History of medicine

1

History of medicine
All human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for birth, death, and disease. Throughout history, illness has been attributed to witchcraft, demons, adverse astral influence, or the will of the gods. These ideas still retain some power, with faith healing and shrines still used in some places, although the rise of scientific medicine over the past millennium has altered or replaced mysticism in most cases.

Prehistoric medicine
Although there is no record to establish when plants were first used for medicinal purposes (herbalism), the use of plants as healing agents is an ancient practice. Over time through emulation of the behavior of fauna a medicinal knowledge base developed and was passed between generations. As tribal culture specialized specific castes, Shamans and apothecaries performed the 'niche occupation' of healing.

Antiquity
Egypt
Ancient Egypt developed a large, varied and fruitful medical tradition. Herodotus described the Egyptians as "the healthiest of all men, next to the Libyans",[1] due to the dry climate and the notable public health system that they possessed. According to him, "[t]he practice of medicine is so specialized among them that each physician is a healer of one disease and no more." Although Egyptian medicine, to a good extent, dealt with the supernatural,[2] it eventually developed a practical use in the fields of anatomy, public health, and clinical diagnostics. Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus[3] may date to a time as early as 3000 BC. The earliest known surgery in Egypt was performed in Egypt around 2750 BC. Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty is sometimes credited with being the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, detailing cures, ailments and anatomical observations. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written circa 1600 BC. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.[4] Conversely, the Ebers papyrus[5] (c. 1550 BC) is full of incantations and foul applications meant to turn away disease-causing demons, and other superstition. The Ebers papyrus also provides our earliest possible documentation of ancient awareness of tumors, but ancient medical terminology being badly understood, cases Ebers 546 and 547 for instance may refer to simple swellings. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus[6] treats women's complaints, including problems with conception. Thirty four cases detailing diagnosis and treatment survive, some of them fragmentarily.[7] Dating to 1800 BC, it is the oldest surviving medical text of any kind. Medical institutions, referred to as Houses of Life are known to have been established in ancient Egypt as early as the 1st Dynasty. By the time of the 19th Dynasty some workers enjoyed such benefits as medical insurance, pensions and sick leave. The earliest known physician is also credited to ancient Egypt: Hesy-Ra, “Chief of Dentists and Physicians” for King Djoser in the 27th century BC.[8] Also, the earliest known woman physician, Peseshet, practiced in Ancient Egypt at the time of the 4th dynasty. Her title was “Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians.” In addition to her supervisory role, Peseshet trained midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais.

its aetiology and future development. measures concerning menstruating and lying-in women and those suffering from gonorrhea. born 600 BCE. perineal . and coming out of the communities of thinkers who included the Buddha and others. is the first Indian text dealing with medicine. creams and pills. the Charakasamhitā. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.History of medicine 2 Mesopotamia and Levant The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.[11] The Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions. in view of the conditions of the climate. the repair of torn ear lobes. including rhinoplasty." (Neuburger: History of Medicine. prognosis and therapy. prognosis. such as Sabbath rest. regulation of labor. The use of herbs to treat ailments would later form a large part of Ayurveda. a sacred text of Hinduism dating from the Early Iron Age. born c. such as isolating infected people (Leviticus 13:45-46). In the first millennium BCE. and hygiene of the camp. The most extensive Babylonian medical text. surprisingly rational. Many of these commands. India The Atharvaveda. and the chances of the patient's recovery. there emerges in post-Vedic India the traditional medicine system known as Ayurveda. including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient. I. and prognosis of numerous ailments. The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages. Vol. the Suśrutasamhitā defines the purpose of medicine to cure the diseases of the sick. new nosologies and new therapies dating from about 400 BCE onwards. suppression of venereal disease and prostitution. are. treatment. it is possible to determine the patient's disease. care of the skin. however. the Five Books of Moses. and Sushruta. meaning the "complete knowledge for long life". which contain various health related laws and rituals. circumcision. The Atharvaveda also contain prescriptions of herbs for various ailments.[9] Most of our knowledge of ancient Hebrew medicine during the 1st millennium BC comes from the Torah.[9] during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069-1046 BC). the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and etiology and the use of empiricism. While the observance of these statutes would have and do lead to several health benefits. food. is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa.[10] Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine. logic and rationality in diagnosis. laws concerning food (interdiction of blood and pork). the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis. The compendium of Suśruta. physical examination. 600 BCE. Max Neuberger. p. and medical prescriptions. isolation of lepers. like the medicine of the Ancient Near East based on concepts of the exorcism of demons and magic. diagnosis. In addition. The earliest foundations of Ayurveda were built on a synthesis of traditional herbal practices together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations. 38). The Suśrutasamhitā is notable for describing procedures on various forms of surgery. While these writings display some limited continuities with the earlier medical ideas known from the Vedas. i. writing in his "History of Medicine" says "The commands concern prophylaxis and suppression of epidemics. and to prolong life. washing after handling a dead body (Numbers 19:11-19) and burying excrement away from camp (Deuteronomy 23:12-13). Both these ancient compendia include details of the examination. sexual life. Jewish belief commands that these rituals and prohibitions be kept purely to fulfill the will of God with no ulterior motive. protect the healthy. health and disease are not predetermined and life may be prolonged by human effort. Oxford University Press. 1910.[12] According to the compendium of Charaka. Its two most famous texts belong to the schools of Charaka.  etc. housing and clothing. baths.e. discipline of the people. historians have been able to demonstrate direct historical connections between early Ayurveda and the early literature of the Buddhists and Jains.

