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From QUANTA to QUARKS
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. RUTHERFORD & BOHR MODELS OF THE ATOM 2. DE BROGLIE & MATTER WAVES 3. INTO THE NUCLEUS 4. APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS ...all in the context of the history, nature and practice of Physics.

HSC Physics Option Topic

1. RUTHERFORD & BOHR MODELS OF THE ATOM
What Has Gone Before...
The entire Science of Chemistry and much of Physics is built on the foundation of Atomic Theory... the concept that all matter is composed of atoms. Initially conceived as tiny, unbreakable particles of matter, by the beginning of the 20th century it became apparent that the atom was composed of smaller parts.
+ + In his famous experiment with cathode rays, J.J.Thomson had discovered the (negatively charged) electrons in all atoms. This meant that there also had to be a positive part of each atom.

The Rutherford Model of the Atom
In 1911, Ernest Rutherford carried out an experiment which indicated that the positively charged part of an atom must be concentrated into a tiny “nucleus”, with the electrons orbiting around it.
Rutherford’s ATOM Electrons in orbit around central nucleus Atom mostly empty space Nucleus of positively charged matter, possibly made up of of particles

+

+

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In 1900, Max Plank had proposed the Quantum Theory to explain the details of the “Black Body Radiation Curves”. In 1905, Einstein then explained the strange phenomenon of the Photoelectric Effect by using Plank’s quantum idea. He proposed that light is not just a wave, nor a stream of particles, but made up of “wave packets”.
Light is NOT a stream of particles...

Rutherford’s model proposed that: • At the centre is a tiny, dense nucleus with a positive electrical charge. • The negatively charged electrons orbit around the nucleus. • The distance from nucleus to the electron orbits is very large compared to the size of the particles, so the atom is mostly empty space.

Light is NOT a wave...

Since negative charge was carried by particles (the electrons) Rutherford thought it likely that the nucleus was made of positive particles. These were soon called “protons” and their existence was confirmed a few years later. The electrons were too light to account for much of the mass of an atom, so he thought the protons must be relatively heavy. Even at this early stage there was speculation that there might be another massive particle in the nucleus as well, but its discovery had to wait 20 years. 1
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Light is a stream of “wave packets”... “PHOTONS”

Each photon is both a particle AND a wave!

Einstein also proposed his “Theory of Relativity” in 1905. Classical Physics was being turned upside-down by this sequence of new, fundamental discoveries.
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Problems with Rutherford’s Atom
Even as he proposed his atomic model, Rutherford knew there was a problem with it. The existing theory of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) contained the concept that if an electrically charged particle was accelerating, then it must emit EMR, in the form of light waves. Since Rutherford’s electrons were imagined to be in circular orbits around the nucleus, and since circular motion involves constant (centripital) acceleration, then it follows that each electron should be constantly emitting light. Trouble is... they obviously don’t! Existing accepted theory required that an orbiting electron should emit light energy continuously. Obviously they don’t, or all matter would constantly glow with light. However, atoms DO emit light if stimulated with energy, such as in a high-v voltage discharge tube.

Practical Work

Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen
You will have observed the emission spectrum for hydrogen by using a spectrometer to view the light from a discharge tube filled with lowpressure hydrogen gas.
from induction coil Slit & lens

High Voltage

Spectroscope
Prism Optical viewing system

Tube filled with Hydrogen gas

Tube glows with emitted light

“Telescope” can be rotated to view the different “lines” of the emission spectrum

light emission from electrons

You will have seen that the light from a hydrogen discharge tube is composed of 4 visible bright lines of light. Each line is one single wavelength of light.

Emission Spectra

You should be familiar with the idea of a “spectrum” of light. For example, if “white” light is passed through a prism, the different wavelengths are separated, and the familiar rainbow colours appear.
white light is a mixture of wavelengths different wavelengths spread out to form a spectrum

The Balmer Series & Rhydberg Equation
The lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen had been discovered some 20 years before Rutherford’s work, and were known as the “Balmer Series”. Each line was given a name (Hα, Hβ, Hχ & Hδ) and the precise wavelength of each had been measured. Other similar series of lines were known to exist in the invisible infra-red and ultra violet parts of the EMR spectrum. No-one could explain them, but mathematicians Balmer and (later) Rhydberg had worked out that the exact wavelengths of the hydrogen spectrum lines could be calculated from an empirical equation:

Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet

(use your imagination... we can’t print colours)

If the light emitted by atoms of a particular element is put through a prism, the spectrum shows very narrow bright lines on a dark background because only certain wavelengths are given out. The pattern of lines is characteristic for each element.
Element A Element B Element C

The Rhydberg Equation 1 = RH( 1/nf - 1/ni ) λ λ = wavelength of the spectral line (in metres) RH = the “Rhydberg constant” = 1.097 x 107 nf = an integer number. For the Balmer series nf = 2 ni = an integer number. To calculate the wavelengths of the 4 lines of the Balmer series, ni takes the values 3, 4, 5 or 6.
The fact that the Rhydberg equation worked was strong evidence that there was an underlying “law” controlling the hydrogen spectral lines. The fact that a series of integer numbers were involved was a clue that connected the whole thing to Plank’s Quantum Theory... 2 2

Each line is light of one exact wavelength. Light is only emitted at certain precise wavelengths

Each element has its own unique set of spectral lines

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Plank’s Quantum Theory
A quick revision of what you learned previously...

Neils Bohr Puts It All Together
Bohr used Plank’s Quantum Theory to modify the Rutherford model of the atom in such a way that: • the problem of radiation that should be emitted constantly from accelerating electrons was overcome. • the underlying reasons for emission spectra were explained. • the empirical nature of the Rhydberg Equation was given theoretical backing and mathematical validity. • the reasons for the “valency” of different atoms, and how and why they combine in fixed ratios became clearer. Not bad for an afternoon’s work! (The last point above is fundamental to Chemistry and understanding chemical bonding and formulas. It will not be pursued any further in this topic)

In 1900, Max Plank proposed a radical new theory to explain the black body radiation. He found that the only way to explain the exact details coming from the experiments, was that the energy was quantised: emitted or absorbed in “little packets” called “quanta” (singular “quantum”). The existing theories of “classical” Physics assumed that the amount of energy carried (say) by a light wave could have any value, on a continuous scale. Plank’s theory was that the energy could only take certain values, based on “units” or quanta of energy. Plank proposed that the amount of energy carried by a “quantum” of light is related to the frequency of the light, and can be calculated as follows:

Bohr’s Postulates
• Electrons revolve only in certain “allowed” orbits. Bohr theorised that there are a series of orbits, at fixed distances from the nucleus, in which an electron will not constantly emit radiation as demanded by classical theory. (Why was explained later by de Broglie) “Allowed” orbit positions. Electrons cannot orbit anywhere else. Electrons can “jump” from one orbit to another, but must absorb energy to jump higher, or emit energy to drop lower. 3 Quantum numbers of the orbits.

