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St Aiden’s Homeschool

Julius Caesar

Early Rome
A Complete Unit Study & Activities
For young Learners

Presented by Donnette E Davis

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
What Was It Like Being Part of a Roman Family?
Life in Roman times for women was quite hard. The father was the most
important member of the family. He had the power of life or death over
everyone. When a new baby was born it would be laid at its father's feet - if the
father picked the baby up it would live, and if he ignored the baby it would be
taken away to die. Mothers and children were never seen as important.

From the 1st century B.C. women began to have more rights and could divorce
unkind husbands. But they were never seen as really being equal to men.

Did the Romans Go to School?

Most children did not go to school. Parents had to pay for their children to go
and they would only teach boys!

Schools were also quite scarce, and were always built in towns. Girls and poorer
children might be taught to read and write at home but this was rare. These
children would more likely have to help their parents at work from an early age.

Some wealthy Roman parents would employ an educated slave called a

pedagogue to teach their sons. The pedagogue would also take the boy to
school and carried a stick to beat him with if he was naughty or did not work

What did Roman Children Use to Write With?

For short messages and at school they would write on wax tablets using a
pointed metal stylus . If you made a mistake you smoothed the wax flat with the
opposite end of the stylus.

For important letters the Romans used a metal pen dipped in ink to write on thin
pieces of wood or specially prepared animal skins. Books did not have pages,
they were written on scrolls made from pieces of animal skin glued together and
then rolled up.

We know that Roman women would also write because some of their letters
have survived. One was found at Vindolanda, a fort near Hadrian's Wall. It is a
birthday party invitation from Claudia Severa to her friend Sulpicia Lepidina and
was written at the end of the 1st century A.D. 2

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
Families and Children

What were Roman homes like?

• What sorts of food did the Romans eat?

• What were their table manners like?

We have a Roman cookery book written by a man called Apicius. Some of the
recipes sound quite modern such as sausages. Others sound rather odd. Would
you like to eat calves' brains with roses?

Find out what Romans ate for food and how they ate it. Then make up
your own menu for a Roman birthday party.

Many Roman families included slaves who could be bought or sold like animals
or objects. They were never paid for their work. However some slaves could be
treated well by their owners and were even freed. A few slave girls even
became the wealthy wives of people who had bought them.

Find out about the lives of slaves in Roman times. Who do you think
would end up as a slave?

• Many slaves had committed serious crimes and Roman judges made
them slaves instead of sending them to prison. Was this a good idea?
• Perhaps the Roman Empire could not have existed without the work of

Discuss the answers to these questions with the rest of your class. Do you all
agree with each other?

What do you think it would be like if your library was filled with scrolls
instead of books? Here is how you can make a scroll:

You will need: A roll of sticky tape

A sheet of paper
Two wooden spoons

1. You will need to stick one side of the sheet of paper to the handle of a
wooden spoon. Do this using the sticky tape. You must then do the same with
the opposite end of the paper as well. 3

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
2. Then starting with one end, roll up the paper around one of the spoons. You
are now ready to start reading your scroll. Do you think scrolls are easier to read
than books?

Do you think scrolls take up more space than books, and are they easier to look
after? Write a short story about life as a child in a Roman family.

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

The Roman Army

The Roman Empire was so big and lasted so long because its army was large
and well trained. The legions had names and numbers. Some of the legions who
fought in Britain were the XX valeria victrix, the XIV gemina martia victrix and the
IX hispana (the numbers are all Roman numerals). Find out about life in the
Roman army.

• Who was in charge?

• What did the soldiers look like?
• What were the centurions like?
• What was the food like?
• Did the soldiers of the IX hispana really come to a bad end fighting in

Make a wall chart about the Roman army to report on all

these questions, and any more that you can think up.

Roman legions all carried at least three or four standards to show who they were.
The most famous of these was the Roman eagle. They also carried a portrait of
the emperor made from metal and the name and number of the legion and its
famous victories.

Discover more about the legions' standards and make your own for a
legion of your classmates, friends of fellow homeschoolers.

Find out as much as you can about life in the Roman army. Sometimes soldiers
could not see their families for years and they could not marry their girlfriends
until they left the army. But the wages were good and there were other benefits
such as a payment of land or money when they retired. Sons often followed their
fathers into the army.

