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-year-old computer program used primarily to edit, alter, and enhance digital photographs. An industry standard, Photoshop is found in the production process for nearly ever professional magazine, newspaper, the web and virtually every other visual publication. It's capabilities are virtually endless, dictated by the "Photoshopper's" capabilities instead of the program's design. Using bitmap technology, within Photoshop one can edit pixels (picture elements) of a digital photo with such accuracy that it is in fact possible to fool the eyes into believing something is there when in fact, there really isn't, for the eyes cannot distinguish pixels. (Any digital photo is in fact one grand illusion, millions of pixels all pieced together making up one grand image.) However, depending on the skill of the Photoshopper, the falsity of the actual photo may be easily traceable or totally invisible. It can become very difﬁcult to distinguish the "real" photo from the "fake" photo, especially with a professional Photoshopper. No matter which magazine you look at, be it a Playboy or USA Today, nearly every model photographed has been digitally altered using Photoshop in more ways than one. Pimples are removed. Hips are trimmed. Legs are lengthened. You get the idea. This is of course is done with the model's express permission and, depending on the magazine, is reasonable according to their respective standards. (For example, a ﬁtness magazine is going to be a little more erotic than AARP. Thus, slightly varied expectations must be set aside for each.) However, Photoshop has, in recent years, seen a surge in private consumer sales and content. "Photoshopping" has become a neologism: a verb, much like "google," in fact. Nowadays virtually anybody can pick up a copy and, once skilled enough, can alter any image to their preference. Unlike any other time in human history, it is now possible for John Doe to successfully morph reality and trick the mind into whatever it sees ﬁt all through a few hours of pointing and clicking. All of this without permission from the image holder. The issue raised here becomes a question of ethics. People can now edit any photograph and make it the way they want to. If one sees an image on MySpace (a popular social networking site), that they are unsatisﬁed with, they can take that public domain and tamper with it in any way shape or form. There are no legal restrictions, nor technological restraints any longer. They don't have to ask the owner for that picture. That person can take the newly formed image and post it under an "artwork" license. They may do with it as they please, considering that the original picture was public domain to begin with (unless a copyright has been infringed... only then it becomes a legal battle). QUESTION: Is it right for any person to digitally alter public pictures for private use without permission from the owner? For public use? For any use?