St Aiden’s Homeschool

Julius Caesar
And

Early Rome
A Complete Unit Study & Activities For young Learners
Presented by Donnette E Davis

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

What Was It Like Being Part of a Roman Family?
Life in Roman times for women was quite hard. The father was the most important member of the family. He had the power of life or death over everyone. When a new baby was born it would be laid at its father's feet - if the father picked the baby up it would live, and if he ignored the baby it would be taken away to die. Mothers and children were never seen as important. From the 1st century B.C. women began to have more rights and could divorce unkind husbands. But they were never seen as really being equal to men.

Did the Romans Go to School?
Most children did not go to school. Parents had to pay for their children to go and they would only teach boys! Schools were also quite scarce, and were always built in towns. Girls and poorer children might be taught to read and write at home but this was rare. These children would more likely have to help their parents at work from an early age. Some wealthy Roman parents would employ an educated slave called a pedagogue to teach their sons. The pedagogue would also take the boy to school and carried a stick to beat him with if he was naughty or did not work hard.

What did Roman Children Use to Write With?
For short messages and at school they would write on wax tablets using a pointed metal stylus . If you made a mistake you smoothed the wax flat with the opposite end of the stylus. For important letters the Romans used a metal pen dipped in ink to write on thin pieces of wood or specially prepared animal skins. Books did not have pages, they were written on scrolls made from pieces of animal skin glued together and then rolled up. We know that Roman women would also write because some of their letters have survived. One was found at Vindolanda, a fort near Hadrian's Wall. It is a birthday party invitation from Claudia Severa to her friend Sulpicia Lepidina and was written at the end of the 1st century A.D.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Families and Children
What were Roman homes like?
• •

What sorts of food did the Romans eat? What were their table manners like?

We have a Roman cookery book written by a man called Apicius. Some of the recipes sound quite modern such as sausages. Others sound rather odd. Would you like to eat calves' brains with roses?

Find out what Romans ate for food and how they ate it. Then make up your own menu for a Roman birthday party.
Many Roman families included slaves who could be bought or sold like animals or objects. They were never paid for their work. However some slaves could be treated well by their owners and were even freed. A few slave girls even became the wealthy wives of people who had bought them.

Find out about the lives of slaves in Roman times. Who do you think would end up as a slave?
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Many slaves had committed serious crimes and Roman judges made them slaves instead of sending them to prison. Was this a good idea? Perhaps the Roman Empire could not have existed without the work of slaves?

Discuss the answers to these questions with the rest of your class. Do you all agree with each other?

What do you think it would be like if your library was filled with scrolls instead of books? Here is how you can make a scroll:

You will need: A roll of sticky tape A sheet of paper Two wooden spoons

1. You will need to stick one side of the sheet of paper to the handle of a wooden spoon. Do this using the sticky tape. You must then do the same with the opposite end of the paper as well.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

2. Then starting with one end, roll up the paper around one of the spoons. You are now ready to start reading your scroll. Do you think scrolls are easier to read than books? Do you think scrolls take up more space than books, and are they easier to look after? Write a short story about life as a child in a Roman family.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

The Roman Army
The Roman Empire was so big and lasted so long because its army was large and well trained. The legions had names and numbers. Some of the legions who fought in Britain were the XX valeria victrix, the XIV gemina martia victrix and the IX hispana (the numbers are all Roman numerals). Find out about life in the Roman army.
• • • • •

Who was in charge? What did the soldiers look like? What were the centurions like? What was the food like? Did the soldiers of the IX hispana really come to a bad end fighting in Britain?

Make a wall chart about the Roman army to report on all these questions, and any more that you can think up.
Roman legions all carried at least three or four standards to show who they were. The most famous of these was the Roman eagle. They also carried a portrait of the emperor made from metal and the name and number of the legion and its famous victories.

Discover more about the legions' standards and make your own for a legion of your classmates, friends of fellow homeschoolers.
Find out as much as you can about life in the Roman army. Sometimes soldiers could not see their families for years and they could not marry their girlfriends until they left the army. But the wages were good and there were other benefits such as a payment of land or money when they retired. Sons often followed their fathers into the army.

Imagine you are the family of a Roman boy who wants to join the army. Do you all think it is a good thing? Discuss whether or not he should join the legions.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Who Were the Roman Emperors?
A Roman Emperor was the man who ruled over the Empire. At first, Rome was ruled by Generals but this caused problems. The Generals were always fighting over who would have the final say in running the Empire. Eventually the Generals were replaced by just one man - The Emperor. The first Emperor to come to power was Augustus in 27 B.C. He was a popular Emperor who brought peace after many years of fighting. Not all the Emperors were so good and wise, some were terrible! The Emperor had a troop of special soldiers to protect him. They were called the Praetorian Guard. However, some of the bad Emperors were so unpopular that their Praetorian Guards killed them!