wrote a Treatise on Cold Damage. 265. and agada tantra (toxicology). or mystical. śālākyacikitsā (eye. mainly for men).History of medicine lithotomy. 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories [13] The Ayurvedic classics mention eight branches of medicine: kāyācikitsā (internal medicine). But the physician was to continue to learn. Unani medicine is very close to Ayurveda. metallurgy. The Sushruta Samhita describe 125 surgical instrument. cataract surgery. These causative principles. correlate as the expression of the natural order of the universe. During the Tang Dynasty. Although the Neijing has long been attributed to the mythical Yellow Emperor (twenty-7th century BC). teaching of anatomy was a part of the teaching of surgery. The Jin Dynasty practitioner and advocate of acupuncture and moxibustion.120 conditions are listed. sugar manufacture. and throat diseases). The foundational text of Chinese medicine is the Huangdi neijing. water. whether material. Huangfu Mi (215-282). and several other excisions and other surgical procedures. . operative skills. pharmacy. The normal length of the student's training appears to have been seven years. scholars like Nathan Sivin now argue that the Neijing was first compiled in the 1st century BC. which is composed of two books: the Suwen 素問 ("Basic Questions") and the Lingshu 靈樞 ("Divine Pivot"). they are considered to be fire. Apart from learning these. which he expanded and edited substantially. ear. Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from empirical observations of disease and illness by Taoist physicians and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. the student of Āyurveda was expected to know ten arts that were indispensable in the preparation and application of his medicines: distillation. The teaching of various subjects was done during the instruction of relevant clinical subjects. Most remarkable is Sushruta's penchant for scientific classification: His medical treatise consists of 184 chapters. rasāyana (science of rejuvenation). and vājīkaraṇa (aphrodesiacs. compounding of metals. essential.[14] As an alternative form of medicine in India. nose. cooking.[15] 3 China China also developed a large body of traditional medicine. It progressed during Indian sultanate and mughal periods. This work was revisited by an imperial commission during the 11th century. earth and air) in the human body. kaumārabhṛtya (pediatrics). including injuries and illnesses relating to ageing and mental illness. and the knowledge of physiology and pathology was interwoven in the teaching of all the clinical disciplines. and the result is our best extant representation of the foundational roots of traditional Chinese medicine. According to followers of Unani medicine.[16] Because the medical "silk manuscripts" dating from around 200 BC that were excavated in the 1970s from the tomb of a Han-dynasty noble in Mawangdui are undoubtedly ancestors of the received Neijing. which contains the earliest known reference to the Neijing Suwen. embryology was a part of training in pediatrics and obstetrics. and preparation of alkalis. bhūtavidyā (spirit medicine). horticulture. For example. these elements are present in different fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.[17] During the Han dynasty. Wang Bing claimed to have located a copy of the originals of the Suwen. Chinese scholars started doubting this attribution as early as the 11th century and now usually date the Neijing to the late Warring States period (5th century-221 BC). 1. or Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon. also quotes the Yellow Emperor in his Jiayi jing. Zhang Zhongjing. who was mayor of Changsha near the end of the 2nd century AD. Both are based on theory of the presence of the elements (in Unani. śalyacikitsā (surgery including anatomy). Unani medicine got deep roots and royal patronage during medieval times. analysis and separation of minerals. ca.