E = h.f
E = energy of a quantum, in joules ( J)
h = “Plank’s constant”, value 6.63x10-34

f = frequency of the wave, in hertz (Hz) You are reminded also, of the wave equation:

V = λ.f (or, for light) c = λ.f
c = velocity of light (in vacuum) = 3.00x10 ms .
8 -1

λ = wavelength, in metres (m). f = frequency, in hertz (Hz)

1 2

Example Calculation a) Use the Rhydberg Equation to find the wavelength of the Hδ line of the hydrogen spectrum, given that nf= 2 and ni = 6.

λ

1 = RH( 1/nf - 1/ni ) = 1.097x107( 1/22 - 1/62 )
(410 nm nanometres)

2

2

• Electrons gain or lose energy to “jump” between orbits. To jump up to a higher orbit, an electron must gain a certain quantity of energy. If it drops back to lower orbit, it must emit that exact same amount of energy. These quantities of energy are “quantised”, so each orbit is really a “quantum energy level” within the atom. The amount of energy absorbed or emitted during a “jump” is defined by Plank’s Equation E = hf, and the corresponding wavelengths of light are defined by the Rhydberg Equation. The integer numbers nf and ni turn out to be the “quantum numbers” of the orbits, counting outwards from the nucleus. • Electrons in “allowed orbits” have quantised amounts of angular momentum too. Bohr figured out that the amount of angular momentum possessed by an electron must always be a multiple of h/2π. The significance of this will be dealt with in a later section.

1/λ = 2.438 x 106 ∴ λ = 4.10x10-7 m

b) Use the “Wave Equation” to find the frequency. c = λ.f 3.00x108 = 4.10 x10-7x f ∴ f = 3.00x108/4.10x10-7 = 7.32x1014Hz. c) Use Plank’s Equation to calculate the energy carried by one photon of light in the Hδ spectral line. E = h.f = 6.63x10-34 x 7.32x1014 = 4.85x10-19 J.
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Bohr & the Balmer Series
Let’s see how Bohr’s ideas work with regard to the Balmer Series of hydrogen emission lines. Bohr suggested that the Hα emission line was due to an electron dropping from the 3rd orbit down to the 2nd orbit. It must lose a precise quantum of energy, so it emits a photon of light at a precise frequency given by E = hf. In the Rhydberg Equation, ni = 3 and nf = 2. The calculated wavelength (λ) agrees perfectly with the observed spectral line. Plank’s Quantum Equation calculates the energy of that photon of light. Bohr argued that this amount of energy must represent the difference in energy level from orbit 2 to orbit 3. The other lines of the Balmer Series represent electrons dropping from higher orbits into the 2nd orbit: Hα line. ni = 3 ) Increasing energy nf = 2 difference gives Hβ line. ni = 4 ) in each case higher frequency Hχ line. ni = 5 ) (and shorter wavelength) of spectral light Hδ line. ni = 6 ) It all worked! Bohr’s idea gave a theoretical explanation for the Rhydberg Equation, which had been empirically derived to explain the observed spectral lines. 6 5 4 3 2 1
light photon emitted

Limitations of the Rutherford-Bohr Model
Despite the way that Bohr’s Postulates seem to solve the problem with Rutherford’s brilliant new concept of the atom, there were still unexplained difficulties.

Bohr Model worked only for Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the simplest atom, with only one electron and one proton. Attempts to apply the model to larger atoms failed, because multiple, orbiting electrons interact with each other as well as the nucleus, and the situation becomes too complex to describe in a simple mathematical way.

Different Intensities of Spectral Lines
The different spectral lines showed different intensities or brightness. This means that some orbital “jumps” by electrons always occur more often than others. Bohr’s model had no explanation as to why.

“Hyperfine” Spectral Lines
When the spectral lines were examined more closely, each one was found to be made up of a number of very fine lines close together.
view ed nifi g a M

Hδ line. ni = 6 Hχ line. ni = 5 Hβ line. ni = 4 Hα line. ni = 3

Spectral line is made up of a number of separate, finer lines

Nucleus

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Quantum energy levels or “allowed orbits” around the hydrogen atom

Spectral lines are of different brightness

The Zeeman Effect
When a discharge tube is operated within a magnetic field, each spectral line is split up into several separate lines. This, and the presence of the “hyperfine lines”, suggested that the energy levels or orbits were divided into a number of “sub-orbits” of slightly different energy. Bohr’s model had no explanation for this. Like all scientific models, the Rutherford-Bohr atom is a human attempt to explain the observed facts of nature. In its day, this model was the best explanation available, but it was recognised that certain facts remained unexplained. This doesn’t make the model wrong... simply incomplete. It was a “work-in-progress”, to be added to and refined by later scientists. This is the way Science works. If further evidence had proven it totally wrong (as can happen) you would not be studying it!

The Hydrogen Spectrum & Development of Bohr’s Model
Without a knowledge of the emission spectrum of hydrogen, it seems very unlikely that Bohr could have come up with his idea. The fact that the spectrum shows distinct lines, and that integer numbers are involved in the Rhydberg Equation, all pointed to some kind of discrete, quantised atomic arrangement, rather than the moreor-less random orbits of Rutherford. Without knowledge of the hydrogen spectrum, (and Plank’s Quantum Theory) Bohr could not have made the (literally) quantum leap to his idea. Like all great scientists, Bohr built on the knowledge discovered by others. His genius was to put it all together in a new synthesis, that helped establish Rutherford’s new structure of the atom. However, there were still some problems...
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Summary Worksheet for Section 1 is at the end of the next section Worksheet 1 Test Questions
section 1

Student Name...............................
5. The Hχ spectral line for hydrogen is due to an electron dropping from the 5th to the 2nd orbit. Compared to the Hβ line (in Q3): a) would a photon of the Hχ line carry more, less, or the same amount of energy? Explain.

1. Sketch a labelled diagram to show the main features of Rutherford’s atomic model.

2. Outline the major problem with Rutherford’s atomic model, based on the accepted theory of that time.

b) would the Hχ line have a higher, lower, or the same frequency? Explain.

c) would the Hχ line have a longer, shorter, or the same wavelength? Explain. 3. a) What is the “Balmer Series”? 6. a) List, in brief form, 3 of “Bohr’s Postulates”.

b) Calculate the wavelength of the Hβ spectral line for hydrogen, given that ni = 4 and nf = 2.

c) Use the wave equation, and Plank’s equation to find the amount of energy carried by one photon of the Hβ line.

b) List, in brief form, 4 limitations of the Bohr model.

d) According to Bohr, what does this amount of energy represent within a hydrogen atom?