How Was Rome Ruled?
At first, Rome was ruled by kings. They were sometimes very cruel and the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. Rome then became a republic for the next four hundred years. This republic was ruled by a senate, and people called Senators were elected to do different jobs in the senate. However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections. Women and slaves were not allowed to vote and neither were poor people. Those Roman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'. In the 1st century B.C. the generals who controlled the army became very powerful. Rome was no longer just a city, it was the capital of an empire. The Romans ruled lands from France to North Africa. You can see this in the map.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

How did Rome Get its Name?
Rome is the capital city of Italy. Building started in 753 B.C. and the Romans have a story to explain how this happened. Twin boys, Romulus and Remus, were taken from their mother and left by the river Tiber to starve. A mother wolf found the babies and looked after them until they were old enough to take care of themselves. Years later, Mars (the Roman God of war) told the boys to build a city where they had been found. The two boys built this city, but ended up at war with each other. Romulus won the battle and the city became known as Rome. Today, historians and archaeologists agree that people started living in Rome long before the time of Romulus and Remus, but many people still believe in their legend.

City of Rome
Many buildings from the ancient city of Rome still survive even though they are in ruins. Visitors to Rome today can walk in the Forum, walk inside temples and even see Roman sewers and the underground burial tunnels called the catacombs.

See how much you can discover about the ancient city of Rome. Write an ancient Roman guidebook to record what you find out.
• •

What were the most famous buildings called? What should a tourist have visited in Rome in about 300 A.D.?

Roman Emperors
What did Roman Emperors look like? We have portraits of Emperors on coins as well as statues and paintings of some of them.

Paint a portrait of an Emperor. Should he look happy or sad, serious or excited?
Find out about the people who ruled the Roman Empire.

Make a list of 'good' people and 'bad' people, and explain why they are on your list.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

E.g. Emperor Augustus was a good man because he restored peace to the Roman Empire and set up a fire fighting service for the people of Rome.
• •

Do you think it was better to have an Emperor in charge or should the Romans have stuck with the Republic? How could the Romans have made the Republic a fairer sort of government?

How did People Travel Around Britain?
In Roman times people travelling round Britain would either ride on horseback, drive carts pulled by oxen, or walk. All the roads they had to travel along would be straight. Winding roads may be interesting to walk along but it takes you a lot longer to get where you are going and bandits and robbers can be hiding around bends. Roman roads were carefully built to slope down from the middle to ditches on either side. This way the rain would drain away and not make the road too muddy.

What Was The Rest of Roman Britain Like?
Near the borders of Roman Britain the country could still be quite wild. People who lived here were often farmers. These farmers lived in small villages of round wooden houses with thatched roofs, much as they had before the Romans arrived. Some wealthy Romans would also live near to towns, in villas. Villas were large farms with a luxurious house for the owners (the workers lived in ordinary houses made of wood). Villas would often have rooms with painted walls and mosaic floors, and even central heating. Most of the villas were only found in the South of England.

Is Manchester a Roman Town?
Often towns grew up near to forts and we can tell this today by their names. If a place name includes the words 'chester' or 'cester', it is because it is on the site of a Roman fort e.g. Chester, Gloucester, and Manchester. The word 'chester' comes from the Roman word for a fort - 'castrum'.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Most towns would also have shops and a market place called a forum. At one end of the forum was a large building called the basilica. This was a cross between a law court and a town hall. The magistrates carried out all the important business here.

Roads and Places

Find a map showing the Roman sites in your area. Are they forts, towns, villas? Or does it look as though people carried on living in Celtic type villages? From this evidence can you decide what your area was like in Roman times? Mosaic pictures are made up of many tiny squares of coloured stone or pottery. Look at some Roman mosaics then make a mosaic of your own using squares of coloured paper. So far archaeologists have only found one villa in Cornwall, it is at Magor Farm near Camborne. The nearest villas to it are on the far side of Devon. Who do you think might have lived in this villa? How different would their home have been from all their neighbours who carried on living in Celtic type villages? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Punctuation was not very popular, so Roman writing was hard to read. Latin writing did not have capital letters or even full stops at first! School children had their own goddess. She was called Minerva and she had her own festival at the beginning of March. After the festival the school year began. Many Romans lived in blocks of flats! The Romans called them 'insulae', which means islands, because they were tall and stuck up above the streets. The Emperor Caligula was not only cruel but mad as well, and even made his horse a Senator! Some Roman buildings smelled terrible because they were not regularly cleaned. Romans would burn bread in an attempt to remove the smell. The Romans buried their dead along the roads leading away from towns. It was hoped that this way the ghosts would not return to their old homes. When they were building roads in a boggy place, Romans would build the foundations with sticks and sheepskins to stop them sinking. Roman towns had public lavatories for men, large pottery jars at street corners that men and boys could 'wee' in. They were emptied at night by workers who used the urine to bleach cloth.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

