Identify the problem 

Making hypothesis 

Planning an experiment 

Controlling variables 

Collecting data 

Analysing and interpreting data

forming a conclusion


000 000 0001 0.001 i Mi cro u n p T1 f 0.1 0.2010 Physical quantity  LENGTH  MASS  TIME  TEMPERATURE  ELECTRIC CURRENT SI unit and symbol * metre (m) * kilogram (kg) * second (s) * Kelvin (K) * ampere (A) Prefix i Giga i Mega i Kilo i Hecto i Deca i Deci i Centi i Milli symbol G M k h da d c m value 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1000 100 10 0.000 000 000 001 000 000 000 000 0.000000 000 000001 i N an o i P ico i Tera i F emt o .000 001 0.01 0.

2010 Mass is a measure of the amount of material in an object Mass does not change with a body's position. movement or alteration of its shape.mg .g. Kg. unless material is added or removed.

2010 Weight is the gravitational force acting on a body mass Newton' .

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2010 Parts of the microscope and their functions .

The protoplasm is a semi-solid or jelly-like substance. The cytoplasm is defined as the material between the cell membrane (plasma membrane) and the nucleus envelope. The nucleus is the oval or round seen in the centre of a cell. 2.Each animals cell is made up of cell protoplasm (cytoplasm and nucleus) and cell membrane. The cytoplasm is thinner and more watery than the nucleus. 5.2010 1. Surrounding the nucleus is the cytoplasm. 3. 4. .

Vacoules contain cell sap which is a very dilute solution ofsugar and salt in water. 2. Typical plant cells are rectangular in shape. 5. . The plant cell has a rigid cell wall. 4. In very young cells. a green pigment. the vacuoles may not be seen. 3. But as the ce ll grows older. Chloroplast builds chlorophyll. These are ca lled vacuoles. more and more vacuoles are formed. There are regions in the plant cell which do nt contain cytoplasm.2010 . A cell wall is made up of cellulose which is a form of carbohydrate. only found in plant cells.

The function of cell structures are shown in the table and figure below: Table: Function of cell structures 2. The function of cell structures can be illustrated as shown in figure below: .2010 1.

2010 An overview of the comparison of animal and plant cells is shown below: Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms 1. 2. . A living thing which can only be seen under a microscope is called a microorganism. A living thing (plant or animal) is called an organism.

3. rivers and sea) or on moist areas (tree trunks and in the soil). 6. Microorganism are found everywhere such as in the air. water. . 4.paramecium and plamodium. An organism which consists of only one cell is called aunicellular organism. soil. lakes. Unicellular organisms which are microscopic in size are also called unicellular microorganisms. chlamydomonas and pleurococcus. They are usually very active and are always moving about. c) algae d) yeasts e) amoeba Examples of microorganisms 1. Some unicellular organisms are animals such as amoeba. Unicellular organisms are usually found in water (ponds. Examples of microorganisms are: a) bacteria b) viruses. 2. Some are plants such as euglena. 5. on plants and in our body. 4. Each of them can carry out all the life processes that large organisms do such as moving about.2010 3. feeding and respiring.

2. Some organisms consist of many cells.2010 1. each type serving a different function. Most multicellular microorganisms live in water such as spirogyra (plant) and hydra (animal) 5. . Most organisms are multicellular including large plants and animals. 4. Multicellular organisms have different types of cell. They are multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms which are microscopic in size are referred to as multicellular microorganisms. 3.

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Cells are microscopic and can only be seen under a microscope. The simplest organism such as an amoeba consists of only one cell. Unicellular and multicellular organisms: a) move b) need food c) need air d) grow e) reproduce f) give out waste substances g) are sensitive 3. All organisms including human beings are built from basic units called cells.2010 1. Some examples of cells in the human body are shown below: . 4. 2. Organisation Of C ells In The Human Body 1. 2. 5. The human body has different types of cell with each type carrying out a different function. Unicellular and multicellular organisms carry out all the life processes in order to live. although they may be very small. but is able to carry out all the life processes. 3.

A group of simillar cells performing the same function forms atissue. Some functions carried out by cells are explained in the table below. The human body is built of four main types of tissue.2010 6. Cells and their functions 1. Two types of tissue 2. .

that is to move the body from plac e to place.2010 1. . An organ is made up of a group of different tissues which carry out a specific function. 2. Figure in the below shows the main organs in the body and their functions. Example: The leg is an organ formed from different types of tissue (see figure) to perform the same main function.

2.2010 1. . A system consists of a group of organs working together to carry out the same function. Figure in the below shows the main organs in some of the systems in the human body.

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2010 Some of the system in the human body 3. The main functions of the different systems are given below. .

The different systems form an organism such as a human being. 2. 3. The human body is organised as shown in the figure below: .2010 The main functions of different systems. The different systems in the body functiion and co -ordinate their activities so that the body functions as one whole. 1.

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Humans are also unique in their profound curiosity about themselves. the skeletal system. deriving energy from food. and to develop a scientific understanding of themselves and the world. Humans can use this ability to create technologies and literary and artistic works on a vast scale. Some of the major systems are the blood circulatory system. the digestive system. The human body is a complex system of cells most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialised functions. 5. Human are able to create and learn from experience that far exceeds any other species. 6. . Humans have a better developed brain than other life forms. Human are complex made up thousand of individual systems. Humans are endowed with intelligence which enables them to think rationally and differentiate right from wrong. Humans are unique among Earth's life forms as they have language and thought. protection againts injury. the nervous system and the respiratory system. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve. 4. 3.2010 Organisation if the human body Human Are Complex Organisms 1. internal coordination and reproduction. 2.

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water. 3. . Living things such as plants. Therefore. 2.2010 MATTER HAS MASS AND OCCUPIES SPACE 1. and human beings have mass and occupy space. A book which weighs 1 kg and takes up space on you desk is said to havemass and occupy space. Non-living things such as books. soil and air have mass and occupy space. animals. all living and non-living things are matter. 4.

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. Molecules are made up of two or more atoms combined together.2010 THREE STATES OF MATTER 1. Matter is mad up small discrete particles.e. 3. All substances are made up of the smallest particles i. 4. 2. These particles consist of atoms and molecules. atoms. Atoms are the smallest particles.

2010 5. The following activities are carried out to show that matter is made up of small particles. .

iron or soil. solid. 3. in liquid form. liquid or gaseous state. Matter exists in either a solid. like air or steam. liquid and gas are known as the three states of matter. These forms of matter i.e. like oil or water. Matter may exist in solid form. or in the form of gas. like gold. .2010 1. 2.

2010 1. . liquid or gas. The arrangement of particles determines the shape of matter i.e. whether it is a solid.

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2010 2. . The following activity is carried out to study the arrangement of the particles in the three states of matter and to explain the differences between them.

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2010 1. . The particles in matter are always in a state of motion as shown in the figure below.

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. 3. Diffusion occurs much more easily in gases followed by molecules by molecules in liquids and then solids. This motion of molecules is called Brownian motion. Diffusion occurs when molecules of one substance become mixed with the molecules of another substance. The following activities are carried out to study the movement of particles in matter.2010 2. 4.

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2010 The comparison of the three state of matter are summarised as shown below: .

for example.Different things of the same volume do not have the same mass. Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. iron. iron is said to have a higher density than wood. For the same volume.2010 CONCEPT OF DENSITY 1. 4. 2. . has more mass than wood. 3. Density can be calculated using the formula shown below. The unit of density is g per cm3 (g/cm3 ) or gram per cubic centimetre. Therefore. 5.

3 g/cm3. Find its density in g per cm 6.2010 Example 1 3 10 cm3 of mercury weighs 136g. The density of a substance depends on the mass of the substance and the arrangement of the particles or the volume of the substance. The density of water is 1 g/cm3 and the density of gold is 19. .3 gram of gold. 7. This means that 1 cubic centimetre of water possesses 1 gram of water and 1 cubic centimetre of gold possesses 19.

Substances that are less dense will rise above or float in liquids that are denser.2010 8. Eksperiment 1 . (c) substances can have similiar volumes but different masses. The following experiments are carried out to find the densities of objects with regular or irregular shapes and the densities of different liquids. 10. From the table above. Denser substances will sink in liquids that are less dense. (b) gold is the densest while cork is the least dense. it can be concluded that (a) different substances have different densities. 9. 11.

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Eksperiment 2 . The volume of objects such as cubes and rods or cylinders can be calculated using thefollowing formula. The volume of objects that have a regular shape can be calculated.2010 12.

