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Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Gr dich / Gr Gott! Hello!

/ Greetings! (Southern
Germany & Austria)

Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Servus tahk / hah-loh / sair-voohs Hi / Hello / Hi & Bye
(Southern Germany & Austria)

Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schn bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Verzeihung Pardon me (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heie... ikh hie-ssuh My name is... [I am called...] Herr / Frau / Frulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in...

Tschs / Tschau tchews / chow Bye! Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schn / sehr) dahn-kuh shurn/zair Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heit du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal)

Bis spter biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heien Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Es freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal)

Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehrshtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Knnen Sie mir helfen? ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie heit ___ auf deutsch? vee heist ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Ich mchte / Ich htte gern... ikh merkh-tuh / ikh heh-tuh gairn I'd like...

Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand.

Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich wei (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know.

Kannst du mir helfen? kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ?

Natrlich / Gerne nah-tewr-likh / gair-nuh Of course / Gladly Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are...

Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-gehsen I forgot. Ich bin krank / mde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Das gefllt mir. dahs geh-fehlt meer I like it.

Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vyluh I'm bored. Prima / Toll / Super! pree-mah / tohl / zoo-pair Great / Fantastic!

Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

Herzlichen Glckwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glck! feel glewk Good luck!

Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! (informal) Schauen Sie mal! / Schau mal! show-en zee mal / show mal Look! (formal / informal) Sonst noch etwas? Anything else? Stimmt so. Keep the change. Es tut mir weh. It hurts. Alles ist in Ordnung. Everything is fine. Nicht wahr? [general tag question]

Bitte schn? Yes? / What would you like to order? Bitte schn. Here you go. (handing something to someone) Ich bin satt. I'm full. Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you. (informal) Wie wre es mit ... ? How about...?

Was darf's sein? What can I get you? / How can I help you? Zahlen bitte! The check, please! Mir ist schlecht. I feel sick. Du fehlst mir. I miss you. (informal) Was fr ein...? What kind of (a)...?

Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, it is somewhere between ish and ikh. Technically, it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation German Vowels [i] viel [y] khl [ ] Tisch [ ] hbsch [e] Tee [] schn Bett [ ] English Pronunciation meet, eat ee rounded / long vowel mitt, it ih rounded / short vowel mate, wait ay rounded / long vowel met, wet

[] [a] [ ] [u] [ ] [o] [ ] [ ] [ ]

zwlf Mann kam gut muss Sohn Stock bitte Wetter

eh rounded / short vowel mop, not ah / longer vowel than [a] boot, suit put, soot coat, goat caught, bought cut, what uhr / also short vowel like []

Highlighted vowels do not exist in English. Notice that words spelled with and can be pronounced with a long or short vowel, so determining the pronunciation based on the spelling is not possible. The other umlauted letter, , is generally pronounced as [e], though it can be pronounced as [] in some dialects. A general rule for pronunciation, however, states that the short vowels / / must be followed by a consonant, whereas the long vowels / i y u e o / can occur at the end of the syllable or word. German Diphthongs [a ] [a ] [ ] a Bb Cc ein, mein auf, kaufen neu, Gebude ah English Pronunciation eye, buy, why cow, now, how toy, boy, foil astronaut der Adler (eagle), Januar (January) der Bruder (brother), aber (but)

approximate: baby bay

approximate: creative, der Chor, der Christkindlmarkt (south tsay Celcius (soft c German term for der Weihnachtsmarkt/ sound in Christmas market), Celcius German sounds like ts) approximate: dollar day approximate: elegant ay eff effort Dienstag (Tuesday), oder (or) essen (to eat), zuerst (first) der Freund (friend), offen (open) gut (good), gemein (mean)

Dd Ee Ff Gg

approximate: gorgeous gay

Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq

haa eeh yot kah ell em en oh

hammer Igor yellow camel love man nice oven

der Hammer, dieMhle (mill) der Igel (porcupine), der Imbiss (snack), sieben (seven) das Jahr (year), jeder (each) das Kamel, der Kuchen (cake) die Leute (people), das Land (land) der Mann, die Ameise nicht (not), die Mnze (coin) Ostern (Easter),rot (red) die Polizei (police), der Apfel das Quadrat (square), die Quelle (source) Note: All German words start with qu (kw - sound) der Rcken (the back), der Stern (star) summen (to hum), schn (pretty, nice), die Maus der Tyrann, acht (eight)

approximate: party pay koo coral

Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx

approximate: rich er es zoo, shine, mouse

approximate: tyrant tay ooh fow

ou sound in you die Universitt (university), der Mund (mouth) father der Vogel (bird), die Nerven (nerves) die Wange (cheek), das Schwein (pig, wieviel (how much) das Xylofon/ Xylophon, die Hexe (witch) Note: There are hardly any German words that start with X die Yucca, der Yeti Note: There are hardly any German words that start with Y. die Zeitung (newspaper), der Zigeuner (gypsy)

approximate: van vay ix sounds like kz

Yy

uep-si-lohn

yellow

Zz

tset

sounds like ts

Umlaut +

Aussprache des Buchstaben/ Pronunciation of Letter sounds similar to the e in melon sounds similar to the i in girl no equivalent nor approximate sound in English

Beispiele/ Examples hnlich (similar), ghnen (to yawn) sterreich (Austria), der Lwe (lion) ber (over),mde (tired) hei (hot),d

(esszet) double s sound

German Consonants There are a few German consonants that do not exist in English, and some consonant combinations that are not common in English. Notice that the pronunciation of the German r changes according to the location in the countries that speak German, i.e. [R] in northern Germany and [r] in southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Spelling ch (with vowels e and i) ch (with vowels a, o, u) Pf Sample words Chemie, mich, nicht [x] Buch, lachen, kochen [pf] Apfel, Pferd, Pfanne Z [ts] Zeit, Zug, Tanz J [j] ja, Januar, Junge Qu [kv] Quote, Quiz, Quitte st / sp (at beginning of [t] / Stadt, syllable) [p] sprechen Sch [] schenken, schlafen Th [t] Theater, Thron V [f] Vater, verboten W [v] Wasser, warm [s] Strae, gro IPA [] How to pronounce: Make yuh sound voiceless (no vibration of vocal cords) Make kuh sound a fricative (continuous airflow) Pronounce together as one sound Pronounce together as one sound Yuh Kv sht / shp Sh T F V S

s (before vowel)

[z]

Salz, seit, Sitz Z

In addition, the sounds [b], [d], and [g] lose their voicing at the end of a syllable, so they are pronounced as their voiceless counterparts [p], [t], and [k], respectively. However, the spelling does not reflect the pronunciation. Stress Stress generally falls on the first syllable of the word, except in words borrowed from other languages, where the stress falls on the last syllable (especially with French words.)

3. Alphabet

a c e f g i

ah

yoht s kah el

Ess Tay

b bay k
tsay l ay eff gay

t v x y z

u Oo
fow

d day m em n o p r
en oh pay koo ehr

w vay
eeks irp-se-lon tset

h hah q
ee

There is another letter in written German, (es-zet), pronounced like [s]. However, this letter is only used after long vowels or diphthongs, and it is not used at all in Switzerland.

4. Nouns & Cases All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. 1. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, -ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us.

2. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, -schaft, -sion, -sis, -tt, -tion, -ung and -ur. 3. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -t, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter.

All nouns in German are capitalized in writing. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as fixed in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative subject of the sentence Accusative direct objects Dative indirect objects The girl is reading. We see the mountain. I bought a gift. We talk to the guide. I gave my mom a gift. The book of the girl. The dog's tail.

Genitive

indicates possession or relationship

The nouns you look up in a dictionary will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles & Demonstratives Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine der (dare) die (dee) den (dane) Die dem (dame) Der des (dess) Der

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive

Neuter das (dahs) das dem des

Plural die die den der

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein einen (ine-en) eine ein einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. dieser diese dieses diese der die das diesen diese dieses diese den die das diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo air, zee, ess, mahn I you (familiar) wir ihr veer we eer you (all)

he, she, it, one sie, Sie zee they, you (formal)

Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, & to Become

I am you are (familiar) he/she/it is

Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin ikh bin we are du bist doo bihst you (plural) are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst

wir sind ihr seid

veer zint eer zide

they/you (formal) sie/Sie sind zee zint are

I was you were (familiar) he/she/it was

ich war du warst er/sie/es war

Past tense of sein ikh var we were doo varst air/zee/es var

wir waren veer vahren you (plural) were ihr wart eer vart they/you (formal) sie/Sie were waren zee vahren

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) ich habe hah-buh wir haben hah-ben du hast hahst ihr habt hahbt er/sie/es hat haht sie/Sie haben hah-ben Past tense of haben ich hatte hah-tuh wir hatten hah-ten du hattest hah-test ihr hattet hah-tet er/sie/es hatte hah-tuh sie/Sie hatten hah-ten Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) ich werde vair-duh wir werden vair-den du wirst veerst ihr werdet vair-det er/sie/es wird veert sie/Sie werden vair-den Past tense of werden voor-duh wir wurden voor-dest ihr wurdet voor-duh sie/Sie wurden

ich wurde du wurdest er/sie/es wurde

voor-den voor-det voor-den

Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich hatte Durst. = I was thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich hatte Heimweh. = I was homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

In everyday speech, the final -e on the ich conjugations can be dropped: ich hab' or hab' ich

8. Useful Words And But Very Or Here Also Both some Only again hopefully between therefore a lot, many really together All Now So another already und aber sehr oder hier auch beide etwas nur wieder hoffentlich zwischen deshalb viel(e) wirklich zusammen alle jetzt also noch ein schon oont ah-ber zair oh-der here owkh by-duh eht-vahss noor vee-der hoh-fent-likh zvish-en des-halp feel(uh) veerk-lish tsoo-zah-men ahl-luh yetst al-zoh nohkh ine shone isn't it? too bad Gladly Immediately sure(ly) but, rather Finally right! Anyway Enough exact(ly) Sometimes Always Never Often of course Perhaps a little a little not at all not a bit nicht wahr? schade gern sofort sicher(lich) sondern schlielich stimmt berhaupt genug genau manchmal immer nie oft klar vielleicht ein bisschen ein wenig gar nicht kein bisschen nikht vahr shah-duh gehrn zoh-fort zikh-er-likh zohn-dehrn shleess-likh shtimt oo-ber-howpt guh-nook guh-now mahnch-mal im-er nee ohft klahr fee-likht ine biss-khen ine vay-nikh gar nikht kine biss-khen

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are and it is always followed by the accusative case.

9. Question Words Who vehr Whom (acc.) What was vahs Whom (dat.) Why warum vah- How room come When wann vahn Where from Where wo voh Where wer Wen wem wieso woher wohin vain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin

How

wie

vee

to Which welche/- velshr/-s uh/er/es

10. Numbers / Die Nummern 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1,000 null eins zwei drei vier fnf sechs sieben acht neun zehn elf zwlf dreizehn vierzehn fnfzehn sechzehn siebzehn achtzehn neunzehn zwanzig einundzwanzig zweiundzwanzig dreiundzwanzig vierundzwanzig dreiig vierzig fnfzig sechzig siebzig achtzig neunzig (ein)hundert (ein)tausend nool ines tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-oont-tsvahn-tsikh feer-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th

erste zweite dritte vierte fnfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte elfte zwlfte dreizehnte vierzehnte fnfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste einundzwanzigste zweiundzwanzigste dreiundzwanzigste vierundzwanzigste dreiigste vierzigste fnfzigste sechzigste siebzigste achtzigste neunzigste

Sometimes zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of zwei to avoid confusion with drei when talking on the telephone. The use of commas and periods is switched in German, though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths, i.e. 1,000 would be 1 000. When saying telephone numbers, you can either say each number individually or group them in twos. For years, you use the hundreds: 1972 is neunzehn hundert zweiundsiebzig; or the thousands: 2005 is zwei tausend fnf. Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Ich bin in 1982 geboren. I was born in 1982.

11. Days of the Week / Die Tage Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag
Sonnabend

mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk


zon-nah-bent

Sonntag der Tag (-e) der Morgen (-) der Nachmittag (-e) der Abend (-e) die Nacht (, -e) heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern Abend die Woche (-n) das Wochenende (-n) tglich wchentlich

zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh

To say on a certain day or the weekend, use am. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays, Tuesdays, etc." All days, months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden - every, nchsten - next, letzten - last (as in the last of a series), vorigen - previous. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany, while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

12. Months of the Year / Die Monate January


(Austria)

Januar
Jnner

yah-noo-ahr
yeh-ner

February March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly

Februar Mrz April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (-e) das Jahr (-e) monatlich jhrlich

fay-broo-ahr mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh

To say in a certain month, use im. Wann hast du Geburtstag? When is your birthday? Mein Geburtstag ist im Mai. My birthday is in May.

13. Seasons / Die Jahreszeiten Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frhling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst

To say in the + a season, use im.

14. Directions / Die Richtungen right left rechts links

straight North South East West

geradeaus der Norden der Sden der Osten der Westen

im Norden = in the North nach Osten = to the East aus Westen = from the West

15. Colors & Shapes / Die Farben & Die Formen orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green turquoise beige silver gold orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau wei grn trkis beige silber gold square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Wrfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder

Because colors are adjectives, they must agree in gender and number with the noun they describe if they are placed before the noun. However, not all adjectives agree, such as colors ending in -a or -e; nor do they agree when they are used as predicate adjectives. To say that a color is light, put hell- before it, and to say that a color is dark, put dunkel- before it. Das Viereck ist braun. The square is brown. Das Rechteck ist hellblau. The rectange is light blue.

16. Time / Die Zeit What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly... At 8. early(ier) late(r) Wie spt ist es? Es ist zwei Uhr nachts Es ist zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es ist Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fnf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist nachmittag Es ist mitternacht morgens / frh abends Es ist genau... Um 8 Uhr. frh(er) spt(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun nakh-mih-tahk mih-ter-nahk mawr-guns / frew aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er)

Official time, such as for bus and train schedules, always uses the 24 hour clock. Notice that halb + number means half to, not half past, so you have to use the hour that comes next.

17. Weather / Das Wetter How's the weather today? It's hot It's cold It's beautiful It's bad It's clear It's icy It's warm It's sunny It's windy It's cloudy It's hazy It's muggy Wie ist das Wetter heute? Es ist hei Es ist kalt Es ist schn Es ist schlecht Es ist klar Es ist eisig Es ist warm Es ist sonnig Es ist windig Es ist bewlkt Es ist dunstig Es ist schwl vie ist dahs vet-ter hoytuh ess isst hise ess isst kahlt ess isst shern ess isst shlehkt ess isst klahr ess isst ise-ikh ess isst varm ess isst zohn-ikh ess isst vin-dikh ess isst beh-verlkt ess isst doons-tikh ess isst schvool

It's humid It's foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing It looks like rain.

Es ist feucht Es ist nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Es sieht nach Regen aus. The weather is clearing Das Wetter klrt sich auf.

ess isst foikht ess isst neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert es seet nahkh ray-gen ows dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf

18. Family / Die Familie Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandparents Grandfather Grandmother Grandchildren Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Siblings Baby Godfather Godmother Step-in-law Brother-in-law Sister-in-law die Eltern die Mutter () der Vater () der Sohn (, -e) Relative Man Sir / Mister Woman / Ma'am / Mrs. / Ms. die Tochter () Husband der Bruder () Wife die Schwester (-n) Boy die Groeltern Girl der Grovater () Grandpa die Gromutter () Grandma die Enkelkinder Dad der Enkel (-) Mom die Enkelin (-nen) Friend (m) die Nichte (-n) Friend (f) der Neffe (-n) Partner / Significant Other (m) der Vetter (-n) Partner / Significant Other (f) die Kusine (-n) Marital Status der Onkel (-) Single die Tante (-n) Married die Geschwister Divorced das Baby (-s) Male der Pate (-n) Female die Patin (-nen) Child der/die StiefToddler der/die Schwieger- Teenager der Schwager () Adult die Schwgerin (- Twin der Verwandte (-n) der Mann (, -er) der Herr (-en) die Frau (-en) der Ehemann (, -er) die Ehefrau (-en) der Junge (-n) das Mdchen (-) der Opa (-s) die Oma (-s) der Vati die Mutti der Freund (-e) die Freundin (-nen) der Partner (-) die Partnerin (-nen) der Familienstand ledig verheiratet geschieden mnnlich weiblich das Kind (-er) das Kleinkind (-er) der Teenager (-) der Erwachsene (-n) der Zwilling (-e)

nen)

The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun. Notice that sometimes an umlaut is placed over the main vowel of the word in the plural. For example, der Mann is singular (the man) and die Mnner is plural (the men). For step- and -in-law relations, just add Stief- or Schwieger- before the main person, except in the case of brother-in-law and sister-in-law noted above. The plurals follow the pattern for the main person, i.e. die Schwiegermutter (singular) and die Schwiegermtter (plural)

19. To Know People & Facts kennen - to know people ich kenne kenwir kennen nuh du kennst kenst ihr kennt er/sie/es kent sie/Sie kennt kennen wissen - to know facts ich wei vise wir wissen vih-sun du weit er/sie/es wei vist vise ihr wisst sie/Sie wissen vihst vih-sun

kennun kent kennun

Kennen is a regular verb, while wissen is irregular in the present tense. You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

20. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable, so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. However, here are some rules that can help: 1. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. eine Lampe eine Tr eine Studentin eine Gabel zwei Lampen zwei Tren zwei Studentinnen zwei Gabeln

2. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well, but neuter plural nouns ending in -e don't. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a, o , u or au.

Masculine ein Rock zwei Rcke ein Mann zwei Mnner

Neuter ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Buch zwei Bcher

3. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a, o, u or au add an umlaut. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -el also add nothing at all (with three exceptions: Pantoffel, Stachel, Muskel). Masculine ein Bruder zwei Brder ein Kegel zwei Kegel Neuter ein Fenster zwei Fenster ein Mittel zwei Mittel

4. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. ein Hobby ein Hotel zwei Hobbys zwei Hotels

21. Possessive Adjectives

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Masc. mein meinen meinem meines

Fem. meine meine meiner meiner

Neu. mein mein meinem meines

Pl. meine meine meinen meiner

Other words that are formed like mein (my) are: ein - a/an, dein-your (du form), sein-his/its, ihr-her, unser-our, euer-your (ihr form), ihr-their, Ihr-your (Sie form), and kein-no/not any.

22. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Fem. Neuter den die das

Definite

Plural die

Indefinite

einen

eine

ein

keine

Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form, such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent, Komponist, Patient, Polizist, Soldat, Student, Tourist, Journalist); nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache, Junge, Kunde, Lwe, Neffe, Riese, Vorfahre, Zeuge); and the following nouns: Elefant, Herr, Mensch, Nachbar. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). Personal Pronouns - Nominative & Accusative mich me wir we uns dich you ihr you euch ihn him sie they sie sie her Sie you Sie es it

ich Du Er Sie Es

I you he she it

us you them you

German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence, whereas English relies mainly on word order. Take, for example, the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. In German, you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple, but in English, if you were to change word order, you would have to say the apple eats me. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. Usually, word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence.

23. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. Usually in English, we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Fem. Neuter dem der dem einem einer einem

Definite Indefinite

Plural den keinen

Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an (e)n in the dative form. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural, unless they already end in an -n or -s. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who).

mir dir ihm ihr ihm

me you him her it

Personal Pronouns uns euch ihnen Ihnen

us you they you

In sentences with both a direct and indirect object, the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun, unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. I give (to) my brother a tie. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. I give it to my brother.

24. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession, more often in writing than in speech. When speaking, most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. For proper nouns, German only adds an -s to the noun, whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable, or an -es if the word is one syllable. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative; they also add -(e)n in the genitive. There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well, for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. die Farbe des Vogels - the color of the bird die Grsse des Hauses - the size of the house die Tasche meiner Mutter - my mother's purse [the purse of my mother] der Bleistift des Studenten - the student's pencil [the pencil of the student] Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Fem. Neu. des der des eines einer eines

Definite Indefinite

Plural der keiner

25. To Do or Make machen - to do or make mock-uh machen mockst macht

mache machst

mock-en mockt

macht

mockt

machen

mock-en

26. Work and School masculine Schauspieler Architekt (en) Knstler Schriftsteller Bankangestellter Geschftsmann Kassierer Beamter Dirigent Koch (, e) Hausmeister Zahnarzt (, e) Arzt (e) Ingenieur Landwirt Flugbegleiter Friseur Journalist Richter Anwalt (, e) Dozent Bibliothekar Automechaniker Krankenpfleger Rentner Drogist Fotograf Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Politiker Postangestellter Prsident (en) Priester Professor Verkufer Sekretr feminine Schauspielerin Architektin Knstlerin Schriftstellerin Bankangestellte Geschftsfrau Kassiererin Beamtin Dirigentin Kchin Hausmeisterin Zahnrztin rztin Ingenieurin Landwirtin Flugbegleiterin Friseurin Journalistin Richterin Anwltin Dozentin Bibliothekarin Automechanikerin Krankenpflegerin Rentnerin Drogistin Fotografin Pilotin Polizistin Politikerin Postangestellte Prsidentin Priesterin Professorin Verkuferin Sekretrin

actor architect artist author bank clerk businessman/woman cashier civil servant conductor cook custodian dentist doctor engineer farmer flight attendant hairdresser journalist judge lawyer lecturer librarian mechanic nurse pensioner (retired) pharmacist photographer pilot police officer politician postal worker president priest professor salesperson secretary

student taxi driver teacher TV reporter waiter worker writer

Student Taxifahrer Lehrer Fernsehreporter Kellner Arbeiter Schriftsteller

Studentin Taxifahrerin Lehrerin Fernsehreporterin Kellnerin Arbeiterin Schriftstellerin

Besides the plural forms shown above, the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural, while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. Also, German does not use articles before professions. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. Was sind Sie von Beruf? What do you do for a living? Ich bin Arzt. I'm a doctor (male). School University College / University Subject Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering Management Marketing Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Cafeteria Dictionary Scissors Eraser die Schule (n) Elementary School die Grundschule (n) die Universitt (en) Secondary School das Gymnasium die Hochschule (n) High School die Oberschule (n) das Fach (, er) Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau Betriebswirtschaft Marketing Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prfung (en) die Mittagspause die Mensa das Wrterbuch (, er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) Foreign languages Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry Media Studies Political Science Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Fremdsprachen Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie Medienwissenschaft Politik Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide

Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil/Student (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Professor (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule

das Buch (, er) Notebook der Bleistift (e) Sheet of Paper die Schultasche (n) Calculator der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mdchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) der Professor die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (, e) Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil/Student (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Professor (f) hard easy Vacation Assignment

das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schlerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) die Professorin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl.) die Aufgabe (n)

In Germany, students must pass das Abitur in order to graduate from high school. In Austria, this final exam is called die Matura. Notice that there are two words for student: Schler is used for students in primary and secondary schools, while Student is only used for university students.

The verb studieren is used for university study or to state your major. The verb lernen should be used for studying in general, and especially for learning a language. Er studiert in Freiburg. He studies (goes to university) in Freiburg. Ich studiere Franzsisch. I study French (in college). / French is my major. Ich lerne Spanisch und Italienisch. I'm studying/learning Spanish and Italian.

27. Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around / at

durch gegen um

fr ohne bis

for without until Preps. that take the Dative case aus out (of), from (country, town or place) mit with, by means of (transportation) von from (person, open space, or direction), by seit since, for bei near, at, at home of or place of business nach after, to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenber across from auer except for, besides Preps. that take the Genitive case whrend during trotz in spite of (an)statt instead of wegen because of auerhalb outside of innerhalb inside of Preps. that may take Acc. or Dat. (two-way) an at, to, on (vertical surfaces, denotes border or limiting area) auf onto, on (horizontal surfaces), to (some public buildings) hinter behind in in, into, to (building, enclosed space, feminine or plural countries) neben beside, next to ber over, above, across, about unter under, below, among, beneath vor in front of, before zwischen between For the two-way prepositions: The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? The dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. But one exception is zu Hause - at home (dat.) and nach Hause - (to) home (acc.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home, and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. Accusative: movement & direction Dative: location & position

Er hngt das Bild ber das Sofa. He hangs the picture over the sofa. Stell es unter den Tisch. Put it under the table. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. Drive the car behind the house. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tr. Put the bottles in front of the door. Stell es auf den Tisch. Put it on the table. Schreib es an die Tafel. Write it on the board. Er geht in die Kche. He goes into the kitchen. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. Put it beside the house. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table.

Das Bild hngt ber dem Sofa. The picture hangs over the sofa. Es ist unter dem Tisch. It is under the table. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. The car is behind the house. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tr. The bottles are in front of the door. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. It's lying on the table. Es steht an der Tafel. It is on the board. Er ist in der Kche. He is in the kitchen. Es ist neben dem Haus. It is beside the house. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. The lamp is between the sofa and the table.

Stellen, legen and setzen use the accusative case, while stehen, liegen and sitzen use the dative case.

28. Prepositional Contractions Contractions in Writing an dem am auf das aufs fr das frs in das ins zu dem zum an das ans bei dem beim in dem im von dem vom zu der zur durch das durchs um das ums Contractions in Informal Speech an den an'n auf den auf'n auf dem auf'm aus den aus'n fr den fr'n gegen das gegen's in den in'n nach dem nach'm

29. Countries and Nationalities

Africa African Albania Albanian America American Argentina Argentine Asia Asian Australia Australian Austria Austrian Belgium Belgian Bosnia Bosnian Brazil Brazilian Bulgaria Bulgarian Canada Canadian China Chinese Croatia Croatian Cyprus Cypriot Czech Republic Czech Denmark Danish Egypt Egyptian England English Estonia Estonian Europe

Afrika Afrikaner/in Albanien Albaner/in Amerika Amerikaner/in Argentinien Argentinier/in Asien Asiat/in Australien Australier/in sterreich sterreicher/in Belgien Belgier/in Bosnien Bosnier/in Brasilien Brasilianer/in Bulgarien Bulgare/Bulgarin Kanada Kanadier/in China Chinese/Chinesin Kroatien Kroate/Kroatin Zypern Zypriot/in die Tschechische Republik Tscheche/Tschechin Dnemark Dne/Dnin gypten gypter/in England Englnder/in Estland Este/Estin Europa

Ireland Irishman Israel Israeli Hebrew Italy Italian Japan Japanese Latvia Latvian Lithuania Lithuanian Luxembourg Luxembourger Macedonia Macedonian Malta Maltese Mexico Mexican Netherlands Dutch New Zealand New Zealander Norway Norwegian Poland Polish Portugal Portuguese Romania Romanian Russia Russian Scotland Scottish Serbia Serbian Slovakia Slovak

Irland Ire/Irin Israel Israeli Hebrisch Italien Italiener/in Japan Japaner/in Lettland Lette/Lettin Litauen Litauer/in Luxemburg Luxemburger/in Mazedonien Mazedonier/in Malta Malteser/in Mexiko Mexikaner/in die Niederlande Hollnder/in Neuseeland Neuseelnder/in Norwegen Norweger/in Polen Pole/Polin Portugal Portugiese/Portugiesin Rumnien Rumne/Rumnin Russland Russe/Russin Schottland Schotte/Schottin Serbien Serbe/Serbin die Slowakei Slowake/Slowakin

European Finland Finnish France French Germany German Great Britain British Greece Greek Hungary Hungarian Iceland Icelandic India Indian Indonesia Indonesian

Europer/in Finnland Finne/Finnin Frankreich Franzose/Franzsin Deutschland Deutscher/Deutsche Grobritannien Brite/Britin Griechenland Grieche/Griechin Ungarn Ungar/in Island Islnder/in Indien Inder/in Indonesien Indonesier/in

Slovenia Slovene South Africa South African Spain Spanish Sweden Swedish Switzerland Swiss Turkey Turk Ukraine Ukrainian United Kingdom United States Wales Welsh

Slowenien Slowene/Slowenin Sdafrika Sdafrikaner/in Spanien Spanier/in Schweden Schwede/in die Schweiz Schweizer/in die Trkei Trke/Trkin die Ukraine Ukrainer/in Vereinigtes Knigreich die Vereinigten Staaten Wales Waliser/in

Female nationalities add -in to the masculine nationality but some need to delete the final -e before adding -in. A few nationalities are slightly irregular or have spelling changes: Deutscher (German man), Deutsche (German woman), Franzose (Frenchman), Franzsin (Frenchwoman) To form the adjective, use the masculine nationality stem and add -isch: amerikanisch, belgisch, griechisch, polnisch, schwedisch, etc. Some are slightly irregular: deutsch, englisch, franzsisch The adjectives can also refer to the language, but then the word must be capitalized, i.e. deutsch is the adjective that is usually followed by a noun, whereas Deutsch is the German language.

30. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation, but nicht means not and kein means no, not a, or not any. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. It is declined as an ein-word. Ist das eine Katze? Is that a cat?

Nein, das ist keine Katze.

No, that's not a cat.

Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective; or it could negate any part (verb, noun, adjective) or all of a sentence. Nicht always follows the verb, but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. It you want to negate an entire sentence, nicht comes last. Nicht also follows expressions of time. Das ist meine Frau. Das ist nicht meine Frau. Heute ist es kalt. Heute ist es nicht kalt. That's my wife. That's not my wife. It is cold today. It is not cold today.

31. To and From Countries and Cities to from in nach aus in

In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz. I'm flying to Switzerland. Ich fliege nach Deutschland. I'm flying to Germany. And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries, the definite article must also be used. Ich bin aus den USA . I am from the US. Ich bin aus Frankreich . I am from France.

32. To Come and to Go kommen - to come kommen kommt kommen

komme kommst kommt

koh-muh kohmst kohmt

koh-men kohmt koh-men

gehe gehst geht

geh-uh gehst gate

gehen - to go gehen geht gehen

geh-in gate geh-in

33. Modal Verbs German has six modal verbs that you should memorize. They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed in the second position of the sentence. The main verb is in the infinitive form and placed at the end of the clause or sentence. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. (I can buy a ticket.) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. knnen - to be able to, can wir knnen ihr knnt sie/Sie knnen

ich kann du kannst er/sie/es kann

ich mu du mut er/sie/es mu

mssen - to have to, must wir mssen ihr msst sie/Sie mssen

ich darf du darfst er/sie/es darf

drfen - to be allowed/permitted to wir drfen ihr drft sie/Sie drfen

Nicht mssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. Nicht drfen translates to must not. Du mut es nicht machen is you don't have to do it. Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it.

ich soll du sollst er/sie/es soll

ich will du willst er/sie/es will mgen - to like ich mag wir mgen du magst ihr mgt er/sie/es mag sie/Sie mgen Subjunctive of mgen - would like ich mchte wir mchten du mchtest ihr mchtet er/sie/es mchte sie/Sie mchten This subjunctive of mgen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mgen. Ich mchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. Sometimes the infinitive is not required with modal verbs, if the meaning is clear enough without them. For example, you can often omit sprechen and tun after knnen and you can omit verbs of motion if there is an adverb of place. Ich kann Spanisch. I can/know how to speak Spanish. Er will nach Hause. He wants to go home.

sollen - to be supposed to wir sollen ihr sollt sie/Sie sollen wollen - to want (to) wir wollen ihr wollt sie/Sie wollen

34. Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Tense To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense, no ending and -s ending (I, you, we, they run vs. he/she/it runs). To form regular verbs in German, remove the -en ending and add these endings: -e -st -t -en -t -en

Regular Verbs in the Present Tense antworten to answer machen to make

arbeiten beginnen bekommen benutzen besuchen bezahlen bleiben brauchen dauern denken entdecken erfinden ergnzen erlauben erzhlen essen finden fischen fliegen fragen gehen gewinnen glauben helfen kaufen kennen kommen laufen lehren lernen lieben liegen

to work to begin to get to use to visit to pay for to remain/stay to need to last to think to discover to invent to complete to permit to tell to eat to find to fish to fly to ask to go to win to believe/think to help to buy to know (people) to come to run to teach to learn to love to lay

passieren rauchen reisen rennen rufen sagen schlafen schreiben schwimmen sehen singen sitzen sparen stecken stehen studieren suchen tanzen treffen trennen trinken verdienen vergessen verlieren versprechen verstehen warten waschen winken wischen wnschen ziehen

to happen to smoke to travel to run to call to say to sleep to write to swim to see to sing to sit to save (money) to put to stand to study to look for to dance to meet to separate to drink to earn (money) to forget to lose to promise to understand to wait to wash to wave to wipe to wish/desire to move

English has three ways of expressing the present tense, such as I run, I am running, I do run. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe.) However, you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework.

35. Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. In other words, whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. Examples in English would be: I wash myself, he hurts himself, we hate ourselves. Usually the -self words are a clue in English; however, there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative uns mir uns euch dir euch sich sich sich

mich dich sich

The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun, then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. Accusative: Ich fhle mich nicht wohl - I don't feel well. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus - I'm taking off my coat. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article, not a possessive. Reflexive Verbs sich rgern to get angry sich aufregen to get agitated sich ausruhen to rest sich erklten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fhlen to feel (well) sich hinlegen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed sich verletzen to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed sich beeilen to hurry sich setzen to sit down sich erholen to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich rgern ber to get annoyed about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen ber to be happy about sich freuen auf to look forward to sich gewhnen an to get used to sich kmmern um to take care of sich bewerben um to apply for sich interessieren fr to be interested in sich konzentrieren auf to concentrate on sich vorbereiten auf to prepare for

sich entscheiden fr to decide on sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich trennen von to break up with sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich frchten vor to be afraid of

36. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Fahren-to travel fahren fahrt fahren

fahre fhrst fhrt

Examples: fallen-to fall, schlafen-to sleep, tragen-to carry, waschen-to wash, laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Sehen-to see sehen seht sehen

sehe siehst sieht

Examples: lesen- to read, befehlen-to command, empfehlen-to recommend, geschehen-to happen, stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Geben-to give geben gebt geben

gebe gibst gibt

Examples: brechen-to break, essen-to eat, helfen-to help, sprechen-to speak, sterbento die, treffen-to meet, werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nimmst nehmen nehmt

nimmt

nehmen

4) Verb stems ending -d or -t, add an e before three endings. Reden-to speak reden redet reden

rede redest redet

5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound, have -t for du form ending instead of -st. Sitzen-to sit sitzen sitzt sitzen

sitze sitzt sitzt

6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail segle segeln segelst segelt segelt segeln

tue tust tut

tun tut tun

37. Verbs with Prepositions Accusative denken an to think about glauben an to believe in kommen an schreiben an achten auf ankommen auf antworten auf bse sein auf gespannt sein auf hoffen auf warten auf to come to to write to to pay attention to to come down to/be a question of to answer to be angry at to be excited about to hope for to wait for Dative arbeiten an erkennen an sterben an teilnehmen an helfen bei anfangen mit fahren mit rechnen mit sprechen mit fragen nach riechen nach to work on to recognize something by to die of to participate in to help with to begin with to go/travel (by means of) to count on, expect to talk to to ask about to smell of/like

danken fr to thank for sorgen fr to care for lachen ber to laugh about lesen ber nachdenken ber reden ber schreiben ber sprechen ber bitten um kmpfen um to read about to think about to talk about to write about to talk about to ask for/request to fight for

abhngen von erzhlen von halten von handeln von sprechen von trumen von verstehen von wissen von Angst haben vor retten vor

to depend on to tell about to think/feel about to deal with/be about to talk about to dream about to know about/understand to know of to be afraid of to save from

Fahren mit cannot be used with all forms of transportation, such as on foot or by plane.

38. Separable Prefixes abanaufausbeieinlosfernmitnachvorvorbeiwegzuzurckzusammen-

These prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb. Kommen is to come, but ankommen is to arrive. When conjugated, the prefix goes to the end of the sentence. Er kommt um fnf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3." With modals, the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual, but the prefix remains attached. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now." Verbs with Separable Prefixes abholen abrumen abtrocknen abwischen anfangen ankommen anmachen anrufen to pick up to clear (the table) to dry (dishes) to wipe clean to begin to arrive to turn on to call up ausmachen aussehen austragen auswandern ausziehen einkaufen einladen einpacken to turn off to look like, appear to deliver to emigrate to take off clothes to shop to invite to pack up

anschauen ansehen anziehen anznden aufhren aufmachen aufrumen aufstehen aufwachen aufwischen ausfllen ausgeben ausgehen ausleeren

to look at to look at, watch to put on clothes to light (candles) to stop to open to tidy up (clothes) to get up to wake up to mop up to fill in (the blanks) to spend to go out to empty

einschlafen einsteigen fernsehen mitkommen mitnehmen vorbeikommen vorschlagen vorstellen weggehen wegstellen zuhren zumachen zurckkommen zusehen

to fall asleep to board to watch TV to come with to take with to come by to suggest to introduce to go away to put away to listen to to close to come back to observe

Ausgehen can also mean to be on good/bad terms with someone.

39. Inseparable Prefixes beempentergemissverzer-

These prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables, as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen to visit, erzhlen - to tell, gewinnen - to win, and versprechen - to promise. Unter and ber can function as separable prefixes, but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. When prefixes are stressed, they are separable; when they are not stressed, they are inseparable. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix, so they are all inseparable: unterhalten - to entertain, unternehmen - to undertake, berholen - to overtake, and bersetzen - to translate.

The German National Anthem: Deutschland-Lied by Heinrich Hoffman von Fallersleben Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit fr das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben brderlich mit Herz und Hand!

Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit sind des Glckes Unterpfand Blh im Glanze dieses Glckes blhe deutsches Vaterland! Unity and right and freedom for the German fatherland; Let us all pursue this purpose brotherly, with heart and hands. Unity and right and freedom are the pawns of happiness. Flourish in this blessing's glory, flourish, German fatherland.

The Austrian National Anthem: sterreichische Bundeshymne


by Paula von Preradovic Land der Berge, Land am Strome, Land der cker, Land der Dome, Land der Hmmer, zukunftsreich! Heimat bist du groer Shne, Volk, begnadet fr das Schne, Vielgerhmtes sterreich. Hei umfehdet, wild umstritten leigst dem Erdteil du inmitten einem starken Herzen gleich. Hast seit frhen Ahnentagen Hoher Sendung Last getragen Vielgeprftes sterreich. Mutig in die neuen Zeiten, Frei und glubig sich uns schreiten, Arbeitsfroh und hoffnungsreich. Einig la in Brderchren, Vaterland, dir Treue schwren, Vielgeliebtes sterreich. Land of mountains, land of streams, Land of fields, land of spires, Land of hammers, with a rich future. You are the home of great sons, A nation blessed by its sense of beauty, Highly praised Austria. Strongly fought for, fiercely contested, You are in the centre of the Continent Like a strong heart. You have borne since the earliest days.

The burden of a high mission, Much tried Austria. Watch us striding free and believing, With courage, into new eras, Working cheerfully and full of hope. In fraternal chorus let us take in unity The oath of allegiance to you, our country, Our much beloved Austria.

The Swiss National Anthem: Schweizerpsalm by Leonhard Widmer Trittst im Morgenrot daher, Seh' ich dich im Strahlenmeer, Dich, du Hocherhabener, Herrlicher! Wenn der Alpenfirn sich rtet, Betet, freie Schweizer, betet! Eure fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland, Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland. Kommst im Abendglhn daher, Find' ich dich im Sternenheer, Dich, du Menschenfreundlicher, Liebender! In des Himmels lichten Rumen Kann ich froh und selig trumen! Denn die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland, Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland. Ziehst im Nebelflor daher, Such' ich dich im Wolkenmeer, Dich, du Unergrndlicher, Ewiger! Aus dem grauen Luftgebilde Tritt die Sonne klar und milde, Und die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland, Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland.

Fhrst im wilden Sturm daher, Bist Du selbst uns Hort und Wehr, Du, allmchtig Waltender, Rettender! In Gewitternacht und Grauen Lasst uns kindlich ihm vertrauen! Ja, die fromme Seele ahnt, Ja, die fromme Seele ahnt Gott im hehren Vaterland, Gott, den Herrn, im hehren Vaterland !

40. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense


This tense is used more often than the simple past, especially in conversation, and is equivalent to I have done or I did. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. Past participles are made by adding ge- to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et, if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end. Fragen is to ask, and -frag- is the stem; therefore gefragt is the past participle. Arbeiten is to work, and -arbeit- is the stem; therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. Machen is to do/make, and -mach- is the stem; therefore gemacht is the past participle. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. Studieren is to study and studier- is the stem, so studiert is the past participle. The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be, and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt - I asked my brother. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben, but a few use sein, if and only if, both of these conditions are met: 1. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. 2. The verb is intransitive (i.e. cannot take a direct object.) Double Infinitive: When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive, the past participle is not used. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. Logically, I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemut. However, it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen mssen.

When there is no other infinitive in the sentence, then the past participles of the modals are used. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemut. All modals, as well as reflexive verbs, use haben in the present perfect tense. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. I broke my arm. With separable prefixes, the prefix comes before the ge- in a past participle, such as angekommen and aufgestanden. From the participle of the base verb, and then add the prefix to the beginning. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb, and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. For example, stehen takes haben, but aufstehen takes sein. With inseparable prefixes, whether the verb is regular or irregular, there is no geprefix when forming the past participle, such as besucht and verloren. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time, German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre.