7. It is known that other spectral lines for hydrogen are present in the infra-red and ultra-violet parts of the spectrum. One line, for example, is due to electrons dropping from the 8th to the 1st orbit. Calculate the wavelength of this spectral line and state if it is infra-red or ultra violet.

4. Analyse the significance of the hydrogen spectrum in the development of Bohr’s atomic model.

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2. DE BROGLIE & MATTER WAVES
de Broglie’s Quantum Proposal
Remember that in 1905 Einstein had explained the Photoelectric Effect by suggesting that light has both wave and particle properties. (For this he was awarded the Nobel Prize)
Light is a stream of “wave packets”... “PHOTONS”

Impact of de Broglie’s Hypothesis
De Broglie’s proposals had almost no impact on the scientific community at first. His mathematics were checked and found to be totally correct. His hypothesis was totally consistent with the Quantum Theory, and with the Bohr model. The physicists of the day, including Plank, Einstein, Rutherford and Bohr were all very interested by his work, but it was just a neat mathematical exercise, without any evidence based in experiment or observation. Usually, scientists observe a phenomenon and then try to explain it by theory. de Broglie was putting theory first, without any facts to explain! Eventually, (as happens in Science) an experiment was done to test the hypothesis. Before learning about that, you need to understand an important wave phenomenon...

Each photon is both a particle AND a wave!

Einstein had used Plank’s Quantum Theory to explain a phenomenon that “classical” Physics was unable to explain. In 1924, a young graduate student Louis de Broglie turned this concept around...

If light waves can have particle-like properties, why can’t particles have wave-like properties?
Using Quantum Theory and Bohr’s atomic model, de Broglie developed a mathematical model for an electron in orbit around the nucleus acting as a particle with wave properties. De Broglie began from Bohr’s equations which showed that (as a particle) the angular momentum of the electron would be a multiple of h/2π. From this he was able to show that (when showing its wave properties) the electron would have a wavelength related to its mass and velocity:

Diffraction
Waves can undergo various “wave phenomena” such as reflection, refraction and interference. In fact, it is these things which can identify waves. For example, it was interference which allowed Hertz to prove the existence of invisible radio waves back in the 1880’s. Diffraction is something that only waves do.
with gaps in it

Barrier

λ= h mv
λ = wavelength (metres) of the electron. h = Plank’s constant (= 6.63x10-34) -31 m = mass of the electron (= 9.11x10 kg) v = velocity of the electron, in ms-1.

Parallel wave fronts approach the barrier. Most of the wave energy will be absorbed or reflected.

The part of the wave which gets through a gap will act like a point source of waves. A semicircular wave pattern forms from each gap. This is Diffraction

Example Calculation
Find the wavelength of an electron which is 5 -1 travelling at a velocity of 4.35x10 ms . Solution

λ= h mv

= 6.63x10-34/(9.11x10-31 x 4.35x105) = 1.67x10-9 m (1.67 nanometres)

You can see diffraction occur if you watch water waves enter a harbour or similar. At this point you might think “so what?” The “so what” is what happens AFTER diffraction occurs... 6
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Diffraction Forms Interference Patterns
Once a set of waves have been diffracted, the 2 (or more) sets of spreading waves now meet each other and wave interference occurs:
If the waves are “in phase” (crest matches crest) the waves add together for double the amplitude

Davisson & Germer’s Experiment
Davisson and Germer used a modified cathode ray tube to test de Broglie’s hypothesis. A beam of electrons travelling through a vacuum was allowed to strike a crystal of nickel, specially prepared so that electrons would reflect from parts of it. Different parts of the beam could then overlap their pathways as they travelled into a detection device which could measure the intensity of the beam. Result? An interference pattern was detected! This proved that electrons have wave properties, and confirmed the de Broglie hypothesis.

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Constructive interference

If the waves are “out of phase” (crest matches trough) the waves cancel for zero amplitude

Why Are the Bohr Orbits Stable?
A quick review of some important points: Rutherford’s atomic model places electrons in orbit, but classical theory predicts they should constantly be emitting light because they are accelerating. However, this isn’t happening, so Bohr proposes that there are “allowed”, stable orbits where electrons don’t constantly give off light. (They only radiate when they “jump” orbits) What makes these “allowed orbits” stable?

+

=

Destructive interference

If light waves are diffracted, then projected onto a screen, or captured on photographic film, an interference pattern appears... perhaps a line of light spots (where waves add together constructively) and dark zones (where waves are cancelling). The exact appearance of the pattern depends on the geometry of the “slits” and the wavelength of the waves.
Light falling on screen or photo film shows a pattern of light and dark spots

de Broglie’s particle-wave theory of the electron explains: An allowed orbit is where the wavelength of the electron exactly fits to form a “standing wave” around the nucleus.
An electron forms a “Standing Wave” around the nucleus

Beam of light striking a barrier with slits in it

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Light spot where waves add together Dark zone where waves cancel

“Standing waves” are a well-known wave phenomenon in which an exact number of full wavelengths can “resonate” or reverberate in a stable way. For example, all musical instruments involve standing waves of sound energy in a string or air space. The “allowed orbits” around an atom are located at distances from the nucleus which allow the quantum energy of the electron to fit in an exact number of wavelengths to form a standing wave. At any other distance, the orbit cannot fit a standing wave with an exact number of wavelengths, so the electron cannot exist there. The electron is a particle, with mass and momentum. It is also a wave, with a wavelength ( λ = h/mv) and capable of diffraction, interference and standing wave behaviour. Welcome to the world of Quantum Physics! 7
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Diffracting waves form Interference Patterns

Can you guess what’s coming? de Broglie has proposed an hypothesis that electrons may have wave properties. What should a good scientist do? Test the hypothesis by experiment, of course! How do you test for wave properties? Test electrons to see if they show Diffraction & Interference Patterns, of course!
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The Contributions of Heisenburg & Pauli
Before you leave the electron orbits and dive into the atomic nucleus, the syllabus asks you to assess the contributions of 2 other great scientists.

Werner Heisenberg (1901-76)
was a German physicist who is best remembered for the “Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle”, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1932. Heisenberg developed the mathematical framework for Quantum Mechanics. He showed that the dual nature of the “particle-wave” which describes the electron (and the light photon), makes it impossible to know everything about any particle at any moment. Either you know where it is, or you know how much momentum it has, but you cannot know both things at once with any certainty. This “uncertainty” about things at the atomic scale was described by Heisenberg as mathematical probabilities. Thus an electron orbit becomes a “region of probability” in which there is a good chance (but not a certainty) that the electron exists. This all sounds very airy-fairy, but its validity has been spectacularly confirmed by many experiments and phenomena such as the “quantum tunnelling” effect, involved in semiconductor operation and electrical superconductivity.

“If you think you understand Quantum Theory... then you really don’t understand Quantum Theory!”

Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58) was born in Austria, but became an American citizen. He is best remembered for the “Pauli Exclusion Principle”, (Nobel Prize 1945) which states that 2 electrons in the same atom cannot have exactly the same quantum state.
His mathematical analysis established the idea that the Bohr-de Broglie orbits are just one of several different types of quantum properties that electrons can have. This gives rise to the idea of “sub-orbits” within an atom (this explains the “hyperfine lines” in emission spectra) and shows why 2 electrons with almost the same quantum state, but opposite “spin” will tend to pair up. (Hence “Cooper Pairs”, and electron pairs in chemical bonding.) Later in this topic you will see that Pauli also made an important contribution to understanding nuclear processes as well.

An Assessment
In the 1920’s, Quantum Theory was being accepted as a “necessary evil” to satisfactorily describe the structure of an atom, and account for all the known observations. However, the explanations being used were a mixture of new “quantum” ideas overlaid on a framework of “classical” Physics, so it was all rather artificial or contrived. It was the theoretical work of Heisenberg & Pauli that built Quantum Mechanics into a complete, new branch of Physics without the need for any reference to the “old” Physics. Therefore, their contributions must be seen as being very important. Although the details of their work are beyond the scope of this course, they allowed Physics to become a fully modern study with a complete theoretical base which can explain atoms, super-conductivity, semi-conductors, nuclear processes and even the creation of the Universe itself.
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Worksheet 2
Fill in the blank spaces

Rutherford-Bohr Model of the Atom
Student Name.......................................... • Electrons can q).............................. from one orbit to another. When they do so they must r)............................ or ..................................... an amount of energy. This energy difference relates to the s)................................ of a spectral line in accord with t)...........................’s Quantum Theory and the u).................................. equation. • Electrons in “v)............................... orbits” have a quantity of w)...................................... which is always a multiple of h/2π. Bohr was able to link his idea to the Balmer Series of hydrogen spectral lines. In fact, it is highly unlikely he could have developed his idea without this evidence. However, the Bohr model had a number of limitations: • It worked only for x)............................................. • It could not explain the different y)...................................... of the spectral lines. • There was evidence from the “z)......................... Effect”, and the observed “aa).............................” spectral lines, that each orbit was actually ab)......................... .................................................. The model could not explain these observations.

Rutherford’s model of the atom: • in the centre is a tiny, dense a)............................. • Electrons (discovered by b)................................) are in c)................................ around the outside. The model had a major problem: theoretically, electrons which are d)................................ should constantly emit e)...................................., causing all matter to constantly f)....................... with light. The “g).......................................................” of an element refers to the precise set of h).................................... of light emitted if the element is energised, for example, in a i).............................................................. The lines are visible if the light is viewed through a j)................................................... The visible lines in the spectrum of k)................................. had been named the “l)................................. Series”, and the m)........................................ equation had been formulated to calculate the n)................................. of each of the lines in the series.
Bohr used the evidence of the Balmer Series to refine Rutherford’s atomic model. He suggested that:

• Electrons o)........................................................., in which they will not p).........................................

COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Worksheet 3
Fill in the blank spaces

de Broglie & Matter Waves
Student Name.......................................... They detected an l).............................. pattern which proved that the electrons were undergoing m)................................. This proved that electrons do have n)..................... properties, and confirmed de Broglie’s hypothesis. o).............................. is a wave phenomenon in which waves which penetrate a small aperture, then act like a point source of waves and p)........................ in a q).......................................... pattern. When waves from 2 (or more) apertures overlap, they r).................................... with each other. Where crest meets crest the waves s)................... ........................... creating a higher t).................................... wave. Where crest meets trough, the waves u)........................ each other. With light, this results in a pattern of v)......................... and ................................. spots. Following the confirmation of de Broglie’s theory, the science of Quantum Mechanics was given a complete theoretical framework by the work of Werner w)....................................... and Wolfgang x)............................... 9
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Louis de Broglie argued that if Einstein’s photons of light are waves with a)........................ properties, then electrons could be b)....................... with c)....................... properties. He extended Bohr’s model to derive an equation for the d).............................. (wave measurement) of the electron. Bohr’s “allowed orbits” were explained as e)....................................... waves, with an integer number of f).................................. fitting exactly around that orbit. De Broglie’s hypothesis had g).............................. impact on the scientific community. It seemed an interesting idea, but there was no h)............................... from observations or i)................................... to connect it to. Two scientists, j)........................... & ............................ carried out an experiment in which a beam of k)............................... was aimed at a crystal.

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Worksheet 4

Test Questions

section 2

Student Name...............................
4. Explain how de Broglie would describe Bohr’s “allowed orbits” around the nucleus.

1. Use de Broglie’s equation to calculate: a) the wavelength of an electron with velocity 2.25x106 ms-1 (mass of electron = 9.11x10-31kg)

5. a) What is diffraction? b) the velocity of an electron if its quantum wavelength is 4.75x10-9m.

c) Use the wave equation to find the quantum frequency of the electron in (b).

b) The diagram shows a breakwall with parallel water waves approaching. There are 3 boat channels through the wall. Complete the diagram showing the pattern of the waves which go through the boat channels.
Water waves striking a breakwall with 3 boat channels

d) Use Plank’s equation to calculate the quantum energy of the electron in (b).

2. Describe the impact of de Broglie’s proposal that particles could have wave properties. Account for this reaction by the scientific community.

6. Assess the contribution of Heisenberg & Pauli to the development of atomic theory.

3. Outline the experiment of Davisson & Germer. State the result of the experiment and explain the significance of this result.

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3. INTO THE NUCLEUS
Nucleons
A “nucleon” means any particle located in the nucleus of an atom. We now know that there are 2 types of nucleon:

Discovery of the Neutron
The existence of the neutron was proven in 1932 by James Chadwick (1891-1974). It was impossible then to detect and measure neutrons directly. The method Chadwick used relied upon neutrons colliding with other particles, then applying the scientific principles of Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Momentum to measure the properties of the neutron. Beryllium Paraffin Wax
target target

Protons
The existence of protons was considered likely almost as soon as the electron was discovered. By the 1920’s the proton had been positively identified, and its properties measured.

