Memory and Logic in Language Learning

In the field of psycholinguistics during the late 1970‟s and early 1980‟s we may use the introductory textbook Psychology and Language by Herbert and Eva Clark (1977) as representative. This is the textbook used in the course on psycholinguistics that took as an undergraduate in 1983. The chapter on “Language and Thought” begins with the observation, “Language does not exist in a vacuum. It serves and is molded by other systems in the human mind. Because it is used for conveying ideas, its structure and function must reflect these ideas... Because it is used for communication within a complex social and cultural system, its structure and function are molded by these forces as well. Yet once people have learned how to use language, it wields a power of its own. It aids them in thinking about some ideas and hinders them in thinking about others. It molds many aspects of their daily affairs.” The authors go on to present a balanced view of the question in which they conclude that different features of language do have significant effects upon cognitive differentiation, memory, and problem solving.

a. memory Memory is more important at the start of a language and fades as one becomes more comfortable with it. Exposure, exposure, ENJOYABLE exposure seems to be the key to absorption and access. I too love flashcard automated reviews: whole sentences only! They incorporate self-testing, which seems to be another primordial element in good, systematic, automatic absorption. Memorization means a deliberate attempt to remember. When I read, or listen or review flash cards I am not making any conscious effort to

remember. I invest a little time on each of our LingQ flash cards, editing the captured phrase, looking at it, thinking about it, and I always click "got it" and move on. I might get through the list once or twice. I know I will see them again as part of the word list of some other content item. When I am satisfied that I know a word or phrase, or do not want to see it again. Memory divides four parts: 1. Declarative memory is our ability o learns and consciously remembers every day facts and events. Studies using functional brain imaging have identified a large network of areas in the cerebral context that work together to support declarative distinct role in complex aspects of perception, movement, emotion, and cognitive. 2. Working memory is a transient form of declarative memory. Working memory depends on the prefrontal cortex as well as other cerebral cortical areas. Studies on animals have shown that neurons in the prefrontal context maintain relevant information during working memory and can combine different kinds of sensory information when required. In humans, the prefrontal cortex is highly activated when people maintain and manipulate memories. 3. Semantic memory is a form of declarative knowledge that includes general facts and data. Although scientists are just beginning to understand the nature and organization of cortical areas involved in semantic memory, it appears that different cortical networks are specialized for processing particular kinds of information, such as faces, houses, tools, actions, language, and many other categories of knowledge. Studies using functional imaging of normal humans have revealed zones within a

large cortical expanse that selectively process different categories of information, such as animals, faces, or words. 4. Episodic memory is our memories of specific personal experiences that happened at a particular place and time. It is generally believed that the medial temporal lobe areas serve a critical role in the initial processing and storage of these memories.

a. Logic Logic is the science of the processes of inference. What, then, is inference? It is that mental operation which proceeds by combining two premises so as to cause a consequent conclusion. Some suppose that we may infer from one premise by a so-called “immediate inference. Learning, memory and language Learning, memory and language society is thinking that save of long-term memory. In addition, studies using genetically mode-fed mice have shown that alterations in specific genes for NMDA receptors or CREB can dramatically affect the capacity for LTP in particular brain areas, and the same studies have shown that these molecules are critical to memory. The many kinds of studies of human and animal memory have led scientists to conclude that no single brain center stores memory. It most likely is stored in distributed collections of cortical process-in systems that are also involved in the perception, processing, and analysis of the material being learned. In short, each part of the brain most likely contributes differently to permanent memory storage Some types of memories and not others indicate that the brain has multiple memory systems supported by distinct brain regions. No declarative knowledge, the knowledge of how to do

something is expressed in skilled behavior and learned habits and requires processing by the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The cerebellum is specifically involved in motor tasks that are time-depend-dent. The amygdale appears to play an important role in emotional aspects of memory attaching emotional significance to otherwise neutral stimuli and events. The expression of emotional memories involves the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system, which support emotional reactions and feelings. Thus, the brain appears to process different kinds of information in separate ways. In recent discussions about theories and methods of translation one often encounters general statements about the relationship of language to thought. Some theorists maintain that the peculiarities of a given language do not significantly affect the thinking of those who speak or write in that language, and so the differences between languages are largely accidental or irrelevant to the meaning of the text. These theorists have a very optimistic view of the ability of translators to put the meaning of a text into different languages in ways that are perfectly natural or idiomatic for the “receptor” languages. For example, the New Testament scholar D.A. Carson says in one place, “Although it is true that [the meanings of] words only partially overlap between languages, nevertheless „all languages can talk about the same meaning and for that matter about all meanings.‟ It is just that [translators] ... may have to use entirely different constructions, or resort to paraphrasis Other writers maintain that differences between languages are such that an accurate translation must frequently be unidiomatic in the receptor language, because the idiomatic constructions and usages of the receptor language cannot capture the foreign modes of thought which are inherent in the language of the original text.

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