41. Irregular Past Participles with Haben

These irregular past participles end with -en, and some have vowel changes in the stem. All of the following irregular past participles use haben as the auxiliary verb.

anfangen aufstehen befehlen beginnen beien bekommen bewerben binden bitten brechen einladen empfehlen

begin get up order, command begin bite get, receive apply tie ask break invite recommend

angefangen aufgestanden befohlen begonnen gebissen bekommen beworben gebunden gebeten gebrochen eingeladen empfohlen

raten reien riechen rufen scheinen schieben schlafen schlieen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen

advise tear smell call shine push sleep shut cut write yell be silent

geraten gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschoben geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen

essen finden fressen frieren geben gewinnen gieen greifen halten hngen heben heien helfen klingen lassen leiden leihen lesen liegen lgen nehmen pfeifen

eat find eat (of animals) freeze give win pour, water reach hold hang, suspend lift be called help sound let, allow suffer lend read recline lie, fib take whistle

gegessen gefunden gefressen gefroren gegeben gewonnen gegossen gegriffen gehalten gehangen gehoben geheien geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten geliehen gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gepfiffen

schwingen sehen singen sitzen sprechen stehen stehlen streiten tragen treffen trinken tun verbieten vergessen verlassen verlieren versprechen verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen

swing see sing sit speak stand steal quarrel wear meet drink do forbid forget leave lose promise understand forgive wash throw pull

geschwungen gesehen gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden gestohlen gestritten getragen getroffen getrunken getan verboten vergessen verlassen verloren versprochen verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen

Some verbs change their stems, like all irregular verbs; but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. They form their past participles like regular verbs. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call, name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwuPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewut

42. Sein Verbs and Past Participles

The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb, and many have irregular past participles. aufwachen bleiben erscheinen ertrinken fahren wake up remain appear drown aufgewacht geblieben erschienen ertrunken gefahren gefallen geflogen gefolgt geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gejoggt geklettert gekommen gekrochen laufen passieren reisen reiten rennen schwimmen sein sinken springen steigen sterben treten wachsen wandern werden run happen travel ride (horseback) run swim be sink jump climb die step grow hike become gelaufen passiert gereist geritten gerannt geschwommen gewesen gesunken gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen gewandert geworden

drive, go, travel fallen fall fliegen fly folgen follow gebren be born gehen go gelingen succeed geschehen happen joggen jog klettern climb kommen come kriechen creep

43. Food and Meals


breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee das Frhstck das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (, er) die Gabel (n) der Lffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das l der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (, e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade

fish ham ice cream jam rice salad soup

der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis der Salat die Suppe

milk egg honey snack cheese mustard pie

die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Kse der Senf die Torte (n)

44. Fruits, Vegetables and Meats


fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel () die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin olive raddish lettuce tomato onion green beans corn meat roast veal lamb beef pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish der Krbis (e) die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) die grnen Bohnen der Mais das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (, e) das Geflgel die Ente (n) die Gans (, e) das Huhn (, er) der Truthahn (, e) der Fisch (e)

In Austria, der Karfiol is cauliflower, die Fisolen is green beans, and der Kukuruz is corn.

45. Genitive Partitive

The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. Both words are in the nominative case in German, and of is not needed. a glass of water - ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake - ein Stck Kuchen a slice of pizza - ein Stck Pizza

46. Commands
du form ihr form wir form Sie form conjugated form, minus -(s)t conjugated form conjugated form with wir following conjugated form with Sie following Gehen-to go Geh! Geht! Gehen wir! Gehen Sie!

Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. All commands require an exclamation point. The wir forms translate as Let's + verb in English. Imperative of Sein Sei! Seid! Seien Sie!

du form ihr form Sie form

47. Subordinating Conjunctions


Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together, and they do affect word order. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb, but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. Und, aber, denn - for/because, sondern - but (on the contrary) and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. The rest of the conjunctions act as

subordinating, and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. Some examples are als-when, bevor-before, bis-until, damit-so that, dass-that, wenn-if/when, ob-whether, obwohl-although, nachdem-after, da-since, whrendwhile, weil-because, and wie-how. 1. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions, the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. Ich bleibe zu Hause. Ich bin krank. I'm staying home. I am sick. Ich bleibe zu Hause, weil ich krank bin. I'm staying home because I am sick. (weil is the subordinating conjunction, and bin must go to the end.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. Sie hat gegessen. She's coming to your place. She has eaten. Sie kommt nach zu dir, nachdem sie gegessen hat. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. (nachdem is the sub. conjunction, and hat must go to the end.) However, when a double infinitive construction is involved, the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. Ich wei nicht, ob er hat mitkommen wollen. I don't know if he wanted to come along. 2. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction, the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. The subordinate clause becomes the first position, so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen, whrend Sie in Berlin sind. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. Whrend Sie in Berlin sind, telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. While you are in Berlin, Hans will call you. (whrend is a subordinating conjunction, and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence, so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause, telefoniert.) 3. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause, the prefix remains attached to the verb, and the entire verb goes to the end of the clause, whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. Er ist immer mde, wenn er frh aufsteht. He is always tired when he gets up early. 4. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive), the modal goes last, following the infinitive.

Er ist mde, wenn er frh aufstehen muss. He is tired when he must get up early.

48. Holiday Phrases


Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Glckliches Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glckwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! das Silvester das Neujahr der Valentinstag der Fasching (S. Germany) / der Karneval (Rhineland) das Ostern das Weihnachten der Geburtstag die Hochzeit Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! New Year's Eve New Year's Day Valentine's Day Mardi Gras Easter Christmas birthday wedding

49. Helfen, lassen and the senses


Helfen, lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hren) function like modal auxiliaries. Like the modals, these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. After verbs of this type, English often uses a present participle, but German uses a dependent infinitive. Ich sehe ihn kommen. I see him coming. Ich habe ihn kommen hren. I heard him coming. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. Usually, lassen means to let or allow, as in La den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. We're having a house built./We're building a house. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. I'm having my son pick up the mail.

50. Places
street bank hotel restaurant theater die Strae (n) pharmacy die Apotheke (n) die Bank (en) bahnk drugstore die Drogerie (n) das Hotel (s) hoh-tel factory die Fabrik (en) das Restaurant (s) res-tohbutcher die Metzgerei rahn shop (en) das Theater (-) tay-ah-ter dry die cleaner's Reinigung (en) das Geschft / der lah-den bookstore der Laden () Buchladen () das Museum moo-zay- airport der (Museen) um Flughafen () die Kirche (n) keer-kuh garage die Garage (n) der Platz (, e) plahtz town hall das Rathaus () das Denkmal (, er) denk-mall castle das Schloss (, er) das Gebude (-) guh-boy- school die Schule (n) duh das Haus (, er) house city die Stadt (, e) das Lebensmittel- lay-buns- bar die Kneipe geschft (e) mit(n) tel-gehsheft die Bibliothek (en) beeb-lee- cathedral der Dom (e) oh-tek das Krankenhaus krahnk-en- village das Dorf (, (, er) house er) das Stadion shtah-dee- cemetery der Friedhof (Stadien) on (, e) das Kino (s) kee-noh backery die Bckerei (en) das Eisenwarenise-enshoe store das Schuhgeschft (e) war-engeschft (e) geh-sheft das Schreibwaren- shribestrass-uh ah-pohtek-uh droh-geree fah-breek mets-gehrie rien-eegunk boochlah-den flookhahf-en gah-rahzhuh rahthouse shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh

store

museum church square monument building house grocery store

library hospital stadium movie theater hardware store stationery

dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-gehsheft

store

geschft (e)

var-engeh-scheft

In Austria and Southern Germany, die Buchhandlung is used for bookstore.

51. Transportation
bus trolleybus subway train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Obus die U-Bahn der Zug (, e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (, er) das Auto (s) die Straenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Fahrrad (, er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos oh-boos oo-bahn tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped fah-raht vah-gen foos

Die U-Bahn is short for die Untergrundbahn and der Obus is short for der Oberleitungsbus. To say by bus, train, etc., use mit dem + the noun for masculine and neuter nouns; and mit der + the noun for feminine nouns.

52. Simple Past / Imperfect Tense


In English, this tense corresponds to I did, you saw, he cried, etc. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. It is used more often in writing to tell a sequence of past events. Nevertheless, even in conversational German, sein, haben, werden, wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. In addition, the simple past tense is commonly used in clauses that begin with als (when). All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems:

-te -test -te

-ten -tet -ten

Verb stems ending in -d or -t, add an -e before all endings for ease of pronunciation.

ich du er, sie, es wir ihr sie

Simple Past of sein, haben & werden sein haben werden war hatte wurde warst hattest wurdest war hatte wurde waren hatten wurden wart hattet wurdet waren hatten wurden

For the modal verbs, drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. Mgen changes the g to ch as well. Simple Past of Modals mssen drfen sollen mute durfte sollte mutest durftest solltest mute durfte sollte muten durften sollten mutet durftet solltet muten durften sollten

ich du er, sie, es wir ihr sie

knnen konnte konntest konnte konnten konntet konnten

wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten

mgen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten

The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem, they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. Simple Past of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen ich wute brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte du wutest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest er, wute brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte sie,

rennen rannte ranntest rannte

wenden wandte wandtest wandte

es wir wuten brachten dachten kannten brannten nannten rannten wandten ihr wutet brachtet dachtet kanntet branntet nanntet ranntet wandtet sie wuten brachten dachten kannten brannten nannten rannten wandten

53. Irregular Stems in Simple Past / Imperfect Tense

Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. You will have to memorize these stems, as they can be unpredictable (and unlike the past participles). Remember the simple past forms given below are just the stems; you must add different irregular endings depending on the subject. Infinitive anfangen aufstehen befehlen beginnen beissen begreifen bekommen bewerben binden biegen bieten bitten blasen bleiben brechen einladen entscheiden empfehlen erscheinen ertrinken essen fahren fallen fangen finden fliegen Simple Past fing ... an stand ... auf befahl begann biss begriff bekam bewarb band bog bot bat blies blieb brach lud ... ein entschied empfahl erschien ertrank a fuhr fiel fing fand flog Past Participle angefangen aufgestanden befohlen begonnen gebissen begriffen bekommen beworben gebunden gebogen geboten gebeten geblasen ist geblieben gebrochen eingeladen entschieden empfohlen ist erschienen ist ertrunken gegessen ist gefahren ist gefallen gefangen gefunden ist geflogen Translation begin get up order, command begin bite comprehend get, receive apply tie turn, bend offer ask blow remain break invite decide recommend appear drown eat drive, go, travel fall catch find fly

fressen frieren geben gebren gehen gelingen geschehen gewinnen gieen greifen halten hngen heben heien helfen klingen kommen kriechen lassen laufen leiden leihen lesen liegen lgen nehmen pfeifen raten reissen reiten riechen rufen scheinen schieben schiessen schlafen schlagen schlieen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen

fra fror gab gebar ging gelang geschah gewann goss griff hielt hing hob hie half klang kam kroch liess lief litt lieh las lag log nahm pfiff riet riss ritt roch rief schien schob schoss schlief schlug schloss schnitt schrieb schrie schwieg

gefressen gefroren gegeben ist geboren ist gegangen ist gelungen ist geschehen gewonnen gegossen gegriffen gehalten gehangen gehoben geheien geholfen geklungen ist gekommen ist gekrochen gelassen ist gelaufen gelitten geliehen gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gepfiffen geraten gerissen ist geritten gerochen gerufen geschienen geschoben geschossen geschlafen geschlagen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen

eat (of animals) freeze give be born go succeed happen win pour, water reach hold hang, suspend lift be called help sound come creep let, allow run suffer lend read recline lie, fib take whistle advise tear ride (horseback) smell call shine push shoot sleep hit shut cut write cry be silent

schwimmen schwingen sehen sein singen sinken sitzen spinnen sprechen springen stehen stehlen steigen sterben streiten tragen treffen treiben treten trinken tun verbieten vergessen vergleichen verlassen verlieren versprechen verstehen verzeihen vorschlagen wachsen waschen werfen ziehen

schwamm schwang sah war sang sank sa span sprach sprang stand stahl stieg starb stritt trug traf trieb trat trank tat verbot verga verglich verliess verlor versprach verstand verzieh schlug ... vor wuchs wusch warf zog -st -

ist geschwommen geschwungen gesehen ist gewesen gesungen ist gesunken gesessen gesponnen gesprochen ist gesprungen gestanden gestohlen ist gestiegen ist gestorben gestritten getragen getroffen getrieben ist getreten getrunken getan verboten vergessen verglichen verlassen verloren versprochen verstanden verziehen vorgeschlagen ist gewachsen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Irregular Endings -en -t -en

swim swing see be sing sink sit spin speak jump stand steal climb die quarrel wear meet play sports step drink do forbid forget compare leave lose promise understand forgive suggest grow wash throw pull

There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as a-), the du form ending becomes -est (du aest.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d, the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form, but some do not. For example, finden is conjugated without the -e- (du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e- (du befandest dich.) Similarly, stehen is conjugated without the -e- (du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e- (du verstandest.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e- are braten (brietst; to roast), erfinden (erfandst, to invent), laden (ludst, to invite), leiden (littst, to suffer), and schneiden (schnittst, to cut).

54. House and Furniture


window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen das Fenster (-) der Vorhang (, e) die Uhr (en) das Bcherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (, e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (, er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (, e) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (, e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Kche (n) ground floor 1st floor/storey floor/ground roof shower bathtub stairs/steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot, pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio das Erdgeschoss der erste Stock der Boden () das Dach (, er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppen der Herd (e) der Backofen () der Khlschrank (e) die Geschirrsplmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (, e) der Topf (, e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Splbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s)

hallway/corridor der Flur (e) balcony der Balkon (e) furniture die Mbel wall lawn die Wand (, e) der Rasen

pillow cupboard blanket, ceiling door garden, yard

das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (, e) die Decke (n) die Tr (en) der Garten ()

Remember that in Europe, buildings always start with the ground floor, and then the next floor up is the first floor. Many Americans would refer to these floors as the first floor and second floor, respectively, and not even use ground floor.

55. Location vs. Direction


Location: the prepositions in, an, auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used with fixed locations, while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. in an enclosed spaces denotes border or limiting area Ich bin in der Kirche. Wir sind in der Schule. Er ist am See. Das Bild ist an der Wand. Es ist auf dem Tisch. Sie sind auf der Bank. Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. Ich komme aus den USA. Das Auto kommt von rechts. Ich wei es von ihm. I'm at church. We are at school. He is at the lake. The picture is on the wall. It's on the table. They are at the bank. I work at McDonald's. I live at my Aunt's (house). She comes from the bedroom. I come from the USA. The car comes from the right. I know it from him.

auf on surfaces, or at public buildings bei before name of place or business where someone lives or works aus comes from enclosed or defined space, such as country, town or building von comes from open space, particular direction or person

Direction: the prepositions in and auf (followed by the accusative case) or zu and nach (followed by the dative case) are used. in building or enclosed space; countries Ich gehe in die Kirche. I'm going to church. I'm flying to the USA.

auf zu

and cities that have definite articles* open spaces or public buildings specifically named buildings or places, and people

Ich fliege in die USA. Er geht auf den Markt. Sie geht zum Strand. Sie gehen zu McDonald's. Ich gehe zur Bank.

nach countries and cities that have Ich fliege nach no articles sterreich. Ich fliege nach Paris.

He's going to the market. She's going to the beach. They're going to McDonald's I'm going to the bank. I'm flying to Austria. I'm flying to Paris.

Only a few countries include the articles, such as der Iran (m.), die Niederlande (pl.), die Schweiz (f.), die Trkei (f.), and die USA (pl.), because they are not neuter. Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home, while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home.

56. Clothing
jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) das Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (, e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Grtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (, e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag, pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (, er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (, e) das Kostm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel () der Mantel () der Hut (, e)

A few words to describe patterns are: kariert - plaid, gepunktet - polka-dotted, gestreift - striped, geblmt - flowered, gemustert - patterned. A few verbs that require dative objects can be used with clothing: gefallen - to like, passen - to fit, stehen - to look (good/bad) Gefllt dir dieses Hemd? Do you like this shirt? Die Farbe steht mir nicht. The color doesn't look good on me. Gre 48 pat ihr bestimmt. Size 48 fits her well.

57. Future Tense


The future tense is simple to form in German. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the infinitive to the end of the sentence. However, German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (implied future) and uses time expressions, such as tonight, tomorrow, etc. so the actual future tense is not quite as common in German as it is in English. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as We are going to Germany tomorrow, and implies a future action, yet it uses the present tense, in both German and English. To express present or future probability, use wohl (probably) with the future tense.

Present tense of werden werde wirst wird werden werdet werden

I will fly to Germany. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. Wir werden Latein lernen. My friend should be home now. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. (Expresses probability)

58. Asking Questions


1. Simply add a question mark

2. Invert the verb and subject 3. Use a question word + verb + subject 4. Add nicht wahr? to the end of the statement

59. Declensions of Adjectives


There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words, adjectives used with ein words, and independent adjectives. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. The bread is fresh.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. Fem. Neu. Plural der gute Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. Fem. Neu. Plural kein guter Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde keinem guten keiner guten keinem guten keinen guten Wein Milch Brot Freunden keines guten keiner guten keines guten keiner guten Freunde Weines Milch Brotes

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative, and neuter accusative. The rest of the endings are the same. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. Fem. Neu. Plural guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Freunde guten Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Freunde gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Freunden

Nom. Acc. Dat.

Gen.

guten Weines

guter Milch

guten Brotes

guter Freunde

Viele (many), wenige (few), andere (other), einige (some), and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. In the singular, mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular, they turn into manch ein and so ein), but in the plural they function as normal limiting words.

60. Adjectives
short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glcklich lieb berhmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig hbsch hlich klein gro gut schlecht neu mde wtend rgerlich wunderbar high, tall wide fat, thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic hoch breit dick dnn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm frh nah nett preiswert teuer verrckt weit schn neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready hell dunkel furchtbar s verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schchtern nervs bequem besorgt richtig falsch eiferschtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschftigt krank fertig

61. Comparative & Superlative

For comparisons of equality, use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. Die Kche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. The kitchen is as big as the living room. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Khlschrank. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. Comparative 1. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority, add -er to the adjective or adverb, followed by als (than). German always uses the -er ending, although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. A radio is cheaper than a TV. Jens luft schneller als Ernst. Jens runs faster than Ernst. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. 2. Adjectives that end in -el, -en or -er, drop the -e in the comparative form. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer, and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a, o, or u add an umlaut in the comparative, such as alt, arm, dumm, grob, gro, hart, jung, kalt, klug, krank, kurz, lang, oft, scharf, schwach, stark, warm. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach, froh, klar, rasch, roh, schlank, stolz, toll, voll and zart. Superlative 1. To form the superlative, add -(e)st to the adjective. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d, -t, or an s sound. The adjectives that end in -el, -en, or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. 2. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d, t or s sound, an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grssten is an exception.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs, but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. Hans is am jngsten. Hans is the youngest. Sie ist am intelligentesten. She is the most intelligent. Irregular Forms Adj. / Adv. gern lieber Comparative Superlative am liebsten

gut hoch nah viel

besser hher nher mehr

am besten am hchsten am nchsten am meisten

Common forms of the comparative Je mehr, desto besser. The more, the better. Je mehr Geld er hat, desto glcklicher ist er. The more money he has, the happier he is. Die preise werden immer hher. The prices are getting higher and higher. Julia wird immer hbscher. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. Haben Sie billigere Anzge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzge sind die billigsten. These suits are the least expensive.

62. Sports & Hobbies


to do sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis table tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing Sport treiben Golf spielen Fuball spielen Volleyball spielen Football spielen Basketball spielen Baseball spielen Eishockey spielen Tennis spielen Tischtennis spielen kegeln segeln reiten boxen hang-gliding windsurfing water-skiing fishing aerobics bungee-jumping gymnastics mountaineering climbing judo weight training wrestling diving to tinker, build Drachen fliegen Windsurfing gehen Wasserski fahren angeln Aerobic machen Bungee-jumping gehen turnen bergsteigen gehen klettern Judo machen Body-building machen ringen tauchen basteln

roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming

Rollschuh laufen Schlittschuh laufen Ski fahren Radfahren

things to listen to music to play cards to collect coins/stamps to play video games photography to do ceramics to draw to play chess to knit to watch TV go to the movies

Musik hren Karten spielen Mnzen/Briefmarken sammeln Videospiele spielen fotografieren tpfern zeichnen Schach spielen stricken fernsehen ins Kino gehen

Schwimmen gehen jogging joggen hiking wandern camping Camping gehen gardening im Garten arbeiten go out with friends mit Freunden ausgehen to lie around, be faulenzen lazy

A lot of sports/hobbies exist as nouns and as verbs, so just as in English, you can say either I like to fish or I like to go fishing. If it's capitalized, it's a noun and if it's not capitalized, it's a verb. kegeln - to bowl das Kegeln - bowling

63. Nature
barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm field die Scheune (n) die Brcke (n) der Hgel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (, e) der See (n) die Fluss (, e) die Strae (n) der Bauernhof (, e) das Feld (er) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf flower der Bach (, e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (, er) die Blume (n)

forest plant city sea bay mountain range

der Wald (, er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (, e) die See / das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge

ocean tree country valley coast jungle

der Ozean (e) der Baum (, e) das Land (, er) das Tal (, er) die Kste (n) der Dschungel (-)

64. Object Pronouns


Subject (Nom.) ich I du you (fam.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl.) sie they Sie you (pol.) Direct Objects (Acc.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you

If there are two nouns in a sentence, one accusative and one dative, then the dative noun will be first. However, if there are two pronouns, one accusative and one dative, then the accusative pronoun will be first. In sentences with one noun and one pronoun (regardless of which is accusative or dative), the pronoun will be first. Some verbs always take indirect objects, even if they take direct objects in English. For verbs that can take two objects, the direct object will usually be a thing, and the indirect object will usually refer to a person. antworten schenken bringen danken zuhren gehren glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen vertrauen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet to trust The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to

empfehlen geben kaufen leihen sagen schicken schreiben wnschen zeigen

to recommend to give to buy to lend, borrow to tell, say to give as a gift to write to wish to show

65. Parts of the Body


body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw der Krper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (, e) das Bein (e) die Brust (, e) der Finger der Fuss (, e) das Fussgelenk (e) das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (, e) die Hand (, e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (, e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (, e) die Lippe (n) der Magen () der Nagel () der Mund (, er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) der Rcken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (, e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n)

Ich fhle mich nicht wohl. I don't feel well. Mir ist schlecht. I feel sick. Mir ist kalt/warm. I'm cold/hot. Was fehlt dir? What's the matter? Der Hals tut mir weh. My throat hurts.