Imagine you are the family of a Roman boy who wants to join the
army. Do you all think it is a good thing? Discuss whether or not he
should join the legions.
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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Who Were the Roman Emperors?

A Roman Emperor was the man who ruled over the Empire.
At first, Rome was ruled by Generals but this caused problems. The Generals
were always fighting over who would have the final say in running the Empire.

Eventually the Generals were replaced by just one man - The Emperor. The first
Emperor to come to power was Augustus in 27 B.C. He was a popular Emperor
who brought peace after many years of fighting. Not all the Emperors were so
good and wise, some were terrible!

The Emperor had a troop of special soldiers to protect him. They were called the
Praetorian Guard. However, some of the bad Emperors were so unpopular that
their Praetorian Guards killed them!

How Was Rome Ruled?

At first, Rome was ruled by kings. They were sometimes very cruel and the last
king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. Rome then became a republic for the
next four hundred years.

This republic was ruled by a senate, and people called Senators were elected to
do different jobs in the senate. However, not everyone was allowed to vote in
these elections. Women and slaves were not allowed to vote and neither were
poor people. Those Roman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.

In the 1st century B.C.

the generals who
controlled the army
became very
powerful. Rome was
no longer just a city, it
was the capital of an
empire. The Romans
ruled lands from
France to North
Africa. You can see
this in the map. 6

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
How did Rome Get its Name?
Rome is the capital city of Italy. Building started in 753 B.C. and the Romans have
a story to explain how this happened. Twin boys, Romulus and Remus, were
taken from their mother and left by the river Tiber to starve. A mother wolf found
the babies and looked after them until they were old enough to take care of

Years later, Mars (the Roman God of war) told the boys to build a city where
they had been found. The two boys built this city, but ended up at war with
each other. Romulus won the battle and the city became known as Rome.
Today, historians and archaeologists agree that people started living in Rome
long before the time of Romulus and Remus, but many people still believe in their

City of Rome
Many buildings from the ancient city of Rome still survive even though they are in
ruins. Visitors to Rome today can walk in the Forum, walk inside temples and
even see Roman sewers and the underground burial tunnels called the

See how much you can discover about the ancient city of Rome.
Write an ancient Roman guidebook to record what you find out.

• What were the most famous buildings called?

• What should a tourist have visited in Rome in about 300 A.D.?

Roman Emperors
What did Roman Emperors look like? We have portraits of Emperors on coins as
well as statues and paintings of some of them.

Paint a portrait of an Emperor. Should he look happy or sad, serious

or excited?

Find out about the people who ruled the Roman Empire.

Make a list of 'good' people and 'bad' people, and explain why they
are on your list. 7

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

E.g. Emperor Augustus was a good man because he restored peace to the
Roman Empire and set up a fire fighting service for the people of Rome.

• Do you think it was better to have an Emperor in charge or should the

Romans have stuck with the Republic?
• How could the Romans have made the Republic a fairer sort of

How did People Travel Around Britain?

In Roman times people travelling round Britain would either ride on horseback,
drive carts pulled by oxen, or walk. All the roads they had to travel along would
be straight. Winding roads may be interesting to walk along but it takes you a lot
longer to get where you are going and bandits and robbers can be hiding
around bends.

Roman roads were carefully built to slope down from the middle to ditches on
either side. This way the rain would drain away and not make the road too

What Was The Rest of Roman Britain Like?

Near the borders of Roman Britain the country could still be quite wild. People
who lived here were often farmers. These farmers lived in small villages of round
wooden houses with thatched roofs, much as they had before the Romans

Some wealthy Romans would also live near to towns, in villas. Villas were large
farms with a luxurious house for the owners (the workers lived in ordinary houses
made of wood). Villas would often have rooms with painted walls and mosaic
floors, and even central heating. Most of the villas were only found in the South
of England.

Is Manchester a Roman Town?

Often towns grew up near to forts and we can tell this today by their names. If a
place name includes the words 'chester' or 'cester', it is because it is on the site of
a Roman fort e.g. Chester, Gloucester, and Manchester. The word 'chester'
comes from the Roman word for a fort - 'castrum'. 8

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
Most towns would also have shops and a market place called a forum. At one
end of the forum was a large building called the basilica. This was a cross
between a law court and a town hall. The magistrates carried out all the
important business here.

