Limit

Formula to determine workload that is recommended to be lifted by a worker
in certain condition based on NIOSH is :

RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM



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Where:
LC = load constant = 23 kg
HM = horizontal multiplier = 25 / H
FM = frequency multiplier *look at table 1
CM = coupling multiplier * look at table 2
VM = vertical multiplier
= 1 − 0,03 − 75

= 1 − 0,00326 −69

DM = distance multiplier
= 0,82 +
4,5

AM = asymmetry multiplier

= 1 − 0,0032 .

Notes (look at the picture)

Where:
H = The horizontal location of the hands (load center)
V = The vertical location of the hands from the standing surface (floor)
D = The vertical distance of the workload movement
A = Angle of asymmetry

Frequency multiplier can be determined by using FM table below based
on lifting frequency per minutes and V in inch.







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Table 1.1 Frequency Multiplier Table
Lifting Work duration
Frequency/mnt s 1 hour 1 hours s t s 2 hours 2 hours s t s 8 hours
(F) V < 30 V > 30 V < 30 V > 30 V < 30 V > 30
s0.2 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.95 0.85 0.85
0.5 0.97 0.97 0.92 0.92 0.81 0.81
1 0.94 0.94 0.88 0.88 0.75 0.75
2 0.91 0.91 0.84 0.84 0.65 0.65
3 0.88 0.88 0.79 0.79 0.55 0.55
4 0.84 0.84 0.72 0.72 0.45 0.45
5 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.60 0.35 0.35
6 0.75 0.75 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.27
7 0.70 0.70 0.42 0.42 0.22 0.22
8 0.60 0.60 0.35 0.35 0.18 0.18
9 0.52 0.52 0.30 0.30 0.00 0.15
10 0.45 0.45 0.26 0.26 0.00 0.13
11 0.41 0.41 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.00
12 0.37 0.37 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00
13 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
15 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
>15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Notes: If lifting frequency less than one or just once within 5 minutes, F = 2
Lift/minute
Coupling Multiplier can be determined by using table 2.1 below :
Table 1.2 Coupling Multiplier Table
Coupling Multiplier
Coupling V < 30 inches V > 30 inches
Type (75 cm) (75 cm)
Good 1.00 1.00
Fair 0.95 1.00
Poor 0.90 0.95


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Based on formula that was fixed by NIOSH, vertical distance multiplier factor
for Indonesian worker is different from other country, so adaptation to
recommended lifting load estimation is needed. This difference exists because
vertical multiplier depends to anthropometry of knuckle height (vertical distance
from the floor to fingertip with straight down position). The formula of vertical
multiplier by NIOSH is :
= 1 −0,03 −75
From research result, the formula that is used to determine vertical multiplier for
industrial worker in Indonesia is :
= 1 − 0,00326 −69
After we get the RWL value, we have to find the lifting index, the formula that
is used to determine lifting index that doesn’t have risk to back injury is:
RWL
L

Limit Weight d Recommende
Weight Load
LI = =


Notes:
If LI s 1, the activity does not contain a spine risk injury. If LI > 1, the activity
contains a spine risk injury.

There are three kinds of force within human body (Winter, 1979):
1. Gravitational Force is the force throughout center mass of each segment of
human body with down direction. It equals to the multiplication of mass and
gravitational acceleration ( F = m.g )
2. Reaction Force is the force occured as the effect of body segment load or the
body segment weight itself.
3. Muscle Force is the force occured at joint part that is caused by joint friction or
caused by the force in muscle sticks with the joint. This kind of force represent
the amount of muscle toque.

Human body consists of 6 links (Chaffin & Anderson, 1984) :
1. Lower arm link, restricted by joint of hand palm and
2. Upper arm link, restricted by joint of elbow and shoulder.
3. Back link, restricted by joint of shoulder and hip.
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4. Thigh link, restricted by joint of hip and knee.
5. Leg link, restricted by joint of knee and ankle.
6. Foot link, restricted by joint of ankle and foot palm.

FATIGUE
In biomechanics we will deal with one event called fatigue. Fatigue is not
separated from the biomechanics because in its application, biomechanics see
people mechanically, but the humanity in people can not be excluded so that
human / worker has limitation, one of them called fatigue. Fatigue is the
process of decreasing the efficiency of work performance and reduced physical
strength or endurance of the human body to continue the activities that must be
done.
In another discussion, fatigue is defined as a pattern arising in a situation
that generally occurs in individuals who were no longer able to perform its
activities. There are some kind of fatigue that caused by some factors such as:
1. Tired muscles, as indicated by the appearance of symptoms of pain when
the muscles have to accept excessive burden.
2. Visual tired, tired as a result of tension that occurs in the visual organs
(eye) which is continuously concentrated on an object.
3. Mentally tired, fatigue that come through such mental work of thinking is
often also referred to as a tired brain.
4. Tired monotonis, fatigue caused by work activities that are routine,
monotonous, or boring work environment.
While fatigue that caused by a number of factors that continues over time
and accumulate, will cause what is called chronic fatigue. Where the
symptoms that appear clear due to chronic fatigue can be characterized as:
1. Increased emotion and feeling annoyed so that people are less tolerant or
asocial towards others.
2. The emergence of apathy towards work.
3. Severe depression.