The following activities are carried out to compare the densities of substances.2010 13. .

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2. . Each state of matter has its own characteristis properties which man uses for his own benefit. liquid and solid.2010 APPLICATION OF THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER 1. The three different states of matter are gas.

People who sell perfumes and liquor such as wine and brandy make very beautiful container of all sorts ofshapes to keep these liquids to attract customers. A gas is easily compressed and liquiefied under high pressure. 4. So gases used for fuels such as petroleum gas and butane are liquefied under high pressure and stored in gas cylinders for easy use and transport. Air is easily compressed. So it is pumped into bicycle tyres and motor car tyres to be used as wheels. 6. Water finds its own level. This principle used in the spirit-level.2010 3. . This instrument used to obtain a perfectly level surface such as for the top of a billiard table. A liquid takes up the shape of its container. 5.

hydrogen is collected by bubbling the gas through water and displacing it from a gas jar. (b) In the school laboratory. 8. 1. Iron is very strong. Collecting hydrogen gas (a) Hydrogen gas is insoluble in water and is less dense than water. . 2.2010 7. Densities of substances have many applications in our daily life. Different substances have different densities. Logs are less dense than water. They floated down rivers to the saw -mills. We use it to build bridges and railway tracks.

it does not sink in water. . (b) Buoys float on the sea. Rafts (a) Rafts are formed from logs which are less dense than water. They are placed in certain parts of the sea to keep ships away from unsafe areas.2010 3. 4. Floats and buoys (a) A float is used to keep a person afloat in water. (b) A raft can be used to carry goods and people on a river . It is used on ships in case of emergency and is also used by people learning to swim.

6. 7.2010 5. (a) A trawling net has floats attached to it so that it can stay upright in the sea for catching fish. (b) The floats are usually plastic balls which are big enough to hold up the net. (a) Tin ore is denser than soil. . Separating tin ore from the earth. (b) The heated air becomes less dense and rises in the balloon. Hot air balloons (a) A hot air balloon has a burner to heat up the air in the balloon. (b) Soil containing tin ore is washed down a "palung": this makes the tin ore sink at the bottom of the "palung" and the lighter soil on top is washed away. pushing the balloon up. Trawling nets.

Emptying the ballast tanks makes it submarine less dense and enables it to rise to the surface of the sea. (a) Large balloons filled with helium gas (second lightest gas) are tied to the sunken ship. (b) When the balloons rise to the surface of the sea.2010 8. the ship is pulled to the surface as well. Submarines (a) A submarines can move under the sea ot at its surface by changing its densi ty. . 9. (b) It has large ballast tanks. Floating a sunken ship. filling the ballast tanks with the sea water makes the submarine denser than sea water and sinks.

(a) A piece of iron nail sinks in water because iron is denser than water. A piece of plasticine sinks in water because it is denser than water. 4. which is equal to its own weight. The floating bowl displaces a large volume of water. The iron nail also displaces a very small volume of water (less than the weight of the iron nail). (b) A ship made of iron floats on the sea because its shape enables it to displace very large volume of sea water. A ship uses the same principle shown by the plasticine. The piece of plasticine can be made to float by shaping it into a bowl. 5. An object which sinks displaces a very small volume of water.2010 Sinking and floating objects 1. 2. . 3. which is less than its weight.

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including man. 3. whales. prawns and cockles cannot live without water. c) Evaporation of water (sweat) from the body cools the body and maintains the temperature of the body. g) Water maintains the shape and supports the body of animals such as earthworms and caterpillars. All living things. 5.e. 2. These resources must be carefully looked after abd used because they sustain life and are used everyday. a) About 70% of the human body consists of water. animals and plants cannot live without water. e) Water is required for all chemical processes in the cells such as the process of respiration i. 3. f) Water moistens the surfaces of lungs for exchange of gases to ta ke place during breathing. Water 1. b) Water is required to dissolve waste products such as urea and transport them out of the body. Human beings also use water for: a) turning turbines and dynamos hydroelectric stations to generate electricity. The main component in our blood is water. will die if there were no water or air. burning glucose in the cells to obtain energy. . About three-quarters of the Earth's surface is covered with water. 4.2010 DIFFERENT RESOURCES ON EARTH AND THEIR IMPORTANCE 1. Water also a habitat for a large variety of plants and animals. This chart lists the resources of the Earth. 2. d) Water is required to digest food and transport the digested food to the cells of the body. The importance of water to human beings and animals. Human beings. h) Aquatic animals such as fish.

d) Any living thing enclosed in a container will die due to lack of air (oxygen). Air is important because it is required for: a) repiration b) combusion c) decay d) photosynthesis. carbon dioxide and water are set free as waste products. Air 1. Respiration a) respiration is carried out by human beings. . a) Plants wither and die if they do not have water.animals and plants. e) washing. c) The aim of respiration is to get energy for carrying out the life processes. This layer of air is important because it protects us from the harmful ra ys from the sun. animals and plants cannot survive without air. 3. 5. During the process.2010 b) separating tin ore from earth in a 'palung' c) cooling car radiators in motor cars d) transporting goods and people by rivers and seas. c) Green plants need water to make food (photosynthesis) in sunlight. Human beings. b) It is the process of burning food in oxygen (oxidising) in the cells of the body to get energy. The importance of water to plants. 6. e) Water cools the plant when it is transpired from the leaves. Our Earth is surrounded by a layer of air called the atmosphere. 2. b) Seeds do not germinate without water. bathing and cooking in our homes. d) Water transport food from the leaves to other parts of the plant. 4.

d) Photosynthesis is important because without it there will be no plants. Decay a) Decay is a process of breaking up a substance into simpler and smaller parts by bacteria and fungi.2010 e) Astronauts going into outer space bring oxygen (in cylinders) along with them. combustion and decay. c) Burning produces carbon dioxide as well as water and energy in the form of heat and light. and produces glucose and oxygen. c) Decay is important because it removes unwanted organic substances from our surroundings. b) The process of decay uses oxygen. a) Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants make food in sunlight. b) This processes uses water and carbon dioxide from the air. f) Mountain climbers and deep sea divers carry along cyli nders of oxygen for breathing. 6. 7. b) No substance can burn without oxygen. e) Photosynthesis balances up the processes of respiration. animals or human beings. 8. Combustion a) Combustion or burning needs air (oxygen). Photosynthesis. c) This process needs the presence of leaf-green (chlorophyll) and light energy. .

bowls. f) Soil is also a very useful substance for human beings. calcium. It is formed from the weathering of rocks. teapots. magnesium and nitrates. h) Soil stores important fuels such as coal.making bricks for building houses and factories.) Humus is a source of food for animals such as earthworms and provides minerals for plants. . g) Soil allows us to carry out farming and so produce food to feed and increasing world population. c) Soil contains spaces which are filled with air or water. 2. e) Soil is rich in humus (decayed parts of plants and animals.2010 Soil 1. This enables plants and animals to live in the soil. d) Soil is rich with mineral salts such as the salts of potassium. Soil is used for: i. insects and microorganisms.making utensils such as cups and saucers. b) Soil form the foundation for human beings to build their homes. which are required by plants to grow well. natural gas petroleum. ii. These fuels support many industries. vases ad flower pots. Soil is the first layer of particles on the surface of the Earth. a) Soil is the habitat for a large variety of plants and animals such as earthworms. Importance of soil.

Soil is rich in mineral ores. ii. long ago. Fossil fuels were formed from plants and animals which became buried in the earth.2010 Minerals 1. iii.for heating boilers to get steam to turn dynamos and produce electricity. The ores are heated in large furnaces to obtain the metals. Mineral ores are important because they are used to produce metals. Fossil Fuels 1. natural gas and petroleum are called fossil fuels. Some examples of ores are given in the table below. . 2. (b) Coal is used: i. 3. This is because they were formed in the earth long. 3.for warming bouses in winter in cold countries. Fossil fuels are important because they are mainly used to run our industries.in furnaces for extracting metals from the ores. 2. (a) Coal is actually carbon which has been hardened by great pressure in the earth. Coal. 4. 4.

2. (c) Pertoleum is the source for many products. Plants and animals are important to human beings because human beings cannot survive without plants and animals. (b) It is used as a fuel and also as a raw material for producing hydrogen. (a) Natural gas is found trapped in the earth. some of these are shown in the figure below: Plants and Animals 1.2010 5. alcohol and ammonia 6. urea. (a) Petroluem supplies about half of the energy needed by the world. (b) It is found as a thick. black liquid in certain areas of the earth. Plants and animals are the sources for: a) food b) clothes .