Roads and Places

Find a map showing the Roman sites in your area. Are they forts, towns, villas? Or
does it look as though people carried on living in Celtic type villages? From this
evidence can you decide what your area was like in Roman times?

Mosaic pictures are made up of many tiny squares of coloured stone or pottery.
Look at some Roman mosaics then make a mosaic of your own using squares of
coloured paper.

So far archaeologists have only found one villa in Cornwall, it is at Magor Farm
near Camborne. The nearest villas to it are on the far side of Devon. Who do
you think might have lived in this villa? How different would their home have
been from all their neighbours who carried on living in Celtic type villages?

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Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Punctuation was not very popular, so Roman writing was hard to

read. Latin writing did not have capital letters or even full stops at

School children had their own goddess. She was called Minerva and
she had her own festival at the beginning of March. After the festival
the school year began.

Many Romans lived in blocks of flats! The Romans called them

'insulae', which means islands, because they were tall and stuck up
above the streets.

The Emperor Caligula was not only cruel but mad as well, and even
made his horse a Senator!

Some Roman buildings smelled terrible because they were not

regularly cleaned. Romans would burn bread in an attempt to
remove the smell.

The Romans buried their dead along the roads leading away from
towns. It was hoped that this way the ghosts would not return to their
old homes.

When they were building roads in a boggy place, Romans would

build the foundations with sticks and sheepskins to stop them sinking.

Roman towns had public lavatories for men, large pottery jars at
street corners that men and boys could 'wee' in. They were emptied
at night by workers who used the urine to bleach cloth. 10

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

What happened to a newborn baby if its father ignored it?

a. It never went to school
b. Its mother taught it to read
c. It was taken away to die.

Why did girls not go to school?

a. The only schools were in the towns.
b. The schools taught only boys as they were considered more important than girls.
c. Girls thought going to school was boring.

What was the last king of Rome called?

a. Romulus
b. Tarquin the Proud
c. Julius Caesar

When Rome was a republic women were allowed to vote.

a. True
b. False.

For about how long had Rome already existed by the time Julius Caesar tried to invade
Britain at around 55 B.C?
a. 100 years
b. 300 years
c. 700 years

How did the Roman Army change in the 1sr Century BC?
a. Ordinary men could join the army and become professional soldiers.
b. The soldiers were all called Centurion
c. The soldiers started to wear armour.

How long did a soldier stay in the army for?

a. 5 years
b. 15 years
c. 25 years

Because 'Winchester' ends in 'Chester' from the Latin word for a fort, we know there was
a Roman town there.
a. True
b. False

Why were Roman roads straight?

a. To make them less muddy
b. It was a quicker and safer way to get to where you were going.
c. Romans thought they looked better that way

Where were most Roman villas built?

a. In towns.
b. Near to towns in the south of England.
c. In Wales and Scotland. 11

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

• A new born bay was taken away to die if its father ignored it.
• Schools only taught boys as they were thought to be more important
than girls.
• A Roman person used a wax tablet and a stylus to write a short
• Tarquin the Proud was the last King of Rome.
• Roman women were never allowed to vote.
• Rome had already existed for over 700 years before Julius Caesar tried
to invade Britain.
• The Roman army changed because ordinary men could join the army
and become professional soldiers.
• A soldier had to stay in the army for 25 years.
• A century of Roman legionaries was called a tortoise because their
shields overlapped looking like a tortoise.
• Winchester was a Roman town. We know this because it ends in
• Roman roads were straight as it made it a quicker and safer way to get
where you were going.
• Most Roman villas were built near to towns in the South of England. 12

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
Costumes: For girls, a long white nightshirt or dress (it should reach her ankles),
bare feet or leather sandals, and a long piece of solid-coloured cotton or wool
for a veil over it. For boys, an extra-large white T-shirt will do (it should come
down to his knees), with a leather belt, and bare feet or leather sandals. Boys
can wear a cloak (preferably wool) over the tunic, also knee length.

Food: For a typical Roman meal, you might begin with olives and devilled
eggs, and then a lentil or barley soup, or cheese pizza (without any tomato
sauce), with sausage or pepperoni, or onions and garlic, on it. A green salad
with radishes would also be appropriate. For dessert, walnuts or apples or melon
(fresh or dried) would be pretty normal, or little cakes made with honey. The
Romans said that a meal went “from eggs to apples,” the way we say “from
soup to nuts.”