are realistic enough to have taken place. sing. considered the "father of modern medicine. case histories. and it was here that the practice of observing patients was established. 'Asclepieion)."[20] [21] The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of around seventy early medical works from ancient Greece strongly associated with Hippocrates and his students. and use terms such as. patients would enter a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis" (Greek: ενκοίμησις) not unlike anesthesia. and convalescence. As was the case elsewhere. which is still relevant and in use today.e. "exacerbation."[25] [26] Another of Hippocrates's major contributions may be found in his descriptions of the symptomatology. clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic fingers".[23] [24] Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute. in which they either received guidance from the deity in a dream or were cured by surgery. of Henry V. Some of the surgical cures listed. peak. Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. chronic. Ἀσκληπιεῖον. A towering figure in the history of medicine was the physician Hippocrates of Kos (ca.[27] . resolution.History of medicine 4 Greek and Roman medicine The first known Greek medical school opened in Cnidus in 700 BC. complaints. three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names. functioned as centers of medical advice. endemic and epidemic. known as Asclepieia (Greek: Ἀσκληπιεῖα. Most famously. Alcmaeon. He is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers. surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema. Temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius.[22] Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in Prognosis.[19] Asclepeia provided carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing. lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. crisis.[19] The Hippocratic Corpus. the ancient Greeks developed a humoral medicine system where treatment sought to restore the balance of humours within the body. For this reason. and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. an important diagnostic sign in chronic suppurative lung disease.[18] In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus. i. Shakespeare famously alludes to this description when writing of Falstaff's death in Act II. paroxysm. relapse. is a collection of around seventy early medical works from ancient Greece strongly associated with the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates and his teachings. and healing. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery. suppuration of the lining of the chest cavity. 370 BC). 460 BC – ca. prognosis.[18] At these shrines. author of the first anatomical work. but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium. worked at this school. such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material. physical findings. Scene iii.[27] Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings are still valid. Hippocrates invented the Hippocratic Oath for physicians.

however. noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. especially The Canon of Medicine which incorporated the teachings of both. at one time repeatedly weighing a caged bird. a sling for binding a fractured jaw. scalpels. Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum along. cross-bladed scissors. and the Canon remained the most authoritative text on anatomy in European medical education until the 16th century. during the Enlightenment and Age of Reason. The Greek Galen was one of the greatest surgeons of the ancient world and performed many audacious operations—including brain and eye surgeries— that were not tried again for almost two millennia. into English and French.[29] View of the Askleipion of Kos. in medieval Europe. De humani corporis fabrica. the sound. and speculas.History of medicine 5 Herophilus of Chalcedon. and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause. who lived in the early 14th century in . were translated into Latin. but were also based on a spiritual world view. however. is then drawn by the lungs into the heart. Oribasius was the greatest Byzantine compiler of medical knowledge. Several of his works. sin. where it is transformed into animal spirit. Some of this vital spirit reaches the brain. and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not. along with many other Byzantine physicians.[31] as well as the surgical uses of forceps. and eventually.[34] Medieval medicine was an evolving mixture of the scientific and the spiritual like Unani.[32] [33] Romans also performed cataract surgery. Erasistratus connected the increased complexity of the surface of the human brain compared to other animals to its superior intelligence. cautery. The last great Byzantine Physician was John Actuarius. the surgical needle. preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. In Erasistratus' physiology. where it is transformed into vital spirit. including the first instruments unique to women. researched the role of veins and nerves. and is then pumped by the arteries throughout the body. mapping their courses across the body. standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts. were translated into Latin. In the early Middle Ages. and noting its weight loss between feeding times. following the fall of the Roman Empire. but they suffered greatly from stasis and intellectual stagnation. the best preserved instance of an Asklepieion. which is then distributed by the nerves. He and his contemporary. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries. Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. The Romans invented numerous surgical instruments. air enters the body. Erasistratus of Chios. was greatly influenced by Galenic writing and form. In the 1530s. in which factors such as destiny. He sometimes employed experiments to further his research. purely secular. These writings were preserved in one of [28] Oribasius' collections. Later. The Plinthios Brokhos as described by Greek physician Heraklas. Vesalius's most famous work.[30] The works of Galen and Avicenna. working at the medical school of Alexandria placed intelligence in the brain.