The resources on Earth exist in three differet form i. ELEMENTS. COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES 1.e.2010 c) building materials d) fuel These materials are the basic needs of human beings. compounds and mixtures. as elements. .

4. matter can be divided into elements. An atom is the smallest particle in an element. The summary of the classification of a molecule is shown in the chart below. like oxygen and molecules that consist of different types of elements.2010 2. 5. A molecule can consist of one or more than one type of atom. 6. like ammonia. molecules that consist of one type of element.e. compounds and mixtures. and classified as follows: 3. There are two types of molecules i. . A molecule is a combination of a group of atoms. Generally.

An element is a substance made up of one type of particle only. hydrogen. iron. 4. 3. 2. gold oxygen. are examples of elements. lead and gold consist of atoms whereas elements like oxygen. 5. lead. iron. hydrogen and nitrogen consist of molecules. 6. The particle in an element consist of atoms or molecules of the same type. nitrogen. etc. An element is a substance which cannot be split up into simpler substances by any physical or chemical process. Elements like copper. . An element is the simplest kind of matter.2010 1. Copper.

1. i. .e solid. liquid or gaseous. All metallic elements are solid at room temperature except for mercury.e metals and non-metals. Elements can exist in three different states. 2. Elements can be classified as either metallic elements or non -metallic elements i.2010 7.

e solid. 4. liquid and gaseous.e. can be knocked into shape and drawn into wires without breaking. 1.2010 3. 2. Metals have a shiny appearance. 5. 6. 3. 4. Metals are hard. The density of metals is high. Non-metals have a dull appearance. Metals conduct heat and electricity. The tensile strength of metals is high. Metals have high melting and boiling points. 1. malleable and ductile i. . Non-metallic elements can exist in three states i. The following shows examples of matellic elements and non -metallic elements. The surface of non-metals does not shine.

Non-metals have low melting and boiling points. 3. . Non-metals (insulator). 4. The tensile strength of non-metals is low.2010 2. except graphite. 7. 5. do not conduct heat and electricity. Non-metals are soft and brittle. 6. The summary of the differences between metals and non -metals are shown on the following page. The density of non-metals is usually low.

2010 8. Experiment 1 . An experiment is carried out to study the properties of metals and non-metals.

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The properties of a compound are different from those of their constituent elements.2010 Below are some examples showing the uses of metals and non -metals and the properties that make them suitable for use. 1. A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined together. 2. A .

4. The smallest possible particle of a compound is a molecule. carbon dioxide and copper sulphate. Examples of compounds are iron rust (iron oxide). 3.2010 compound becomes an entirely new substance and the original subst ances do not keep their original properties. magnesium oxide. .

the copper chloride breaks up into solid copper and gaseous chlorine. when and electric current passes through a copper chloride solution. . The process in which this occurs is called electrolysis. A compound may be separated into its elements by using electricity (a chemical process)/ For example.2010 5.

2010 1. 2. . A mixture is a substance that consists of two or more substances which are not joined together chemically. The constituents of a mixture keep their own original properties which are unchanged. There is no chemical reaction in the formation of mixtures. 3.

the substances in a mixture may be in a solid. liquid or gaseous state. Also.2010 4. compounds or both. A mixture may consists of elements. . 1. Mixture of sulphur and iron is prepred by mixing iron filings with sulphur powder.


2. The black iron filings and the yellow sulphur powder can be clearly seen with the unaided eye. 3. The iron sulphide compound is prepared by heating iron filings with sulphur powder. 4. The mixture glows as a chemical reaction takes place. 5. A new black substance is produced. A compound is formed.


1. The differences between a mixture and a compound can be summarised as follows:

2. The following experiment can be carried out to show t he differences between compunds and mixtures.

Experiment 2



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A mixture can be separated into its constituents without any chemical changes. . The constituents of a mxture can be separated using physical means as described in the following page.2010 1. 2.

2010 Experiment 3 .

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The natural resources of earth include: a) air b) water c) soil d) plants and animals .2010 PRESERVATION AND CONVERSATION OF EARTH'S RESOURCES 1.

2010 e) mineral ores f) fossil fuels 2. These resources must be protected through preservation. c) These resources are renewable. .Preserving forests enables plants and animals to flourish in their natural environment. b) plants and animals reproduce themselves. 3. b) One day resources will be used up. a) Air. . 1. Our natural resources must be looked after and usedcarefully because life on earth depends on them. 2. a) Mineral ores (such as tin ore and iron ore) and fossil fuels (such as coal. glass and metals.Preservation is the maintenance of Earth's resources in their natural environment so that the balance of nature is not upset. Unfortunately man's activities are fast destroying these reso urces. conversation and recycling. 4. . Recycling is reusing things such as paper. Conversation is the careful and wise use of earth's resources so that they are not wasted and can last long. plastics. natural gas and petroleum) cannot be renewed or non-renewable. 6. water and soil are recycled in nature.Recycling paper reduces the cutting down of trees. 5. 3.

are used up (minerals ores and fossil fuels) or extinct (plants and animals) 2. a) maintaining our good health (polluted air and water cause sickness) b) ensuring our air and water are always clean and plentiful for use (to avoid water shortage) c) maintaining the fertility of soil and preventing soil erosion (so that soil is suitable for farming and land is safe for building houses on) d) preventing the extinction of plants and animals such as Rafflesia and orang utan (so that our descendants can enjoy watching and studying them) e) maintaining and replanting our forests (so that logs are always available) f) ensuring that our resources are not wasted and can last(recycling aluminium tins reduces the use of ores) 1. . conserving and recycling earth's resources include the following.2010 4. Reasons for preserving. They must be protected before they become harmful (air and water). Some ways for preserving and conserving them are given in the table below. Earth's resources have been badly affected by man's activities.

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2010 COMPOSITION OF AIR 1. The atsosphere protects living things on the Earth harmful rays from the sun. We cannot see air but can feel it when it moves as a wind. 5.helium ii.Nitrogen (a) Nitrogen is a very inactive gas. Air is colourless.neon . 3.rusting (b) Oxygen is needed for living things to survive. 6. 2.decay iv. burning and decay go on more slowly.respiration ii. Oxygen (a) Oxygen is used up during: i.e it does not allow things to burn ini it. (c) Nitrogen dilutes oxygen in the air so that processes such as respiration. (c) Oxygen is set free during the process of photosynthesis. tasteless and odourless (no smell). 8. Our Earth is surrounded by a layer of air called the atmosphere. 4. 7.burning iii. Rare gases (a) The rare gases in air are: i. Air is a mixture of many components. (b) Nitrogen does not burn and does not support combustion i.

Eksperiment 1 . Water vapour. 9.radon (b) these gases are very incative but have their uses. dust and microorganisms (a) These things vary in air. (b) Most microorganisms in air are bacteria and spores from fungi.krypton v.decay (b) It is absorbed by green plants during photosynthesis 10.2010 iii.burning iii.xenon vi. Carbon dioxide (a) Carbon dioxide is set free during: i.argon iv.respiration ii.

2010 Eksperiment 2 .

2010 Eksperiment 3 .

2010 Eksperiment 4 .

.2010 PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE 1. Oxygen is a colourless. odourless and tasteless gas.

2. 4. It does not burn by itself. 6. 3. It is not very soluble in water. breathing. Gases in the air can be identified from their properties. 3. It is denser (heavier) than air. Carbon dioxide is a colourless. 6. 5. It is an extremely active element. It is slightly soluble in water. it is a weak acid. It does not support combustion. 8. The following experiment is carried out to study the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide from certain aspects. 2. 1. 3. 7. 7. Eksperiment 5 . It is very soluble in sodium hydroxide solution. 5. It turns lime water cloudly. hence.2010 2. 8. It turns moist blue litmus paper to a faint red. It supports burning. decaying and rusting. it combines easily with many metals and non-metals. odourless gas with a slight acidic taste. It does not burn by itself. It is slightly denser (heavier) than air. It is neutral when tested with moist litmus paper. 4. Oxygen and carbon dioxide have their specific properties. 1.

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2010 Eksperiment 6 .

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(a) Confirmatory test for oxygen (b) Confirmatory test for carbon dioxide. .2010 Confirmatory tests for oxygen and carbon dioxide are shown below.

