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S T D - P F I ES-27-ENGL

2000

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PFI Standard ES-27 (Reaffirmed January 2000)

"VISUAL EXAMINATION" THE PURPOSE, MEANING AND LIMITATION OF THE TERM

Prepared by Pipe Fabrication Institute Engineering Commitee

All PFI Standards are advisory only. There is no agreement to adhere to any PFI Standard and their use by anyone is entirely voluntary.

Copyright by

PIPE FABRICATION INSTITUTE


Dedicnted I O Technicnl Advnncenients nnd Standnrdizntion in the Pipe Fnbricntion Indirstiy Since 1913 USA CANADA 655. 3Yd ove. sirite 201 PMB 323 611 P e n n s j h n i n Aveiiire SE Lrichine. Quebec Woshingion. DC 20003 H8T 3G6 WEB SITE http://uw?c,.pfi-iiis~itirte. org

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S T D - P F I ES-27-ENGL

2000

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PFI Standard ES-27 (Reaffirmed January 2000)

The term Visual Examination is referred to in most codes and job specifications which cover the fabrication, erection and examination of piping assemblies. The precise definition and scope of the methods which are assumed to be included in Visual Examination are seldom found in these same codes and specifications. The misunderstanding of the meaning of the term Visual Examination and the examination methods it covers can become controversial resulting in inefficient flow of production and untimely delays. By defining Visual Examination and the examination methods it covers in the following guideline, it is hoped that a working agreement between the customer and piping fabricator can be achieved.

1. Scope
1.1 This guideline covers the definition, purpose and limitations of the term Visual Examination when it is not otherwise completely described in a code or specification.

2. Definition
2.1 The term Visual Examination is assumed to mean using the unaided eye (or corrective lenses) to inspect the complete exterior and the readily accessible internal surface areas of piping assemblies or components.

3. Requirements
3.1 The part shall be ell lighted, with no shadows and essentially free of glare.
3.2 The area under observation shall be clean, free of all loose foreign materiais, such as scale, sand, weld spatter and slag, cutting chips, etc.

4. Purpose
4.1 Visual examination is one of the most valuable methods of examination. It is easy to apply, fast, inexpensive, requires no special equipment and, when properly done, is capable of locating and subsequently eliminating a large portion of the common defects which may occur in pipe fabrication. 4.2 Visual examination is especially useful in revealing items such as incorrect materials, surface defects in components and unacceptable weld fit-ups. Such

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VISUAL EXAMINATION THE PURPOSE, MEANING AND LIMITATION OF THE TERM


FOREWORD

items can be detected through visual examination prior to welding.

4.3 Visual examination should be used to detect and evaluate accessible surface defects such as cracks, undercut, overlap, surface porosity, etc. It should be used for examining appearance, cleanliness, contour and workmanship. Visual examination should also be used for the verification of final dimensions, straightness, preparation requirements and relation of procedures to materials.

5. Limitations
5.1 Visual examination shall be confined to the portions of the piping assembly which are exposed to unobstructed observation with the unaided eye (or corrective lenses) before, during and after manufacture, fabrication and installation. 5.2 Visual examination shall be done by personnel who are qualified and experienced in the piping field and who are knowledgeable with the welding and fabrication techniques used in the industry. 5.3 Liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic, radiographic examinations, etc., are each separate nondestructive examination techniques and are not forms of visual examinations as defined in this standard. 5.4 Examination carried out using different optical accessories, such as borescopes, mirrors, magnifying glasses and microscopes, form separate techniques of remote visual examination and are not visual examination as defined by this standard.

2.2 Readily Accessible is defined as those surfaces that can be seen from a distance of not more than 24 inches and at an angle not less than 30 degrees to the surface to be examined. See sketches 1 & 2.

6. Acceptance Standards
6.1 The acceptance standards for visual examination shall be as specified in the applicable code and design specifications.

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S T D - P F I ES-27-ENGL 2000

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PFI Standard ES-27 (Reaffirmed January 2000)

LINE OF SIGHT (VISUAL)


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INTERNAL AREA SUBJECT TO VISUAL EXAMINATION

SKETCH NO. 1

UNDERCUT AND WELD REINFORCEMENT

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LINE OF SIGHT

FITUP ALIGNMENT PENETRATION

1% d

SKETCH NO. 2

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INTERNAL AREA SUBJECT TO VISUAL EXAMINATION

S T D - P F I ES-27-ENGL

2000

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CHARTER MEMBERS

ACCORD PIPE FABRICATORS, INC. AIR CONDITIONING COMPANY, INC. FLO-RITE, INC. GEM INDUSTRIAL, INC. HPI CONSTRUCTION CO., INC. IDEAL WELDERS, LTD. IVOR J. LEE, INC. JOHN E. GREEN COMPANY J. F. AHERN CO. J. H. KELLY LLC J. S. MC KINNEY, INC. KINETIC SYSTEMS, INC. M & M WELDING AND FABRICATORS, INC. MC ABEE CONSTRUCTION, INC. MC CARL'S, INC. MECHANICAL INCORPORATED MID STATES PIPE FABRICATING, INC. MURPHY COMPANY NARDE1 FABRICATORS, LTD. NEWMECH COMPANIES, INC. PHILLIPS, GETSCHOW COMPANY PIPING SYSTEMS, INC. S. A. COMUNALE COMPANY, INC. S&D / OSTERFELD MECHANICAL CONTRACTORS SCOTT CO. OF CALIFORNIA SPECIALTY PIPING CORPORATION TEAM INDUSTRIES, INC. W. J. O'NEIL COMPANY

Jamaica, Glendale, Riviera Beach, Walbridge, Huntington, Delta, Masury, Highland Park, Fond du Lac, Longview, Freeport, Santa Clara, Gaithersburg, Tuscaloosa, Beaver Falls, Freeport, EI Dorado, St. Louis, Calgary, St. Paul, Oconto Falls, New London, Barberton, Dayton, San Leandro, Davisville, Kaukauna, Livonia,

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A current index of the latest revised ES Standards, Technical Bulletins and Safety Training Guideline is available from the Pipe Fabrication Institute.

PFI Safety Training Guideline, Standards and Technical Bulletins are published to serve proven needs of the pipe fabricating industry at the design level and in actual shop operations. Hence, such needs are continually considered and reviewed by the Engineering Committee of the Pipe Fabrication Institute to provide recommended procedures, which have been demonstrated by collective experiences to fulfill requirements in a manner for Code compliance. However, as the PFI Standards are for minimum requirements the designer or fabricator always has the option of specifying supplementary conditions in the form of requirements beyond the scope of the PFI publications.

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