Neutrons
As early as 1907 it had been suggested that protons alone were not sufficient to account for the mass of most atoms. It was suspected that there must be another nucleon, with considerable mass, but no electric charge. However, it was 25 years before the neutron’s existence was proven. Contrasting the Properties of the Nucleons Proton Electrical Charge Mass +1.602x10-19C 1.673x10
-27

α
Radioactive substance emitting α-p particles

n0

p

+

Detecting equipment

Neutron 0 (neutral) 1.675x10-27kg

kg

• The alpha (α) particles emitted by a radioactive substance were used to bombard a beryllium target. • The beryllium emitted neutrons, which (having no electrical charge) are very penetrating and are unaffected by electric or magnetic fields, so could not be measured or studied directly. Other scientists had thought the radiation was gamma ( γ ) waves of extreme high energy. • Some of the neutrons then hit a second target of paraffin wax, which has a lot of hydrogen in it. Occasionally a neutron collision would dislodge a proton. • Chadwick was able to study some of these protons and measure the energy they carried. • Chadwick could then apply the principles of Conservation of Momentum and Energy to calculate the mass and velocity of whatever had hit the protons and dislodged them. The results indicated the presence of a particle (not γ-rays) with a mass almost the same as a proton, and no electric charge. This matched perfectly with the (then hypothetical) neutron, so the existence of the “missing” nucleon was confirmed.
Background Information Radioactivity had been discovered in 1896. Although it was not fully understood, the use of α-p particles as “atomic bullets” in experiments had become quite routine. After Chadwick’s experiment, the neutron became the next “bullet” of choice.

Note that: • The charge on a proton is exactly the same magnitude, but of opposite sign to that carried by an electron. • In a normal atom: No. of protons = No. of electrons = “Atomic No.” • Protons and neutrons have almost identical masses. (The neutron is slightly heavier) Both are almost 2,000 times heavier than an electron, so virtually all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus. No.protons + No.neutrons = “Atomic Mass Number” Thus we get the familiar atomic model, with electrons (in Bohr’s allowed orbits) around a nucleus of protons and neutrons.

MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE SHORTHAND DESCRIPTION

For example: Sodium atom electrons = 11 protons = 11 neutrons = 12

Na 11
23

Total nucleons = 23 (protons + neutrons) Atomic Mass Number = 23 Atomic Number = 11

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Transmutation
To “transmute” something means to change it into a different form or substance. In Nuclear Physics, “Transmutation” refers to an atom changing into an atom of a different element, by undergoing a nuclear reaction.

It would be wise to revise... See Preliminary Topic “Cosmic Engine” to revise the properties of α, β & γ radiation.

Transmutations occur during: • radioactive decay of natural or artificial radioisotopes. • nuclear fission in a nuclear power station, or “atom bomb”. • nuclear fusion in the stars, and in a “hydrogen bomb”.

Radioactivity
Some naturally-occurring atoms have a nucleus which is unstable and will spontaneously undergo transmutation to change into a more stable form. During the reaction, a variety of radiations are emitted from the nucleus. There are several different reactions which can occur; knowledge of only the 2 most common reactions is required by the syllabus.

Alpha ( α ) Decay

Beta ( β ) Decay

Alpha decay occurs in atoms which have a very large nucleus and are unstable. To achieve greater stability, the nucleus may spontaneously eject an alpha particle to carry away excess mass and energy. Example: Uranium is well known as a radioactive substance, and “nuclear fuel” for nuclear reactors and bombs. Its most common isotope is U-238, meaning it has a mass number of 238. It decays as follows:
238

Some atomic nuclei, of any size, have an unstable mix of protons and neutrons. If there is an excess of neutrons, a neutron can be turned into a proton plus an electron.
1 0

n0

1 1

p+

+

0 -1 1

e-

Neutron

Proton

Electron

U 92

234

Th 90

+

4 2

He

+

γ
Gamma ray also emitted in most cases

How can this happen? It seems like magic, but it shows what a strange place the quantum world is. Some detail on how such things can happen will be covered later; for now you must accept that it actually happens. The result is that: • Number of neutrons decreases by 1. • Number of protons increases by 1. (This means Atomic Number goes up by 1 but Atomic Mass Number does not change) • The electron is ejected from the nucleus at high speed. This is the Beta particle... a high speed electron. Example Carbon-14 is a well-known radioisotope which decays:
14 6

Uranium-2 238

Thorium-2 234

Alpha particle

Note that the Mass No. always decreases by 4, and the Atomic No. by 2

+ n n+

The Uranium atom has TRANSMUTED into a different element

The α-p particle consists of 2 protons & 2 neutrons. It is the nucleus of a Helium atom

C

14

N 7

+

0 -1 1

e-

+

γ
Gamma ray

Carbon

Nitrogen

β-p particle

Example 2 Radium-226 transmutes by alpha decay:
226 88

Once again Transmutation has occurred.
+

Ra

222 86

Rn

+

4 2

He

γ

In many cases of beta-decay there is a gamma ray emitted as well. Note that the Mass Numbers and Atomic Numbers ALWAYS BALANCE across the equation. 12
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Hint: Use the Periodic Table to find Atomic Numbers and identify names and symbols.
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Pauli and the Neutrino
It was known that the electrons ejected during Beta decay varied considerably in their velocity, and the amount of energy they carried. This was puzzling, because it was thought that the process involved was the same in every β-decay, so why did the energy vary? In 1931, Wolfgang Pauli suggested a quantum explanation. What if there was another particle being produced, that no-one had detected? This “missing” particle could carry away some of the energy in varying amounts.
neutron β-p particle (electron)

To have avoided detection, this hypothetical particle must have no mass (or so little that it was not measurable) and no electric charge. However, it could carry quantum energy. Pauli’s idea was that there was a certain total energy involved in b-decay; some was carried off by the beta particle, the rest by the mystery particle.

Enrico Fermi did the mathematics and the whole scenario worked so well in theory that the scientific community accepted the new particle, even though it was not positively detected and identified until 1956. This new particle was eventually christened the “neutrino” (little neutral one) and is now a totally accepted fact of the sub-atomic quantum world. In fact, there are a whole family of neutrinos; to keep it simple (KISS Principle!) the one released in beta decay is an “anti-neutrino”. The symbol used for the anti-neutrino is ν. The full equation for a beta decay is therefore:
14 6

n

The sum of the energy of the beta particle and neutrino always adds up to the same amount.

proton

anti neutrino

C

14 7

N

+

0 -1 1

e-

+

ν

+

γ

Carbon

Nitrogen

Gamma antiβ particle neutrino

What Holds the Nucleus Together?
This question had been asked as soon as Rutherford had proposed that atoms have a nucleus. There were just 2 forces then understood, which could be operating in the nucleus: Since the nucleus does exist, and doesn’t instantly explode, it was realized that there must be another force operating. It was called simply the “Strong Nuclear Force”. Its properties could be inferred and calculated: • It must be much stronger than the protonproton electrostatic repulsion. (it’s over 100X stronger) • It must be independent of charge and attract all nucleons... protons & neutrons. • It must be extremely short-ranged, operating only across the tiny distances of the nucleus. (Otherwise it might cause neighbouring atomic nuclei to fuse together, and eventually pull all matter into one lump!) Even before its existence was proven, the Strong Nuclear Force was known to exist, and scientists began speculating on how to tap into its enormous energy potential... 13
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Gravity
All masses attract all other masses by gravity. This would attract all nucleons to each other.