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Oxygen is taken in to oxidise (burn away) the food in cells to produce energy. Living things use oxygen and release carbon dioxide during respiration. carbon dioxide and water vapour are the by-products of respiration.2010 OXYGEN IS NEEDED IN RESPIRATION 1. Oxygen is needed for respiration. oxygen is taken in from the air and carbon dioxide is released. The term rspiration covers the breathing in and out of air and the use of oxygen in the body. 7. It is a continuous process that takes place day and night. 6. glucose. e. 4. 2. . 3. Respiration is carried out in all living cells. are broken down by making use of the oxygen absorbed by the cells.g. This process is called respiration. Energy. During respiration or breathing. 5. Simple carbohydrates.

The following experiment shows that living things use oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. Eksperiment 8 .2010 8.

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Eksperiment 9



1. In the process of breathing, air from the surroundings is inhaled or sucked into the lungs. This air is known as inhaled air. 2. Air that is exhaled or breathed out from the lungs is known as exhaled air.


Breathing process 3. The exhaled air of humans can be collected by breathing out air through a rubber tube into a container filled with water and overturned in water (method of water displacement) as shown in the figure below.

Collection of exhaled air

1. The quantities of nitrogen and rare gases in exhaled air stay unchanged i.e. 78% and 0.9% respectively. 2. The quantity of carbon dioxide in exhaled air is 4%, which is over a hundred times greater than normally present in the atmosphere. 3. Exhaled air is saturated with water vapour. 4. Exhaled air is warmer than ordinary air due to the release of energy during respiration.

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2010 Eksperiment 12 .

2010 OXYGEN AND COMBUSTION 1. heat energy and light energy are produced when magnesium burns in air. Combustion is a chemical reaction which takes place when a substance combines with oxygen and produces: (a) an oxide (b) heat energy (c) light energy Examples: (a) Carbon dioxide. (b) Magnesium oxide. heat energy and light energy are produces when carbonburns in air. .

The reactions in the above examples show that combustion needsoxygen. the products are: (a) water (b) carbon dioxide (c) heat energy (d) light energy 3. the candle goeson burning until the oxygen it used up. the candle flame is extinguished at once. If a gas jar of oxygen is inverted over a burning candle. If a gas of nitrogen or carbon dioxide is inverted over a burning candle. When a hydrocarbon (a compound containing hydrogen and carbon only) such as a candle burns.2010 2. This can also be shown in the following ways: (a) i. ii. .

the candle in the large jar burns longer. Eksperiment 13 .2010 (b) i. This is because the large jar contains more oxygen than the small jar. are inverted over two similiar burning candles. (c) Combustion uses one-fifth of the air. If two glass jars. one small and one big.

Three conditions are required for combustion: (a) fuel .2010 1. 3. as given below. The fuels used come mainly from three materials. Materials which are easily burnt are called fuels. 2.

Water can extinguish a fire because it lowers the temperature of the fuel to below its ingitionpoint i. The principle in fire fighting is to remove one of these factors from the fire. (a) Oxygen The supply of oxygen to a fire can be stopped by using a fire-extinguisher to spray foam or carbon dioxide on the fire. For example. (b) Fuel If a fire is caused by a gas. Combustion cannot take place if one of these comditions is not fulfilled.e. The foam or dense carbon dioxide surrounds the fire and prevents air (oxygen) from getting to it. 5. 6. . below the temperature at which it burns. 4.2010 (b) oxygen (c) heat. 7. The method for extinguishing fire depends on the source of the fire. stopping the gas supply will put out the fire. a Bunsen burner flame is extinguished when the gas tap is turned off. (c) Heat A fuel cannot burn if its temperature is not high enough.

2010 Combustion plays a very important role in our everyday life. .

The addition of unwanted and harmful substances to the air i s known as air pollution. forest fires. Air pollutants are due to man's activities. The air such as dust and sulphur dioxide harm our health and the environment. 3.2010 AIR POLLUTION 1. . 6. 4. 2. their sources and effects are given in the table below. 7. 5. the development of large housing estates and the extensive use of chlorofluorocarbons. motor vehicles. motor vehicles and development projects going on in industrial areas. Man must control his activities so that they do not pollute the air. because clean air is essential for a healthy life. The air in industrial areas because there are more factories. The unwanted and harmful substances are called the pollutants. The main air pollutants. Unwanted and harmful subtances are added to the air by factories.

skin diseases iii.2010 1. including man and on the enviroment. Some of these harmful effects are explained below. Air pollution causes harmful effects on living things. asthma . Health problems (a) Harmful gases. dust and soot in the air cause several health problems such as: i. headaches ii. 2. 3.

reduces visibility ii. 7. 6. Destruction of habitats. As a result the Earth's temperature is rising. 4. l ng and throat cancer. (c) Haze caused by dust and smoke: i. Depletion of food resources (a) Dust and soot on the leaves of plants reduce the rate of photosynthesis. (b) Radioactive wastes thrown into the environment cause: i. (c) Acid rain causes aquatic ani mals such as fish and prawns to be lkilled. (b) Smoke and soot have turned many buildings black. icebergs in the poles to melt quickly ii. (b) Acid rain causes plants to die because they become unable to absorb water. (b) Plants and ani mals in danger of go ing extinct include Rafflesia. cancer iv. tapir. (b) As a result the natural habitats are destroyed. (b) This layer of carbon dioxide traps heat from the sun and prevents it from escaping into outer space. orang utan. Global warming (a) The Earth's atmosphere now contains excess carbon dioxide. defects to unborn babies. infertility iii. floods in low-lying areas such as some coastal regions . 5. causing less food to be produced by plants. This is due to fewer forests to absorb the gas and industries releasing a lot of it. giddiness and vomiting ii. level of sea water to rise iii. . Destruction of property (a) Acid rain is corroding buildings and important historic monuments. Extinction of species (a) Destruction of natural habitats has caused many plants and animals to die and several species become extinct.2010 i bronchi i v. (a) Acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide which dissolve in water to form acid rain have destroyed large areas of forest and made ponds and rivers unsuitable for plants and animals. hornbill and leathery-back turtle. increases the risk of road accidents. (c) Global warning causes: i. The phenomenon is called the green house effect or global warning.

2010 9. (b) Harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun can cause: i. Thinning of the ozone layer (a) The ozone layer on the atmosphere of the Earth protects us from the harmful rays of the sun. . allowing a lot of harmful ultraviolet rays to reach the Earth. ii. Reducing the yield from plants Plants crops such as paddy give lower yields when exposed to harmful ultraviolet rays. He has to replace the lens with a synthetic one. general cancer of the skin. iv. Skin cancer Constant exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays can causes cancer of the skin. (c) Air pollutants mainly chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). known as melanoma. cannot be cured. Cataract The eye lens becomes opaque and the patient cannot see. have made the ozone layer very thin. Lowering of the body's defence system Harmful ultraviolet rays make the body less able to resist diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. iii.

Rubbish (a) Do not allow open burning in residential areas. (b) Use unleaded petrol in motor vehicles. Air pollution must be controlled so that its harmful effects can be reduced. (c) Ensure that the engines of motor vehicles do not give out excessive exhaust gases and black smoke. (b) Burning should only be done in approved sites or in incinerators built for the purpose. 5. 4. Some ways for controlling air pollution are explained below. Motor vehicles (a) Fix catalytic converters to the exhaust pipes of motor vehicles so that harmful. Agriculture (a) Advise farmers to reduce the use of pesticides. exhaust gases can be converted to harmless substances.2010 1. 3. 2. (c) Treat waste gases in air cleaning systems before releasing them into the air. . Factories (a) Build tall chimneys in factories so that smoke and waste gases are discharged high up in the air and can be easily blown away by wind. (b) Build electric precipitators on the chimneys to attract particles in the waste gases to prevent them from escaping into the air.