What happened to a newborn baby if its father ignored it? a. It never went to school b. Its mother taught it to read c. It was taken away to die. Why did girls not go to school? a. The only schools were in the towns. b. The schools taught only boys as they were considered more important than girls. c. Girls thought going to school was boring. What was the last king of Rome called? a. Romulus b. Tarquin the Proud c. Julius Caesar When Rome was a republic women were allowed to vote. a. True b. False. For about how long had Rome already existed by the time Julius Caesar tried to invade Britain at around 55 B.C? a. 100 years b. 300 years c. 700 years How did the Roman Army change in the 1sr Century BC? a. Ordinary men could join the army and become professional soldiers. b. The soldiers were all called Centurion c. The soldiers started to wear armour. How long did a soldier stay in the army for? a. 5 years b. 15 years c. 25 years Because 'Winchester' ends in 'Chester' from the Latin word for a fort, we know there was a Roman town there. a. True b. False Why were Roman roads straight? a. To make them less muddy b. It was a quicker and safer way to get to where you were going. c. Romans thought they looked better that way Where were most Roman villas built? a. In towns. b. Near to towns in the south of England. c. In Wales and Scotland.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Answers:
• • • • • • • • • • • • A new born bay was taken away to die if its father ignored it. Schools only taught boys as they were thought to be more important than girls. A Roman person used a wax tablet and a stylus to write a short message. Tarquin the Proud was the last King of Rome. Roman women were never allowed to vote. Rome had already existed for over 700 years before Julius Caesar tried to invade Britain. The Roman army changed because ordinary men could join the army and become professional soldiers. A soldier had to stay in the army for 25 years. A century of Roman legionaries was called a tortoise because their shields overlapped looking like a tortoise. Winchester was a Roman town. We know this because it ends in Chester. Roman roads were straight as it made it a quicker and safer way to get where you were going. Most Roman villas were built near to towns in the South of England.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Costumes: For girls, a long white nightshirt or dress (it should reach her ankles),
bare feet or leather sandals, and a long piece of solid-coloured cotton or wool for a veil over it. For boys, an extra-large white T-shirt will do (it should come down to his knees), with a leather belt, and bare feet or leather sandals. Boys can wear a cloak (preferably wool) over the tunic, also knee length. For a typical Roman meal, you might begin with olives and devilled eggs, and then a lentil or barley soup, or cheese pizza (without any tomato sauce), with sausage or pepperoni, or onions and garlic, on it. A green salad with radishes would also be appropriate. For dessert, walnuts or apples or melon (fresh or dried) would be pretty normal, or little cakes made with honey. The Romans said that a meal went “from eggs to apples,” the way we say “from soup to nuts.”

Food:

Mosaic Project for Kids

Why not try making a mosaic? You can make a simple mosaic just with black and white pebbles, which you can get at any gardening store. You could set them in plaster of paris, or in cement the way the Romans did it. Or, in a classroom, you might want to just cut out lots of little squares of coloured paper, and assemble them into mosaics with glue. For the best results, make sure to have some light red and some darker red, and some light blue and some darker blue, and so on, so that you can do some shading. The pieces should be about 1 /4 inch (1/2 cm) square. Look at a lot of pictures of mosaics first so you can see how they do it Quick Idea: Roman Numeral Wrap Up: Various column styles, which originated in Greece, were also popular in Rome. The more decorated style was Corinthian which had the shape of leaves carved in the top.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Vellum Journal: Books were made of papyrus scrolls. Later parchment or vellum, a sheer paper, was used to record events, write letters and make books.
by Sandi Genovese http://www.craftsforkids.com/projects/vellum_journal.htm Books were made of papyrus scrolls. Later parchment or vellum, a sheer paper was used to record events, write letters and make books.