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2.1 Process of Fatigue
Fatigue occurs because the accumulation of products remaining in the
muscles and blood circulation, in which waste products are restrictive continuity
of muscle activity and affects nerve fibers and central nervous system so that the
person will be slow in working. Foods that contain glycogen flow in the body
through blood circulation. Each contraction of the muscle is always followed by
a chemical (glucose oxidation) that converts glycogen into energy, heat and
lactic acid (waste products).
More clearly, there are 3 causes of physical fatigue, those are:
1. Oxidation of glucose in muscle caused CO2, saerolactic, phosphati and so
on, where these substances are bound in the blood which is possible spent
while breathing. Fatigue occurs when the formation of such substances are
not balanced by expending process, causing accumulation in muscle tissue
that interfere with subsequent muscle activity.
2. Carbohydrates found in food and changed to glucose and stored in the heart
in glukogen form. Every cm
2
normal blood will bring 1 mm glucose, it
means every blood circulation carrying only 0.1% of the amount of
glycogen present in liver as glycogen supply will be depleted work and
exhaustion will arise if the concentration of glycogen in the liver stayed
0.7%.
3. Under normal circumstances the amount of air entering the respiratory
approximately 4 Lt / min, while in a condition of the hard work needed air
approximately 15 Lt / min. This means at a certain working level will
encountered a situation where the amount of oxygen entering through the
respiratory smaller than the level of need. If this happens then the fatigue
that arises due to oxidation reactions in the body that is to reduce lactic acid
into water and carbon dioxide for exclusion from the body, become
unbalanced with the formation of lactic acid itself (lactic acid accumulates
in the muscles in blood circulation)




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Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

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2.2 Fatigue Symptoms
Definitely coming of fatigue who happenedin a person will be difficult to
identified clearly, measure environmental fatigue of a person is not an easy job.
Achievement or work performance which can evaluate the level of fatigue.
Fatigue can be seen with indications (symptoms) as follows:
1. Attention of workers that decline.
2. Feeling heavy in the head, become tired entire body, legs feel heavy,
yawning, the mind feels confused, eyes feel heavy, stiff and awkward in
movement is not balanced in the stand was such as lying.
3. Feeling hard to think be nervous cannot concentrate, do not have a concern
about something, tend to forget, less confidence, anxious about something,
cannot control the attitude and not diligent in their work.
4. Shoulder stiffness, pain in the waist, breathing was depressed, hoarseness,
thirst, feels dizzy, spasm of the eyelids, tremors in the limbs, feels unwell in
body.

2.3 Efforts to Reduce Fatigue.
Fatigue problems finally bring management to always look for the way to
out from it. Because if fatigue is not immediately handle seriously it will hamper
productivity and can cause work accidents.
The efforts to reduce fatigue are as follows;
1. Provide enough calories as input for body.
2. Working with a good working method. Example, works by using the
principle of motion economy.
3. Take care of the body capability, it means that energy exertion did not
exceed its revenues by taking care the limitations.
4. Controling the regular working hours. Means it must be made arrangements
of working hours, rest time, and means. The holiday and recreation.
5. Adjusting the physical environment as well as possible, such as
temperature, humidity, air circulation, lighting, noise, vibration, odors /
perfumes, etc.
6. Trying to reduce the monotonous color and decor of working area, provide
music, provide sports time, etc.
Biomechanic Module
Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

59


2.4 The Causes of Fatigue
Fatigue that happened can be caused by various causes, the most important
are:
1. Monotony
2. The intensity and work duration.
3. Environment atmosphere, light, and noise.
4. Physiology responsibility.
5. Pain and symptoms of nutritional.

























Biomechanic Module
Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

60


Example:
A. MPL
1. A worker takes a box which is in 45 cm height from the floor and lift it to
a table with 70 cm height from the floor. The weight of the box is 60 kg,
the body weight is 65 kg, distance from the wrist to the center of mass is
0,07 m, θ
1
= 20
o
, distance from the wrist to the elbow = 0,28 m, θ
2
= 20
o
,
distance from the elbow to the shoulder = 0,3 m, θ
3
= 80
o
, distance from
the shoulder to L5/S1 = 0,36 m, θ
4
= 45
o
. Abdomen inclination angle 45
o
,
thigh inclination angle 50
o
. Count the force on L5/S1!
Answer :
W
H
= 0,6 % W
body
= 0,6% * 650 = 3,9 N
W
LA
= 1,7 % W
body
= 1,7% * 650 = 1,05 N
W
UA
= 2,8 % W
body
= 2,8% * 650 = 18,2 N
W
T
= 50 % W
body
= 50% * 650 = 325 N
So,
W
TOT
= Wo + 2W
H
+ 2W
LA
+ 2W
UA
+ W
T
= 971,3 N
ì
2
= 0.43
ì3 = 0.436
ì4 = 0.67
D = 0.11
AA = 465 cm2
W
o
= 60 kg * 10 = 600 N
W
body
= 65 kg * 10 = 650 N