2010 (b) Encourage farmers to use biological control ways to kill pests. This reduces global warming. everyone in the world must co -operate and play his part. 6. Emphysema is a condition in which the air-sacs in the lungs are demaged by cigarrate smoke and cannot function properly. 9. (b) This can be done through campaigns in school and talks over radio and television . Reforestation (a) replant forest for absorbong carbon dioxide. For example. In order to control air pollution effectively. Some of them may cause cancer of the lungs. As a result the patient is short of breath. (b) Ban nuclear tests through an international aggrement to be organized by the United Nations. Nicotine in cigarrate smoke: (a) stimulates the nervous system. 3. IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE CLEAR AIR 1. 4. (keeps you awake) (b) damages brain tissues (c) hardens blood vessels (makes blood difficult to flow) 5. Chlorofluorocarbon (a) Reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbon and other gases which destroy teh Earth's ozone layer. Nuclear subtances (a) Store and throw radioactive wastes in the recommended ways. (b) Use ozone friendly gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 7. 8. 10. Educating the public (a) Educate members of the public to be aware of the dangers of air pollution and how to control them. Cigarette smoke contains over a thousand poisonous chemica ls. Smoking is the cause for many deaths through disease such as: (a) bronchitis (b) lung cancer (c) heart diseases (d) emphysema 2. Tar in cigaratte smoke: (a) consists of tiny black particles . It cannot be cured. suitable owls can be reared in oil palm plantations to catch rats.

Eksperiment 14 . causing the body to lack oxygen. 7. 9. Smokers must be considerate and not smoke in public places or near non -smokers.2010 (b) forms in the lungs as a sticky liquid (blackens the lungs) (c) corrodes the lungs (acidic) (d) contains 17 chemicals which causes cancer in animals. This is called passive smoking. premature birth or still-birth. Passive smoking can be more harmful to a non -smoker than a smoker. 8. 10. Carbon monoxide given out during smoking: (a) is a poisonous gas (b) combines with heamoglobin in the blood. A person who is a non-smoker may inhale cigaratte smoke given out by someone smoking. Pregnant women who smoke heavily have the risk of having smaller babies. 6.

bronchitis and skin diseases will increases. Warmer air in temperate countries will cause tropical diseases to spread to them. . 2. asthma. 4. 3.2010 1. The air will become warmer with more carbon dioxide in it. soot and dust cannot carry out photosynthesis effectively. Less food will be produced as crops affected by acid rain. There will be plenty of health problems without clean air. causing global warming. Haze will reduce visibility and more accidents will occurs. Patients suffering from breathing difficulties. 5.


6. The ozone layer will be depleted and more people will suffer from cataract and skin cancer.

1. Run campaigns to discourage cigarette smoking. 2. Run campaigns to explain what individuals must do to keep the air clean. 3. Ban smoking in public places such as in hospitals, cinema halls, supermarkets and offices. 4. Ban open burning of rubbish. 5. Prevent forest fires. 6. Introduce laws to force factories to treat their waste gases before releasing them into the air. 7. Ensure motor vehicles use catalytic converters. 8. Fine motor vehicles which give out excessive black smoke. 9. Practise reforestation- trees cut down must be replanted. 10. Keep a strict watch on the disposal of radioactive wastes.

1. Do not smoke in public places. 2. Do not burn rubbish in open air. 3. Use less electricity. This will reduce the use of fuels in power stations and so reduce air pollutants. 4. Walk or cycle instead og going by cars. This will reduce exhaust gases from motor vehicles. 5. Reduce the use of insecticide sprays and hair sprays. This will reduce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) in the air. 6. Ensure your motor vehicles do not give out excessive black smoke. 7. Plant trees in your house compounds and in open spaces.




1. Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. 2. The word "work" has a different meaning in science. According to scientists, work is done when an object is moved over a horizontal or vertical distan ce. Examples: (a) Work is done when Fadhli pulls a tree runk away from blocking a road. (b) Work is done when Fadhlina pick up a book on the floor and places it on a table. 2. Whenever work is done, energy is used. 3. Energy is very important. Not work can be done without energy. 4. All the activities that go on around us will come to stop if there is no energy.

Energy exists in different forms. The main forms are illustrated below:


1. A hot object has heat energy. 2. An object becomes hotter when it absorbs heat energy. 3. An object becomes cooler when it loses heat energy. 4. Heat energy is set free when a material burns. 5. Heat energy flows from a place or material of high temperature to a place or material of lower temperature. 6. The following objects give out heat energy: (a) the Sun shining on the Earth. (b) firewood burning (c) a lighted filament bulb (d) an electric iron in use. 7. Heat energy is used: (a) to dry wet clothes (b) to boil water and cook food.

convert chemical energy to electrical energy to work machines and light up lamps. Any object that gives out light possesses light energy. (f) It is used by green plants in photosynthesis. 5. 4. (a) It enables us to see things. 1. We will not be able to see things if no light energy reaches our eyes. Light energy travels at a speed of 300 000 km/s. (b) sound (from an exploding fire cracker) (c) electricity from a battery. Our energy comes from the chemical energy in the food we eat. Light energy is useful. 3. Chemical energy is present in chemical substances. 2. (b) It supplies energy to solar cells.2010 (c) to start some chemical reactions (d) to warm our bodies. Some sources of light energy are: (a) the Sun (b) cooking gas burning (c) a lighted bulb (d) glow worms 6. Some sources and uses of chemical energy are: (a) food. (c) batteries. (d) It is used in light-houses to guide ships. (c) It is used in traffic lights to control traffic. 4. (b) fuels.to supply energy to living things so that they can carry out their activities. Light energy is given off when an object is red -hot or white rod. 1. 2. This chemical energy is usually released in a chemical reaction. .Electrical energy is the energy produced by an electric current or electric changes. 1. This chemical energy from a chemical reaction may appear in different form such as: (a) heat and light from a burning candle.to supply energy for cooking and for machines and vehicles to work. 5. 3. (e) It is used for screening films.

Soucers of electrical energy include the following: (a) lightning. Sound energy is produced by vibrations. 4. Sound energy travels at a speed of 300 m/s in air. Care must be taken when using electrical energy for it can kill a person if the electric current is very high. 2. (b) to turn electric motors in fans and engines. Among the uses of electrical energy are: (a) to light lamps such as fluorescent lamps.2010 2. 5. (b) batteries (c) bicycle dynamos (d) solar cells (e) electric generators in power stations 4. liquids and gases but cannot travel through a vacuum. 3. televisions and computers. Sound energy travels outwards in waves and can be detected with our ears. The amount of electrical energy used in our homes is measured by a meter. (d) to operate appliances such as radios. (c) to produce heat in appliances such as electric irons and stoves. Sources of sound energy include: (a) thunder (b) horns (c) voice boxes of humans and animals (d) musical instruments . 5. 3. 1. Sound energy can travel through solids.

6. 1. (c) giving warnings such as by ambulances and police cars. Kinetic energy is useful in everyday life. 3. The greater the speed of a moving object. the greater is its kinetic energy. 1. 3. 4. . 2. 4. (b) talking for communication with people. The higher an object is raised.. the greater is its potential energy. 5. The bigger the mass of a raised object. 2. the greater is its energy. the greater is its energy.2010 6. Objects which have kinetic energy include: (a) wind (b) waves (c) a spinning fan (d) an aeroplane in flight (e) an orbiting satellite. (d) Kinetic energy in an aeroplane enables it to transport passengers. (b) Kinetic energy in the wind is used for sailing ships. A compressed spring or a stretched spring has potential energy because of its condition. Any object which is moving possesses kinetic energy. The greater the spring is compressed or stretched (provided not overdone). (d) receiving news through the radio and television. Potential energy is stored in an object because of its condition or position. (a) Kinetic energy of a river is used to turn turbines and dynamos for generating electricity. A durian on a tree has potential energy because of its position. 7. The uses of sound energy include: (a) singing for entertainment. Potential energy is present in objects which are: (a) compressed (b) stretched (c) raised from its useful. (c) Kinetic energy in the wind is used for turning windmills and dynamos for generating electricity.

it has both potential energy and kinetic energy. A falling object has mechanical energy. 3. 2. (b) The potential energy in a spring (which is easily stretched and compressed) is used to move a baby's cradle up and down. 5. An object possesses mechanical energy because its position is changing. Potential energy is useful: (a) The potential energy in a compressed spring is used to operate an alarm clock.2010 8. Your legs have mechanical energy when you are pedalling a bicycle because your legs are moving up and down. (c) The potential energy in a pile driver is used to hit a concrete pillar into the ground. . Mechanical energy is sometimes referred to as driving energy. Mechanical energy is the total potential energy and kinetic energy possessed by an object. 4. Half way through its fall. 1.

