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Soil physical properties Talking of physical properties of soil there are few important relationships to remember.

These are mainly related to water content, Void ratio, Porosity, Saturation, Specific gravity and unit weights of the soil.

Important physical relationships of soil.

Qualities of fine grained and coarse grained soil Coarse grained soils  good load bearing capacity  Good drainage qualities  Does not significantly affected by moisture content Fine grained soils  Poor load bearing capacities  Poor drainage qualities  Volume changes with moisture changes. Grading chart

Physical states and Index properties of fine grained soils Depending on the water content, Fine grained soils can exist in either of following states. I. Solid II. Semi solid III. Plastic IV. Liquid

The test carries out to determine the state of the soil is called Atterberg Limits Test. Working out the Atterberg limits with the use of test equipment. Liquid limit Liquid limit is the water content at which the grove in the Casagrande closes after 25 blows. Plastic limit Is the state at which 3mm diameter threads start to crack.

Note; Sand is non-plastic hence doesn’t apply to Arrerberg limits

Unified soil classification system  G- Gravel  S- Sand  M – silt  C - Clay Gradation characteristics  W - Well graded  P - Poorly graded  – Containing organic materials  L – Low  H – High

Completed formula sheets can also be downloaded from following websites. http://www.pecivilexam.com/PDF/GEOTECNICAL%20formula.pdf For more information; http://landresources.montana.edu/SWM/PDF/Final_proof_SW1.pdf Sieve analysis Sieve analysis is used to obtain particle distribution curve which can later be used to categorize soil

Dividing size between fine and coarse aggregate is 75µm

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