The separable verb wehtun is used to say that something hurts. Remember when the noun is plural, the verb needs to be plural as well and that parts of the body do not use possessive articles. Die Fe tun ihm weh. His feet hurt. (The feet are hurting to him.)

Other health expressions: Ich habe Kopfschmerzen. Ich habe Halsschmerzen. Ich habe Rckenschmerzen. Ich habe Bauchschmerzen. Ich habe eine Erkltung. Ich habe Fieber. Ich habe die Grippe. Ich habe Husten. Ich habe Schnupfen. Ich habe zu viel gegessen. Gute Besserung! I have a headache. I have a sore throat. I have a backache. I have a stomachache. I have a cold. I have a fever. I have the flu. I have a cough. I have a head cold. I ate too much. Get well soon!

66. Relative Pronouns


Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns - words that correspond to who, whom, that and which in English. These may be omitted in English, but must be included in German. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun, which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to, and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. (In the following example, the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine, and is a direct object of the verb "to buy", therefore, it is accusative.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. Das is der Mantel, den ich gestern gekauft habe.

Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to, and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. der den Fem. die die Neu. das das Plural die die

Nom. Acc.

Dat. Gen.

dem dessen

der deren Examples

dem dessen

denen deren

Nominative Der Fluss, der durch Wien fliesst, heit Donau. The river, that through Vienna flows, is called the Danube. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. Accusative Der Hund, den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe, war Julias. The dog, that I last week seen have, was Julia's. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. Dative Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch, dem ich nichts davon erzhlt habe. My father is the only person, to whom I nothing about it told have. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it.

When a relative pronoun follows a preposition, the preposition determines the case, while the gender and number are determined by the noun. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. Wer war die Frau, mit der ich dich gesehen habe? Who was the woman, with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with?

67. Da- and Wo- Compounds


Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. However, when you need to refer to a thing, a compound using da- (or dar- if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Husern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them)

zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) Da(r) Compounds daraus damit davon dazu out of it/them dagegen against it/them darber with it/them from it/them to it/them darin daran darauf in it/them in it/them on top of it/them darunter daneben over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them

dazwischen between it/them dabei darum on me/you that's why

dadurch through it/them dafr for it/them

dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them

Dahin is commonly used with verbs of motion to show location, regardless of the preposition used. The English translation is usually there. Dahin can be shortened to hin in everyday speech, and sometimes da is placed at the beginning of the sentence and hin is placed at the end. Ich mu heute zur Bank. I have to go to the bank. Ich mu auch dahin. I have to go there too. Dabei and darum are idioms. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glck. That's why you have no luck. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. Ohne, ausser, and seit can never form a da(r) compound, and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem whrenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason

There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r)- as the prefix. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. When asking about people, use a preposition and wen/wem, and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. Worber sprechen Sie? Ich spreche darber.

What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with?

I'm talking about it. Ich denke daran. I'm thinking about it. Mit ihr! With her!

Wo- compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. Die Uhr, mit der er reist, hat viel gekostet. = Die Uhr, womit er reist, hat viel gekostet. The watch, with which he travels, cost a lot. Die Stadt, in der wir wohnen, hat ein groes Konzerthaus. = Die Stadt, worin wir wohnen, hat ein groes Konzerthaus. The city, in which we live, has a large concert hall.

68. Animals
animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Br (en) das Eichhrnchen (-) der Fuchs (, e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (, er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Ktzchen (-) die Kuh (, e) der Lwe (n) die Maus (, e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkrte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider chicken der Stier (e) der Wolf (, e) der Wurm (, er) der Vogel () der Hahn (, e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mcke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) das Huhn

69. Likes and Dislikes

Use the words gern, nicht gern, lieber, and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. Ich spiele gern Fussball. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. I like to play soccer. I prefer to play hockey. I like to play tennis most of all. I don't like to play Basketball.

Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. Ich habe Fussball gern. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. I like soccer. I like Julia most of all. I don't like the restaurant.

Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. It literally means to please. To use it correctly, you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. Das Zimmer is the object in English, but it becomes the subject in German. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). It is always in the dative case in German. German sentence Das Zimmer gefllt mir. Literally The room pleases me. Translated I like the room.

You could always just use the verb mgen to express likes and dislikes, but another common way of saying that you like (doing) something is macht spa. Was macht dir spa? What do you like (to do)? Fuball macht mir spa. I like soccer.

70. Past Perfect Tense


The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. It

consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. I had lived in Wiesbaden. Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened?

71. Als, wenn and wann


All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore, the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence.) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event, wenn is used to mean whenever or if, as well as in future time, and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. Als ich ihn fand... Wenn er kommt... When I found him.. (followed by simple past tense) Whenever he comes... If he comes... When he comes... (followed by future tense)

Ich wei nicht, wann er kommt. I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming.

72. Review of Word Order


1. In most sentences, the order is subject - verb - time - manner - place. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. 2. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. Then the verb is still in the second position, but the subject follows it. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. 3. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles, the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. Ich will nach Hause gehen. I want to go home. Ich habe dir geglaubt. I believed you.

4. When asking questions, you can usually just invert the subject and verb. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences), the verb in the dependent clause is last. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions, such as als-when, bevor-before, bis-until, damit-so that, dass-that, wenn-if/when, ob-whether, obwohlalthough, nachdem-after, da-since, whrend-while, weil-because, and wie-how. However, these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and, oder-or, aber-but, denn-for/because. Ich bleibe im Bett, wenn ich krank bin. I stay in bed when I am sick. 6. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause, the prefix remains attached to the verb, and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence, whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. Er ist immer mde, wenn er frh aufsteht. He is always tired when he gets up early. 7. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive), the modal goes last, following the infinitive. Er ist mde, wenn er frh aufstehen muss. He is tired when he must get up early. 8. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence, it acts as an element, therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. Wenn ich krank bin, bleibe ich im Bett. When I am sick, I stay in bed. 9. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence, remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. If the direct object is a pronoun, it goes before the indirect object. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. I give my brother a tie. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. I give it to my brother.

73. Flavoring Particles


German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. These words are mostly for emphasis.

doch ja aber denn gerade nur, blo mal

yes, of course really is it ever well then right now only, just sometime, someday

counteracts negative statement, used for persuasion, or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience, or adds emphasis to question immediacy

used in suggestions, or softens commands

74. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms


In informal speech and writing, es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet, it's raining), but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. Es begins the sentence, and the true subject follows the verb. Es ist niemand zu Hause. No one is at home. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. Three children are coming today. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence, but it is not incorrect to say it. Ich kann es nicht glauben, da er sich vor nichts frchtet. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. Er hat es, nichts davon zu wissen. He hates not knowing anything about it. Other idioms: Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. She makes her judgments rather quickly. (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments.) Alles ist in Butter. Everything is fine. (Literally: Everything is in butter.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. He does as he pleases. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall.)

75. Word Formation


Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between), and using the gender of the last word. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English, the prefix un- gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. klar (clear) - unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less, and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns. das Ende (the end) - endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities. das Kind (the child) - kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. wandern (to hike) - die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place. Frankfurt (a city) Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. Architekt (male architect) - Architektin (female architect)

76. Adjectival Nouns


When referring to people, adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. The definite article precedes the adjective, which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well.

der Alte - the old man die Alte - the old woman

das Alte - everything that is old die Alten - the old people

77. Ordinal Numbers


To form the ordinal numbers, just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19, and -ste for 20 and up. The exceptions are erste, dritte, siebte, and achte. first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth erste zweite dritte vierte fnfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth elfte zwlfte dreizehnte vierzehnte fnfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste

In writing dates, German uses the number followed by a period. On February 2nd would be am 2. Februar. However, when saying this out loud, you would say am zweiten Februar. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. On May 18th. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Today is October ninth.

78. Passive Voice


To change a sentence from the active to the passive, change three things: 1. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. active verb to a tense of werden (same tense!) plus the past participle of verb in

active sentence 3. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence, if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. = This novel is read by many students. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. = This novel was read by many students. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. Many students will read this novel. = This novel will be read by many students. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students have read this novel. = This novel has been read by many students. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students had read this novel. = This novel had been read by many students. *Notice that in the passive voice, the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire, wind, etc.); but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden mssen verkauft, the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden mssen because of the double infinitive construction. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence, but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. Passive Infinitives To be + past participle in English is translated as the past participle + werden in

German. With a passive infinitive, usually only the present or simple past of modals is used. Die Tiere konnten gerettet werden. The animals were able to be saved.

79. Problems with the Passive


False Passive Grammatically, the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive, while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition), while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject, or no apparent subject at all. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. But sometimes there is no accusative object. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question, es is used as the subject. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence, but if it were turned into the passive, there would be no accusative object. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject, es.) But if another element, such as a dative object or time expression, can be put in the first position, then es is omitted. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. There is no apparent subject, only an implied es, so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es.

80. Avoiding the Passive


1. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. Man translates to one, you, we, they, people and constitutes the subject. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. They caught the thief.

2. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with mssen or knnen. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. The stain cannot be removed. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. We can't remove the stain. 3. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with knnen or mssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. That can be done quickly. Das ist schnell zu machen. That is quickly done. 4. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace knnen and a passive infinitive. Das kann gemacht werden. That can be done. Das lt sich machen. That can be done.

Die Lorelei
by Heinrich Heine Ich wei nicht, was soll es bedeuten Da ich so traurig bin; Ein Mrchen aus alten Zeiten Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn. Die Luft ist khl und es dunkelt, Und ruhig fliet der Rhein; Der Gipfel des Berges funkelt Im Abendsonnenschein. Die schnste Jungfrau sitzet Dort oben wunderbar, Ihr gold'nes Geschmeide blitzet Sie kmmt ihr gold'nes Haar. Sie kmmt es mit gold'nem Kamme Und singt ein Lied dabei; Das hat eine wundersame Gewaltige Melodei. Den Schiffer im kleinen Schiffe ergreift es mit wildem Weh, I know not, what it is portending that I am so depressed; a legend from olden days past will not leave my mind alone. The breeze is cool and it darkens, and peaceful flows the Rhine; the peak of the mountain sparkles with evening's setting sun. The fairest maiden sits perched right up there wondrously, her golden jewelry flashes she combs her golden hair. She combs with a comb all golden and thus she sings a song; that has a mysteriously Tyrannical melody. The sailor in tiny vessel is seized with a savage woe,

Er schaut nicht die Felsenriffe, Er schaut nur hinauf in die Hh'. Ich glaube, die Wellen verschlingen Am Ende Schiffer und Kahn; Und das hat mit ihrem Singen Die Lorelei getan.

he sees not the rocky reef edge, he looks only up toward the height. I think that the waves have devoured at last the sailor and boat; and that's the deed, by her singing the Lorelei has done.

81. Showing Purpose


Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action; however, damit and umzu (so that, in order to) show the goal of an action. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause, whereas umzu introduces an infinitive. Sie macht das Fenster zu, damit sie nicht friert. = Sie macht das Fenster zu, um nicht zu frieren. She closes the window, so that she won't freeze . = She closes the window, in order to not freeze. Commonly, you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause, and umzu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause.

82. Shopping
box VCR camera video camera film wristwatch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Armbanduhr das Taschentuch das Parfm der Geldbeutel, die Geldbrse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Gre die Abteilung die Glckwunschkarte

83. Post Office and Bank


letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address sender/return address label packing tape package postmark rubber band ink pad string der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera security guard drive-thru window safe der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlssel das Schlo der Aktenschrank das Bankschliefach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die berwachungsanlage die Wache der Autoschalter der Tresor

84. Zu with Infinitives


Infinitives are usually preceded by zu (except when modals are used) when they act as complements of verbs, adjectives or nouns. Zu + infinitive is always the last element in a sentence. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive, the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. Hast du Lust, den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange, durch die Stadt zu fahren. It takes a long time to drive through the city. Es ist zu frh um aufzustehen. It is too early to get up. Um, ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. They introduce infinitival clauses. Um.. zu is used to indicate purpose, while ohne...zu and anstatt...zu are used with infinitives, and translated as present participles in English. (Um...zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly.) Er kam, um das Buch abzuholen. He came in order to pick up the book. Sie sagte es, ohne mich anzusehen. She said it, without looking at me. Statt hier zu sitzen, sollten wir ihn suchen. Instead of sitting here, we should look for him.

Sein + zu + an infinitive is used the same way in English and German, but the construction is far more common in German. Das ist nicht zu machen. That can't be done. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. That can be found in any store. The verbs brauchen (to need) and scheinen (to seem, appear) are often used with zu + an infinitive. Brauchen in the negative is usually translated as to not have to, and is the opposite of mssen. Es scheint kaputt zu sein. It seems to be broken. Ich brauche heute nicht zu arbeiten. I don't have to work today.

85. Office & School Supplies


compact disc floppy disk document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file / computer file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Computer der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener der Drucker pencil die Mitteilung pen das Papier scissors das Fotokopierer glue die Schreibmaschine binder die Software chalk die Akten / die Datei chalkboard der Schrank die Aktentasche backpack stapler der Taschenrechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine

86. Expressions of Time


The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. Last Sunday I stayed home. Sie fhrt nchste Woche nach Deutschland. She's going to Germany next week. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. He visited us last year.

Time expressions with the prepositions an, in and vor are in the dative case. Wir mssen am Sonntag zurck. We must return on Sunday. In der Nacht wird es kalt. It gets cold at night. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. Three years ago it was just as cold here. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time, and may refer to the future or past. Eines Tages war er krank. One day he was sick. Eines Morgens wird er zu spt kommen. One morning he'll be late.

87. Travelling / Airport


Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to, as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Bro der Fluglinie das Reisebro das Auskunftsbro der Bahnhof (, e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (, e) die Flugkarten das Gepck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (, e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. noun +) entlang ber (+ acc. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenber von (noun)

88. Another

Ein(e) ander- and noch ein- both mean another, but they cannot be used interchangeably. Ein(e) ander- means a different one, and ander- takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. Noch ein means one more. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? Mchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room?

89. Cosmetics & Toiletries


toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbrste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Brste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fn der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfm das Klnisch Wasser

90. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive (Conditional)


This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact, instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if...then (wenn... dann) statements and conditional sentences. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. (If you study other languages with a subjunctive mood, please don't confuse it with the German subjunctive. They are not the same!) The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the simple past / imperfect tense of the indicative. For weak (regular) verbs, the subjunctive II is the same as the simple past tense. For strong (irregular) verbs, the present tense of the subjunctive II uses the stem of the simple past, adds an umlaut where possible, and then adds the following endings: -e -en

-est -e

-et -en

Strong verbs in the subjunctive II gehen gingen ginget gingen fahren fhren fhret fhren fliegen flgen flget flgen

ginge gingest ginge

fhre fhrest fhre

flge flgest flge

Sein, haben and werden in the subjunctive II sein wren wret wren haben htten httet htten werden wrden wrdet wrden

wre wrest wre

htte httest htte

wrde wrdest wrde

Some exceptions include the mixed verbs, modals and wissen which use the same endings as the simple past: Imperfekt brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mute wute Subjunctive II brchte dchte drfte knnte mchte sollte wollte mte wte

The past tense of Subjunctive II is simply the subjunctive II of sein or haben (whichever auxiliary the verb takes in the indicative) and a past participle. The future tense of Subjunctive II is the subjunctive II of werden and an infinitive. Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if... then (wenn... dann) pattern in both English and German. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction, and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause.

Present Subj. II: Wenn ich Zeit htte, (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. If I had time, (then) I would go to the movies. Past Subj. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt htte, dann wre ich ins Kino gegangen. If I had had time, (then) I would have gone to the movies. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb, and in this case, wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so: Kommt er heute nicht, (so) kommt er morgen. If he's not coming today, then he'll come tomorrow. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well; but in this case, dann is not actually used and the clause uses normal word order: Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht, wenn er zu hei ist. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. Forms of wrden + an infinitive Wrde and an infinitive translates to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the wrde construction, except with these eight verbs: helfen, stehen, sterben, werfen, brennen, kennen, nennen, and rennen. These eight verbs use the wrde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. Moreover, conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the wrde construction. However, this construction is generally not used with the modal auxiliaries, wissen, haben or sein. Wenn ich Zeit htte, Wenn ich Geld htte, dann ginge ich ins Kino. dann wrde ich ins Kino gehen. dann flge ich nach Deutschland. dann wrde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. If I had time, I would go to the movies. If I had money, I would fly to Germany.

91. Other uses of Subjunctive II


1. Being Polite To be more polite, use the subjunctive II form of the modals. Subjunctive II forms of modals mssen drfen sollen msste drfte sollte msstest drftest solltest msste drfte sollte

ich du er, sie, es

knnen knnte knntest knnte

wollen wollte wolltest wollte

mgen mchte mchtest mchte

wir ihr sie

knnten knntet knnten

mssten msstet mssten

drften drftet drften

sollten solltet sollten

wollten wolltet wollten

mchten mchtet mchten

Knnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Drfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German, the subjunctive forms of mgen has become almost a synonym of wollen. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was mchtest du? = What would you like? Htte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. Wir htten gern zwei Colas, bitte. = We would like two colas, please. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs, sein, haben and werden. For this reason, you may hear Wrden Sie mir helfen? but never Hlfen Sie mir? 2. Expressing Wishes The subjunctive II is also used to express wishes. These phrases generally begin with "I wish" or "If only" in English. Wenn (if) can be omitted from these statements, but then you must move the conjugated verb in the subjunctive II to the place of wenn at the beginning of the phrase. When expressing wishes, the present and past tenses of the subjunctive II can be used. Wenn ich nur noch jung wre! = Wre ich nur noch jung! I wish I were still young! / If only I were still young! Wenn er nur frher gekommen wre! = Wre er nur frher gekommen! If only he had come earlier! Wenn sie doch mehr Zeit gehabt htten! = Htten sie doch mehr Zeit gehabt! If only they had had more time! Ich wnschte and ich wollte (I wish) are fixed expressions followed by the subjunctive II or wrde + infinitive. Another expression always followed by the subjunctive is an deiner Stelle (in your place / If I were you) when giving advice.

92. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive (Indirect Discourse)


The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal, impartial way. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact, while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements.) These three distinctions

are quite subtle, although they are important. In everyday conversation, the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts (a does not become , e does not become ie, etc.) -e -est -e -en -et -en

Haben, werden and wissen in the subjunctive I haben haben habet haben werden werden werdet werden wissen wissen wisset wissen

habe habest habe

werde werdest werde

wisse wissest wisse

Notice that sein has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seiest sei seien seiet seien

The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. The future tense of Subjunctive I is simply the subjunctive I form of werden and an infinitive. Tenses The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative, then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative (simple past, present perfect, or past perfect), then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time, as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. If the direct quotation is in the future

tense, then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II, then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. Tense in direct quotation present indicative simple past, present perfect, past perfect indicative future indicative subjunctive II Tense in indirect quotation present subjunctive I past subjunctive I future subjunctive I subjunctive II

In certain cases, the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical, so the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. Overall, you can use subjunctive I solely for the third person singular form, and use subjunctive II forms for all other persons.

93. Parts of a Car


brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (, e) der Kofferraum (, e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (, er) die Parklcke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (, er) der Wagen (-) / der PKW die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)strae (n) der Fussgnger (-) der Fussgngerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er)

Der PKW is short for der Personenkraftwagen. Der LKW is also commonly used to mean truck. It is short for der Lastkraftwagen.

94. Present Participle

To form the present participle, simply add -d to the infinitive. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. It can also function as an adverb, but then of course, it does not add any endings. kochendes Wasser - boiling water die fhrenden Kritiker - the leading critics im kommenden Sommer - in the coming summer Sie spricht flieend Deutsch. She speaks German fluently.