(a) It is used to power submarines. Nuclear energy can cause great destructions. This process is called nuclear fusion. combine to form a heavier element. 5. Nuclear fusion is taking place in the Sun where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms. 6. splits into lighter elements. Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear energy is also very useful. (b) It is released when the atoms of a light element. Eksperiment 1 . 4.2010 6. such as uranium. This process is called nuclear fission. such as hydrogen. (b) It is used to turn generators in power stations to produce electricity. (c) It is used to keep satellites in orbit. ("Fission" means breaking up) 3. 2. Examples of objects which have mechanical energy include: (a) a swinging pendulum (b) a see-saw in use (c) a machine in use 1. Nuclear energy is released in the form of: (a) heat energy (b) light energy (c) sound energy (d) harmful radiations. as happens when an atomic bomb explodes. Nuclear energy is released in two ways: (a) it is released when an atom of a heavy element.

2010 .

2010 .

. (c) In fact energy from the Sun is being transferred to plants. Life on Earth depends on energy from the Sun. waves and rain comes indirectly from the Sun's. 4.2010 1. petroleum and coal originated from the Sun. Energy in the wind. The Sun generates a large amount of energy bynuclear fusion. setting free a large amount of heat energy and light energy. The Earth receives heat energy and light energy directly from the Sun. Energy in natural gas. 7. wind is due to the Sun's heat energy causing air to move. animals and human beings.g. 6. (b) Without plants no human beings or animals will live. 3. The primary source of the energy for the earth is theSun. green plants cannot make food by phtosynthesis. 2. For examples. During this reaction. hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms. 5. (a) In fact without energy from the Sun. solar cells and solar heaters. Many appliances used in everyday life make use of energy from the Sun orsolar energy e.

.2010 The Sun is the primary source of energy. 1. There are several sources of energy.

5. Energy in the winds is used for: (a) moving sailing ships . Green plants use solar energy to make food and then store it in the food as ch emical energy. Solar energy is energy from the Sun.2010 1. Solar cells convert solar energy into electrical energy. Winds possess kinetic energy. 3. creating a wind. 2. 3. 1. Solar energy is used for: (a) heating water (b) producing electrical energy. Solar cookers and heaters convent solar energy into heat energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the Sun. 2. 4. This causes air to move from a cool place to a warmer place.

. Waves moving in and out from the seashore have potential energy and kinetic energy. 3. 1. 4. Some countries use tides to turn turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. 2.2010 (b) turning windmills to grind corn (c) turning wind turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. Tides flow in and out from the shore twice a day. Waves can be used to turn turbines and then dynamos to produce electrical energy. These moving tides posses kinetic energy while the high tides contain potential energy.

Sometimes steam or hot water trapped in the Earth is pumped to the surface by boring holes in the ground. energy from the water in a dam is used to turn turbines. 2. 2. Hot springs. 1. and it has kinetic energy when it flows out of it. 3. "Geo" means "Earth" and '"thermal" means "heat". . Water stored in a dam has potential energy. Water from a river can be blocked to form a dam. 3.2010 1. geysers and volcanic eruptions show that the Earth is very hot deep inside it. Geothermal energy is heat energy obtained from deep in the Earth. The turbines turn dynamos for producing electrical energy. In hydroelectric power station.

5. In Malaysia. Sometimes water from a lake is channeled inside the Earth to be heated by hot rocks and is then pumped out again as steam. rubbbish from houses is burnt in special incinetarors and the heat is used to produce steam to warm houses or drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. Biomass energy is the energy obtained from plant and animal materials by: (a) burning them (b) decomposing them using bacteria. 3. (b) drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. 1. organic materials from rubber estates and oil palm plantations are decomposed in tanks by bacteria to generate methane gas for us as a fuel. Brazil. . 2. In.2010 4. sugar cane juice is fermented to produce alcohol for use as a fuel in vehicles. The steam is used to: (a) heat houses and factories. dried cow dung is burnt as a fuel 4. In India. In some countries. 5.

Natural gas is mainly used as a cooking fuel.2010 1. Petroleum is a very important source of energy in modern times. 6. It contains many types of fuel such as aviation fuel. In submarines using nuclear energy. The steam is used to drive turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy. The heat energy released is used to produce steam under high power. 1. It can be liquefied and stored in cylinders. Nuclear energy is obtained by splitting the atoms of uranium or plutonium. 4. The splitting of the atoms is done in a controlled way in a reactor. Coal is used in temperate countries for warming houses. natural gas and petroleum which were formed by the remains of plants and animals buried in the Earth long ago. 3. It is also burnt in some power stations to get steam for driving turbines and dynamos to produce electrical energy.Fossils are the remains of plants or animals burried in the Earth long ago. . 5. 3. 4. kerosene and diesel. the turbines drive propellers which move the submarine. 2. Fossil fuels consist of coal. It is also piped to houses and factories for use. petrol. 2. More than half of the energy used today comes from fossil fuels.

3. The principle of energy conversation states the following: (a) Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy conversions can be observed by carrying out simple experiments. 2. some energy may be wasted (usually in the form of heat). the total energy before changing equals to the total energy after changing.2010 1. During energy changes. During an energy change. Energy conversion or energy change is the changing of one form of energy into another. 1. but not destroyed. . 2. So energy is conserved. (b) Energy can be changed from one from to another.

2010 .

. 2. Every day we use converters which change energy from one from into another.2010 1. Examples of these converters are given below.

The following models show how large converters work. .2010 3.

2010 .

The chart below shows the classification of energy sources. . Renewable energy sources are those that can be replenished or renewed whenthey have been used. (a) Renewable energy sources. Non-renewable energy sources are those that cannot be replenished or renewed and will eventually be used up and exhausted. (b) Non-renewable energy sources. The sources of energy in the world can be classified into two groups. 2. 3. 4.2010 RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY 1.

Renewable energy sources have less environmental impact than fossil fuels and nuclear energy. .2010 5.

Sources of energy that pollute and do not pollute the environment are shown in the chart on the following page.2010 6. in part. . The chart below shows reasons for conserving energy. All non-renewable energy sources create pollution. due to their extraction from the crust of the Earth but mainly from burning them. 7. 8.

Since the Earth has limited amounts of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels. IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVING ENERGY SOURCES 1. The ways to use energy efficiently are shown below.2010 9. they must be conserved in order to avoid: a) future energy crises due to a shortage or overuse of fossil fuels .

Energy management must balance energy demand with energy supply. building materials and man's health. 3. soils. acid rain and smog. 2. Responsible use and management of energy sources is fundamental for a sustainable future.2010 b) a growing exploitation of natural resources c) atmospheric contamination that causes global warming and climatic change. wildlife and wildlife habitats. 4. Here are some ways to use and manage energy sources efficiently: a) Recycle material . crops. The resulting impact damages water sources and groundwater.

2010 .

It gets its heat energy from nuclear reactions taking place in its centre. there will be no living things on the Earth. very hot object. and its surface temperature is o o between 10 000 C and 500 000 C. 8. 4. the Earth will be a very cold place. Without heat energy from the sun. Without light energy from the sun.2010 HEAT AS A FORM OF ENERGY 1. Without energy from the sun. 2.The sun is a very. 6. Only a small portion of the sun's energy reaches the Earth. The Earth receives heat energy and light energy from the sun. o 3. 5. the Earth will be forever in darkness. 7. . The temperature at its centre is about 15 000 000 C.

ice to melt and water to boil. Heat is measured in units called joules (J). (c) Heat can causes things to burn and give out light e. 3. 2. heat can be produced in many ways from different forms o f energy. From mechanical energy. can be converted into heat. As a result. (d) Heat can cause a change of state e. Examples: (a) Heat causes metals to expand. 5. . (b) Heat causes air to expand and rise. 4. 1. (a) Mechanical energy.g. Heat has different effects on different substances.2010 1. 2. Heat causes things to become hot. Heat moves fom a hot place to a cooler place. Heat is a form of energy. 3. such as the energy in motion. oil.g. 6. Heat can travel through a vacuum. All forms of energy can be converted to heat energy.

High speed aircrafts and space vehicles have to be protected from heat produced by friction with the air.the filamentin a bulb becomes while hot and gives out lght when an electric current passes through it.2010 (b) Rubbing our hands together produces heat. (c) The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is used to produce steam to drive turbines and generators for producing electricity. From chemical energy. i. (b) A thin high resistance wire produces a lot of heat when an electric current passes through it. (e) Heat is produced when quicklime reacts with water to form slaked lime. (d) Heat is produced when zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.This is due to friction between the hands. electric toaster and electric kettle. 5. (c) Heat produced by friction creates problems in our daily life.A metal drill in use has to be cooled by oil. i. iii. (b) Heat is produced when a fuel burns. From nuclear energy (a) A tremendous amount of heat is produced when a nuclear explosion takes place. From electrical energy (a) Heat is produced whenever electrical energy passes through a wire.A dentist's drill in use has to be cooled by water. ii. is absorbed by the wall of a room. 4. (b) The heat produced during a nuclear explosion is so strong that it melts metals.Friction changes mechanical energy into heat.This principle is used in an electric iron. (b) The heat produced is so little that it is difficult to detect. 7. (c) Heat is produced during respiration in the cells of the body. ii. i. . ii. (a) Heat can be produced from chemical energy during a chemical reaction. From Sound energy (a) Heat is produced when sound energy such as a loud noise. 6.