Electrostatic Forces
All charged particles exert a force on other charged particles. This force would not act on neutrons, but should cause protons to be repelled by other protons.

Calculations showed that the electrostatic repulsion would be much, much stronger than gravity. The nucleus should instantly fly apart!

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Measuring Mass & Energy in the Nucleus
Before going any further, you need to know about the commonly used methods of measuring mass and energy at the atomic level.

Mass in Atomic Mass Units
The “atomic mass unit” (u) is a measure of mass devised for convenience in Chemistry. Roughly speaking, both a proton and a neutron have a mass of 1 u, although in the calculations following, you need to be much more precise. Obviously, 1 u is a very small mass: 1 u = 1.661x10
-27

Energy in Electron-Volts
The “electron-volt” (eV) is an energy unit that is convenient because the energy of sub-atomic particles has traditionally been measured by their behaviour within electric fields. 1 eV is the energy gained by an electron accelerating in an electric field with a potential difference of 1 volt.

kg

1 eV is an extremely small amount of energy: 1 eV = 1.602 x 10-19 joules of energy so the unit often used is the mega-electron-volt (MeV) 1 MeV = 1x106 (one million) eV This is convenient when dealing with individual atoms or particles.

You need to be able carry out calculations using either unit, so the following data may be useful.

Proton
Mass (in kg) Mass (in u) 1.673x10-27 1.0073

Neutron
1.675x10-27 1.0087

Mass Defect in the Nucleus
It was realized that incredibly powerful forces were operating within the atomic nucleus. How could such forces arise? The answer lies in the fact that the mass of every atomic nucleus (except hydrogen ) DOES NOT ADD UP. If you add up the mass of all the protons+neutrons in any nucleus, the total is always more than the actual measured mass of the whole nucleus. Mass of Mass of Protons + Neutrons > Whole Nucleus This difference is called the “Mass Defect”. It’s as if a little bit of mass “went missing” when the protons and neutrons joined together to form the nucleus. Where is the missing mass? It has converted to energy...

Example Calculation
A normal carbon atom contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons. (also 6 electrons, but mass is negligible) The nucleus is known to have a mass = 11.9967 u = 1.993x10-26 kg Calculate the Mass Defect, and total Binding Energy.

Solution
In kg and joules Mass of 6 protons = 6 x 1.673x10-27 = 1.004x10-26 kg In u and MeV Mass of 6 protons = 6 x 1.0073 = 6.0438 u

Mass of 6 neutrons Mass of 6 neutrons = 6 x 1.675x10-27 = 6 x 1.0087 -26 = 1.005x10 kg = 6.0522 u Total particle mass Total particle mass -26 = 2.009x10 kg = 12.0960 u ∴ Mass defect ∴ Mass defect -26 -26 = 2.009x10 - 1.993x10 = 12.0960 -11.9967 = 1.600x10-28kg = 0.0993 u
These are the same, just different units

E = mc2

(you should have known that Einstein would be involved sooner or later!)

This missing mass has converted to binding energy according to E = mc2 = 1.6x10-28 x (3.00x108)2 = 1.44 x10-11J

...to provide the “Binding Energy” of the Strong Nuclear Force which holds the nucleus together. Einstein had developed his most famous equation as part of his Theory of Relativity. He never anticipated that it would find another use...
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Each 1 u converts to 931.5 MeV of energy (This value is in your Physics Data Table) So, binding energy = 0.0993 x 931.5 = 92.50 MeV

These are the same, just different units

From here on, all calculations will be done in atomic mass units (u) and MeV.

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Nuclear Fission
In the 1930’s, it was discovered that bombarding “target” atoms with alpha particles could occasionally produce a transmutation to a new radioactive isotope. 27 13

The Manhattan Project
Following a “letter of concern” (outlining the danger of nuclear research in Nazi Germany) from Einstein to the President of the USA , the top secret “Manhattan Project” was set up in 1942. Its objective was to research nuclear fission and develop an “atomic bomb” if this was possible. The first step was to discover if a self-sustaining chain-reaction of fissions was possible. Enrico Fermi was appointed the leader of the scientific team. He designed the reactor or “nuclear pile”, which was built in a squash court at the University of Chicago. In December 1942 the reactor achieved the first selfsustaining, controlled chain reaction.

Al +

4 2

He

30 15

P +

1 0

n

Aluminium

α-particle

new isotope of phosphorus

neutron

In Italy, brilliant young physicist Enrico Fermi (190154) decided that using neutrons as “atomic bullets” would be even more productive. In 1934 he began bombarding every possible element, in turn, with neutrons and studying the resulting radioactivity to detect any new radioisotopes. Over 40 were discovered very quickly. For example: 19 9

The Fission Chain Reaction
Since fission is set off by a neutron, and since it releases more neutrons, it follows that a chain reaction can occur, in which each atom which splits can set off more.

F

+

n 0
Neutron

1

20 9

F

Fluorine

New, previously unknown radioisotope of Fluorine

In one experiment he bombarded uranium atoms with neutrons, confidently expecting to produce atoms of “transuranic” elements. The radiation “signatures” detected were unexpected and puzzling, but he was focused on other things and failed to investigate further. Fermi had “split” the nucleus, but it was another 4 years before other scientists in Germany confirmed what had happened. In his sample of uranium were atoms of U-235 which had absorbed a neutron, then totally disintegrated: 92 36 235 92 1

Start

Kr

Krypton isotope

U+

n 0
141 56

3 Ba
Barium isotope

1 0

n

3 extra neutrons released. These can set off other atoms in a “chain reaction”

If the amount of “fissile” atoms is below a certain “critical mass”, most neutrons escape without striking another nucleus, and the sustaining and dies down. chain reaction is not self-s

Uranium

Neutron

This is Nuclear Fission; the splitting of the nucleus., with enormous energy release, due to a mass defect and E=mc2. Meanwhile, Fermi had continued on with his work, and was awarded the Nobel Prize of 1938 for his production of new radioactive materials. With war looming in Europe and a Fascist regime in Italy, Fermi and his Jewish wife used attendance at the Nobel Prize ceremony in Sweden to flee to the USA, where Fermi was immediately accepted into the scientific community. By then he was aware of nuclear fission and its huge energy potential, and that the experiments confirming fission had been done in Nazi Germany. On the eve of World War II, it seemed that the knowledge to develop an “atom bomb” was in the hands of the enemy.
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In a critical mass of “fissile” atoms, if every fission sets off (say) 2 more, then the chain reaction grows exponentially within a fraction of a second. This is uncontrolled fission, and results in a nuclear explosion of devastating power... an “atomic bomb”. If a neutron-absorbing material (such as cadmium) is present, it is possible to absorb many of the neutrons so that each fission sets off exactly one other. This is controlled fission and is what Fermi achieved in his “pile” in 1942, and what occurs in every nuclear power station. There are only 2 nuclei which will readily undergo fission: 239 235 Pu U 94 92 Plutonium-239 which can Uranium-235 which be made from U-238 by occurs naturally in neutron bombardment in uranium ores, but in a nuclear reactor. very small amounts.