Mosaic Project for Kids

Why not try making a mosaic? You can make a simple mosaic just with black
and white pebbles, which you can get at any gardening store. You could set
them in plaster of paris, or in cement the way the Romans did it.

Or, in a classroom, you might want to just cut out lots of little squares of coloured
paper, and assemble them into mosaics with glue. For the best results, make sure
to have some light red and some darker red, and some light blue and some
darker blue, and so on, so that you can do some shading. The pieces should be
about 1 /4 inch (1/2 cm) square. Look at a lot of pictures of mosaics first so you
can see how they do it

Quick Idea: Roman Numeral Wrap Up: Various column styles, which originated in
Greece, were also popular in Rome. The more decorated style was Corinthian
which had the shape of leaves carved in the top. 13

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Vellum Journal: Books were made of papyrus scrolls. Later parchment or vellum,
a sheer paper, was used to record events, write letters and make books.

by Sandi Genovese

Books were made of papyrus scrolls. Later parchment or vellum, a sheer paper was used to record events, write letters
and make books.

Star – cut 2 - gold

Circle – cut 1 gold

You will need:

• Die cut machine and dies

or pattern and scissors
• Dies - Star #1A, Circles
• Paper - tan, ivory, white, green,
gold, orange, red
• Raffia
• Black pen
• Adhesive
• 1¼8" Hole Punch Circle – cut 1 white

Square – Cut 2 green

Circle – cut 1 red 14

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

1. Using die cut machine or 6. Cut a piece of white paper

scissors, cut shapes from coloured about 2" smaller on all sides than
paper as shown on the patterns. the front cover. Trace the border
Trim tan coloured paper to 12" x around the edge of the paper.
8" size, then fold in half across the Colour the negative black and
width to measure 6" x 8". leave the pattern white.

2. Trim several sheets of white 7. Centre, then glue the bordered

paper and a piece of vellum for paper to a sheet of red paper
first sheet so that they are smaller that is slightly larger to make a red
than the cover. Fold all sheets in border around the edge. Cut out,
half. then add a green square to each
3. Punch two holes in the cover
on the fold line about 1" from the 8. Place a red rectangle in the
edge. Using the cover holes as a centre. Attach a smaller white
guide, punch two holes along the rectangle on top of the red.
fold line in the inside sheets.
9. To make a Roman shield,
4. With the vellum as the first overlap then glue the two gold
sheet, align the sheets inside the stars together. Glue red, white
cover, then thread raffia through and gold circles in the middle.
the holes. Tie a bow on the Glue the shield to the centre of
outside. the white paper.

5. Draw the pattern for the 10. Mat the Roman design on
Roman border on heavy paper, ivory paper, then glue to the
then cut out. centre of the journal cover. 15

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
Samian Ware Tile: Many homes were decorated with pottery wall decorations
called reliefs. Many different types of clay were used depending on the area.
One style was called Samian ware, a red clay pottery popular after AD 100.

Aqueducts: The land, which surrounded Rome was abundant with springs. This
water was channelled into the city of Rome through the channels of aqueducts.
Large cisterns held the water at the end of the aqueducts and were used for
baths and fountains.

Mosaic Frame: Originating in Greece, the Romans became famous for their
mosaics. Bits of glass and stone were arranged to form designs for jewellery,
vases and other art forms.

Marine Mosaic Tile: Because of the proximity to water, marine or sea themes
were an important design element in Ancient Rome. 16

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners 17

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners 18

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners 19

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
How to Make Weapons out of Sticks
If you're interested in perhaps learning how to make weapons out of sticks will be
just the ticket. Follow these steps to learn how.

1. Find a stick that is about three inches taller than your waist (for a sword) or
just taller than you (for a staff). Note: different sizes work for different
2. Test your stick. If it breaks when you hit it on the ground it's not a good stick
to use.
3. Decide what shape you want your weapon.
4. Break the stick if you need to make it smaller. (see tips)
5. Find a rock and start rubbing the stick up and down on all sides
6. You can take a pocketknife and sharpen the ends. (see warnings)
7. Use sandpaper to smooth the stick out if you want.