95. In the Ocean


scuba diver der Taucher wet suit flipper der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse shipwreck helm anchor der Schiffbruch der Helm der Anker

oxygen tank der Lufttank snorkel mask starfish der Seestern jellyfish die Qualle sea urchin der Seeigel sea horse das Seepferdchen seaweed der Seetang fishing line die Angelschnur fish hook der Angelhaken der Schnorchel die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask)

treasure chest die Schatzkiste barnacle coral seashell wave sand bubble clam crab die Entenmuschel die Koralle die Muschel die Welle der Sand die Blase die Muschel die Krabbe

96. Als ob / Als wenn

The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable; they both mean "as if" or "as though." Both introduce a dependent clause, so the conjugated verb must go to the end. In addition, both require the subjunctive II. Als ob ich das nicht wte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut, als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun htte. He acts as though he had nothing better to do.

97. In Space
astronaut space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover landing capsule space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system der Astronaut die Raumfhre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug das Landungsgert die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem beaker test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula laboratory das Becherglas das Reagenzglas die Milchstrae die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Hfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck das Labor

98. Future Perfect

The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. It is formed with the future of haben or sein, and the past participle. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it), or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. Er wird gegangen sein. He will have gone. Ich werde es genommen haben. I will have taken it. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. It will have become dark. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. That will have been Rudi. / That was probably Rudi. When using modals, the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction, so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben mssen.

99. Fantasy & Make-Believe


dragon fairy elf giant tower knight squire court jester minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Drache die Fee der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe der Hofnarr der Minnesnger die Rstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schlo unicorn shield sword lance ax drawbridge crown king queen princess prince throne das Einhorn der Schild das Schwert die Lanze die Axt die Zugbrcke die Krone der Knig die Knigin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron

100. Spelling Reform


Recently, there has been a spelling reform of the German language. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Write ss after a short vowel, and after a long vowel or diphthong. Please note that is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. Also, there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case , so it must be written as SS. 2. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch, Mittag, Abend, Morgen, Recht haben, Leid tun 3. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. 4. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und.

Review of Declensions of Nouns


1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. Singular: Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Strae die Strae der Strae der Strae

2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Singular: Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes

Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German.

3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Sing. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. Lion(s) Singular der Lwe den Lwen dem Lwen des Lwen

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Plural die Lwen die Lwen den Lwen der Lwen

4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. Man Woman Child der Mann die Frau das Kind den Frauen den Kindern

Nom. Sing. Dat. Pl. den Mnnern

5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders, the Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative Plural are the same. Forest der Wald die Wlder die Wlder den Wldern der Wlder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen

Nom. Sing. Nom. Pl. Acc. Pl. Dat. Pl. Gen. Pl.

To form the Dative Plural, add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural, unless it already ends in -s or -n, then add nothing. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above, but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. Some may add -n, -en, -r, -er, -e, or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e, and some nouns do not change from singular to plural.

Group 1
-Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc.)

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Sing. der Vater den Vater dem Vater des Vaters

Plural die Vter die Vter den Vtern der Vter

Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. Sing. end in -el, -en, -er; and neuter nouns that begin with Ge- and end with -e

Group 2
-Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative; -en to Dative Fruit (fem.) Sing. Plural die Frucht die Frchte die Frucht die Frchte der Frucht den Frchten der Frucht der Frchte

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable; half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable

Group 3
-Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative; -ern to Dative Man/men (masc.) Sing. Plural der Mann die Mnner den Mann die Mnner dem Mann den Mnnern des Mannes der Mnner

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable; no feminine nouns Group 4
-Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative, Accusative, and Genitive; Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms

Student (s) Sing. Plural

Woman/Women Sing. Plural

Nom. der Student Acc. den Studenten Dat. dem Studenten Gen. des Studenten

die Studenten die Studenten den Studenten der Studenten

die Frau die Frau der Frau der Frau

die Frauen die Frauen den Frauen der Frauen

Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable, most masculine that denote living things; no neuter nouns

Group 5
-Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu.) Sing. Plural das Auto die Autos das Auto die Autos dem Auto den Autos des Autos der Autos

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words, such as das Radio, das Restaurant, and das Hotel. Group 6 - Irregular
-Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular, may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en

Heart(s) Sing. Plural Nom. das Herz die Herzen Acc. das Herz die Herzen Dat. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. des Herzens der Herzen

Name(s) Sing. Plural der Name die Namen den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen

Group 7 - Mixed
-Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu.)

Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.

Sing. das Bett das Bett dem Bett des Bettes

Plural die Betten die Betten den Betten der Betten

German States / BundeslAnder German States Baden-Wrttemberg Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Bayern Sachsen Thringen Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein English Translation Baden-Wrttemberg Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Bavaria Saxony Thuringia Hesse Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland Saxony-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein

Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg are cities as well as states.

Austrian States / BundeslAnder Austrian States Burgenland Kmten Niedersterreich Obersterreich Salzburg Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien English Translation Burgenland Carinthia Lower Austria Upper Austria Salzburg Styria Tyrol Vorarlberg Vienna

There are 4 declinations in German:

1. NOMINATIV - (Subject): Answers questions such as: Who? (Wer?) and What? (Was?)

Gender Masculine: Feminine: Neutral: Plural:

Definitive Der Die Das Die

Indefinite Ein Eine Ein ---

Negative Kein Keine Kein Keine

Demonstrative (Pronoun) Dieser Diese Dieses Diese

2. (Was?)

AKUSATIV: (Direct Object). Answers questions such as: Whom? (Wen?) and What?

Gender Masculine: Feminine: Neutral: Plural:

Definitive Den Die Die Die

Indefinite Einen Eine Ein ---

Negative Keinen Keine Kein Keine

Demonstrative (Pronoun) Diesen Diese Dieses Diese

3. DATIV: (Indirect Object) Answers questions such as: To whom? (Wem?)

Gender Masculine: Feminine: Neutral: Plural:

Definitive Dem Der Dem Den

Indefinite Einem Einer Einem ---

Negative Keinem Keiner Keinem Keinem

Demonstrative (Pronoun) Diesem Dieser Diesem Diesen + n at the end of the noun

4. GENITIV: (Possessive case):answers questions such as: Whose? (Wessen?)

Gender Masculine: Feminine:

Definitive Des Der

Indefinite Eines Einer

Negative Keines Keiner

Demonstrative (Pronoun) Dieses + e/es at the end of the noun Dieser

Neutral: Plural:

Des Der

Eines ---

Keines Keiner

Dieses + e/es at the end of the noun Dieser

Observation: a) these endings accomplish also other kind of pronouns like possessives, indefinites etc. b) the cases Akusativ, Dativ and Genitiv also depend on prepositions (not detailed here). Examples: Nominativ (Masculine): WER ist das? (Who is this?) Das ist der/ein/kein/dieser Fuballspieler. (That is the/a/not a/this soccer player). Nominativ (Neutral): WAS ist das? (What is this?) Das ist das/ein/kein/dieses Buch. (That is the/a/not a/this book).

Akusativ (Masculine): WEN siehst du? (Whom do you see?) Ich see den/einen/keinen/diesen Mann. (I see the/a/not a/that Mann). Akusativ (Feminine): WAS kauft Linda? (What does Linda buy?) Sie kauft die/eine/keine/diese Tasche. (She buys the/a/not a/these purse).

Dativ (Plural): WEM gehrt dieses Haus? (To whom belongs this house?) Das Haus gehrt den/keinen/diesen Leuten. (This house belongs to the/these people). Genetive (Neutral): WESSEN Spielzeug ist das? (Whose toy is that?) Das ist das Spielzeug des/eines/keines/dieses Kindes. (It is the childs toy)

The verb Sein to be in German is very similar in his use as in English. Conjugation in present tense: Singular: Ich bin (I am) Du bist (You are informal) Sie sind (You are formal) Er ist (He is) Sie ist (she is) Es ist (it is) Plural Wir sind (we are) Ihr seid (you are informal) Sie sind (You are formal) Sie sind (they are) Formal form is always written with capital letters, the others only at beginning of a sentence. Examples: Ich bin Amerikaner. (I am American.) Bist du glcklich? (Are you happy?) Er ist aus England. (He is from England.) Ist sie auch aus England? (Is she also from England?) Das ist ihr Kind. (This is her child). Wir sind in Urlaub. (We are on vacation) Seid ihr meine Freunde? (Are you my friends?) Herr Schmidt, Sie sind herzlich willkommen! (Mr. Schmidt you are welkomm!) Die Kinder sind im Garten. (The children are in the Garden)

Definite and Indefinite articles Definit and Indefinit Artikel Definite articles precede a noun Indefinite articles (positive or negative*) indicate that a thing or person is not unique in some way

* In German you deny a noun with a negative article: English: This is not (isnt) a book. German: Das ist kein Buch. There are 3 Articles:

Singular: Masculine: Feminine: Neutral: Plural **:

Definite Der Die Das Die

Indefinite Positive Indefinite Negative Ein Kein Eine Keine Ein Kein --Keine

** Plural is the same for all 3 articles. Plural has several forms in German. Note: all nouns in German are written with capital letters.

Examples masculine: Der / Ein / Kein Mann, Vater, Direktor, Fuball, Tisch (singular)......ist..... Die / - - / Keine Mnner, Vter, Direktoren, Fublle, Tische (plural).....sind.... Note: Fuball means soccer. is equivalent to double s you get it by pressing ALT 225 in windows/word. Tisch means table. As you see plural can be formed in various ways. Examples feminine: Die / Eine /Keine Frau, Mutter, Direktorin, Lektion, Blume (singular) ....ist..... Die / --- / Keine Frauen, Mtter, Direktorinnen, Lektionen, Blumen (plural)...sind... Note: Frau means lady/ misses, Blume means flower Examples neutral: Das / Ein / Kein Kind, Bier / Museum / Hotel / Haus (singular)....ist..... Die / --- / Keine Kinder, Biere, Museen, Hotels, Huser (plural) ....sind.....

Note: Kind means child, Bier beer, Haus house.

Diphthongs Diphthong Double Vowels ai / ei au eu / u ie Aussprache Pronunciation eye ow oy eeh Beispiele / Examples

bei (at, near), das Ei (egg), der Mai (May) auch (also), das Auge (eye), aus (out of) Huser (houses), Europa (Europe), neu (new) bieten (offer), nie (never), Sie (you)

Grouped Consonants Buchstabe Consonant ck ch Aussprache Pronunciation k >> Beispiele / Examples dick (fat, thick), der Schock (shock) After a, o, u and au, pronounced like the guttural ch in Scottish "loch" - das Buch (book), auch (also). Otherwise it is a palatal sound as in: mich (me), welche (which), wirklich (really). TIP: If no air is passing over your tongue when you say a ch-sound, you aren't saying it correctly. No true equivalent in English. - Although ch doesn't usually have a hard k sound, there are exceptions: Chor, Christoph, Chaos, Orchester, Wachs (wax) Both letters are (quickly) pronounced as a combined puff-sound: das Pferd (horse), der Pfennig. If this is difficult for you, an f sound will work, but try to do it! das Alphabet, phonetisch - Some words formerly spelled with ph are now spelled with f: das Telefon, das Foto die Qual (anguish, torture), die Quittung (receipt) schn (pretty), die Schule (school) - The German sch combination is never split, whereas sh usually is (Grashalme, Gras/Halme; but die Show, a foreign

pf

pf

ph

qu sch

kv sh

word). sp / st shp / sht At the start of a word, the s in sp/st has a sch sound as in English "show, she." sprechen (speak), stehen (stand) das Theater (tay-AHTER), das Thema (TAY-muh), topic - Always sounds like a t (TAY). NEVER has the English th sound! Letters in Words Spelling final b final d final g silent h Aussprache Pronunciation p t k Beispiele / Examples Lob (LOHP) Freund (FROYNT), Wald (VALT) genug (guh-NOOK) gehen (GAY-en), sehen (ZAY-en)

th

When h follows a vowel, it is silent. When it precedes a vowel (Hund), the h is pronounced. German th German v t f Theorie (TAY-oh-ree) Vater (FAHT-er)

In some foreign, non-Germanic words with v, the v is pronounced as in English: Vase (VAH-suh), Villa (VILL-ah) German w German z v ts Wunder (VOON-der) Zeit (TSITE), like ts in "cats"; never like an English soft z (as in "zoo")

Similar Words Pronunciation Pitfalls Wort Word Bombe bomb Genie genius Nation nation Papier paper Pizza pizza Aussprache Pronunciation BOM-buh zhuh-NEE NAHT-see-ohn pah-PEER PITS-uh Comments The m, b, and e are all heard The g is soft, like the s sound in "leisure" The German -tion suffix is pronounced TSEE-ohn Stress on the last syllable The i is a short vowel because of the double z

1 Main Sentence
If a verb has a separable prefix, this prefix is moved to the end of the sentence. Ich werde den Mll wegwerfen. ("I will throw away the rubbish.", literally "I will the rubbish away-throw.") Ich werfe den Mll weg. (statement) ("I'm throwing away / I throw away the rubbish.", literally "I throw the rubbish away.") Werfe ich den Mll weg? (question) ("Am I throwing away the rubbish?", literally "Throw I the rubbish away?") Wirf den Mll weg! (command, familiar form) ("Throw away the rubbish!", literally "Throw the rubbish away!")

Statement

A normal statement is quite simple to construct. First the Subject, then the conjugated verb, at last the rest of the infinitive without this verb. Ich + den Baum sehen -> Ich sehe den Baum. ("I + to see the tree" -> I see the tree.) Ein Text + geschrieben werden -> Ein Text wird geschrieben ("A text + to be written -> A text is being written.") Wir + den Raum verlassen -> Wir verlassen den Raum ("we + to leave the room -> We leave the room.") Der Knig + eine Burg bauen lassen -> Der Knig lsst eine Burg bauen. ("the king + to have a castle built -> The king has a castle built.") If the conjugated verb has a separable prefix, this prefix stays at the end of the sentence. Ich + den Mll wegwerfen -> Ich werfe den Mll weg. ("I + to dispose of the trash -> I dispose of the trash.") In addition, past participles in the perfect tenses fall at the end of the sentence, with the conjugated auxiliary verb (Hilfsverb) in the second position of the sentence. Conventional German syntax presents information within a sentence in the following order:

Wichtigstes (what is the most important thing of the things following? *, **) Was (what? the conjugated verb***) Wer (who? the subject) Wem (to/for whom - dative object) Wann (when - time)

Warum (why - reason) Wie (how - manner) Wo (where - place) Wen (whom - accusative object) Wohin/Woher (to/from where) Verb, nochmal (first part of the separable verb)

*The word "da" with the meaning "then suddenly" must take the first place. A "dann", then, does so often, but not necessarily; otherwise, the Subject will do. **If the verb is most important, the first part of the separable verb is placed here, but even then separated from the second part. If the verb is not separable or periphrastical, the infinitive will do. ***and in this case, a form of "tun" is legitimately inserted for the conjugated verb, as in Arbeiten tun wir. "Working, that's what we do."

Wir gehen am Freitag miteinander ins Kino. Literally, "We go on Friday together to the movies." Wegen ihres Jahrestages bereiten wir unseren Eltern eine Exkursion (Ausflug) nach Mnchen vor. Literally, We are planning for our parents today because of their anniversary a trip to Munich. Comparisons can be put after both parts of the verb, or before the place of its later part. So: Er ist grer gewesen als ich. / Er war grer als ich. "He was greater than me." OR Er ist grer als ich gewesen Additionally, German often structures a sentence according to increasing news value. So: Wir gehen am Donnerstag ins Kino. We're going to the movies on Thursday. BUT An welchem Tag gehen wir ins Kino? (On) What day are we going to the movies? Am Donnerstag gehen wir ins Kino. OR Wir gehen am Donnerstag ins Kino. On Thursday we're going to the movies. OR We're going on Thursday to the movies." Additionally, when the accusative object is a pronoun, it moves in front of the dative object. Florian gibt mir morgen das Buch. "Florian is giving me tomorrow the book." BUT Florian gibt es mir morgen. "Florian is giving it to me tomorrow." Inversion By an inversion you emphasize a component of the sentence: an adverbial phrase, a predicative or an object, or even an inner verbal phrase. The subject phrase is put directly behind the conjugated verb, and the component to emphasize is taken to the

beginning. The conjugated verb is always the second sentence element in indicative statements. Ich fliege schnell - Schnell fliege ich ("I fly fast - I fly fast") Du bist wunderschn - wunderschn bist du ("You are lovely - you are lovely") Ich bin gelaufen - Gelaufen bin ich ("I ran - I ran")

Questions

Questions may be divided into yes/no questions, asking for the truthfulness of a statement, and specific questions, which ask for a concrete aspect of a statement. Specific questions are similar to inverted statements. They begin with a question word, then there is the conjugated verb, followed by the subject (if there is one), and the rest of the sentence follows. Was machst du jetzt? ("What are you doing now?") Wer geht ins Kino? ("Who is going to the cinema?" -- In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun wer serves as the subject) Yes/No questions This kind of question is similar to the inversion: you put the inflected verb at the beginning of the (not inverted) sentence. Du kommst. - Kommst du? ("You are coming - Are you coming?") Ich habe geschlafen. - Habe ich geschlafen? ("I slept - Did I sleep?") Ich werde das Spiel beenden. - Werde ich das Spiel beenden? ("I'm going to (lit. 'I will') finish the game - Am I going to (lit. 'Will I') finish the game?") Du wirfst den Torwart raus. - Wirfst du den Torwart raus? ("You are throwing the goalkeeper out - Are you throwing the goalkeeper out?") Asking for subject or object In a normal question, you replace the subject phrase or object phrase with a corresponding interrogative pronoun, then move it to the beginning of the sentence, like an inversion. Theoretically, you must use the interrogative pronoun of welcher, welche, welches or a nominal phrase with the interrogative article. Du hast deiner Frau einen Ring gekauft. ("You bought your wife a ring.") - Welchen hast du deiner Frau gekauft? ("Which one did you buy your wife?") Du hast deiner Frau einen roten Ring gekauft. ("You bought your wife a red ring.")

- Welchen Ring hast du deiner Frau gekauft? ("Which ring did you buy your wife?") Du hast deiner Frau einen roten Ring gekauft. ("You bought your wife a red ring.") - Welchen Roten hast du deiner Frau gekauft? ("Which red one did you buy your wife?") Du hast deiner Frau einen roten Ring gekauft. ("You bought your wife a red ring.") - Welchen roten Ring hast du deiner Frau gekauft? ("Which red ring did you buy your wife?") But the usage of this pronoun implies that the speaker knows both the gender and number of the unknown object. So, practically, you replace these pronouns by short forms. Du hast deiner Frau einen Ring gekauft. ("You bought your wife a ring.") - Was hast du deiner Frau gekauft? ("What did you buy your wife?") person thing nominative wer was genitive (object) wessen wessen dative wem wem accusative wen was Regardless of whether you use the full pronoun or the short form, the genitive case is practically only used for genitive objects. Asking for a predicative You ask for a predicative with the either interrogative pronoun Was or, if knowing it is not a nominal phrase, Wie. Er ist schnell - Wie/Was ist er? ("He's fast - What is he?") Ein Schmetterling ist ein Insekt - Was ist ein Schmetterling? ("A butterfly is an insect - What is a butterfly?") You can also use other interrogative pronouns like Wo.
Asking for an adverb

It is possible to ask for the adverb of a predicative, if it is not a nominal phrase (and even for the adverb of the adverb etc.) Der Baum ist 3 Meter hoch.- Wie hoch ist der Baum? ("The tree is three metres tall - How tall is the tree?")

Asking for a possessor When searching for the possessor of a nominal phrase, you first act as if you would invert the corresponding statement, placing the noun with the unknown possessor at the beginning. Then give it the possessive interrogative article (wessen for all cases, genders and numbers). Of course, this nominal phrase may not have a genitive possessor. Ich habe das Auto des Chefs gesehen. - Wessen Auto hast du gesehen? ("I saw the boss's car - Whose car did you see?") Ich habe sein Auto gesehen - Wessen Auto hast du gesehen? ("I saw his car Whose car did you see?") Ich habe sein Auto gesehen - Wessen hast du gesehen? ("I saw his car - Whose did you see?") (Wessen is no longer an article, but a pronoun) Usage is the same for both unknown possessive articles as for unknown genitive possessors. Asking for an adverb First the interrogative pronoun (Wie), then the conjugated verb, next the subject, then the rest of the sentence. Der Vogel fliegt schnell am Himmel - Wie fliegt der Vogel am Himmel? ("The bird flies quickly in the sky - How does the bird fly in the sky?") If the adverb describes another adverb or an adjective: Der Vogel fliegt ungeheuer schnell - Wie schnell fliegt der Vogel? ("The bird flies amazingly quickly - How quickly does the bird fly?") Asking for position or adverbial clause Developing the question for an adverbial phrase may be slightly more complicated. Theoretically, like the other specific questions, the unknown position is inverted to the beginning of the sentence. Whereas the pre- or post- position remains, the nominal part is replaced either by an interrogative pronoun or by a nominal phrase having the interrogative article. Er sah den Vogel auf dem Baum. - Auf welchem Baum sah er den Vogel? ("He saw the bird in the tree - In which tree did he see the bird?") Dein Hund wurde in diesem Jahr geboren. ("Your dog was born this year")

- In welchem Jahr wurde dein Hund geboren? ("Which year was your dog born?") Practically, the person asking the question will know neither the gender of the noun, nor the number of the noun, nor even the kind of preposition, before he hears the answer. So a short form is used instead in nearly every case. These short forms are also the only way to ask for an adverbial clause or for a proposition. Er sah den Vogel auf dem Baum. - Wo sah er den Vogel? ("He saw the bird in the tree - Where did he see the bird?") Dein Hund wurde damals geboren. - Wann wurde dein Hund geboren? ("Your dog was born at that time - When was your dog born?") Some interrogative pronouns: Wo, Woher, Wohin, Wann, Wieso, Weshalb, Warum, Weswegen.

