PCA R&D Serial No.

2484

Life Cycle Cost Literature Survey and Database for Concrete

by Katie Amelio and Martha G. VanGeem

© Portland Cement Association 2000

KEYWORDS
Asphalt, Bridges, Buildings, Concrete, Cost, Life cycle cost, Offshore structures, Parking structures, Pavement, Pipe, Railroads, Steel

ABSTRACT
Life cycle cost analysis is currently a valuable tool in the construction industry and will become more so as resources become more scarce. Selecting the materials and components of structures and pavements based on a life cycle cost analysis can significantly decrease the lifetime cost of construction, maintenance and repair. This literature survey gathers life cycle cost information for concrete and competing materials from a variety of sources, summarizes the results, and describes the resulting searchable database. The database is a resourceful tool for those who would like to obtain additional information on life cycle cost analysis and results. The searchable life cycle cost database with abstracts, in Filemaker Pro® format, is available to Portland Cement Association (PCA) member companies, PCA staff, and cement promotion groups.

REFERENCE
Amelio, Katie and VanGeem, Martha G., Life Cycle Cost Literature Survey and Database for Concrete, R&D Serial No. 2484, Portland Cement Association, 2000, 41 pages.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1 LITERATURE SELECTION................................................................................................. 1 Procedure for Selection ....................................................................................................... 1 Structure Types ................................................................................................................... 1 Report Types ....................................................................................................................... 2 RESULTS............................................................................................................................... 2 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................... 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................................................................................................... 4 APPENDIX A – RESOURCES ............................................................................................. 5 APPENDIX B – DATABASE CONTENTS BY RECORD NUMBER................................ 6

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VanGeem* INTRODUCTION Selecting the materials and components of structures and pavements based on a life cycle cost analysis can significantly decrease the lifetime cost of construction. repair. general use and other parts of the infrastructure. Construction Technology Laboratories. 1 . buildings. cost. such as models or cost comparisons. summarizes the results. steel and aluminum. Report types. The results include reports on bridges. The relevant articles were then compiled into a searchable database and categorized based on structure and report type. The database is a resourceful tool for those who would like to obtain additional information on life cycle cost analysis. (CTL) 5420 Old Orchard Road. This literature survey gathers life cycle cost information for concrete and competing materials from a variety of sources. methodology. Skokie. Keywords searched include life cycle costing. are also indicated. Selecting materials and components based on initial costs disregards future costs over the intended life of the system such as maintenance.Life Cycle Cost Literature Survey and Database for Concrete Katie Amelio and Martha G. railroads. pipe. and describes the resulting searchable database. A list of resources searched may be found in the Appendix A. *Project Assistant and Principal Engineer. parking structures. and reconstruction. pavements. Inc. respectively. offshore structures. maintenance and repair. IL 60077 Phone: 847-965-7500. asphalt. concrete. LITERATURE SELECTION Procedure for Selection A broad literature search for articles concerning life cycle costing was undertaken.

Structure Types The structure types selected for categories in the database were: asphalt. criticisms. Articles grouped as “background” include entries for a variety of structure types. and cement promotion groups. For example. computer models and software. Articles listed under “computer models and software” cover various computer programs and software to assess the life cycle cost of a construction project. general use. The numbers within each cell of the matrix correspond to the record number of an article in the life cycle cost database. proceedings. the “33” under “Background” and “Offshore Structures” refers to record number 33 in Appendix B. and research. concrete pipes. “Cost detail” articles contain example cost calculations for a life cycle cost analysis. The “general use” category encompasses articles for components used in more than one type of structure. case studies. Articles describing various methodologies and examples of life cycle cost analyses are grouped under the category of “cost models and methods. comparisons. The contents of the database by record number without the abstracts is presented in Appendix B. The full searchable database including abstracts is in FileMaker Pro® format and is available to Portland Cement Association (PCA) member companies. offshore structure. and railroads. composites. in Table 1. The “case studies” are articles that focus on a particular structure or material. buildings. surveys. RESULTS Table 1 presents the contents of the database in a matrix of structure type versus report type. “Comparison” articles compare structures made with different materials. however the articles focus on the overall topic of life cycle cost analysis including overviews. parking structure. bridges. infrastructure. and most pertain to bridges. pavement. Report Types The report types selected for categories in the database were: background. Many of these articles are structure specific. and conferences. PCA staff. cost models and methods. 2 . cost detail.” “Research” articles are entries focused on research concerning how to best model life cycle costs.