• Be sure to use sturdy sticks and know what kind of sticks are the strongest.
(They don't necessarily have to be big, just sturdy.)
• You can break the stick easily by placing your foot on the spot where you
want it to crack and put your hand at the top of the stick. Push down with
your foot and it should snap.
• Finding a stick is easier during winter because there aren't any leaves.
• This would be a great craft for older children who are studying the way
people used to live during stone age times.
• Alternatively, you could use the staff for a walking stick.
• For best durability, use sticks that have not been in direct contact with the
• Rattan is a kind of bamboo and is a good sword substitute because it
doesn't break into sharp points when it breaks, instead it brooms out. (see
• Apply a layer of duct tape to beautify and structurally re-enforce your

• Be careful when swinging the stick because you don't want to hit
• If you are fighting never swing the stick wildly. Stay in control of your
movements so you can hit what you are aiming for. (i.e. a target or a pole)
• If you are not using Rattan, a solid core grass related to bamboo, the stick
can break. This means sharp, pointy parts (from fractures) can stab
through you or your friends. 20

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
• Sharpened sticks are dangerous!
• If you are hitting people with sticks, you are taking people's lives in your
• NEVER hit people with sticks unless you mean to cause them harm or they
are wearing armour to protect them.
• It is ILLEGAL to use this as a weapon for ASSAULT or any other criminal

Things You'll Need

• Sticks
• Stones
• blunt knife(optional)
• Rattan (optional)

Make a Roman Helmet with these easy printable Step-by-Step Instructions and
templates 21

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

How to Make a Wooden Sword

Need a sword that looks cool but won't be too dangerous? You can make one
out of wood by following the directions below.

1. Get a piece of wood, whether it be a plank, or a young tree. If it is a
young tree, it should be about between 1.5-2.5 inches thick, preferably 2.
Also, it should be fresh and not rotten. Swing it hard against the ground to
see if it breaks.
2. If you are using a plank, draw your sword shape with a pencil,
remembering the guard, and then cut it out. Use a knife to sharpen the
3. If you are using a young tree, remove the bark, but use your fingers and
remove it very carefully so it stays in one piece, to be used for a
scabbard(sheath) for your sword. Cut the wood to proper sword length,
and decide how long the handle should be. Determine the curve of the
wood to be used for the blade edge. To remember the curve, cut about
45 degrees across the tip (thinner end) of your sword. Look at picture to
see what is done.
4. Using a knife, start shaping the blade. I prefer to generally use a somewhat
triangle shaped blade (one sharp side, one dull) with rounded corners. It
should not be an equilateral triangle, but more of an isosceles, 40-70-70
triangle. The triangle shape provides sturdiness when used as a practice
5. Amongst the shaping of the blade, you may want to make your handle
into a sort of oval shape instead of a pure circle, this makes the sword
more comfortable to grasp.
6. You may also use a plane to assist you, but a knife is sufficient enough.
When you have your triangle shape, wield your sword. The blade should
face the ground, and at the top should be a somewhat flat surface, part
of the triangle.
7. Feel the weight of your sword, if it feels heavy take off some more material
until it is the ideal weight. I prefer to have the balance point of the sword
about 5 inches down the blade from the handle, you might have a
different preference. Work on your sword until you liked the shape and
weight and feel of it.
8. When you have the perfect sword shape, sand your blade using
sandpaper (optional step).
9. To make your sword more stylish, you may wrap the handle with electric
tape. This also makes the sword handle more comfortable.
10. If you wish to add a guard, take a file and file down the blade near the
handle so the blade stays the same thickness up until the handle, then the
handle just pops out. Take a flat piece of material (wood or plastic will do) 22

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
and cut into the shape you want, I prefer circles. Then make a hole in the
wood and expand it to fit on your sword, this part takes a very long time.
11. Once the guard slides up perfectly to the handle, slide it up on the sword.
On the blade side of the guard, put a thick layer of duct tape so it won’t
slide off.
12. For the scabbard (sheath) take the bark and wrap it around your sword
blade. Cut it off at correct length. Use duct tape to close it shut.
13. Make any other modifications you wish, and good luck making your