Table 2.2 Length and angle of body segmentation
No Body segmentation Length (m) Angle (degree)
1. Palm SL
1
= 0,07 20
o

2. Lower Arm SL
2
= 0,28 20
o

3. Upper Arm SL
3
= 0,30 80
o

4. Back SL
4
= 0,36 45
o

5. Abdominal Inclination θ
H
= 45
o

6. Thigh Inclination Θ
T
= 50
o


Biomechanic Module
Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

61


A. Palm
F
yw
= Wo/2 + W
H
= 303.9 N
M
W
= (W0/2 + W
H
)
*
SL
1

*
Cos θ
1
= 19,99 = 20 Nm
B. Lower Arm Segment
F
ye
= Fyw + W
LA
= 314,95 N = 315 N
M
e
= M
W
+ (W
LA *
ì 2
*
SL
2 *
Cos θ
2
) + (Fyw
*
SL
2 *
Cos θ
2
) = 101,21
Nm
C. Upper Arm Segment
F
ys
= Fye + W
UA
= 333,2 N
M
s
= M
e
+ (W
UA *
ì 3
*
SL
3 *
Cos θ
3
) + (Fye
*
SL
3 *
Cos θ
3
) = 118,03
Nm
D. Back Segment
F
yt
= 2Fys + W
T
= 991.4 N
M
t
= 2Ms

+ (W
T *
ì 4
*
SL
4 *
Cos θ
4
) + (2Fys
*
SL
4 *
Cos θ
4
)
= 236.06 + 55,43 + 169.64 = 461.04 Nm
 Abdominal force (PA) dan Abdominal pressure (FA)
( ) | |
( ) | |
1 / 5
75
36 . 0 43 10
4
S L M PA
T H
u u + ÷
=
÷
1,8
= 0,73 N/cm
2

FA = PA
*
AA = 0,73
*
465 = 339.45 N
 Muscle force on the spinal erector :
F
M

*
E = M
(L5/S1)
– F
A

*
D
F
M
= 8474,01 N
 Pressure force/compression on L5/S1:
Fc = Wtot * Cos θ
4
– FA + F
M
= 8821.37 N > 6500 N

Conclusion:
The job is dangerous to the workers and it would be better if there was
adminstration and technical improvement so that the workers can work
healthily without getting injured on their L5/S1, then company’s objectives
and targets can be reached.



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Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

62


B. RWL
2. A worker takes a box with 5 kg weight on the 15 cm conveyor’s height and
lift it to a table with 125 cm height from the floor. The distance to the
center of the body is 35 cm. Symmetric angle is 45
o
. If in 80 minutes the
worker can lift the box for 224 times, How much the recommended limit
of the load? Is the job categorized as safe or not? (known that Handle
Coupling is Fair)
Answer :
L= 5 kg LC = 23 kg
V = 15 cm Handle Fair = 0,95
D = 110 cm H = 35 cm
A = 45
o

Calculation,
HM = 25/H = 25/35 = 0,714
VM = 1- 0,00326 69 ÷ V = 1- 0,00326 69 15÷
= 0,82396
DM = 0,82 + 4,5/D = 0.82 + 4.5/110 = 0.861
FM = 224 lift/80 minutes= 2.8 = 3
CM = 0,95
LC = 23
So :
RWL = LC
*
HM
*
VM
*
DM
*
AM
*
FM
*
CM
RWL = (23) (0.714) (0.82396) (0.861) (0.856) (0.79) (0.95)
= 7,484
Then find the Lifting Index,
69 , 0
484 , 7
5
_ _ Re
=
= = =
LI
RWL
L
Limit Weight commended
LoadWeight
LI





Biomechanic Module
Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

63


Conclusion:
Because the result is LI ≤ 1, the activity doesn‘t have risk of back injury to
the workers and it would be better if the work method could be remained
and the data can be used as comparative material for new worker
recruitment.

C. Practicum Equipment
1. Work load
2. Rules
3. Angle measurer
4. Body weight weigher
5. Stop watch
6. Work table
7. Observation Sheet

D. Practicum Implementation Procedures
1. Measure the work load.
2. For RWL lifting, position the operator at the lifting field, note the important
datas such as operator data, weight, H, V, A at the first position (origin),
lifting amount per minutes (F), etc.
3. Operator lifts the work load from the floor to the work table for 2 minutes.
4. Note H, V and A at the next position (destination), and calculate D.
5. For MPL lifting, position the operator at the lifting field based to MPL
position.
6. Take a photo of operator for 1 lifting, then analyze according to MPL
analysis.
7. Complete the observation sheet of Biomechanic criteria (RWL and MPL).
8. Process and calculate the data.
Biomechanic Module
Even 2010/2011
Laboratory of Work Design Analysis & Ergonomic ~ Islamic University of Indonesia

64



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