3 . buildings. parking structures. maintenance and repair. pavements. railroads. and cement promotion groups. general use and other parts of the infrastructure. repair. The full searchable database with abstracts is in FileMaker Pro® format and is available to PCA member companies. and reconstruction. The results include reports on bridges. such as models or cost comparisons. are also indicated. summarizes the results. and describes the resulting searchable database. The contents of the database by record number without the abstracts are presented in Appendix B.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Selecting the materials and components of structures and pavements based on a life cycle cost analysis can significantly decrease the lifetime cost of construction. PCA staff. Life cycle cost analysis is currently a valuable tool in the construction industry and will become more so as resources become more scarce. Report types. This literature survey gathers life cycle cost information for concrete and competing materials from a variety of sources. offshore structures. Selecting materials and components based on initial costs disregards future costs over the intended life of the system such as maintenance. pipe. A report table presents the contents of the database in a matrix of structure type versus report type.

217 86.Table 1 . 54. 148. 103. 55. 109. 108. 160. 50. 139. 59. 211. 78. 63. 196. 76. 164 66. 205. 176. 99. 187. 149. 96. 215. 210. 45 - Pavement 20. 180. 243 11. 2. 51. 178. 13. 129. 234 123. 113. 175. 3 . 58. 18. 104. 172. 5. 143. 219 Case Studies Comparisons 220. 6. 240 33 120. 242 161. 236. 209. 162 83. 110. 201. 23. 136. 68. 121 - - 62. 115. 1. 157 26. 126. 100. 231 19. 207. 204. 154. 29. 167. 92. 190. 202. 181. 224. 128. 238 88. 222. 166. 25. 28. 169. 213. 52. 69. 85. 81. 137. 116. 165. 105. 142. 140. 130. 216. 200. 38. 188. 183. 144. 70. 49. 84 - 9. 218. 87. 41. 119. 42. 208. 67. 80. 94. 198. 111. 203 14. 214 117. 145. 147. 168. 91. 89. 112. 95. 79. 75. 98. 170. 225.Matrix of Database Contents by Report and Structure Type* Report Type Computer Models & Software 15. 35. 150. 114. 174 16. 40. 191. 77. 241 12. 122. 97. 8. 124. 131. 48. 195 7. 232 192 46 37. 194. 173 3. 179. 221 Cost Detail 72 Cost Models & Methods - Research - Bridges Buildings Concrete Pipes Composites General Use Infrastructure Offshore Structure Parking Structure 4. 135. 118. 10. 134. 71. 227. 235 177 24. 228 237 Railroads - - 163 - * Numbers in cells refer to the record numbers in database and Appendix B. 125. 182. 32. 152. 36. 73. 102. 141. 146. 212. 53. 101. 233 57. 223. 229. 39. 21. 158. 171. 156. 61. 138. 30. 186 206 185 17. 239 Structure Type Background Asphalt 133. 65. 132. 107. 197 151 31. 189 230 184. 47. 155. 106. 226. 153. 44. 27. 22. 64. 82. 90. 56. 199. 127. 74. 93. 159 60 43. 34.

and with the sponsorship of the Portland Cement Association (CTL Project No. who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented. Inc. The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors. 2484) was assembled at Construction Technology Laboratories.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The information presented in this report (PCA R&D Serial No. The contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the Portland Cement Association. 4 . 051303). with the assistance of the Portland Cement Association library staff.

Table A1 – Listing of Resources Searched Name NERAC Compendex TRIS Worldcat ACI Abstracts Cnet. British Library Association Cambridge Scientific Abstracts Cambridge Scientific Abstracts ProQuest Digital Dissertations Encyclopedia Britannica British Library Association OCLC OCLC Northwestern University Transportation Library OCLC OCLC American Society of Civil Engineers Infotrac ISI Database OCLC U. DOT University of Houston Life Cycle Costing Reference List Engineered Materials Abstracts Sponsor Outside search service using multiple commercial and government databases Ei Compendex U. Department of Transportation OCLC American Concrete Institute Cnet Inc.S.APPENDIX A – RESOURCES The electronic databases and Internet search engines used to find relevant articles and reports are presented in Table A1.com Proceedings First World Ceramics Abstracts METADEX Dissertation Abstracts Britannica.com Papers First Wilson Select Plus ABI Inform TRAN web First Search Articles First ASCE Journal Database Infotrac Web of Science Periodical Abstracts U.S.S. Department of Transportation University of Houston Cambridge Scientific Abstracts 5 .

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