Commands

For a command, take the imperative form of the conjugated verb from the infinitive and put it at the beginning of the sentence followed by the corresponding personal pronoun. There also must be an exclamation point at the end of the sentence to make it a command. The separable prefix, if there is one, remains at its old place, separated. In the literary language it is possible to leave the verb at the second place. If the verb changes the vowel in the second and third person singular, the vowel is also changed in the second person singular of the imperative. The 2nd person plural pronoun is always omitted. In archaic language, or to emphasize who is ordered for the action, the 2nd person singular pronoun may be left. Das Tier verfolgen - Verfolge (du) das Tier! ("to trail the animal - Trail the animal!") Das Tier verfolgen lassen - Lass(e) (du) das Tier verfolgen! ("to have the animal trailed - Have the animal trailed!") wegfahren - Fahr(e) (du) weg! ("to drive away - Drive away!") jemanden mitnehmen - Nimm (du) jemanden mit! ("to give someone a lift Give someone a lift!") Note that an "'e"' may be added on to the end of the command form, but only if the verb does not have a stem-change. This is a result of the spoken language and has no difference in meaning. Schreib das Wort auf! means the same as Schreibe das Wort auf! ("Write the word down!")

*Lese das Buch!, though very common in spoken language, is considered incorrect because the stem changes from les to lies in the command form. Lies das Buch! ("Read the book!") (singular) and Lest das Buch! (plural) are correct. There are no imperative forms for first person plural and second person formal. The first and third person plural of the conditional of the present (this is mostly the same form as verb infinitive aside from sein 'to be' for which seien is used) is used (but not for tun 'to do' for which tun is used). You must put it to beginning of the sentence, separate the separable prefix before that, and place the personal pronouns wir or Sie directly after it. wegfahren - Fahren wir weg! (Let's drive away!) - Fahren Sie weg! (You) Drive away! froh sein - Seien wir froh! (Let's be glad!) - Seien Sie froh! Be glad! Note that imperatives must have the same word order as yes/no questions. As a matter of fact, actual commands are often given as simple unconjugated infinitive. This is inevitable in the military (excepting the formal commands Rhrt euch and Richt't euch), but way not restricted to it. In Linie antreten! (Line up! to soldiers) but also Warm anziehen und den Schlssel nicht vergessen! (Put some warm clothes on and do not forget your key; a mother to her child) Hey, nicht faulenzen, arbeiten! (Hey yo, do not laze around, get some work done!, normal imperative would be very odd) The military command "Stillgestanden", Freeze!, oddly even takes the perfect participle for an imperative.

5 Subordinate clauses
A subordinate clause (Nebensatz) is always incorporated in a main sentence (or another subordinate clause). Any part of the main clause can be replaced by it, but some conjugated verb must remain. However, subclauses are generally moved to the end of the sentence if it can be done without inconvenience, and if they do not take the first place because of importance. As for its word order, it differs in two things only from a main clause: 1. In general, it begins with a special word, a 'subordinating conjunction' or a relative pronoun, setting it into relation with the encompassing sentence. 2. The verb is, without separation, sent to the place where the first part of a separable verb would be in a main clause, i. e. at the end of the sentence.

Ich nehme das frhere Flugzeug, damit ich heute noch ankomme. = "I'll take the earlier plane so that I arrive even today." Question words (in the following example, 'wohin') have the same effect as subordinating conjunctions within a sentence. Wohin ist er gelaufen? Niemand wusste, wohin er gelaufen ist. ("Where did he run (to)? No one knew where he ran (to)." -- Note that, unlike in English, a subordinate or dependent clause is always separated from the independent clause (Hauptsatz) by a comma.) Oddities: 1. Final clauses can be replaced by an "um-zu"-infinitive, if the subject is identical; in practice, um behaves as conjunction, and the infinitive, with a zu, as conjugated verb, and the subject falls away. Wir haben genug Geld, um diese CD zu kaufen. = Wir haben genug Geld, damit wir diese CD kaufen. "We have enough money to/that we buy this CD." 2. In conditional phrases, the conjunction wenn may be left out in the main clause and the verb put into its place. In this case, so replaces dann in the subordinate clause. Hast du gengend Geld, so no "dann" in this case kannst du diese CD kaufen. = Wenn du gengend Geld hast, dann kannst du diese CD kaufen. "If you have enough money, then you can buy this CD." 3. Indirect speech may behave as subclause in relation to the main clause, but the conjunction (which would be "dass") may be left out and then its word-order is as in main clauses. Er sagte, er sei mit der Arbeit fertig. = Er sagte, dass er mit der Arbeit fertig sei. = "He said (that) he had finished his work." 4. Denn, by custom translated into English as for, is in practice just an equivalent to weil "because", but it requires a main-clause word-order and may even take a semicolon instead of a comma. Er kommt nicht zur Arbeit, denn er ist krank. (He doesn't come to work, for he's ill.) = Er kommt nicht zur Arbeit, weil er krank ist. = "He doesn't come to work because he's ill."
To confuse things, in some dialects weil has the role which denn has in Standard German. However this doesn't mean they generally neglect the subclause word order, since other conjunctions meaning the

same, i. e. da "as" or even a "deswegen weil" (literally: because of that because) take ordinary subclauses even there.

Subordinate sentence structure

Just as in English, a subordinate clause may be used at the beginning or end of a complete expression, so long as it is paired with at least one independent clause. For instance, just as one could say either: I will go with you, if I can. or If I can, I will go with you. so you can also say in German: Ich komme mit, wenn ich kann. or Wenn ich kann, komme ich mit. Note, however, that in German when the independent clause comes after a subordinate clause the conjugated verb comes before the subject. This arises from the basic rule that always places the conjugated verb in a sentence in the second position, even if that puts it ahead of the sentence's subject.

Clauses with dass

Subordinate clauses beginning with dass [thus, so, that] enable the speaker to use statements like nominal phrases or pronouns. These sentences are singular, neuter and either nominative or accusative. However, the verb must go at the end of the sentence. Ich denke, dass er ein Vater ist. Dass Spinnen keine Insekten sind, ist allgemein bekannt. ("It's well-known that spiders are not insects.") Ich wei, dass Spinnen keine Insekten sind. - Ich wei das. ("I know that spiders are not insects - I know that.")

Indirect questions with ob

Whereas the word dass indicates that the statement is a fact, ob starts an indirect yes/no question. Ich wei nicht, ob ich fliegen soll. ("I don't know whether I should fly.")

9 Specific indirect question 10 Relative clauses


The outer nominal phrase the relative clause relates to can be any nominal phrase in any case. The clause begins with a form of the relative pronoun derived from and largely identical to the definite pronoun (der/die/das), or the interrogative pronoun

(welchem/welcher/welches), the remaining words are put after it. Using the interrogative pronoun without good cause is considered typical for legalese language. Der Mann, der/welcher seiner Frau den Hund schenkt (nominative subject) ("The man who gives his wife the dog") Der Hund, den/welchen der Mann seiner Frau schenkt (accusative object) ("The dog which the man gives his wife") Die Frau, der/welcher der Mann den Hund schenkt (dative object) ("The woman to whom the man gives the dog") Der Mann, der/welcher ich bin (predicative noun) ("The man I am") The outer nominal phrase can also be the possessor of a noun inside. You use the genitive case of a relative pronoun matching the outer nominal phrase in gender and number. Der Mann, dessen Auto auf der Strae parkt ("The man whose car is parked on the street") Die Person, deren Auto ich kaufe ("The person whose car I am buying") Das Auto, dessen Fahrer ich helfe ("The car whose driver I am helping") Die Kinder, deren Lehrer ich kenne ("The children whose teacher I know") Prepositions/Postpositions are attached to these phrases in the relative clause if necessary. Das Haus, in dem ich lebe ("The house I live in") Die Person, derentwegen ich hier bin ("The person I am here because of") Das Haus, durch dessen Tr ich gegangen bin ("The house whose door I came in by") If the relative pronoun is identical to the definite article several identical forms may follow each other. Der, der der Frau, der ich schon Honig gegeben hatte, Honig gab, muss mehr Honig kaufen ("The man who gave honey to the woman I had already given honey to, has to buy more honey") Such constructions are generally avoided by using forms of welch- as relative pronouns. Der, welcher der Frau, welcher ... or rather Derjenige, welcher der Frau, der ich ...

Otherwise, welcher is rarely used (never in the genitive), and without a difference in meaning. If the relative pronoun refers to a thing as yet unknown or a whole sentence and not a part of it, was is used instead, always equivalent here to an English "which". Der Chef stellte einen Arbeiter ein, was diesen sehr gefreut hat. - "The manager hired a worker, which the latter was very happy about." From sentences such as this In dem Geschft, wo ( or in dem) man auch Brot kaufen kann, kaufe ich Bier. "In this shop where you also can buy bread I am buying beer." one may understand why colloquial usage extends this to other quasi-locational prepositional expressions Die Zeit, wo (= in der) wir Rom besucht haben, war sehr schn. - "The time lit. where we visited Rome was really fine." Regular "in der", literally "in which",
would translate to a "when" in English.

and then, in Northern German slang, to all relative clauses: Der Mann, wo bei Siemens arbeitet, hat an der Technischen Universitt studiert. "The man where works at Siemens's has graduated from the Technical University." Southern Germans never use this form, but they have constructed a double form "der wo, die wo, das wo" which is almost necessary in their dialect. "Wo" may here be replaced
by "was", which for undiscoverable reasons seems to occur mostly in the feminine genus.

11 Adverbial clauses
An adverbial clause begins with a conjunction, defining its relation to the verb or nominal phrase described. Als ich auf dem Meer segelte ("When/As I was sailing on the sea") Some examples of conjunctions: als, whrend, nachdem, weil?

German Gender: Masuline Suffix: Most nouns ending in -en, -el, -ling, -ner, -ismus, -ig, -ich, or -er are masculine:

der Boden (ground), der Vogel (bird), der Frhling (spring), der Vater (father). Rules: Days, months, and seasons, weather (rain, snow) are usually masculine in German. der Sonntag (Sunday), der Winter (winter), der Februar (February, der Regen (rain), der Schnee (snow), but das Wetter (the weather). Note that these suffixes and rules can only assist you in increasing your chance of guessing what the gender would be, but its still guessing, because there are some exceptions that can be found time to time.

German Gender: Feminine Suffix: Nouns ending in -heit, -ie, -ik, -age, -ei ,-ion, -itis, -keit, -ur, -schaft, -tt, and -ung are feminine: die Freiheit (freedom), die Garage (garage), die Operation (operation), die Mglichkeit (possibility), die Natur (nature), die Freundschaft (friendship), die Qualitt (quality), die Ehrung, (honor). Rules: Trees, flowers, fruit, and cardinal numbers are most of the time feminine: die Fhre (pine tree), die Rose (rose), die Orange (Orange), die Sieben (the seven).

German Gender: Neuter Suffix: Nouns ending in -ett, -chen, -lein, -il, -ium, -ma, -ment, -nis, -tel, -tum, -um and -o are neuter: das Bett (bed), das Kaninchen (Rabbit), das Stadium (stage), das Klima (climat), das Geheimnis (secret), das Viertel (quarter), das Album (album), das Frulein (young lady). Rules: Names of towns, countries, colors, infinitives used as nouns, and the diminutives that weve seen above ending in -chen or -lein, theyre all usually neuter: das Berlin (Berlin), das Deutschland (Germany), das Rot (Red), das Schwimmen (swimming), das Hndchen (little dog), das Kindlein (little child).

12 The Plural in German


German is more diverse in its plural than in English, to express the plural in English we simply add s or es to the end of the noun, well in German its not the case. Some nouns add e to their end: der Freund (friend) becomes die Freunde (friends), der Schuh (a shoe) becomes die Schuhe (shoes).

Other nouns add en to their end: der Student (student) becomes die Studenten (students), die Zeit (time) becomes die Zeiten (times). The other forms of plural in German are: (-n) for example: die Schule becomes die Schulen (schools). (no diffrence) for example: das Fenster (window) stays die Fenster (windows). (-) for example: der Bruder becomes die Brder (brothers). (-er or -er) for example: das Haus becomes die Huser (houses), or das Kind becomes die Kinder (childen). (-s) for example: das Radio becomes die Radios (this form can be used usually with foreign words) das Baby becomes die Babys

Tips: Note that most nouns ending in the suffixes (-heit, -ie, -ik, -age, -ei ,-ion, -itis, -keit, -ur, -schaft, -tt, and -ung) add -en in the plural. Feminine nouns ending in (-in) add -nen to form their plural. Note that most German plurals add an extra -n or -en to the plural form in the dative case. Finally note that while English takes capital letter only in countries names or days in German all nouns take a capital letter as you may have noticed in this lesson.

13 German Articles
If you dont know it yet articles in German change depending on the case used in the sentences. If youre not familiar with that then please check the German Cases page before proceeding to this page.

German Definite Articles


The definite articles in German refer to specific persons, objects, ideasetc. and they are : der, die, das, die (plural) they all mean the expression the in English, der is used for masculine nouns, die is used for feminine nouns, das is used for neuter nouns, and finally die used also for plural nouns. German Definite Article

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

der Mann (the man) die Frau (the woman) das Brot (the bread) die Mnner (the men), die Frauen (the women), die Brote (the breads)

Well, thats not all; the form we went through above is only for the nominative case. Now lets have a look at all the rest: German Definite Articles masculine feminine neuter plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem den des der des der

Nominative case Accusative case Dative case Genitive cases Here are some examples:

the the to the of the

Nominative: der Mann ist hier (the man is here) Accusative: Ich gre den Mann (I greet the man) Dative: Ich gebe dem Mann ein Buch (I give the book to the man) Genitive: Ich habe das Buch des Mannes (I have the book of the man) You may have noticed how the definite article changes each time the case changes. So try to memorize the table above by heart, Im sure its not that hard.

14 German Indefinite Articles


The indefinite articles in German refer to unspecified persons, objects, ideasetc. and they are: ein, eine, ein, they all mean the indefinite article a, an in English, ein is used for masculine nouns, eine is used for feminine nouns, ein is used for neuter nouns, and there is no plural for the indefinite article. German Indefinite Article ein Mann (a man) eine Frau (the woman) ein Brot (a bread)

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Again, thats not all; the form we went through above is only for the nominative case. Now lets have a look at all the rest: German Indefinite Articles masculine feminine neuter ein eine ein

Nominative case

a, an

Accusative case Dative case Genitive cases Here are some examples:

einen einem eines

eine einer einer

ein einem eines

a, an to a, to an of a, of an

Nominative: ein Mann ist hier (a man is here) Accusative: Ich gre einen Mann (I greet a man) Dative: Ich gebe einem Mann ein Buch (I give the book to a man) Genitive: Ich habe das Buch eines Mannes (I have the book of a man) So the same thing happens to the indefinite article, it changes each time the case changes. So try to memorize the table above by heart as well. A. GENERAL GENDER RULES AND TIPS 1. With words referring to people, the grammatical gender usually coincides with the person's sex. 2. Many words which can be used to refer to human beings of either gender are masculine. 3. With most of the words in category 2 above, the feminine form can be created by adding the suffix -in. 4. The masculine version of some nouns is frequently used to refer to females, even when feminine forms with the suffix -in exist [Frau Doktor Kranzl ist Professor (Professorin) an der Universitt]. 5. With animals, generally nouns referring to the animal as a category where no thought is given to gender, are neuter. 6. Young animals also tend to be neuter. 7. Where for some reason an animal is thought to have more feminine or more masculine characteristics. that gender is used. Sometimes the gender may be due to the structure of the word. 8. Compound nouns take the gender of the last element of the compound. B. FEMININE NOUNS
1. Most nouns which end in -e (but not -ee). 2. Those words denoting feminine human beings (and occasionally animals)

which are formed from the masculine words by adding -in. 3. Numerals used as nouns. 4. Nouns with the Germanic suffixes -ei, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -ung. 5. Nouns with the suffixes -d and -t are usually feminine. The ending must be a suffix, though, and not just a -d or -t ending.

6. Nouns with the common foreign suffixes -ie, -ik, -ion, -et. 7. A host of other foreign suffixes are also feminine, including -a, -ade, -age,

-eille, -aise, -anee, -ne, -anz, -elle, -enz, -esse, -ette, -euse, -(i)ere, -ille, -ine, -isse, -itis, -ive, -ose, -sis, -se, -ur, -re. C. MASCULINE NOUNS 1. Male human beings and nouns referring specifically to the male of an animal species. 2. Names of days of the week, months, seasons and directions. 3. Names of most stones and minerals. 4. Names for storms and most other weather phenomena. 5. Five nouns ending in -ee. 6. Nouns with the suffix -ling. 7. Those nouns which indicate the person doing a given verb action (agent nouns) which are formed by adding -er to the stem of the verb. 8. Many other nouns ending in -er, most ending in -s, and a large percentage (but not all) of those ending in -en and -el. 9. Almost all nouns formed from one of the principle parts of a verb, especially one-syllable ones formed from strong verbs. 10. Nouns formed with the foreign suffixes -and, -ant, -ar, -r, -ast, -ent, -cur, -ier, -iker, -ikus, -ismus, -ist, -or, -us. Of these, the most important are -ier, -ismus, -ist, -or. D. NEUTER NOUNS
1. Those nouns which end in -chen and -lein.

2. Young persons and animals except those which, because of a suffix, have another gender). 3. Names for many animals designating both male and female collectively. 4. Names of cities, touns, most countries and continents. Note: the article is not generally used with any of these geographic entities, unless an adjective precedes the name. 5. Other parts of speech used as nouns, unless they designate persons. 6. Most collective nouns, especially those formed with the prefix ge- and the suffix -e. 7. Most nouns with the suffixes -icht, -tel, -tum. 8. Most nouns ending with the foreign suffixes -ett, -il, -in, -ium, -ma, -ment, -um. 9. Letters of the Alphabet. E. NOUNS WITH MORE THAN ONE GENDER

Some nouns have two different genders, depending on the definition. Here is a list of the most common such words. der Alp (nightmare) der Band (volume) der Bauer (farmer) der Bund (federation) der Erbe (heir) der Flur (hallway) der Gefallen (favor) der Gehalt (content) der Harz (mountain range) der Heide (heathen) der Hut (hat) der Junge (boy) der Kiefer (jaw) der Kristall (type of mineral) der Kunde (customer) der Leiter (leader) das Mark (marrow) der Marsch (march) das Ma (measure) der Mast (mast) der Messer (surveyor) der Moment (moment, instant) der Otter (otter) der Reis (rice) der Schild (shield) der See (lake) das Steuer (rudder) der Stift (pin) der Tau (dew) der Tor (fool) der Verdienst (earnings) das Wehr (dam) die Alp (mountain pasture) das Band* (ribbon) das (der) Bauer (birdcage) das Bund (bundle, bunch) das Erbe (inheritance) die Flur (meadow) das Gefallen (pleasure) das Gehalt (salary) das Harz (resin) die Heide (heath) die Hut (protection) das Junge (animal offspring) die Kiefer (pine tree) das Kristall (type of glass) die Kunde (news, information) die Leiter (ladder) die Mark (monetary unit) die Marsch (marsh) die Ma (liter container--Bavaria) die Mast (fattening of animals) das Messer (knife) das Moment (motive, factor) die Otter (adder) das Reis (twig) das Schild (sign) die See (sea) die Steuer (tax) das Stift (convent) das Tau (rope) das Tor (gate) das Verdienst (merit) die Wehr (defense)

* also "die Band" (with English pronunciation; band) The words "Meter" and "Teil" and their compounds occur as both neuters and masculines.

"Meter" by itself was originally neuter but it is now usually considered masculine. In compounds indicating units of length it is always masculine: "der Zentimeter," "der Kilometer." Compounds indicating a measuring device are neuter: "das Thermometer," "das Barometer." "Teil" is masculine if it is felt to be a component part of the whole: "der westlichc Teil." If it designates a separate part or an individual share it is neuter: "Das ist mein Teil." In a store displaying various unrelated items on sale for the same price you frequently see a sign indicating the price for "jedes Teil." Compounds of "Teil" vary in gender: "das Abteil," "das Urteil," "der Vorteil," "der Nachteil," "der Krperteil," "der Bruchteil."