(b) Solar cells are used to produced electrical energy. (a) Solar energy is converted to heat for use in some hot water systems in Malaysia. Heat is widely used in everyday life. 3. 2. (c) In cold countries. Heat is a very useful from of energy. Some uses of heat are stated in the table below: . From solar energy.2010 8. which is then converted to heat. 1. Heat has made our work easier and so our life more comfortable. houses are designed to make the best use of the sun's heat during winter.

Temperature measures how hot a substance or object is. 2. A hot object has a higher temperature than a cooler object.2010 1. but falls when heat is removed from it. The temperature of a substance or an object is measured using athermometer. 6. 3. Heat is a form of energy. . 7. The temperature of an object rises when heat is added to it. It is measured in joules (J). 4. Temperature is usually measured in degrees celsius (oC). 5.

a liquid. The amount of heat in an object depends on: (a) its temperature (b) its mass (size) (c) its capacity to hold heat (different substances have different capacities).2010 8. and cooler when heat is removed from it (temperature falls) 9. Two objects in a room have the same temperature (the room temperature) but may contain different amounts of heat. 11. a gas and vacuum. 10. 12. An object becomes hotter when heat is added to it (temperature rises). Heat flows through a solid. Heat flows from a hot place to a cooler place. Eksperi ent 1 .


the particles receive energy and move faster. The volume increase and the matter expands. When matter is heated. When matter is cooled. Matter is made up of particles. 4. 3. the particles lose energy and move more slowly. 5. The volume decreases and mattercontracts. The particles become closer to one another. 2. The summary about the expansion and contraction of matter is shown in the ch art below: . This causes the distance between the particles to increase.2010 1.

. it contracts when it is cooled.2010 6. So the solid increases in length or size (expand). All forms of matter expand when heated. 7. for the same amount of heat. The particles stay further apart. 1. A solid expands when it is heated. Gas expands the most while solids expand the least. the heat energy causes the particles in the solid to vibrate faster. When a solid is heated. 2. and contract when cooled.

The expansion of a solid can be shown by a metal ball ring apparatus as shown in t he experiment below.2010 3. Eksperiment 2 .

.2010 4. Different metals expand at different rates as shown below.

The laboratory activity below shows the expansion of the different metals. This is illustrated by heating a bimetallic strip as shown in the figure below. 6. .2010 5. Different metals expand unequally when heated to the same temperature.

2. 3.2010 1. The volume of all liquids changes as the temperature of the liquids is altered. Like solids. different liquids expand and contract at different rates as shown below: . Liquids expand when heated and contract when cooled.

2010 .


1. Gases expand when heated and contract when cooled. 2. The following experiment shows the expansion and contraction of gas.

Eksperiment 3



3. Different gases expand at the same rate. 4. Unlike solids and liquids, all gases expand equally. 5. The following laboratory activity shows that different gases expand equally when heated.


Heat can be transferred from a hot to a cold place by the process of: (a) conduction (b) convection (c) radiation

1. When heat flows through solids, the process of heat transfer is calledconduction.

(b) a metal spoon in the hand becomes warm after sometime because heat from the body passes to the metal spoon to warm it. The particles in a solid lie very close to each other. Heat passes through a metal rod when one end of it is heatedin a flame. 3. The transfer of heat by conduction takes place from particle to particle in a solid and is summarised as shown in the chart below. 5.2010 2. The following experiment shows the method of heat transfer i n a solid. (d) the handle of a spoon becomes warm after some time if the spoon is left in a cup of hot water. 6. Conduction requires a medium for the heat energy to pass through. Heat from the body passes to the chair to warm it. This process goes on until heat is passed from one end to the other. This means that heat from the water passes through the spoon to the hand. 4. 7. Eksperiment 4 . The particles which are in actual contact with the source of heat transfer some of the heat to the neighbouring particles. (c) a chair becomes warm after a person has sat on it for some time. For example: (a) heat from a fire passes through the frying pan to cook food.

2010 .

The following laboratory activity shows the transfer of heat through conduction. .2010 8.

4. 3. . In the process of convection.2010 1. Convection is the transfer of heat in fluids (liquids and gases) carried out by moving particles. 5. Cold fluids that are denser move down to replace the hot fluids. A convection current is produced in this way. heat is transferred upwards only. 2. Hot fluids become less dense and move upwards.

The following experiment shows the transfer of heat by convection. The fluids from hot areas move to cold areas.2010 6. Eksperiment 5 . 7.

. The following laboratory activity can be carried out to show the process of convection that takes place in gas.2010 8.

particles are not needed for the process of radiation. In radiation. .2010 1. Radiation heat moves at the speed of light. Radiation can take place through air space or a vacuum.In other words. particles do not carry heat energy from one place to another. Radiation is the transfer of heat from a source of heat to another area in its surroundings without involving a medium. 4. 3. 2.

6. The following experiment shows the transfer of heat by radiation. Eksperiment 6 .2010 5. Radiation heat can be absorbed or reflected.

. The following laboratory activities show the transfer of heat through radiation.2010 7.

2010 .

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The air above the land that is denser (cooler) flows in the direction of the sea. The warm air above the surface of the sea becomes less dense. 2. the air on land becomes less dense and rises. At night. 5. the land heats up faster than the sea. Uneven heating of the land and sea causes land sea breezes. As a result. the land becomes cooler than the sea. 2. 1. Land breezes blow during the night. 1. the land loses heat faster than the sea. Convection is the process by which heat is carried from one place to another by moving fluid matter. During the day. 4. 3. Sea breezes blow during the day. Wind is caused by the uneven heating of air over the su rface of the Earth. 2. 3. Thus. 3. Heat that is carried from one place to another by moving hot liquid or gas can be used to explain the occurrence of certain natural phenomena such as: (a) land breezes (b) sea breezes (c) the morning of the Earth by the Sun. 4. causing what is know as a land breeze. . and rises.2010 1.

causing what is known as a sea breeze. followed by aluminium. 1. zinc. 4. The following laboratory activities show that metal is a good heat conductor. They are called good conductors of heat. tin. 1. 5. in that order. The radiation heat which is absorbed heats up the Earth. brass. Some substances conduct heat readily. magnesium.2010 4. All metals such as iron. aluminium and zinc are good conductors of heat. The heat from the Sun reaches the earth by radiation through a vacuum in space (no medium) 2. 3. The cooler air over the sea which is denser (cooler) flows in to take the place of the warm air. The metal that conducts heat best of all is silver. 2. Copper is the next best conductor. iron and lead. . Substances that conduct heat are called conductors of heat.

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i. water and wool are insulators. Substances that conduct heat poorly are insulators or called bad conductors of heat. 2. wood. liquids and gases are poor conductors of heat. 3.e. . 4. The following activities are carried out to study the flow of heat through fluids (liquids and gases). cork air. Non-metals such as glass. Fluids.2010 1.

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2010 Exampels of the uses of heat conductors in daily life are shown below. .

2010 Examples of the uses of heat insulators in daily life are shown below. .

.2010 Examples of the uses of convection in everyday life are shown below.

.2010 An example of the use of radiation in every life is shown below.

. Physical processes that can be change the state of matter are named below. Heat can change matter from one state to another 3.2010 EFFECT OF HEAT ON THE STATE OF MATTER 1. or (b) a release of heat. A change of state of matter involves: (a) an obsorption of heat. Matter exists in three states: (a) solid (b) liquid (c) gas 2. 4.

2. Heat is absorbed during boiling. When this happens the ice melts. Heat is absorbed during melting. 1. 3. 2. its particles (molecules) receive more energy and viberate faster. When ice is heated. (b) Iron melts at 1540oC. The energetic particles move away from their originally arranged positions. (a) Ice melts at 0oC.Melting takes place when a solid is heated and changes into a liquid. A solid melts at a definite temperature called its melting points. 4. Boiling takes place when a liquid is heated until it changes to a gas at its boiling point. .2010 1.