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Mass Defect During Nuclear Fission
The enormous energy released by nuclear fission is due to a “mass defect” between the starting nucleus and the product nuclei. For example, in the fission of Uranium-235: (Note: fission products can vary)
235 92
Photo by Daron Cooke

U+

1 0

n

148 57

La +

85 35

Br + 3

1 0

n

U-2 235 mass 235.0439 u

neutron mass 1.0087 u

La-1 148 mass 147.8114 u

Br-8 85 mass 84.8917 u

3 neutrons mass 3.0261 u

Total Mass before Fission 236.0526 u

Total Mass after Fission 235.7292

The energy released might seem a very small amount, but this is from just one atom. In (say) 10kg of uranium there are about 2.5x1025 atoms. Simulated If all of these were to Nuclear undergo fission, the Explosion total energy released would be about 1x1015 joules, all released in a split second, in the case of an atom bomb. This is the amount of energy generated by an average size power station in about 30 years.
This is the plutonium fission bomb, nicknamed “Fat Boy”, which destroyed the city of Nagasaki in 1945. Practical Work

Mass Defect = (Mass Reactants - Mass Products)

= 236.0526 - 235.7292 = 0.3234 u Energy yield per fission: Remember that 1u of mass

931.5 MeV of energy

So, energy released = 0.3234 x 931.5 = 301.2 MeV
(This equates to about 5 x 10-11 joules of energy)

Observing Nuclear Radiations
Enrico Fermi in 1943 working on the “Manhattan Project” You may have done practical work with one or more methods of detecting and observing radiation from a radioactive isotope.

The Wilson Cloud Chamber
is a simple device which allows the “trails” of alpha particles to be seen. Simple School Cloud Chamber
Small chip of radioactive material

When you add up the total mass of all the products of a fission reaction, it is less than the starting mass.

The tracks of alpha particles appear as thin “condensation trails”

The chamber is cooled with “dry ice” so that the vapours within are on the point of condensation. If a source of alpha particles is placed inside the chamber, tiny “tracks” can be seen. An alpha particle collides with air molecules and ionises millions of them along its path. The ionised molecules serve as sites of condensation, so a visible “condensation trail” briefly shows the path of each alpha particle.

This “mass defect” has been converted to energy. E = mc2
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Worksheet 5
Fill in the blank spaces

Into the Nucleus
Student Name..........................................

A “nucleon” refers to all the particles a)......................................., and includes b)........................ & .................................. These are different in their properties in that c).......................... are slightly heavier, and d)........................... carry e)................ electric charge. The existence of the neutron had been suspected, and was finally proven by f)...................................... in 1932. When g)...............-particles were smashed into a beryllium target a penetrating radiation was produced. Others had thought it was h)........................ rays. Chadwick allowed this radiation to strike a second target of i).......................... This dislodged j)............................ which he could detect and measure their energy. By applying the principles of k).............................. ................................. he could calculate the properties of the “mystery radiation”. His results indicated a l).............................. with mass similar to m).................... but without n)................... ............................... “Transmutation” refers to an atom o)..................................................... when it undergoes a p)............................... reaction. This can occur during q)....................................... decay, or during nuclear r).......................... or ............................. (opposite processes). Alpha decay occurs in a nucleus which is unstable because s).................... ................................ It ejects an alpha particle (which is made up of t)................ ......................................) so that the Mass Number u)...................................... and the Atomic Number v).................... ........................ There is usually emission of w)............................. as well.
COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
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Beta decay occurs when a neutron converts to a x)............................... An y).......................... is created as well, and it is ejected from the nucleus at high speed... the beta particle. The Atomic Number z).......................................... while the Mass Number aa)............... ................. .................. It was discovered that the beta particles from different isotopes carried ab).................................... ....................... Pauli suggested this was because ac)........................................................... which shared the energy with the electron. This particle is an ad)................ ........................... The nucleus is held together by the “ae)................................................” which has to be much more powerful than the af)....................................... between protons. It acts only over ag)........................ distances, and attracts all ah)......................... to each other. The force arises from the “Mass ai).........................” of the nucleus. A small amount of the mass has been aj)........................ ................... according to ak).................................(equation) Nuclear al).......................... occurs when a nucleus is struck by a am)............................., and then an).................. ................. It also releases 2 or 3 more ao)................................ which can cause a ap)............................ Reaction to occur. During each fission there is a large energy release due to aq)............................................................. The first controlled fission reaction was achieved in 1942 as part the secret “ar).................................... Project”. The reactor was designed by as)..................................................

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Worksheet 6
Nuclear Reactions Alpha Decay Equations

Practice Problems
Student Name..........................................

Beta Decay Equations
1. If each of the following nuclides underwent beta decay, write the symbol, Mass Number & Atomic Number of the new nuclide.
+

Work out the missing nuclide, identifying • Mass Number & Atomic Number • Symbol & name
1. 222

Rn 86

+

4 2

He

γ

a) Iodine-131 b) Thorium-234

2.

241

Am 95 Po
233

+

4 2

He

+

γ γ γ

c) Hydrogen-3 d) Sodium-24 e) Uranium-239

3.

210 84

+

4 2

He

+

4.

Pa 91 Po 84

+

4 2

He

+

f) Cobalt-60

5.

210

+

4 2

He

+

γ

2. Write complete decay equations for the beta decay of: a) Lithium-8

b) Xenon-135 6. Write the equation for the alpha decay of Actinium-227 c) Phosphorus-31 7. Write the equation for the alpha decay of Plutonium-244 d) Chlorine-38

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Worksheet 7
Mass Defect
Use the data table at right.

Practice Problems
Student Name..........................................

Data for Calculations
Nuclide 1 0 4 2 9 4 22 11 92 36 141 56 235 Nuclear Mass (u) Nuclide 1 1 7 3 6 25 12 92 38 145 56 239 94 Nuclear Mass (u)

For each of the following nuclear reactions calculate: a) the Mass Defect (u) b) the energy released (MeV) 1.
9 4

n He Be Na Kr Ba U

1.0087 4.0026

H Li C

1.0073 7.0160 11.9967 24.9575 91.8776 144.8115 239.0446

Be +

4 2

He

12 6

C +

1 0

n

9.0122 21.9780 91.8804 140.8167 235.0439

12

Mg Sr Ba Pu

2.
235 92

U+

1

n 0

141 56

Ba +

92 36

92

Kr + 3

1 0

n
4.
239 94

Pu +

1

n 0

145 56

Ba +

92 38

Sr + 3 0 n

1

3.
7

5.