With a few nouns two (or, rarely, even all three genders) are possible without any difference in meaning. Most of them are foreign words for which a firm gender has not (yet) been determined, but there are also a few old Germanic ones in this category: der (die) Abscheu der (das) Mndel der (das) Dotter der (das) Sims der (das) Erbteil der (die) Wulst der (das) Knuel der (das) Zubehr Some of the foreign words include the following: der (das) Barock der (das, die) Dschungel der (das) Katheder der (das) Kompromi der (das) Lasso das Taxi/die Taxe der (das) Bonbon der (das Filter der (das) Keks der (das) Lampion der (das) Radar die (das) Cola

15 German Vocabulary
a (indefinite article) a (indefinite article) eine (for feminine) ein (for masculine & neuter)

ability able, capable about (circa) about (concerning) above abroad absent accept accident account achieve across (through) act (verb) action activity actor actress actual actually add added additional address adequate administration adult advanced advantage advertising advice affairs (plural) afraid after after that afternoon afterwards again against age ago agree agreement aid (help) aim air airplane airport alarm clock alcohol alive all allow almost

Fhigkeit, f fhig etwa ber ber, darber im Ausland abwesend annehmen Unfall, m Konto, n erreichen durch handeln Handlung, f Ttigkeit, f Schauspieler, m Schauspielerin, f tatschlich eigentlich hinzufgen zustzlich beigefgt Adresse, f angemessen Verwaltung, f erwachsen fortgeschritten Vorteil, m Werbung, f Rat, m Geschfte, pl besorgt nach darnach Nachmittag, m nachher wieder gegen Alter, n vor zustimmen Vereinbarung, f Hilfe, f Ziel, n Luft, f Flugzeug, n Flughafen, m Wecker, m Alkohol, m lebendig alle erlauben fast

alone along already also (too) although always among amount amuse ancient and and so on angle angry animal ankle announce annual another answer ant any anyone anything anywhere apartment appear appetite apple apply approach appropriate approval approximately apricot April area argument arm armchair arms (plural) army around arrival arrive art article artist (feminine) artist (masculine) as (like) as (when) ask (beg) ask (question)

allein entlang schon auch obwohl immer unter, zwischen Betrag, m vergngen alt und und so weiter (or simply usw.) Winkel, m wtend Tier, n Fessel, f ankndigen jhrlich ein anderer,-e,-es Antwort, f Ameise, f jeder, e, -es irgend jemand irgend etwas irgendwo Wohnung, f erscheinen Appetit, m Apfel, m anwenden sich nhern passend Billigung, f ungefhr Aprikose, f April, m Gebiet, n Beweis, m Arm, m Sessel, m Waffen, pl Armee, f herum Ankunft, f ankommen Kunst, f Artikel, m Knstlerin, f Knstler, m, wie als bitten fragen

aspect assembly assignment assistance association assume at (hour) at (place) at last at least at most at the same time attack attempt attention attitude attorney August aunt author (feminine) author (masculine) autumn available avoid awake aware away baby back back (body) background bacon bad badly bag baggage bake baker bakery balcony ball banana band bank bank note bar base based basement basic basket bath bathroom

Anblick, m Versammlung, f Zuweisung, f Beistand, m, Assistenz, f Verband, m annehmen um an endlich wenigstens hchstens zur gleichen Zeit angreifen Versuch, m Achtung, f Haltung, f Anwalt, m August, m Tante, f Schriftstellerin, f Schriftsteller, m, Herbst, m kuflich vermeiden erwachen aufgeweckt weg Baby, n zurck Rcken, m Hintergrund, m Speck, m schlechter,-e,-es schlecht Tasche, f Gepck, n backen Bcker, m Bckerei, f Balkon, m Ball, m Banane, f Band, n Bank, f Banknote, f Bar, f Grundlage, f beruhen auf Keller, m grundlegend Korb, m Bad, n Badezimmer, n

battle bay be be called be valid beach bean bear beard beat beautiful beauty because become bed bedroom bee beef beefsteak beer before begin beginning behavior behind belief believe bell (door) below belt beneath benefit beside besides best bet better between beverage beyond bible bicycle big bill bird birth birthday biscuit bit bitter black black blanket

Schlacht, f Bucht, f sein heissen gltig sein Strand, m Bohne, f Br, m Bart, m schlagen schn Schnheit, f weil werden Bett, n Schlafzimmer, n Biene, f Rindfleisch, n Steak, n Bier, n vor beginnen Anfang, m Benehmen, n hinter Glauben, m glauben Klingel, f unter Gurt, m unter Nutzen, m neben ausserdem bester,-e,-es Wette, f besser zwischen Getrnk, n jenseits Bibel, f Fahrrad, n gross Rechnung, f Vogel, m Geburt, f Geburtstag, m Biscuit, n Stck, f bitter schwarz schwarz Decke, f

blind block blood blouse blue board boat body boil bone book bookshop boring both bottle bottom bowl box boy brain brake bread break breakfast breast breath bridge brief bright brilliant bring broad broke broom brother brown brush budget build building burn burning bus business busy but butcher butter butterfly button buy buy by (a person)

blind Block, m Blut, n Bluse, f blau Brett, f Boot, n Krper, m kochen Knochen, m Buch, n Buchhandlung, f langweilg beide Flasche, f Boden, m Schale, f Schachtel, f Junge, m Gehirn, n Bremse, f Brot, n brechen Frhstck, n Brust, f Atem, m Brcke, f kurz hell strahlend bringen breit pleite Besen, m Bruder, m braun Brste, f Budget, f bauen Gebude, n brennen Verbrennung, f Bus, m Geschft, n beschftigt aber Metzger, m Butter, f Schmetterling, m Knopf, m kaufen kaufen durch, von

by chance by heart by the way

zufllig auswendig brigens

cabbage caf cake calf call camp can candle capacity capital captain car card care career careful carpet carrot carry case, instance cashier cat catch cathedral cattle cauliflower cause cell cellar center central century certain certainly chain chair chairman chance changable change (noun) change (verb) chapter character characteristics charge cheap check (verb)

Kohl, m Caf, n Kuchen, m Kalb, n rufen, anrufen Lager, n knnen Kerze, f Aufnahmefhigkeit, f Kapital, n Kapitn, m Wagen, m, Auto, n Karte, f sorgen Karriere, f vorsichtig Teppich, m Rbe, f, Karrotte, f tragen Fall, m Kassierer, m, Katze fangen Kathedrale, f Vieh, n Blumenkohl, m Grund, m Zelle, f Keller, m Zentrum, n zentral Jahrhundert, n gewiss gewiss Kette, f Stuhl, m Vordsitzender, m Chance, f vernderlich Wechsel wechseln Kapitel, f Charakter, m Merkmal beladen billig prfen

cheek cheese chemical cherry chest chicken chief child childhood chill chin china chinese chocolate choice choose christian christmas church cigarette circle circumstances citizen city civil claim class clay clean clear client clock(tower) clock,watch close closely clothes cloud club coast coat coffee cold collar collection college color column comb combination come come back command commerce

Wange, f Kse, m chemisch Kirsche, f Brust, f Hhnchen, n Leiter, m Kind, n Kindheit, f khlen Kinn, n Porzellan, n chinesisch Schokolade, f Wahl, f whlen, auswhlen christlich Weihnachten Kirche, f Zigarette, f Kreis, m Umstnde, pl Brger, m Stadt, f brgerlich Anspruch, m Klasse, f Lehm, m sauber klar, hell Kunde, m Uhr, f Armbanduhr, f nahe, bei eng Kleider, pl Wolke, f Club, m Kste, f Mantel, m Kaffee, m kalt Kragen, m Sammlung, f College, n Farbe, f Sule, f Kamm, m Verbindung, f kommen zurckkommen befehlen Handel, m

commercial commission committee common communication company compare competition complete complexion comrade concept concern conclusion condition conduct conference confess confidence conflict congress connection consider considerable construction contact contain contemporary content continue contract contrary contrast control conversation conviction convince cook cook cool cord corner corporation correct cost council count country county couple course court cousin

Werbespot, m Kommission, f Komittee, n gewhnlich Verbindung, f Gesellschaft, f vergleichen Wettbewerb, m vollstndig Hautfarbe, f Kamarad, m Planung, f betreffen Ergebnis, n Bedingung, f Verhalten, n Besprechung, f bekennen Zutrauen, n Konflikt, m Kongress, m Verbindung, f erwgen, berlegen betrchtlich Bauwerk, n kontaktieren enthalten zeitgenssisch Inhalt, m fortsetzen Vertrag, m Gegenteil, n Gegensatz, m Kontrolle, f Gesprch, n Ueberzeugung, f berzeugen kochen Koch, m, Kchin, f khl Seil, n Ecke, f Gesellschaft, f richtig kosten Ratsversammlung, f zhlen, berechnen Land, n Grafschaft, f Paar, n Lauf, m, Verlauf, m Gericht, n Cousin, m, Cousine, f

cover cow cream create credit crime crisis critical cross crowd crown cry, weep cucumber cultural culture cup cupboard current curtain customs cut daddy daily dance danger dangerous dark data date daughter day dead deaf deal dear December decide decision declare deep defense degree demand demand democratic dentist depart, leave department departure depth describe desert design

bedecken Kuh, f Sahne, f erschaffen Kredit, m Verbrechen, n Krise, f kritisch Kreuz, n Menge, f Krone, f weinen Gurke, f kulturell Kultur, f Tasse, f Schrank, m laufend Vorhang, m Zoll, m schneiden Papa, m tglich tanzen Gefahr, f gefhrlich dunkel Daten, pl Datum, n Tochter, f Tag, m tot taub Abmachung, f teuer, lieb Dezember entscheiden Entscheidung, f bekanntgeben tief Verteidigung, f Grad, m Anfrage, f verlangen demokratisch Zahnarzt, m abreisen Abteilung, f Abfahrt, f Tiefe, f beschreiben Wste, f entwerfen

desire desk despite dessert detail detective determine determined develop development device devoted dictionary die difference different difficult dining room dinner direct direction directly director dirty disappointed discover discuss discussion disease distance distribute district divided division do doctor dog domestic dominant donkey door double doubt down dozen dramatic draw drawer dream dress drink drive drunk

begehren Schreibtisch, m trotz Dessert, n Detail, f Detektiv, m bestimmen entschlossen entwickeln Entwicklung, f Gert, n ergeben Wrterbuch, n sterben Unterschied, m verschieden schwierig Esszimmer, n Abendessen, n lenken Richtung, f direkt Direktor, m schmutzig enttuscht entdecken besprechen Besprechung Krankheit, f Distanz, f verteilen Distrikt, m geteilt Abteilung, f tun, machen Arzt, m, Aerztin, f Hund, m huslich herrschend Esel, m Tre, f doppelt Zweifel, m unten, hinunter Dutzend, n dramatisch zeichnen Schublade, f Traum, m Kleid, n trinken Auto fahren betrunken

dry duck due during dust duty dwelling each ear early earn earth east easy eat economy edge editor education effect effective effort egg eight either elbow election electric electronic element elephant elevator eleven else emotional employee empty end enemy energy engine enjoy enough enter entire entrance envelope equal equipment escape especially essential establish

trocken Ente, f Gebhr, f whrend Staub, m Pflicht, f Wohnung, f jeder, -e, -es Ohr, n frh verdienen Erde, f Osten leicht essen Wirtschaft, f Kante, f Herausgeber, m Erziehung, f, Bildung, f Wirkung, f wirksam Anstrengung, f Ei, n acht beide Ellbogen, m Wahl, f elektrisch elektronisch Element, n Elefant, m Fahrstuhl, m, Lift, m elf sonst gefhlsmssig Angestellter, m leer Ende, n Feind, m Energie, f Motor, m geniessen genug eintreten ganzer Eingang, m Briefumschlag, m gleich Ausrstung, f entkommen besonders wesentlich einrichten

estate estimated even A622 evening event eventually ever every everybody everyone everything everywhere evidence evil exactly example excellent except exchange executive exercise exist existence exit expect expenses expensive experience experiment explain express expression extended extent extra extreme eye face facilities fact factor factory fail failure fair fairly fairy tale faith fall false, familiar family far

Liegenschaft, f geschtzt sogar Abend, m Ereignis, n schliesslich jemals, immer jeden,-e,-es jeder jeder alles berall Beweis, m bel, n genau Beispiel, f ausgezeichnet ausser Wechsel, m Geschftsfhrer, m Uebung, f existieren Dasein, n Ausgang, m erwarten Auslagen, pl teuer Erfahrung, f Experiment, n erklren ausdrcken Ausdruck, m erweitert Ausdehnung, f zustzlich usserst Auge, n Gesicht, n Mglichkeiten Tatsache, f Faktor, m Fabrik, f fehlschlagen Versagen, n ehrlich eher Mrchen, n Glauben, m fallen falsch gewohnt, vertraut Familie, f weit

farm fashion fast fat father fault favor fear features February feed feel (good) feeling felicitate female fetch few field fifteen fifty fig fight figure out file fill film finally find fine finger finish (verb) fire first fish five flat flat (adj.) flesh (body) floor flour flow flower fly (insect) fly (verb) follow food foot for forbidden force foreign forest forget

Bauernhof, m Mode, f schnell fett Vater, m Fehler, m Gefallen, m Angst, f Eigenschaften Februar, m ernhren, fttern sich fhlen Gefhl, n beglckwnschen weiblich holen wenig Feld, n fnfzehn fnfzig Feige, f Kampf, m herausfinden Akte, f fllen Film, m endlich finden fein, schn Finger, m beenden Feuer, n erster,-e,-es Fisch, m fnf Wohnung flach Fleisch Boden, m Mehl, n fliessen Blume, f Fliege, f fliegen folgen Nahrung, f, Essen, n Fuss, m fr verboten Kraft, f fremd, auslndisch Wald, m vergessen

forgive fork form former forty fountain four fourteen fox frame free free (not occupied) frequently fresh Friday friend friendly frighten from front full fundamental funny furniture further future gain game garden gas gasoline general get girl give glad gladly glass glasses go goal God gold goldfish good good-bye goods goose government gradually grandfather grandmother grass

vergeben Gabel, f Form, f frherer vierzig Brunnen, m vier vierzehn Fuchs, m Rahmen, m gratis frei hufig frisch Freitag, m Freund, m, freundin, f freundlich erschrecken von Vorderseite, f voll grundlegend lustig Mbel, pl weiterer, -e, -es Zukunft, f Gewinn, m Spiel, n Garten, m Gas, n Benzin, n allgemein bekommen Mdchen, n geben frhlich, froh gerne Glas, n Brille, f gehen Ziel, n Gott, n Gold, n Goldfisch, m gut auf Wiedersehen Waren, pl Gans, f Regierung, f allmhlich Grossvater, m Grossmutter, f Gras, n

gray green green greetings grey ground group grow guess guest gun guy hair half hall ham hammer hamster hand handbag handkerchief handle hang happen happy hard hardly harvest hat hate have he head health healthy hear heart heat heavy hell help (noun) help (verb) hen here hero high highway hill him,her, it his history hit hold

grau grn grn Wnsche, pl grau Boden, m Gruppe, f wachsen vermuten Gast, m Gewehr, n Kerl, m Haare, pl halb Halle, f Schinken, m Hammer, m Hamster, m Hand, f Handtasche, f Taschentuch, n umgehen mit hngen geschehen glcklich hard kaum Ernte, f Hut, m hassen haben er Kopf, m Gesundheit, f gesund hren Herz, n Hitze, f schwer Hlle, f Hilfe helfen Huhn, n hier Held, m hoch Landstrasse, f Hgel, m ihn, sie, es sein Geschichte, f schlagen halten

hole holiday home, at home honor hope horrible horse hospital hot hotel, inn hour house how however huge human hundred hungry hurry hurt, injure husband I ice ice cream idea ideal if image imagine immediately impact important impossible improve in in front of in spite of inch include increase indeed independent index index finger influence initial inner insect inside instead interest interesting interior

Loch, n Ferien, pl zuhause Ehre, f Hoffnung, f schrecklich Pferd, n Spital, n heiss Hotel, n Stunde, f Haus, n wie wie auch immer riesig menschlich hundert hungrig sich beeilen verletzen Ehemann, m ich Eis, n Eiskrem, Eis Idee, f ideal wenn Bild, n sich vorstellen sofort Einfluss, m wichtig unmglich verbessern in vor trotz Zoll, m beinhalten zunehmen tatschlich unabhngig Inhaltsverzeichnis Zeigefinger Einfluss, m anfnglich innerer, -e, -es Insekt, n drinnen anstatt Interesse interessant Innere, f

into invite involve iron island issue it it's cold it's foggy it's freezing it's hot it's nice it's rainy it's snowy it's sunny it's windy jacket jam January job join judge juice July jump June just (only) justice keep key kill kind king kiss kitchen kitten knee knife know (person) know to knowledge labor lack ladder lady lake lamp land language large last last (previous) late

in.....hinein einladen verwickeln Eisen, n Insel, f Problem, n es es ist kalt es ist neblig es friert Klte ein es ist hei es ist nett es ist regnerisch es ist schneebedeckt es ist sonnig es ist windig Jacke, f Marmelade, f Januar, m Job, m sich anschliessen Richter, m Saft, m Juli, m springen Juni, m nur Gerechtigkeit, f halten Schlssel, m tten Art, f Knig, m Kuss, m Kche, f Ktzchen, n Knie, n Messer, n kennen knnen Wissen, n Arbeit, f mangeln Leiter, f Dame, f See, m Lampe, f Land, n Sprache, d breit letzter,-e,-es letzte spt

laugh law lay lead leader learn leave left leg legal lemon length less let (allow) letter library lie lie life lift (verb) light (adjective) light (electr) lightning like (as) like (verb) likely line lip liquid list listen literature little (amount) little (size) live live, dwell local located location lock (noun) long (object) long (time) look lose loss lot loud love (noun) love (verb) low luck lunch machine

lachen Recht, n legen fhren Anfhrer, d lernen weggehen links Bein, n gesetzlich Zitrone, f Lnge, f weniger lassen Brief, m Bibliothek, f liegen lgen Leben, f heben leicht Licht Blitz, m wie mgen wahrscheinlich Linie, f Lippe, f flssig Liste, f hren, zuhren Literatur, f wenig klein leben wohnen lokal gelegen Standort, m Schloss, n lang lange schauen verlieren Verlust, m Haufen, m laut Liebe, f lieben leise Glck, n Mittagessen, n Maschine, f

magazine mail maintain majority make man manner many map March march mark market marriage married mass material matter maximum May may maybe me meadow meal mean meaning means meanwhile measure meat meet member memory mention merely message metal method midday, noon middle midnight mile milk million mind minimum minister minute mirror Miss miss (verb) mistake

Magazin, n Post, f instandhalten Mehrheit, f machen Mann, m, Mensch, m Art, f viele Landkarte, f Mrz, m marschieren kennzeichnen Markt, m Hochzeit, f verheiratet Messe, f Material, n Gegenstand, m Maximum, n Mai, m drfen vielleicht mich (accusative), mir (dative) Wiese, f Mahlzeit, f meinen, denken Bedeutung, f Mittel, n unterdessen Mass, n Fleisch, n treffen Mitglied, n Gedchtnis, n erwhnen kaum Botschaft, f Metall, n Methode, f Mittag mittlerer,-e,-es Mitternacht Meile, f Milch, f Million, f Sinn, m, Geist, m Minimum, n Minister, m Minute, f Spiegel, m Frulein vermissen Fehler, m

modern moment Monday money month moon more more... than morning most mother motion motor mountain mouse mouth move movement Mr. Mrs. much murder music must my myself nail name napkin narrow nasty natural nature near necessary neck need needle neighbor neighborhood neither...nor never nevertheless new news newspaper next nice night nine nineteen ninety no

modern Augenblick, m, Moment, m Montag, m Geld, n Monat, m Mond, m mehr mehr...als Morgen, m die meisten Mutter, f Bewegung, f Motor, m Berg, m Maus, f Mund, m bewegen Bewegung, f Herr Frau viel Mord, m Musik, f mssen mein,-e mich Nagel, m Name, m Serviette, f eng bse, schlimm natrlich Natur, f nahe notwendig Hals, m brauchen Nadel, f Nachbar, m Nachbarschaft, f weder...noch nie trotzdem neu Nachrichten, pl Zeitung, f nchster,-e,-es nett Nacht, f neun neunzehn neunzig nein

nobody nod noise none nor normal north nose not note nothing notice novel November now nowhere number nurse nut oak observe obtain obvious occasion occur October of of course off offer office officer official often oil old on on time,in time once one one(impers.) oneself onion only open opinion opportunity opposite or orange orange (color) orchestra order

niemand nicken Lrm, m niemand weder normal Norden Nase, f nicht Notiz, f nichts bemerken Roman, m November, m jetzt nirgendwo Zahl, f Krankenschwester, f Nuss, f Eiche, f beobachten erhalten offensichtlich Gelegenheit, f vorfallen Oktober, m von natrlich, gewiss weg anbieten Bro, n Offizier, Beamter offiziell oft Oel, n alt auf pnktlich ein mal ein, eine man sich Zwiebel, f nur ffnen Meinung, f Gelegenheit, f gegenberstehend oder Orange, f orangegelb Orchester, n bestellen

ordinary organization original orning other otherwise our outside oven over overcoat own page pain painting pair pale paper parents park parking part particular partly party passport past patient pattern pay payment pea peace pear pen people performance perhaps period permit person personal pick picture piece pig pink place, spot plan plant plate play

gewhnlich Organisation, f original Morgen, m anderer,-e,-es sonst unser, -e draussen Ofen ber Mantel, m eigener,-e,-es Seite, f Schmerz, m Gemlde, n Paar, n Bleich Papier, n Eltern, pl Park, m Parkieren Teil, m Besonders teilweise Party, f Pass, m Vergangenheit, f geduldig Muster, n zahlen Zahlung, f Erbe, f Frieden, m Birne, f Kugelschreiber, m Leute, pl Leistung,Vorstellung, f vielleicht Punkt(Zeichen), m erlauben Person, f persnlich pflcken Bild, n Stck, n Schwein, n blarot Ort, m, Stelle, f Plan, m Pflanze, f Teller, m spielen

pleasant please pleasure plenty point police pool poor popular population pork portion position possible post office postcard pot potato power powerful practice pray prepare present president pressure pretty prevent previous price probably problem product program progress promise property proposal propose protection proud prove provide prune public publish pull pure purple purpose push put quality

angenehm bitte Vergngen, n sehr viel Punkt, m Polizei, f Schwimmbecken, n arm beliebt Bevlkerung, f Schweinefleisch, n Teil, m Lage, f mglich Postbro, n Postkarte, f Topf, m Kartoffel, f Macht, f,Kraft, f mchtig Uebung, f beten, bitten vorbereiten Geschenk, n Prsident, m Druck, m hbsch vorbeugen vorheriger,-e,-es Preis, m wahrscheinlich Problem, n Produkt, n Programm, n Fortschritt, m versprechen Eigentum, n Vorschlag vorschlagen Schutz, m stolz beweisen liefern Zwetschge, f ffentlich verffentlichen ziehen rein purpurfarbig Zweck, m stossen legen, stellen Qualitt, f

queen question quickly quiet quite rabbit race radio railroad rain rain (verb) raise range rapidly rare rate rather raw reach, manage read ready real reality realize really rear reason reasonable receive recently recognize record recover red reduce refrigerator refuse regard region regular relation relatively relief religion remain remark remember remove repeat reply report represent require