Star – cut 2 - gold

You will need:
• • • • • • • Die cut machine and dies or pattern and scissors Dies - Star #1A, Circles Paper - tan, ivory, white, green, gold, orange, red Raffia Black pen Adhesive 1¼8" Hole Punch

Circle – cut 1 gold

Circle – cut 1 white

Square – Cut 2 green

Circle – cut 1 red

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

1. Using die cut machine or scissors, cut shapes from coloured paper as shown on the patterns. Trim tan coloured paper to 12" x 8" size, then fold in half across the width to measure 6" x 8". 2. Trim several sheets of white paper and a piece of vellum for first sheet so that they are smaller than the cover. Fold all sheets in half.

6. Cut a piece of white paper about 2" smaller on all sides than the front cover. Trace the border around the edge of the paper. Colour the negative black and leave the pattern white. 7. Centre, then glue the bordered paper to a sheet of red paper that is slightly larger to make a red border around the edge. Cut out, then add a green square to each corner.

3. Punch two holes in the cover on the fold line about 1" from the 8. Place a red rectangle in the edge. Using the cover holes as a centre. Attach a smaller white guide, punch two holes along the rectangle on top of the red. fold line in the inside sheets. 9. To make a Roman shield, 4. With the vellum as the first overlap then glue the two gold sheet, align the sheets inside the stars together. Glue red, white cover, then thread raffia through and gold circles in the middle. the holes. Tie a bow on the Glue the shield to the centre of outside. the white paper. 5. Draw the pattern for the 10. Mat the Roman design on Roman border on heavy paper, ivory paper, then glue to the then cut out. centre of the journal cover.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Samian Ware Tile: Many homes were decorated with pottery wall decorations called reliefs. Many different types of clay were used depending on the area. One style was called Samian ware, a red clay pottery popular after AD 100. Aqueducts: The land, which surrounded Rome was abundant with springs. This water was channelled into the city of Rome through the channels of aqueducts. Large cisterns held the water at the end of the aqueducts and were used for baths and fountains. Mosaic Frame: Originating in Greece, the Romans became famous for their mosaics. Bits of glass and stone were arranged to form designs for jewellery, vases and other art forms.

Marine Mosaic Tile: Because of the proximity to water, marine or sea themes were an important design element in Ancient Rome.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

How to Make Weapons out of Sticks
If you're interested in perhaps learning how to make weapons out of sticks will be just the ticket. Follow these steps to learn how.

Steps
1. Find a stick that is about three inches taller than your waist (for a sword) or just taller than you (for a staff). Note: different sizes work for different people. 2. Test your stick. If it breaks when you hit it on the ground it's not a good stick to use. 3. Decide what shape you want your weapon. 4. Break the stick if you need to make it smaller. (see tips) 5. Find a rock and start rubbing the stick up and down on all sides 6. You can take a pocketknife and sharpen the ends. (see warnings) 7. Use sandpaper to smooth the stick out if you want.

Tips
• •

• • • • •

Be sure to use sturdy sticks and know what kind of sticks are the strongest. (They don't necessarily have to be big, just sturdy.) You can break the stick easily by placing your foot on the spot where you want it to crack and put your hand at the top of the stick. Push down with your foot and it should snap. Finding a stick is easier during winter because there aren't any leaves. This would be a great craft for older children who are studying the way people used to live during stone age times. Alternatively, you could use the staff for a walking stick. For best durability, use sticks that have not been in direct contact with the ground. Rattan is a kind of bamboo and is a good sword substitute because it doesn't break into sharp points when it breaks, instead it brooms out. (see warnings) Apply a layer of duct tape to beautify and structurally re-enforce your weapon.

Warnings
• • •

Be careful when swinging the stick because you don't want to hit anybody! If you are fighting never swing the stick wildly. Stay in control of your movements so you can hit what you are aiming for. (i.e. a target or a pole) If you are not using Rattan, a solid core grass related to bamboo, the stick can break. This means sharp, pointy parts (from fractures) can stab through you or your friends.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners • • • •

Sharpened sticks are dangerous! If you are hitting people with sticks, you are taking people's lives in your hands. NEVER hit people with sticks unless you mean to cause them harm or they are wearing armour to protect them. It is ILLEGAL to use this as a weapon for ASSAULT or any other criminal offence

Things You'll Need
• • • •

Sticks Stones blunt knife(optional) Rattan (optional)

Make a Roman Helmet with these easy printable Step-by-Step Instructions and templates

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

How to Make a Wooden Sword
Need a sword that looks cool but won't be too dangerous? You can make one out of wood by following the directions below.