Avicenna's contributions include the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases.History of medicine Constantinople. the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases. Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi became the first physician to systematically use alcohol in his practice as a physician. which introduced measles and smallpox. Sushruta and Charaka were pre-eminent authorities.[38] as well the use of ice to treat fevers. physiology. which remained standard textbooks in both Muslim and European universities until the 17th century.[37] The translation of 129 works of ancient Greek physician Galen into Arabic by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and his assistants. ophthalmology. authored by al-Mutadibih. the distribution of diseases by water and soil.[31] [41] Avicenna. Roman and Indian medical practices.[35] [36] The Islamic civilization rose to primacy in medical science as Muslim physicians contributed significantly to the field of medicine.[39] Razi (Rhazes) (865-925) recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases. and nervous ailments. and the . Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases. and the pharmaceutical sciences.[38] An Arabic manuscript. surgery.[40] wrote the Kitab al-Tasrif (1000). which later spread to Europe during the Crusades. with its introduction on measles and smallpox was also very influential in Europe. The Arabs were influenced by. and a system that would allow a doctor to determine in advance the most critical days of a patient's illness. "al-Hawi" or "The Continence") was written by the Iranian chemist Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi. who some have called the father of modern surgery. including some that are unique to women. was very influential in Europe. in which he demonstrated the application of mathematics to medicine. Galen. including anatomy. particularly in the field of pharmacology. The "Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah" by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi. pharmacology. In it. Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis). The Comprehensive Book of Medicine (Large Comprehensive. This includes the development of a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs. Hippocrates.[42] the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy. and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles. inspired by the hospitals in the Middle East. titled Anatomy of the Eye. pharmacy. considered among the most influential medical scholars in history. This evolved into the medieval Islamic Bimaristan hospitals. the introduction of experimental medicine and clinical trials. He used numerous surgical instruments. Hawi. Al-Kindi wrote De Gradibus.[38] wrote The Canon of Medicine (1025) and The Book of Healing (1027). dated 1200 CE. The first generation of Persian physicians was trained at the Academy of Jundishapur. sexually transmitted diseases. and further developed Greek. His Comprehensive Book of Medicine. the "Large Comprehensive" was the most sought after of all his compositions. set the template for Islamic medicine. the contagious nature of phthisis and tuberculosis. 6 Middle Ages Islamic Middle Ages Persia's position at the crossroads of the East and the West frequently placed it in the midst of developments in both ancient Greek and Indian medicine. which rapidly spread throughout the Arab Empire. Muslim physicians set up some of the earliest dedicated hospitals. and in particular Galen's insistence on a rational systematic approach to medicine. a 30-volume medical encyclopedia which was taught at Muslim and European medical schools until the 17th century.