• Try very hard.
• Don't rush, and do each step carefully.
• IF YOUR SWORD BREAKS OR CRACKS: immediately stop use. Wrap the
broken/cracked part of the blade with duct tape, going a few inches past
the broken part in both directions. Cover the duct tape with white masking
tape. Your sword will most likely crack or break (this is very common) if
used in combat.
• A bicycle handlebar grip can also be used as the grip.
• You can skip the sharpening part for a good but less dangerous sword.
• You can also buy swords like this at

• Hand tools are dangerous, so use caution when using a knife or anything
• If fighting with swords, be very careful: Though this is a wooden sword, it
can still injure somebody. It is a weapon and not to be taken lightly.
• As a general rule, don't swing the sword at anything you don't want to

Things You'll Need

• stick, hard wood, or a 2 by 4
• Knife
• Possibly a Saw
• Sandpaper (optional, however recommended)
• Electric tape (optional)
• Duct tape
• A 2*2 piece of wood will work 23

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Make a Roman Outfit

For more information, patterns and precise details on men’s, women’s and childrens’ clothing, foot fashion, hairstyles, headdress
and headgear please visit :

Our impression of an ancient Roman is either

that of the soldier in his tunic and with an
overlay of heavy metal armour, or of the
Roman senator dressed in a toga. See extra
line drawing pictures of Roman Battle dress
and Roman dignitaries.

Britain was invaded by Julius Caesar in 55

and 54 BC. One hundred years later Britain
became part of the Roman Empire. Then for
some 400 years after that many Britons wore
Roman styled dress.

The Roman Tunic or Tunica

The tunica was the dress of soldiers and

workmen. Dignitaries wore tunica under their toga.

Men wore a leather belt over a tunica which was made from two pieces of
cloth, to which separate short sleeves were added. In Latin, nouns end in either
'a' or 'um', thus the word tunic is an Anglo-Saxon derivation of tunica.

When British Romans wore two tunics, the one next to the skin, which we would
call an undergarment, the Romans called a Subacula. The outer garment was
called the Tunica exteriodum and was knee length.

Perhaps it was the colder northern climates, or perhaps Romans had fashion fads
too, either way the tunica exteriodum reached the ankles by 100
AD. Furthermore this Roman Tunic gained a new name, the Caracalla. From 200
AD almost everyone wore the Caracalla.

The line drawing shown right shows a Roman slave in a short tunic perfect for
working easily. The dark tunic in the corner was to become the foundation
garment of basic clothing for hundreds of years.

After a slow start the hardy Roman soldiers adapted to Britain's harsher
climate. One example was the way they adopted trews from Scotland, or
started wearing the longer trousers that Barbarian tribes wore. One feature of
conquering armies is that they are almost exclusively male, however, soon or 24

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
later they inter-marry with local women, thus in time-honoured manner, women
may influence male garments.

The Roman Soldier In Britain

These two men are a coloured illustration of soldier dress from costume drawings
from an old fashion booklet of the 1920s. Above right - To the near right is a
depiction of a Roman soldier in Britain. On the far right is a Romanised Briton in
the dress of a Roman General.

In colder countries like Britain, a thick woollen floor length cloak with a hole at
the neckline was a necessity.

The Roman Toga

For socialising in town, or at meetings, Roman men of higher status might add a
toga over the tunica. The early Roman Toga was very voluminous, required
huge skill in draping it and made really active pursuits difficult. Essentially this
made it a garment mostly of the upper classes such as senators.

Toga Candida

Any Roman man who wanted to be elected as a magistrate had to don a

spotless white toga - The Toga Candida. Indeed, the modern word candidate
comes from the Roman Toga Candida.

Even 2000 years ago a political candidate running for office had to look spick
and span. Clothes matter when someone wants to be taken seriously and

How to Make a Roman


Roman Toga Patterns 1 & 2 25

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
The Roman toga was made from fine wool and was worn by placing it over the
left shoulder with part of it hanging in the front. This was then passed round the
back from the shoulder and under the right arm and finally thrown over the left
shoulder. Hats were not normally worn with the Roman toga. Togas could be
made from several
shapes as shown in my
illustration above right.

Dignitaries had the

privilege of wearing a
Roman toga with a
stripe creating a purple
border band that
flowed around the
body with the draping.

Roman Toga Fancy

Dress Tip

My illustration should
give you an idea how
important the contrast
band is in wear.

For modesty purposes, and to achieve the correct look, wear a simple tunic or
white plain T-shirt underneath. Naturally, white or flesh tone underwear is best
with a Roman Toga. Use a clasp or brooch for extra security to hold the
wrapping firmly in position.