Steps
1. Get a piece of wood, whether it be a plank, or a young tree. If it is a young tree, it should be about between 1.5-2.5 inches thick, preferably 2. Also, it should be fresh and not rotten. Swing it hard against the ground to see if it breaks. 2. If you are using a plank, draw your sword shape with a pencil, remembering the guard, and then cut it out. Use a knife to sharpen the blade. 3. If you are using a young tree, remove the bark, but use your fingers and remove it very carefully so it stays in one piece, to be used for a scabbard(sheath) for your sword. Cut the wood to proper sword length, and decide how long the handle should be. Determine the curve of the wood to be used for the blade edge. To remember the curve, cut about 45 degrees across the tip (thinner end) of your sword. Look at picture to see what is done. 4. Using a knife, start shaping the blade. I prefer to generally use a somewhat triangle shaped blade (one sharp side, one dull) with rounded corners. It should not be an equilateral triangle, but more of an isosceles, 40-70-70 triangle. The triangle shape provides sturdiness when used as a practice sword. 5. Amongst the shaping of the blade, you may want to make your handle into a sort of oval shape instead of a pure circle, this makes the sword more comfortable to grasp. 6. You may also use a plane to assist you, but a knife is sufficient enough. When you have your triangle shape, wield your sword. The blade should face the ground, and at the top should be a somewhat flat surface, part of the triangle. 7. Feel the weight of your sword, if it feels heavy take off some more material until it is the ideal weight. I prefer to have the balance point of the sword about 5 inches down the blade from the handle, you might have a different preference. Work on your sword until you liked the shape and weight and feel of it. 8. When you have the perfect sword shape, sand your blade using sandpaper (optional step). 9. To make your sword more stylish, you may wrap the handle with electric tape. This also makes the sword handle more comfortable. 10. If you wish to add a guard, take a file and file down the blade near the handle so the blade stays the same thickness up until the handle, then the handle just pops out. Take a flat piece of material (wood or plastic will do)
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

and cut into the shape you want, I prefer circles. Then make a hole in the wood and expand it to fit on your sword, this part takes a very long time. 11. Once the guard slides up perfectly to the handle, slide it up on the sword. On the blade side of the guard, put a thick layer of duct tape so it won’t slide off. 12. For the scabbard (sheath) take the bark and wrap it around your sword blade. Cut it off at correct length. Use duct tape to close it shut. 13. Make any other modifications you wish, and good luck making your sword.

Tips
• • •

• • •

Try very hard. Don't rush, and do each step carefully. IF YOUR SWORD BREAKS OR CRACKS: immediately stop use. Wrap the broken/cracked part of the blade with duct tape, going a few inches past the broken part in both directions. Cover the duct tape with white masking tape. Your sword will most likely crack or break (this is very common) if used in combat. A bicycle handlebar grip can also be used as the grip. You can skip the sharpening part for a good but less dangerous sword. You can also buy swords like this at http://www.rentoys.com

Warnings
• • •

Hand tools are dangerous, so use caution when using a knife or anything else. If fighting with swords, be very careful: Though this is a wooden sword, it can still injure somebody. It is a weapon and not to be taken lightly. As a general rule, don't swing the sword at anything you don't want to destroy.

Things You'll Need
• • • • • • •

stick, hard wood, or a 2 by 4 Knife Possibly a Saw Sandpaper (optional, however recommended) Electric tape (optional) Duct tape A 2*2 piece of wood will work

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Make a Roman Outfit
For more information, patterns and precise details on men’s, women’s and childrens’ clothing, foot fashion, hairstyles, headdress and headgear please visit : http://www.fashion-era.com/ancient_costume/roman-costume-history-toga.htm

Our impression of an ancient Roman is either that of the soldier in his tunic and with an overlay of heavy metal armour, or of the Roman senator dressed in a toga. See extra line drawing pictures of Roman Battle dress and Roman dignitaries. Britain was invaded by Julius Caesar in 55 and 54 BC. One hundred years later Britain became part of the Roman Empire. Then for some 400 years after that many Britons wore Roman styled dress. The Roman Tunic or Tunica The tunica was the dress of soldiers and workmen. Dignitaries wore tunica under their toga. Men wore a leather belt over a tunica which was made from two pieces of cloth, to which separate short sleeves were added. In Latin, nouns end in either 'a' or 'um', thus the word tunic is an Anglo-Saxon derivation of tunica. When British Romans wore two tunics, the one next to the skin, which we would call an undergarment, the Romans called a Subacula. The outer garment was called the Tunica exteriodum and was knee length. Perhaps it was the colder northern climates, or perhaps Romans had fashion fads too, either way the tunica exteriodum reached the ankles by 100 AD. Furthermore this Roman Tunic gained a new name, the Caracalla. From 200 AD almost everyone wore the Caracalla. The line drawing shown right shows a Roman slave in a short tunic perfect for working easily. The dark tunic in the corner was to become the foundation garment of basic clothing for hundreds of years. After a slow start the hardy Roman soldiers adapted to Britain's harsher climate. One example was the way they adopted trews from Scotland, or started wearing the longer trousers that Barbarian tribes wore. One feature of conquering armies is that they are almost exclusively male, however, soon or
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