chemistry.[44] and developed new systems of physiology to replace the Avicennian and Galenic systems. pulsation. or bubonic plague in 14th century al-Andalus. sensory organs.[46] The Tashrih al-badan (Anatomy of the body) of Mansur ibn Ilyas (c. muscles. Ibn al-Nafis was the first to describe pulmonary circulation and coronary circulation. In the 12th century universities were founded in Italy and elsewhere.[48] Other medical innovations first introduced by Muslim physicians include the discovery of the immune system. intestines.History of medicine separation of medicine from pharmacology. Surgical practice improved greatly during the medieval period. folk-medicine supplemented what remained of the medical knowledge of antiquity. Rogerius Salernitanus composed his Chirurgia. esophagus. which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences. the use of animal testing.[41] In 1242. while discrediting many of their erroneous theories on the four humours. principally in the field of dissection and body examination. the first drugstores in Baghdad (754). medicine became localised. and the combination of medicine with other sciences (including agriculture. botany. The development of modern .[45] bones. which soon developed schools of medicine. Organised professional medicine re-emerged. Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib discovered that infecious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body. nervous and circulatory systems. Physician setting a dislocated arm (1450) Renaissance to Early Modern period With the Renaissance came an increase in experimental investigation. with the collapse of Roman imperial authority. which in co-operation with the monastery of Monte Cassino. which often had a hospital attached.[49] 7 Christian Middle Ages In western Europe.[41] . Gradually the reliance on the masters of the ancient world was augmented by the results of individual observation and experience. Medical knowledge was preserved and practised in many monastic institutions. and the discovery of at least 2. translated many Byzantine and Arabic works. thus advancing our knowledge of human anatomy. stomach. the introduction of microbiology. bilious canals. the distinction between medicine and pharmacy by the 12th century. 1390) contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural. etc.[43] He also described the earliest concept of metabolism.000 medicinal and chemical substances. which became the foundation for modern Western surgical manuals up to the modern time.[47] During the Black Death. with the foundation of the medical college (Schola Medica Salernitana) of Salerno in Italy in the 11th century. and pharmacology).

sitters and cleaning women) was brought about by Florence Nightingale. Bacteria and microorganisms were first observed with a microscope by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) published in 1865 his books on pea plants. Claude Bernard aimed at establishing scientific method in medicine. However.[50] Ignaz Semmelweis (1818–1865) in 1847 dramatically reduced the death rate of new mothers from child bed fever by the simple expedient of requiring physicians to clean their hands before attending to women in childbirth. old ideas of infectious disease epidemiology were replaced with bacteriology and virology. beyond by advances in chemistry and laboratory techniques and equipment. His discovery pre-dated the germ theory of disease. Nightingale showed a previously male dominated profession the elemental role of nursing in order to lessen the aggravation of patient mortality which resulted from lack of hygiene and nutrition. he published An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine in 1865. Few effective drugs existed. During the late 19th century and the first part of the 20th century. Koch was also famous for the discovery of the tubercle bacillus (1882) and the cholera bacillus (1883) and for his development of Koch's postulates. His experiments confirmed the germ theory. beyond opium and quinine. along with Robert Koch (who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1905). Beside this. Linking microorganisms with disease. which would be later known as Mendel's laws. The participation of women in medical care (beyond serving as midwives. He also invented with Claude Bernard (1813–1878) the process of pasteurization still in use today. Nicolaes Tulp" by Rembrandt van Rijn. founded bacteriology. in 1852. medicine in the United States. Understanding of medical sciences and diagnosis improved. Pasteur. they would form the basis of classical genetics. and subsequently practice. Semmelweis's work was supported by the discoveries made by Louis Pasteur. compulsory sterilization programs continued to be used in modern countries (including the US. The 1953 discovery of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick would open the door to molecular biology and modern genetics. who in 1865 proved the principles of antisepsis in the treatment of wounds. However the decline in many of the most lethal diseases was more due to improvements in public health and nutrition than to medicine. However. Medicine was revolutionized in the 19th century and 1632. It was in this era that actual cures were developed for certain endemic infectious diseases. It was not until the 20th century that the application of the scientific method to medical research began to produce . but with little direct benefit to health care. Folklore cures and potentially poisonous metal-based compounds were popular treatments. he had little knowledge of the brain's function. initiating the scientific field microbiology. a theory first formulated in 1865 by Francis Galton. Eugenics was discredited as a science after the Nazis' experiments in World War II became known. however. Modern medicine "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. supported eugenics. After Charles Darwin's 1859 publication of The Origin of Species. who described the anatomy of the brain and other organs. thinking that it resided mainly in the ventricles. his discoveries were not appreciated by his contemporaries and came into general use only with discoveries of British surgeon Joseph Lister. Pasteur brought about a revolution in medicine. several physicians.History of medicine 8 neurology began in the 17th century with Vesalius. Re-discovered at the turn of the 20th century. post-Crimea. Nightingale set up the St Thomas hospital. such as Nobel prize winner Alexis Carrel. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821–1910) became the first woman to formally study. Sweden and Peru) until much later. medical conservatism on new breakthroughs in pre-existing science prevented them from being generally well received during the 19th century.