Knigin, f Frage, f schnell ruhig ganz Kaninchen, n Rasse, f Radio, n Eisenbahn, f Regen, m regnen aufziehen Bereich, m schnell selten Kurs, m,Preis, m eher roh erreichen lesen bereit wirklich Wirklichkeit, f erkennen,ausfhren wirklich Hinterseite, f Grund, m vernnftig erhalten, bekommen krzlich erkennen Schallplatte, f sich erholen rot verringern Khlschrank, m ablehnen Hinblick, m Gegend regelmssig, blich Verhltnis, n verhltnismssig Erleichterung, f Religion, f zurckbleiben Bemerkung, f sich erinnern entfernen wiedeerholen antworten berichten darstellen erfordern

research (do ~) research (noun) responsible rest restaurant result return rice rich right (direction) right (fair) right (noun) ring rise risk river road rock role roof room round rule run sad safe salad salt same sample satisfied Saturday sausage save say scarcely scene school science scissors screw sea search season seat second secret secretary see seek seem seldom select

Forschen Forschung, f verantwortlich sich ausruhen Restaurant, n Ergebnis, n zurckkehren Reis, m reich rechts rechtig Recht, n luten aufstehen Risiko, n Fluss Landstrasse, f Fels, m Rolle, f Dach, n Zimmer, n rund Regel, f laufen, rennen traurig sicher Salat, m Salz, n gleicher,-e,-es Probe, f zufrieden Samstag, m Wurst, f retten, sichern sagen kaum Szene Schule, f Wissenschaft, f Schere, f Schraube, f Meer, n suchen Jahreszeit, f Sitz, m zweiter,-e,-es Geheimnis, n Sekretrin, f sehen suchen scheinen selten auswhlen

sell send sense September serious serve as service settled seven seventeen seventy several sex sexual shadow shall shape share sharp shave she sheep shelter ship shirt shoes shoot shop shore short shot shoulder show sick, ill side sign (noun) sign (verb) signal signify silence silver similar simple sin since sing sister sit situation six sixteen sixty size

verkaufen senden, schicken Sinn, m, Gefhl, n September, m ernsthaft dienen als Dienst, m abgemacht sieben siebzehn siebzig mehrere Geschlecht, n sexuell Schatten, m sollen Form, f teilen scharf sich rasieren sie Schaf, n Obdach, n Schiff, n Hemd, n Schuhe, pl schiessen Laden, m Strand, m kurz Schuss Schulter, f zeigen krank Seite, f Zeichen, n unterschreiben Signal, n bedeuten Ruhe, f Silber, n gleich einfach Snde, f seit singen Schwester, f sich setzen Lage, f sechs sechzehn sechzig Grsse, f

skin skirt sky sleep slight slow small smell smile smith smoke smooth snail snake snow so soap society soft soil soldier solid solution some (object) somebody someone sometimes somewhere son song soon sound soup sour source south space speak speed spend spider spirit splendid spoon spot spread spring square staff stage stairs stamp stand

Haut, f Rock, m Himmel, m schlafen geringfgig langsam klein riechen lcheln Schmied, m rauchen weich, glatt Schnecke, f Schlange, f Schnee, m so Seife, f Gesellschaft, f weich Boden(Erde), m Soldat, m fest Lsung, f einige jemand jemand manchmal irgendwo Sohn, m Lied, n bald Klang, m Suppe, f sauer Quelle, f Sden Raum, m sprechen Geschwindigkeit, f ausgeben Stall, m Geist, m prchtig Lffel, m Stelle, f, Ort, m ausbreiten Frhling, m Platz, m Personal, n Bhne, f Treppe, f Briefmarke, f stehen

star stare start state station stay steel step still stir stock stomach stone stop stop (verb) store storm story stove straight strange strawberry stream street strength strong struggle student study success successful such suddenly sufficient sugar suggest suit suit (verb) suitable summer sun Sunday supper supply support suppose supreme sure surface surprise sweet swim Table

Stern, m starren, blicken beginnen Staat, m Bahnhof, m bleiben Stahl, m Schritt, m immer noch rhren Aktie, f Magen, m Stein, m Haltestelle, f anhalten Laden, m Sturm, m Geschichte, f Ofen, m geradeaus fremd, seltsam Erdbeere, f Strom, m, Fluss, m Strasse Kraft, f , Strke, f stark streiten,kmpfen Student, m,-in, f studieren Erfolg, m erfolgreich solcher,-e,-es pltzlich gengend Zucker, m empfehlen Anzug, m passen passend Sommer, m Sonne, f Sonntag, m Abendessen, n liefern untersttzen annehmen hchster,-e,-es sicher Oberflche, f Ueberraschung, f sss schwimmen Tisch, f

take talk tall task taste (noun) taste (verb) taxes tea teach teacher tear (verb) tears technique telephone television tell temperature ten tension term test than thank thank you that that (which) the the( plural) theater their then there therefore these they thick thin thing think thirst thirteen thirty this this morning though thought thousand thread three throat through throw thumb

nehmen reden gross Aufgabe, f Geschmack, m abschmecken Steuern, pl Tee, m lehren Lehrer, m, Lehrerin, f reissen Trnen, pl Technik, f Telefon, n Fernsehen, n erzhlen Temperatur, f zehn Spannung, f Semester, n testen als danken danke das welcher,-e,-es der, die, das die Theater, n ihre dann dort deswegen diese sie dick dnn Sache, f, Ding, n denken Durst, m dreizehn dreissig dieser,-e,-es heute morgen obwohl Gedanke, m tausend Faden, m drei Hals, m durch werfen Daumen, m

thunder Thursday thus ticket tie tiger till time times (many) tiny tire tired title to to you today toe together toilet tomato tomorrow tone tongs tongue too too much tooth toothbrush tortoise total touch tower town trade traffic train translate travel (verb) treatment tree trip trouble trousers truck true, trust truth try Tuesday turn twelve twenty twice

Donner, m Donnerstag, m so, darum Fahrkarte, f Kravatte, f Tiger, m bis Zeit, f mal winzig Reifen, m mde Titel, m zu dir heute Zehe, f zusammen Toilette, f Tomate, f morgen Ton, m,Klang, m Zange, f Zunge, f auch zu viel Zahn, m Zahnbrste, f Schildkrte, f total berhren Turm, m Stadt, f Handel, m Verkehr, m Zug, m bersetzen reisen Behandlung, f Baum, m Reise, f Schwierigkeiten Hose, f Lastwagen, m wahr Vertrauen, n, Trust, m Wahrheit, f versuchen Dienstag, m Kurve, f, Reihe, f zwlf zwanzig zwei mal

two ugly umbrella uncle under underground understand unique universe university unless until unusual up up to now us use vacuum cleaner valley value various vast veal vegetable very victory view village visit voice volume vote wage wagon wait waiter walk (go) wall want war warm wash watch (noun) watch (verb) water way we weapons wear (clothes) weather Wednesday week weight

zwei hsslich Schirm, m Onkel, m unter U-Bahn verstehen einmalig Weltall, n Universitt, f falls nicht bis unblich auf, nach oben bis jetzt uns gebrauchen Staubsauger, m Tal, n Wert, m verschieden weit, ausgedehnt Kalbfleisch, n Gemse, n sehr Sieg, m Sicht, f , Ansicht, f Dorf, n besuchen Stimme, f Lautstrke, f whlen, abstimmen Lohn, m Lastwagen, m warten Kellner, m gehen Mauer, f wollen Krieg, m warm waschen Uhr, f betrachten Wasser, n Weg, m wir Waffen, pl tragen Wetter, n Mittwoch, m Woche, f Gewicht, n

welcome welfare well west wet what wheel when where whether which while white who whole whom whose why wide wife wild win wind window wine winter wish (verb) with with that within without woman wonder (verb) wonderful wood wool word work (noun) work (verb) worker world worse worthless write wrong yard year yellow yellow yes yesterday yet you

willkommen Frsorge, f gut Westen nass was Rad, n wann wo ob welcher,-e,-es whrend wei wer, welcher ganz welchen,-e,-es wessen warum weit Ehefrau, f wild gewinnen Wind, m Fenster, n Wein, m Winter, m wnschen mit damit darin ohne Frau, f sich fragen wunderbar Holz, n Wolle, f Wort, n Arbeit, f arbeiten Arbeiter Welt, f schlimmer wertlos schreiben falsch Hof, m,Yard, m Jahr, n gelb gelb ja gestern noch dich, dir

you (plural) you(singular) young your (plural) your (singular) youth zero

ihr du, Sie jung euer, Ihr dein, Ihr Jugend, f null

Adjectives proceeded by the indefinite articles (ein/ eine/ ein) or the pronouns such as mein (my, mine), sein (his) kein (no) have an irregular declension:

singular nominative accusative dative genitive

Adjetives in German masculine feminine ein guter Mann eine schne Rose einen guten Mann eine schne Rose einem guten Mann einer schnen Rose eines guten Mannes einer schnen Rose

neuter ein altes Buch ein altes Buch einem alten Buch eines alten Buches

The plural endings for strong adjectives are the same for all three genders:

nominative accusative dative genitive

Plural adjectives keine guten Mnner keine guten Mnner keinen guten Mnnern keiner guten Mnner

Below is a list of some common adjectives in German, theyre in their original form, so theyre not yet influenced by any other cases like (accusative, dative, and genitive), so take that into consideration when you put these adjectives in a non nominative case. For example: Er ist schnell (he is fast). (but) Er ist ein schneller Mann.(note how in the first setences the adjective schnell wasnt influenced by anything and therefore stayed in its original form, but in the second example ein made it take er at the end). The same thing may occur to the adjectives below:

ambitious American annoying bad beautiful big, large blonde boring brave careless cautious certain charming cheerful Chinese conceited conventional coward crazy, nuts cruel difficult disagreeable dull, boring easy English fake fat few, a little French frequent friendly fun, amusing funny general generous German good handsome hard-working high, tall honest intelligent interesting kind laid-back lazy little, small low, short mean modest

List of German Adjectives ehrgeizig Amerikaner rgerlich schlecht schn gro blondine langweilig tapfer unbesonnen vorsichtig bestimmt charmant frhlich Chinesisch eingebildet herkmmlich feigling verrckt, Nsse grausam schwierig unangenehm dumm, langweilig leicht Englisch unecht Fett wenige, ein wenig Franzsisch hufig freundlich lustig, amsant komisch, komisch General grozgig Deutsch gut hbsch fleiig hoch, hoch ehrlich intelligent interessant Art entspannend faul wenig, klein niedrig, kurz niedrig bescheiden

moody naive narrow-minded new nice (person) old perfect personal pious polite poor possible pretty proud rapid, fast realistic recent reliable rich sad selfish sensitive shy silly, dumb skinny slender, slim slow small Spanish strict strong stubborn talkative trustworthy ugly various weak weird white young

launisch naiv engstirnig neu nett alt vollkommen Persnlicher fromm hflich schlecht mglich ziemlich stolz schnell, schnell realistisch neu zuverlssig reich jmmerlich egoistisch empfindlich schchtern dumm, stumm dnn schlank langsam klein Spanisch streng stark strrisch gesprchig vertrauenswrdig hsslich verschieden schwach unheimlich wei jung

Top 1,000 Words in German Computer analysis of word frequency with single word variations 1-20 der die und in den 21-40 als auch es an werden 41-60 einem ber einen Das so 61-80 sei In Prozent hatte kann 81-100 Es Jahr zwei Jahren diese

von zu das mit sich des auf fr ist im dem nicht ein Die eine 101-120 Er gibt alle DM* diesem seit mu wurden beim doch jetzt waren drei Jahre Mit neue neuen damit bereits da 201-220 wre SPD* kommt vergangenen denen fast fnf knnte nicht nur htten Frau

aus er hat da* sie nach wird bei einer Der um am sind noch wie 121-140 Auch ihr seinen mssen ab ihrer Nach ohne sondern selbst ersten nun etwa Bei heute ihren weil ihm seien Menschen 221-240 Von Mann Da sollte wrde also bisher Leben Milliarden Welt Regierung

Sie zum war haben nur oder aber vor zur bis mehr durch man sein wurde 141-160 Deutschland anderen werde Ich sagt Wir Eine rund Fr Aber ihn Ende jedoch Zeit sollen ins Wenn So seinem uns 241-260 USA heit dies zurck Kinder dessen ihnen deren sogar Frage gewesen

gegen vom knnen schon wenn habe seine Mark** ihre dann unter wir soll ich eines 161-180 Stadt geht Doch sehr hier ganz erst wollen Berlin vor allem sowie hatten kein deutschen machen lassen Als Unternehmen andere ob 261-280 dass** htte eigenen kaum sieht groe Denn weitere Was sehen macht

dieser wieder keine Uhr seiner worden Und will zwischen Im immer Millionen Ein was sagte 181-200 dieses steht dabei wegen weiter denn beiden einmal etwas Wie nichts allerdings vier gut viele wo viel dort alles Auf 281-300 wohl spter knne deshalb aller kam Arbeit mich gegenber nchsten bleibt

Am dafr kommen diesen letzten zwar Diese groen dazu 401-420 Tage Donnerstag halten gleich nehmen solche Entscheidung besser alte Leute Ergebnis Samstag Da sagen System Mrz tun Monaten kleinen lang 501-520 immer wieder Form Mnchner AG* anders ihres vllig beispielsweise gute bislang August Hand jede GmbH** Film Minuten erreicht

konnte ihrem Frauen whrend Land zehn wrden stehen ja 421-440 Nicht knapp bringen wissen Kosten Erfolg bekannt findet daran knftig wer acht Grnen schnell Grund scheint Zukunft Stuttgart bin liegen 521-540 Mitte Verfgung Buch drfen Unter jeweils einigen Zum Umsatz spielen Daten welche mten hie paar nachdem Kunst

erste gab liegt gar davon gestern geben Teil Polizei 441-460 politischen Gruppe Rolle stellt Juni sieben September nmlich Mnner Oktober Mrd* berhaupt eigene Dann gegeben Auerdem Stunden eigentlich Meter lie 541-560 Noch jeden Ihre Sprecher recht erneut lngst europischen Sein Eltern Beginn besteht Seine mindestens machte Jetzt bietet

Angaben weniger gerade lt Geld Mnchen deutsche allen darauf 461-480 Probleme vielleicht ebenso Bereich zum Beispiel Bis Hhe Familie Whrend Bild Lndern Informationen Frankreich Tagen schwer zuvor Vor genau April stellen 561-580 bald Deutsche Schon Fragen klar Durch Seiten gehren Dort erstmals zeigen Titel Stck grten FDP*** setzt Wert

wenig lange gemacht Wer Dies Fall mir gehen Berliner 481-500 neu erwartet Hamburg sicher fhren Mal ber mehrere Wirtschaft Mio** Programm offenbar Hier weiteren natrlich konnten stark Dezember Juli ganze 581-600

beide Musik Kritik 601-620 mchte daher wolle Bundesregierung lediglich Nacht Krieg Opfer Tod nimmt Firma zuletzt Werk hohen leben unter anderem Dieser Kirche weiterhin gebe 701-720 Einsatz richtig grte sofort neuer ehemaligen unserer drfte schaffen Augen Ruland Internet Allerdings Raum Mannschaft neun kamen Ausstellung Zeiten Dem*

Euro gebracht Problem 621-640 gestellt Mitglieder Rahmen zweite Paris Situation gefunden Wochenende internationalen Wasser Recht sonst stand Hlfte Mglichkeit versucht blieb junge Mehrheit Strae 721-740 einzige meine Nun Verfahren Angebot Richtung Projekt niemand Kampf weder tatschlich Personen dpa** Heute gefhrt Gesprch Kreis Hamburger Schule guten

auerdem Brger Trainer 641-660 Sache arbeiten Monate Mutter berichtet letzte Gericht wollten Ihr zwlf zumindest Wahl genug Weise Vater Bericht amerikanischen hoch beginnt Wort 741-760 Hauptstadt durchaus Zusammenarbeit darin Amt Schritt meist gro zufolge Sprache Region Punkte Vergleich genommen gleichen du Ob Soldaten Universitt verschiedenen

Frankfurter Staat 661-680 obwohl Kopf spielt Interesse Westen verloren Preis Erst jedem erreichen setzen spricht frher teilte Landes zudem einzelnen bereit Blick Druck 761-780 Kollegen neues Brgermeister Angst stellte Sommer danach anderer gesagt Sicherheit Macht Bau handelt Folge Bilder lag Osten Handel sprach Aufgabe 681-700 Bayern Kilometer gemeinsam Bedeutung Chance Politiker Dazu Zwei besten Ansicht endlich Stelle direkt Beim Bevlkerung Viele solchen Alle solle jungen 781-800 Chef frei dennoch DDR hohe Firmen bzw*** Koalition Mdchen Zur entwickelt fand Diskussion bringt Deshalb Hause Gefahr per zugleich frheren

801-820 dadurch ganzen abend erzhlt Streit Vergangenheit Parteien Verhandlungen jedenfalls gesehen franzsischen Trotz darunter Spieler forderte Beispiel Meinung wenigen Publikum sowohl 901-920 Sicht Idee Banken verlassen Leiter Bhne insbesondere offen stets Theater ndern entschieden Staaten Experten Gesetz Geschft Tochter angesichts gelten Mehr

821-840 meinte mag Auto Lsung Boden Einen Prsidenten hinaus Zwar verletzt weltweit Sohn bevor Peter muten keiner Produktion Ort braucht Zusammenhang 921-940 erwarten luft fordert Japan Sieg Ist Stimmen whlen russischen gewinnen CSU* bieten Nhe jhrlich Bremen Schler Rede Funktion Zuschauer hingegen

841-860 Kind Verein sprechen Aktien gleichzeitig London sogenannten Richter geplant Italien Mittel her freilich Mensch groer Bonner wenige ffentlichen Untersttzung dritten 941-960 anderes Fhrung Besucher Drittel Moskau immerhin Vorsitzende Urteil Schlielich Kultur betonte mittlerweile Saison Konzept suchen Zahlen Roman Gewalt Kln gesamte

861-880 nahm Bundesrepublik Arbeitspltze bedeutet Feld Dr. Bank oben gesetzt Ausland Ministerprsident Vertreter jedes ziehen Parlament berichtete Dieses aufgrund 961-980 indem EU** Stunde ehemalige Auftrag entscheiden genannt tragen Brse langen hufig Chancen Vor allem Position alt Luft Studenten bernehmen strker ohnehin

881-900 Stellen warum Kindern heraus heutigen Anteil Herr ffentlichkeit Abend Selbst Liebe Neben rechnen fllt New York Industrie WELT** Stuttgarter wren Vorjahr 981-1000 zeigte geplanten Reihe darum verhindern begann Medien verkauft Minister wichtig amerikanische sah gesamten einst verwendet vorbei Behrden helfen Folgen bezeichnet