later they inter-marry with local women, thus in time-honoured manner, women may influence male garments. The Roman Soldier In Britain These two men are a coloured illustration of soldier dress from costume drawings from an old fashion booklet of the 1920s. Above right - To the near right is a depiction of a Roman soldier in Britain. On the far right is a Romanised Briton in the dress of a Roman General. In colder countries like Britain, a thick woollen floor length cloak with a hole at the neckline was a necessity. The Roman Toga For socialising in town, or at meetings, Roman men of higher status might add a toga over the tunica. The early Roman Toga was very voluminous, required huge skill in draping it and made really active pursuits difficult. Essentially this made it a garment mostly of the upper classes such as senators. Toga Candida Any Roman man who wanted to be elected as a magistrate had to don a spotless white toga - The Toga Candida. Indeed, the modern word candidate comes from the Roman Toga Candida. Even 2000 years ago a political candidate running for office had to look spick and span. Clothes matter when someone wants to be taken seriously and respected. How to Make a Roman Toga Roman Toga Patterns 1 & 2

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

The Roman toga was made from fine wool and was worn by placing it over the left shoulder with part of it hanging in the front. This was then passed round the back from the shoulder and under the right arm and finally thrown over the left shoulder. Hats were not normally worn with the Roman toga. Togas could be made from several shapes as shown in my illustration above right. Dignitaries had the privilege of wearing a Roman toga with a stripe creating a purple border band that flowed around the body with the draping. Roman Toga Dress Tip Fancy

My illustration should give you an idea how important the contrast band is in wear. For modesty purposes, and to achieve the correct look, wear a simple tunic or white plain T-shirt underneath. Naturally, white or flesh tone underwear is best with a Roman Toga. Use a clasp or brooch for extra security to hold the wrapping firmly in position. As with some of the Egyptian styles shown the art of wearing a toga lies in the wrapping and dressing of the fabric.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Roman Toga Pattern 3 The approximate dimensions of these early togas seem enormous, but to cover and wrap the body well you will need a large piece of cloth. This authentic Roman toga pattern right should measure 18 feet from A to B, and from C to D should measure 7 feet. Around 100 AD the toga began to diminish in size, firstly to a pallium and then to a stole More Fancy Dress Tips for Making a Roman Toga Anyone going to a fancy dress party for Halloween or New Year may be thinking the easiest solution to making a Roman toga would be to wrap a sheet around them and go as an ancient Roman. But you can improve your toga if you pay a little attention to these couture versions shown above! The dimensions of these two toga patterns shown further above would be similar to the half circle above and probably measure some 18 feet across. Note this almost double the measurement of C to D above. Clearly in pattern 1 and 2, there is at least 4 feet of fabric above the man's head before the fabric is folded over for arrangement. For fancy dress purposes trial and error is essential and these patterns are only toga shape guides. You could experiment with fabric lengths to create best effects. Trialling the shape with a single sheet or two and on a smaller person such as a child might also be useful. For an adult two large king size bed sheets sewn together might be a good start and might provide sufficient fabric for a superior fancy dress Roman toga Consider stencilling along one long edge, or sew deep coloured ribbon or braid to see see how effective a contrast border might look. As always, getting the hair and feet correct can make or break the end result in terms of authenticity.

This article is an original Roman Costume History and Fancy Dress Tips article by Pauline Weston Thomas 2008 © - Copyright www.fashion-era.com

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

HOW MUCH FABRIC TO BUY ?
• • • •

Six Yards: this is the official recommendation. I think it's too long. Five Yards: a little closer to reality, but still long, how much draping do you want? Four Yards: good enough for a simple man's toga, or a child's toga. Many people find FOUR YARDS will do the trick for almost any kind of toga. DON’T use a sheet – fabric is cheaper and of a more suitable length.