When they get sufficient energy. its particles receive more energyfrom the heat in the air. Evaporation is the process of changing a liquid into a gas at a temperature below the boiling point of the liquid. 1. When a little alcohol is exposed to the air. Heat is required for evaporation to occur. 4. When steam (gas) is cooled.2010 3. (b) Ethanol (alcohol) boils at 78oC. 4. Different liquids evaporate at different rates e. When water is heated. (d) Surface area of liquid exposed to the air. 3. its particles (water molecules) lose kinetic energy and come closer to one another. A liquid boils at a fixed temperature called its boiling point. 2. Heat is removed from the gas during condensation. alcohol evaporates faster than w ater. 3. its particles (molecules) receive more energy and move about very actively. 5. The particles escape into the air when they gain sufficient kinetic energy. (a) Water boils at 100oC. they escape into the air as gas particles and boiling takes place. 2. How fast a liquid evaporates depends on: (a) wind movements (b) amount of water vapour in the air. eventually the particles group together to form water.g. This happens below the boiling point of the liquid. Oxygen gas can be cooled and condensed to form liquid oxygen. 1. (c) temperature of the air. 4. Condensation is the process of cooling a gas into a liquid. .

Ammonium chloride sublimes when it is heated. 2. When heated. they lose energy and regroup themselves into a solid. 1. 2. its particles lose energy to the surroundings. . without going through the liquid state.Freezing point of naphthalene = 80oC. Heat is absorbed when the solid changes to vapour. When the vapour particles are cooled. Different liquids turn into solids at different temperatures called freezing points.2010 1. the particles of ammonium chloride gain energy and overcome the attracting forces betweenthem. 4. 5. Heat is removed from the liquid during freezinf. .Freezing point of nitrogen = -210oC. 3. Freezing is the process of cooling a liquid to form a solid.Freezing point of water = 0oC. Eventually the particles have sufficient energy to escape directly into the air without forming a liquid. Examples of other substances which sublime are: (a) iodine (b) solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) . 6. move more slowly and come very close to one another. Sublimation is the process of changing a solid to a vapour and then from the vapour into a solid. the liquid turns into a solid. and is lost when the vapour changes to a solid. When a liquid is cooled. When the particles arrange themselves in an orderly manner. . 3. 4.

causing the strip to bend towards the metal contact. Sublimation is used for purifying substances. The expansion and contraction of matter is made use of in somegadgets such as thermometer. 2. 4. the mercury contracts and falls in the capillary tube. Thermostat in an electric iron. (b) On a hot day. the temperature in the room rises. the mercury expands and rises in the capillary t ube. showing a fall in temperature. 3. (c) The circuit of the fire-alarm is closed and the alarm bell rings.2010 7. (c) When it is cold. warning people of the fire. (a) A thermostat is a device used to keep an appliance or a place at a required . APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF MATTER 1. (b) In case of fire. showing a rise in temperature. fire-alarms and thermostats. Mercury thermometers. (a) A mercury thermometer has a bulb and a capillary tube filled with some mercury. Fire-alarms (a) An automatic fire alarm has an electric circuit as shown in the diagram below. The brass on the bimetallic strip expands more than the iron. showing a fall in the capillary tube.

(c) This allows the bridge to expand on a hot day and contract on a cool day. 5. 4. Bimetallic thermometers (a) Bimetallic thermometers are used in ovens and motor vehicles. (b) This allows for the wires to contract at night when it is cold. (a) Railway lines will buckle on a very hot day due to expansion of the lines. (c) The two metal plates become tightly joined when the rivets cool and contract. 3. . (a) The expansion of a steel bridge on a hot day can exert great force which may demage the bridge. (b) Thermostats are used in electric irons. the brass expands more than the invar causing the coil to bend inwards. the brass on the bimetallic strip expands more than the iron. railway lines are laid in sections with gaps between them to allow room for expansion. (e) When the electric iron cools. (b) The rivets are heated until red hot and are then harmmed into holes drilled through the metal plates. This action turns the pointer to show a rise in temperature on the temperature scale. (c) An electric iron has a bimetallic thermostat which serves as a switch. (c) When the temperature rises. (a) Roads built of concrete expand on hot days and crack. Rivets (a) Rivets are used to join two metal plates. Telepgraph wires (a) Telegraph wires are put up so that they sag on a hot day. 2. Railway lines. 6. the bimetallic strip returns to its former position and closes the circuit. (b) A bimetallic thermometer has a bimetallic coil made of brass on the outer side and invar on the inner side. (b) A steel bridge is built with one end fixed and the other end resting in rollers.2010 temperature. Concrete roads. Steel bridges. (f) The required temperature is controlled by changing the gap between the bimetallic strip and the contact point. Expansion and contraction of matter due to temperature changes gives rise to problems. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend upwards and break the circuit. electric kettles. ovens and air-conditioners. 5. (d) When the temperature of an electric iron in use gets too hot. 1. (b) To solve this problem. refrigerators.

Eksperiment 6 . This expansion and contraction can break the pipes.2010 (b) To solve this problem. (b) So steam pipes have expansion joints. They contract when they are not carrying steam. reflects heat better than a black. A white.g. shiny object. Heat radiated or given out by an object depends on the following factors: (a) Temperature of object: the hotter the object compared to its surroundings. These joints allow the pipes to expand and contract without breaking. (b) Surface area of object: the bigger the surface area. dull object. concrete roads are built with gaps in them to allow for expansion on a hot day. dull object absorb heat better than a white. All objects can absorb. 3. (d) Material of object: different materials give out heat at different rates e. 4. metals give out heat faster than non-metals. Steam pipes. the faster is the heat given out. shiny object. shiny object. ABSORPTION AND RADIATION OF HEAT 1. shiny surface. 5. (c) Type of surface of object: a dark. A black. A black. 2. dull object radiates heat better than a white. (a) Steam pipes made of metal become very hot and expand when they carry steam. radiate (release heat by radiation) and reflect heat. the faster it gives out heat. dull surfaces gives out heat faster than a white. 6.

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2010 Eksperimen 7 .

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(c) Petrol storage tanks. These tanks are painted with aluminium paint so that they are shiny and reflect heat. . (a) White clothes People in tropical countries wear white or light-coloured clothes because they absorb less heat than dark-coloured clothes. The walls of houses are painted white so as to absorb less heat and keep the houses cooler. (b) White walls. In everyday life.2010 1. This prevents the petrol inside the tanks from becoming too hot. white shiny surfaces are used to reflect heat or absorb less heat.

(c) Cool air from the outside enters the room through the opened windows. White shiny surfaces are used to reduce heat loss by radiation. a fire-man wearing the helmet does not feel so hot. . Ventilation in a hot room. (a) Vertilation in a room uses the principle of convection. (a) Tea pots Tea pots are made from shiny aluminium. heat is quickly lost to the air. Black dull surfaces are used to absorb or lose heat quickly. (a) Solar water heaters. With less heat absorbed. Aluminium foils are placed below the tiles on a roof to reflect heat. By painting the back surface black. (d) The warm air which is less dense rises and leaves through the air holes in the walls. THE BENEFITS OF HEAT FLOW Using the Principle of Heat Flow 1. Air-conditioners (a) An air-conditioner cools a room by convection. 3. (b) Boilers Boilers for keeping hot water are painted with shiny aluminium paint to reduce heat loss by radiation from the hot water. Heat flowing from one place to another is made use of to make our lives more comfortable. 2.2010 (d) Iron helmets of fire-men These helmets are well polished so that they are shiny and reflect heat. (c) The cold it produces is dense and moves downwards to push out the warm air in the room. refreshing the air in the room. This is to reduce heat loss by radiation from the hot tea in the pots. The pipes on a solar heater are black so that they can absorb heat quickly from the sun. (e) Aluminium foils below roofs. 2. 3. (b) Back of refrigerator The black of a refrigerator is hot. (b) Used hot air in the room rises and escapes through ventilators (air holes) in the upper section of the room. This keeps the house cooler. (b) An air-conditioner is fixed on the uper wall of a room.

(a) In cold countries. the sitting room usually has a fire-place burning coal to warm the room in winter. Chimneys in cold countries. (b) The heated air. rises up the chimney and cooler air comes in through windows to take its place. (d) The room is also warmed by radiation from the fire. being less dense. (c) A convection current which is set up carries heat to all parts of the room. ^-^ Writing by Andi nur aqilah 1rk4 Smk seri perling 1 nov-11 nov 2010 .2010 4.

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