As with some of the Egyptian

styles shown the art of wearing a
toga lies in the wrapping and
dressing of the fabric. 26

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
Roman Toga Pattern 3

The approximate dimensions of these early togas seem enormous, but to cover
and wrap the body well you will need a large piece of cloth.

This authentic Roman toga pattern right should measure 18 feet from A to B, and
from C to D should measure 7 feet.

Around 100 AD the toga began to diminish in size, firstly to a pallium and then to
a stole

More Fancy Dress Tips for Making a Roman Toga

Anyone going to a fancy dress party for Halloween or New Year may be thinking
the easiest solution to making a Roman toga would be to wrap a sheet around
them and go as an ancient Roman. But you can improve your toga if you pay a
little attention to these couture versions shown above!

The dimensions of these two toga patterns shown further above would be similar
to the half circle above and probably measure some 18 feet across. Note this
almost double the measurement of C to D above. Clearly in pattern 1 and 2,
there is at least 4 feet of fabric above the man's head before the fabric is folded
over for arrangement.

For fancy dress purposes trial and error is essential and these patterns are only
toga shape guides.

You could experiment with fabric lengths to create best effects. Trialling the
shape with a single sheet or two and on a smaller person such as a child might
also be useful.

For an adult two large king size bed sheets sewn together might be a good start
and might provide sufficient fabric for a superior fancy dress Roman toga

Consider stencilling along one long edge, or sew deep coloured ribbon or braid
to see see how effective a contrast border might look.

As always, getting the hair and feet correct can make or break the end result in
terms of authenticity.

This article is an original Roman Costume History and Fancy Dress Tips article by
Pauline Weston Thomas 2008 © - Copyright 27

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners


• Six Yards: this is the official recommendation. I think it's too long.
• Five Yards: a little closer to reality, but still long, how much draping do you
• Four Yards: good enough for a simple man's toga, or a child's toga. Many
people find FOUR YARDS will do the trick for almost any kind of toga.
• DON’T use a sheet – fabric is cheaper and of a more suitable length.

For those of you who have NEVER bought fabric, YOU control how much LENGTH
you buy, the WIDTH is a standard width that all fabric seems to come in which is
about five feet wide, roughly. I simply take that width, fold it in half, goes once
around my waist (a good place to hide a belt), then over the shoulder and just
drape from there.

This diagram suggests a different shape for the toga, although you'll probably being
using a rectangular piece of cloth. None-the-less, it might be of some help.

It takes about three feet to go around your waist, and you need to wrap it at least
1.5 times around your waist before you throw the remainder over your shoulder
(either shoulder). Then bring the fabric back to the waist, and tie it up or wrap it
some more or whatever. Women will want to tie the fabric carefully to preserve
modesty around the bustal region.

Credit: 28

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Soldier Costume
You will need:
A red adult size t-shirt
Plastic mesh
Tin foil
Red paper or paint
Silver paper or paint
Scissors, tape and glue

For the chain mail use some plastic mesh. Tape it together at the shoulders and
under the arms. Put it on over the top of a big red t-shirt. Make the Armour out
of cardboard and paint it silver. The spear is made from a cardboard tube and
the hat is covered in tin foil and decorated with red paper.

For the shield you will need:

Red wrapping paper
Coloured paper
Tin foil or a tin pie case
Scissors, tape and glue

Make the shield from a large piece of cardboard from an old cardboard box.
Cover it with shiny red wrapping paper. Take tin and stick it in the middle. Use
some yellow paper for lightning and some green paper for lines.

Roman Sandals

You will need:

Light brown sugar paper
Hole punch
Pencil and ruler

Draw around your foot and add an extra 10cm all the way

Then draw 3 strips on each side of the foot shape about 4cm
wide. Cut it out, it should look like this. Trim the straps to fit
the width of your foot. 29

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
Put holes in the straps with a hole punch and thread with string. Tie in a bow and
wear them.

Roman Standard

You will need:

1 very long cardboard tube
Brown paint
Large sheet of card
Double-sided sticky tape
Silver and gold paper
Red crepe paper

Paint the cardboard tube brown.