For those of you who have NEVER bought fabric, YOU control how much LENGTH you buy, the WIDTH is a standard width that all fabric seems to come in which is about five feet wide, roughly. I simply take that width, fold it in half, goes once around my waist (a good place to hide a belt), then over the shoulder and just drape from there. This diagram suggests a different shape for the toga, although you'll probably being using a rectangular piece of cloth. None-the-less, it might be of some help. It takes about three feet to go around your waist, and you need to wrap it at least 1.5 times around your waist before you throw the remainder over your shoulder (either shoulder). Then bring the fabric back to the waist, and tie it up or wrap it some more or whatever. Women will want to tie the fabric carefully to preserve modesty around the bustal region. Credit: http://www.howtomakeatoga.info/

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Soldier Costume
You will need: Cardboard A red adult size t-shirt Plastic mesh Tin foil Red paper or paint Silver paper or paint Scissors, tape and glue For the chain mail use some plastic mesh. Tape it together at the shoulders and under the arms. Put it on over the top of a big red t-shirt. Make the Armour out of cardboard and paint it silver. The spear is made from a cardboard tube and the hat is covered in tin foil and decorated with red paper.

For the shield you will need:
Cardboard Red wrapping paper Coloured paper Tin foil or a tin pie case Scissors, tape and glue Make the shield from a large piece of cardboard from an old cardboard box. Cover it with shiny red wrapping paper. Take tin and stick it in the middle. Use some yellow paper for lightning and some green paper for lines.

Roman Sandals
You will need: Light brown sugar paper String Hole punch Pencil and ruler Draw around your foot and add an extra 10cm all the way round. Then draw 3 strips on each side of the foot shape about 4cm wide. Cut it out, it should look like this. Trim the straps to fit the width of your foot.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Put holes in the straps with a hole punch and thread with string. Tie in a bow and wear them.

Roman Standard
You will need: 1 very long cardboard tube Brown paint Large sheet of card Double-sided sticky tape Silver and gold paper Red crepe paper Paint the cardboard tube brown. Cut out some card into shapes - 1 oblong, 3 circles, 1 moon shape and 1 semi-circle. Cover the shapes with silver shiny paper and stick them to the cardboard tube. Stick strips of the red crepe paper to the oblong so they hang down. Also, stick a strip to the bottom of the semi-circle. Cut a sun shape from the gold paper and stick it to the top.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Teaching Roman Numerals / Lesson Plans
Roman Numerals
Roman numerals are expressed by letters of the alphabet: I=1 V=5 X=10 L=50 C=100 D=500 M=1000 There are four basic principles for reading and writing Roman numerals:
• •

1. A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A letter can only be repeated three times. 2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount. VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6) LXX = 70 (50 + 10 + 10 = 70) MCC = 1200 (1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200) 3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount. IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4) XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90) CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900) Several rules apply for subtracting amounts from Roman numerals:
o

a. Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L) For 95, do NOT write VC (100 – 5). DO write XCV (XC + V or 90 + 5)

o

b. Only subtract one number from another.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

For 13, do NOT write IIXV (15 – 1 - 1). DO write XIII (X + I + I + I or 10 + 3)
o

c. Do not subtract a number from one that is more than 10 times greater (that is, you can subtract 1 from 10 [IX] but not 1 from 20— there is no such number as IXX.) For 99, do NOT write IC (C – I or 100 - 1). DO write XCIX (XC + IX or 90 + 9)

4. A bar placed on top of a letter or string of letters increases the numeral's value by 1,000 times. XV = 15, = 15,000 XI XII XIII XV XVI Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty XXX XL L LX LXX LXXX XC

One

I

Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fifteen Sixteen

Two II Three III Four IV Five Six V VI

Fourteen XIV

Seven VII Seventeen XVII Ninety Nine IX Ten X Nineteen XIX Twenty XX

Eight VIII Eighteen XVIII One hundred C Five hundred D One thousand M

Roman numerals are part of the ancient Roman number system that remains in use today. The history of Roman numerals dates back to 1st millennium BC when they were used as to record numbers in stone, art and coins. Today they tend to be used for list items, watch and clock faces, chapter headings, copyright dates and to denote film sequels. Roman numerals add a classic style that Arabic numerals cannot. Arabic (decimal) numbers ( 0 to 9 ) were introduced into Europe about 900 AD and were adopted quickly for their convenience and mathematical ease of use. Lists and tables can help us today with converting Roman numeral numbers to decimal numbers and there is a converter here to help. Suggestions: 1. Find information about Roman numerals on the Internet. 2. Print a copy of our guide to Roman numerals. o Print resource sheets 3. Translate Roman/Arabic.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

