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Country:

Philippines

Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-03= Stratovolcano Historical 2010 8,077 feet

Summit 2462 m Elevation: Latitude:

13.257N 1315'24"N

Longitude: 123.685E 12341'6"E Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

Country:

Philippines

Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-01= Stratovolcanoes Historical 2011 5,134 feet

Summit 1565 m Elevation: Latitude: Longitude: 124.05E

12.770N 1246'12"N 1243'0"E

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

Country:

Philippines

Subregion Philippines - Mindanao Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0701-03= Stratovolcano Fumarolic Unknown 9,639 feet 659'20"N

Summit 2938 m Elevation: Latitude: 6.989N

Longitude: 125.269E 12516'10"E Apo volcano is the highest peak in the Philippines, but its geologic history is poorly known. Apo, which means master, or grandfather, rises to 2938 m SW of the coastal city of Davao and has a flat-topped summit with three peaks. The SW peak of the andesitic-to-dacitic volcano, also known as Davao volcano, is the highest and contains a 500-m-wide crater containing a small lake. The youngest crater is on the northern peak. A line of solfataras rises from a fissure on the SE side that extends from 2400 m to the summit. Apo is one of several volcanoes to which the major 1641 eruption from Parker volcano was incorrectly attributed to, but no historical eruptions are known from Apo.

Bulusan
Country: Philippines Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-01= Stratovolcanoes Historical 2011 5,134 feet

Summit 1565 m Elevation: Latitude: Longitude: 124.05E

12.770N 1246'12"N 1243'0"E

Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

Iriga
Country: Philippines Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-041 Stratovolcano Holocene Unknown 3,924 feet 1327'24"N

Summit 1196 m Elevation: Latitude: 13.457N

Longitude: 123.457E 12327'24"E Mount Iriga is a small stratovolcano that rises to 1196 m immediately SW of Lake Buhi. The dominantly andesitic stratovolcano has satellitic cinder cones of basaltic composition. A large breached crater that opens to the SE was formed as a result of a major debris avalanche that buried several villages and formed a broad hummocky deposit that extends across the plain south of Lake Buhi. This catastrophic event was at one time considered to have occurred during 1628 AD, but later work has shown that the collapse and eruption occurred earlier at some unknown date during the Holocene. The avalanche was followed by phreatic explosions that created a small crater at the base of the scarp.

Malinao
Country: Philippines Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 070304=A Stratovolcano Pleistocene-Fumarolic Pleistocene 5,079 feet 1324'58"N

Summit 1548 m Elevation: Latitude: 13.416N

Longitude: 123.608E 12336'30"E Forested Malinao stratovolcano, NNW of Mayon volcano, contains a large summit crater that is breached to the east. This Quaternary volcano, also known as Buhi or Takit, was active from about 500,000 to 60,000 years ago (Nielson et al., 1996), but the eastern flank of the 1548-m-high volcano is the site of the Luzon's largest solfataras and hot springs, some of which deposit silicious sinter. A minor explosion from the Naglabong thermal area that ejected blocks in 1980 was probably due to water drawdown during development of the Tiwi geothermal field (Newhall 1994, pers. comm.).

Taal
Country: Philippines Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-07= Caldera Historical 1977 1,020 feet 140'6"N

Summit 311 m Elevation: Latitude: 14.002N

Longitude: 120.993E 12059'36"E Taal volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. In contrast to Mayon volcano, Taal is not topographically prominent, but its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the topography of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities.

Pinatubo
Country: Philippines Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-083 Stratovolcano Historical 1993 4,875 feet 158'0"N

Summit 1486 m Elevation: Latitude: 15.13N

Longitude: 120.35E 12021'0"E Prior to 1991 Pinatubo volcano was a relatively unknown, heavily forested lava dome complex located 100 km NW of Manila with no records of historical eruptions. The 1991 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, ejected massive amounts of tephra and produced voluminous pyroclastic flows, forming a small, 2.5-km-wide summit caldera whose floor is now covered by a lake. Caldera formation lowered the height of the summit from 1745 to 1486 m. Although the eruption caused hundreds of fatalities and major damage with severe social and economic impact, successful monitoring efforts greatly reduced the number of fatalities. Widespread lahars that redistributed products of the 1991 eruption have continued to cause severe disruption. At least six major eruptive periods, interrupted by lengthy quiescent periods, have occurred from modern Pinatubo volcano during the past 35,000 years. Most of these have produced major pyroclastic flows and lahars that were even more extensive than in 1991.

Arayat
Country: Philippines Subregion Luzon (Philippines) Name: Volcano Number: Volcano Type: Volcano Status: Last Known Eruption: 0703-084 Stratovolcano Holocene? Unknown 3,366 feet 1512'0"N

Summit 1026 m Elevation: Latitude: 15.20N

Longitude: 120.742E 12044'30"E The forested Arayat volcano is one of the few topographic features that rise above the flat Central Plain of Luzon Island. Weak steaming occurs at the NW side of the 1026-m-high summit, which rises NE of the city of Angeles. A large breached crater on the WNW side is the apparent source of a major debris-avalanche deposit that forms hummocky terrain beyond the west and NW sides of the volcano. Post-collapse activity formed an andesitic dome known as White Rock in the collapse amphitheater. There are no reports of historical eruptions from Arayat. Although the volcano was listed as active during the past 2000 years (IAVCEI, 1973), perhaps referring to its thermal activity, the only dated rocks are 0.53 and 0.65 million-year-old basalts that predated collapse and formation of the lava dome.