Cut out some card into shapes
- 1 oblong, 3 circles, 1 moon shape and 1 semi-circle.
Cover the shapes with silver shiny paper and stick them to the cardboard tube.
Stick strips of the red crepe paper to the oblong so they hang down. Also, stick a
strip to the bottom of the semi-circle.
Cut a sun shape from the gold paper and stick it to the top. 30

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Teaching Roman Numerals / Lesson Plans

Roman Numerals
Roman numerals are expressed by letters of the alphabet:


There are four basic principles for reading and writing Roman numerals:

• 1. A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A
letter can only be repeated three times.
• 2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value,
add that amount.

VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6)

LXX = 70 (50 + 10 + 10 = 70)

MCC = 1200 (1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200)

3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that

IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4)
XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)
CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)

Several rules apply for subtracting amounts from Roman numerals:

o a. Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L)

For 95, do NOT write VC (100 – 5).

DO write XCV (XC + V or 90 + 5)

o b. Only subtract one number from another. 31

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
For 13, do NOT write IIXV (15 – 1 - 1).
DO write XIII (X + I + I + I or 10 + 3)

o c. Do not subtract a number from one that is more than 10 times

greater (that is, you can subtract 1 from 10 [IX] but not 1 from 20—
there is no such number as IXX.)

For 99, do NOT write IC (C – I or 100 - 1).

DO write XCIX (XC + IX or 90 + 9)

• 4. A bar placed on top of a letter or string of letters increases the numeral's

value by 1,000 times.

XV = 15, = 15,000

One I Eleven XI Thirty XXX

Two II Twelve XII Forty XL
Three III Thirteen XIII Fifty L
Four IV Fourteen XIV Sixty LX
Five V Fifteen XV Seventy LXX
Six VI Sixteen XVI Eighty LXXX
Seven VII Seventeen XVII Ninety XC
Eight VIII Eighteen XVIII One hundred C
Nine IX Nineteen XIX Five hundred D
Ten X Twenty XX One thousand M

Roman numerals are part of the ancient Roman number system that remains in
use today. The history of Roman numerals dates back to 1st millennium BC when
they were used as to record numbers in stone, art and coins. Today they tend to
be used for list items, watch and clock faces, chapter headings, copyright dates
and to denote film sequels.

Roman numerals add a classic style that Arabic numerals cannot. Arabic
(decimal) numbers ( 0 to 9 ) were introduced into Europe about 900 AD and
were adopted quickly for their convenience and mathematical ease of use.

Lists and tables can help us today with converting Roman numeral numbers to
decimal numbers and there is a converter here to help.


1. Find information about Roman numerals on the Internet.

2. Print a copy of our guide to Roman numerals.
o Print resource sheets
3. Translate Roman/Arabic. 32

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners
4. Check answers using the converter that can be found at this link,
individually, in pairs or a group.
5. Write numerals on the board and ask pupils which comes next.
6. Ask pupils to name objects or places where they have seen or used
Roman numerals.
7. Ask pupils to write the Roman numeral or Arabic equivalent to that given.
8. Count 1-10, 1-50 using Roman numeral letters as numbers
9. Us Microsoft Word software on your computer to create lists/charts of
numbers and write the equivalent to the right, e.g.
1. = 1 One
2. = 2 Two
3. = 3 Three
4. = 4 Four
5. = 5 Five
6. = 6 Six
7. = 7 Seven

Roman Numerals

Arabic Roman
1 I
5 V
10 X
50 L
100 C
500 D
1000 M


Please read each question and select the best answer. Please try to answer all the questions.
After answering the questions, check your answers on the next page.

1. How do you write 4 using Roman numerals? Circle your answer.



2. How do you write 9 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer.



3. How do you write 50 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer.

A D B C 33

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners


4. Write the Arabic numeral for the number XXXIV

A 34 B 36

C 29 D 35

5. How do you write 37 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer.



6. How do you write 500 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer.



7. How do you write 19 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer.



8. Write the Arabic numeral for the number XVII

A 27 B 17

C 26 D 16

9. How do you write 555 using Roman numerals? Mark your answer.



10. Write the Arabic numeral for the number CXX

A 70 B 520

C 120 D 110

11. Write the Roman numeral for the number 127



Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

Question No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Answer key: D D C A B C A B D C C 35

Caesar & Early Roman – Unit Study for Early Learners

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