4. Check answers using the converter that can be found at this link, individually, in pairs or a group. 5. Write numerals on the board and ask pupils which comes next. 6. Ask pupils to name objects or places where they have seen or used Roman numerals. 7. Ask pupils to write the Roman numeral or Arabic equivalent to that given. 8. Count 1-10, 1-50 using Roman numeral letters as numbers 9. Us Microsoft Word software on your computer to create lists/charts of numbers and write the equivalent to the right, e.g. 1. = 1 One 2. = 2 Two 3. = 3 Three 4. = 4 Four 5. = 5 Five 6. = 6 Six 7. = 7 Seven

Roman Numerals Arabic 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000
Directions: Please read each question and select the best answer. Please try to answer all the questions. After answering the questions, check your answers on the next page. 1. How do you write 4 using Roman numerals? Circle your answer. A IIII C IIV B VI D IV

Roman I V X L C D M

2. How do you write 9 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer. A VIIII C IIX B VIII D IX

3. How do you write 50 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer. A D B C www.staidenshomeschool.com 33

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners C L D M

4. Write the Arabic numeral for the number XXXIV A 34 C 29 B 36 D 35

5. How do you write 37 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer. A IIIXXXX C IVXM B XXXVII D XXXVI

6. How do you write 500 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer. A L C D B M D C

7. How do you write 19 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer. A XIX C XVIV B XVI D XVIIII

8. Write the Arabic numeral for the number XVII A 27 C 26 B 17 D 16

9. How do you write 555 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer. A VVV C LLV B LVV D DLV

10. Write the Arabic numeral for the number CXX A 70 C 120 11. Write the Roman numeral for the number 127 A XCVII C CXXVII B IIVXC D XX!! www.staidenshomeschool.com 34 B 520 D 110

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Question No: 1 Answer key: D

2 D

3 C

4 A

5 B

6 C

7 A

8 B

9 D

10 C

11 C

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners SOURCES: http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/schools/romans/quizengine/roman_roads/quizengine?asked_flag_1=1&asked_flag_2=1 &asked_flag_3=1&answer_1=b&answer_2=a&answer_3=b&submit.x=69&submit.y=13&quiz=roman_roads&template Style=roman_roads_end www.wikipedia.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commentarii_de_Bello_Gallico www.wikihow.com http://www.howtomakeatoga.info/ www.fashion-era.com http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/Reticulum/quizes/printables/romancostume.htm http://www.factmonster.com/cgi-bin/id/PAGES-NUMERALGAME

Acknowledgements, Thanks & Terms of Use We would love to hear your comments on this workbook. If you have a moment please email your comments and suggestions to feedback@staidenshomeschool.com Other Volumes In Our Series Of Workbooks AFRICA ALPHABET, VOWELS & CONSONANTS ANIMALS COLOURS, SHAPES, PUZZLES DOLCH WORDS , WORD FAMILIES & PHONICS NUMBERS AND COUNTING © All rights reserved. Digital duplication, electronic transmission or posting of the contents contained, printing, photocopying, and/or distribution of copies of content is prohibited with the exception of the purchaser reproducing as many copies as necessary for use by their own family or single classroom. Altering, amending, or reproducing portions of this document or the contents contained herein, in any other than the original format is prohibited. Every caution has been taken to ensure that the information contained herein is accurate. However by the use of this product the user absolves Donnette E Davis and/or St Aiden’s Homeschool and/or her/its duly authorized representative/s from any liability or obligation arising out of the use hereof whatsoever. Any changes to these terms and conditions must be made in writing and agreed to by all parties involved. While the majority of the contents of this package are in the public domain we have spent many man hours compiling this unit and therefore hold the Compilation Copyright to this Collection. Additionally while you can copy the content of Public Domain material which is freely available, the format, layout, design and images and graphic content, including web pages, i.e. the unit, remains the sole property of Donnette E Davis and/or St Aiden’s Homeschool and/or her/its duly appointed agents. In instances where links and credits have been provided, either for content or images, such content and/or image remains the property of the copyright holder. I do not claim to own copyright on any of such content within this document which information/imagery has been externally linked and credited, and such information is provided for educational and fair use purposes only, with no intentional copyright infringement intended whatsoever. Donnette E Davis © 2009 St Aiden’s Homeschool, South Africa & The Child Development Spot P O Box 13720 Cascades 3202 KwaZulu-Natal Republic of South Africa www.staidenshomeschool.com www.childdevelopmentspot.com
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