com/ eb/ article?tocId=9032043& query=Edwin Smith papyrus& ct=) [5] P. Lunatic asylums began to appear in the Industrial Era. With the advent of the evidence-based medicine and great advances of information technology the process of change is likely to evolve further. Although often accepted as an advance in some ways. with greater development of international projects such as the Human genome project. John F. 1996. 3)). During the First World War. 0126& layout=& loc=2.D. insulin or other drugs) or cutting parts of the brain apart (leucotomy or lobotomy). This was denounced by the anti-psychiatric movement in the 1960s and later. htm) [8] Helaine Selin. University of Oklahoma Press. rev. The Histories. 1930 [4] Edwin Smith papyrus . harmful effects. ed. and the electrocardiograph. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob [7] The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (http:/ / www. p. [2] Nunn. J. Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) introduced new medical categories of mental illness. The 20th century witnessed a shift from a master-apprentice paradigm of teaching of clinical medicine to a more "democratic" system of medical schools. The Papyrus Ebers. Cornelis Tilburg (2004). for the monitoring of internal bodily functions. xml [14] Dominik Wujastyk. [11] H. reshafim. New Delhi. Oxford University Press. britannica. 99. 55. ispub. 77. with great advances in pharmacology and surgery. tufts. Zysk. Horstmanshoff. Springer 2003. Brill Publishers. J. The Second World War saw the introduction of widespread and effective antimicrobial therapy with the development and mass production of penicillin antibiotics. Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. J. Marten Stol. p. W.. perseus. Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery. Horstmanshoff. or misuse. H. 97-98. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. (1998) ISBN 0-19-505956-5 [13] http:/ / www. Breasted. This was followed in the inter-war period by the development of the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics. Marten Stol. a germicide which helped prevent gangrene. [12] Kenneth G. F.35 [9] H. p. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. No. XIV. Both came into widespread use by psychiatry. Vol. there was some opposition. Bryan.Britannica Online Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. In the 1930s several controversial medical practices were introduced including inducing seizures (by electroshock. ISBN 90-04-13666-5. made possible by the pressures of the war and the collaboration of British scientists with the American pharmaceutical industry. Hartwell Harrison. due to serious adverse effects such as tardive dyskinesia. which eventually came into psychiatric usage despite their basis in behavior rather than pathology or etiology. and attempts to move people back into the community on a collaborative user-led group approach ("therapeutic communities") not controlled by psychiatry. Hugh Shapiro. Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine. Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the drugs when not subject to psychiatric control. Cornelis Tilburg (2004). In 1954 Joseph Murray. Brill Publishers. were designed in laboratories and slowly came into preferred use. [3] J. but there were grave concerns and much opposition on grounds of basic morality. The Roots of Ayurveda. "Chapter 77. The Great War spurred the usage of Roentgen's X-ray. [10] Marten Stol (1993). In the 1920s surrealist opposition to psychiatry was expressed in a number of surrealist publications. University of Chicago Press. Campaigns against masturbation were done in the Victorian era and elsewhere. Studies in History of Medicine and Science. org. Ll. 01. 1930 [6] Griffith. ISBN 90-72371-63-1. notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine. 1-2. IHMMR. Geoffrey Bles: London. Brill Publishers. p. ISBN 90-04-13666-5. Book II" (in English translation (http:/ / www. Alexis Carrel and Henry Dakin developed the Carrel-Dakin method of treating wounds with an irrigation. Epilepsy in Babylonia. M. p. F. 9 Notes [1] Herodotus. il/ ad/ egypt/ timelines/ topics/ kahunpapyrus. and others accomplished the first kidney transplantation. There was also increasing opposition to the use of psychiatric hospitals. In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs. (2002). The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. 1-39 . php?xmlFilePath=journals/ ijps/ vol4n2/ sushruta.History of medicine multiple important developments in medicine. F. Dakin's solution. com/ ostia/ index. Lobotomy was used until the 1970s to treat schizophrenia. Penguin (2003) ISBN 0-14-044824-1 [15] Arab Medicine during the Ages by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine. ed.

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