Li + 3

1 1

H

4 2

He +

4 2

He

22 11

Na +

4 2

He

25 12

Mg +

1 1

H

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Worksheet 8

Test Questions

section 3

Student Name............................... 4. Discuss why the neutrino was “invented” (and by whom) and its existence accepted, many years before it was physically detected and proven to exist.

1. Outline Chadwick’s experiment to confirm the existence of the neutron, and discuss the importance of “conservation laws” in determining the neutron’s mass.

2. Account for the need for the “strong nuclear force” and outline its properties. 5. a) Explain why a “chain reaction” of fissions is possible.

3. a) What is meant by the “mass defect” of the nucleus? b) Compare the requirements for controlled and uncontrolled nuclear fission.

b) Explain the connections between the strong nuclear force, the mass defect, and Einstein’s equivalence of mass & energy.

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4. APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Significance of the Manhattan Project
Fermi’s first controlled fission chain reaction in 1942 was just the first step in one of the most significant scientific research projects in human history. Within 3 years, fission bombs were used to destroy the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and bring a sudden end to World War II. The Manhattan Project brought the world into the “Atomic Age”, with the following significant changes: Photo of Horoshima a few days after the bomb. Parts of the city literally “ceased to exist”.

Technologies Developed
• Nuclear power stations, currently meet about 20% of the world’s energy needs. Fission power is “Greenhouse friendly”, but presents the danger of devastating accidents such as at Chernobyl (Ukraine) in 1986. There are also great challenges in the safe storage and disposal of radioactive wastes from fission power stations. • Nuclear weapons proliferated during the 40 year “Cold War”. On several occasions the world seemed to be on the brink of a nuclear war which potentially could have destroyed all human civilization. • Rockets were developed to deliver the nuclear weapons, but the “spin-off” was their use for space exploration and satellite technology. The modern world relies heavily on satellites for communication, commerce and finance as well as entertainment. • Nuclear Medicine includes all the ways that nuclear technology is used for diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of health problems, including cancer. • Even the humble smoke alarm in your home is connected to nuclear technology. It contains a tiny pellet of radioactive material (Am-241) manufactured in a nuclear reactor.

This ruined building in Horoshima, Japan, has been preserved as a memorial to the many thousands who died in the atom bomb attacks in 1945

Later in this section are more examples, and specific details, of technologies which are based on Nuclear Physics and are therefore a direct result of the Manhattan Project. Nuclear Technologies have been widely considered as having more risks and dangers than benefits. However, there have also been many “spin-offs” which have been highly beneficial to society. Whatever your opinion, the Manhattan Project was certainly one of the most significant scientific research events in human history. As always, the Science (and the technology it leads to) is neither good nor bad; that is determined by the choices and decisions made by people.

The Manhattan all grew from research by scientists like Chadwick and Fermi who wanted to find out about the structure of atoms. They used alpha particles and neutrons as “bullets” to probe the nucleus to try to understand the fundamental structure of matter.
Well, guess what? Scientists are still doing exactly that, and still using (essentially) the same technique.

Nuclear Physics is Still Investigating Matter Project, and the “Nuclear Age” Particle Accelerators
are another tool of modern research. A Particle Accelerator uses powerful electromagnets to accelerate electrically charged particles through huge circular tubes. Other electromagnets “steer” and focus the beam of accelerating particles. At the desired energy level, the particles are allowed to collide head-on, or smash into their target. An array of detection equipment studies the particle tracks and radiation from the collision. For example, the accelerator at C.E.R.N. (underground on the French/Swiss border) is 27 km in circumference, and accelerates particles to velocities of 99.995% of the speed of light. At the end of the section is a brief summary of our understanding of matter, as revealed by the “atom smashers”.

Neutrons as Nuclear Probes
Neutrons are still used as probes because their lack of electric charge allows them to penetrate the nucleus more easily than a proton or alpha particle. A beam of neutrons might be scattered by a nucleus, or other particles may be ejected from it. This allows scientists to study the structure of the nucleus.
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Nuclear Fission Reactors
The main peaceful use of nuclear fission technology is to operate controlled chain reactions in a fission reactor, and use the energy released to make electricity. There are many different designs. The following schematic diagram shows the main features of all fission power stations
Moderator

(usually graphite or “heavy water”)

Control Rods are made of cadmium or boron which absorbs neutrons. Lowering them into the pile slows the chain reaction; raising them speeds it up. In an emergency, they can be dropped under gravity to shut the reactor down.

The reactor “pile” is made of a moderator substance which slows down the neutrons. This increases the likelihood of each neutron causing a fission in the next nucleus it hits. (fast neutrons tend to pass through without causing a fission)

Steam driven Turbine & Generator

Uranium or Plutonium Heat Exchanger Heat from reactor boils water to steam Condenser These are usually huge cooling towers Each rod is less than the critical mass, but together they form well over the critical mass needed to sustain a chain reaction. Each rod can be withdrawn for re-f fuelling

Fuel Rods

Electricity

Heat absorbing fluid (Often a liquid metal) Circulates through the pile and transfers heat to the heat exchanger for steam production.

Sizewell Nuclear Power Station, England

The reactor “pile” is inside this dome, heavily shielded to prevent any radiation escaping

Photo by Les Powell

The following is background information only...

Australia is a non-nuclear country.
We have one small fission reactor in Sydney for research, and to produce radio-isotopes for medicine and industry. Ironically, Australia is also the country with the largest mineral deposits of uranium ores. Our economy benefits greatly by selling uranium to other nations, but our government policy (based on the democratic will of the people) has always been NOT to use nuclear power.
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Instead, we rely on hydro-electricity and on burning fossil fuels. Most of our electricity is made by burning coal, which is a major contributor to the “Greenhouse Effect” and Global Warming. Many people believe that nuclear technologies have been improved, and are now safe enough for Australia to look towards nuclear power for our growing energy demands.

Please have an opinion on this important issue, but make sure it is an informed opinion. 22
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Uses of Radio-isotopes in Medicine
One application of Nuclear Physics that is likely to affect each of us, or our family, is the use of radioisotopes in health care. Radio-isotopes are used for:

Radio-isotopes in Industry
The gamma rays from cobalt-60 are very penetrating, and very destructive to living cells. In the manufacture of medical supplies, such as bandages and dressings, it is vital that the product is totally sterile (germ-free). This is achieved by irradiating the products with doses of gamma radiation high enough to destroy any bacteria or fungi spores which might be present.

Imaging and Diagnosis
Radio-isotopes have now joined X-rays and ultrasound scans for medical imaging and diagnosis. For example, the artificial isotope thallium-201 is used with a “gamma ray camera” to image heart muscle and detect any damage from heart disease. When injected into the bloodstream, thallium tends to collect in any active muscle because it “mimics” potassium ions. Being radioactive (it gives off a lot of low-energy gamma rays) it allows a gamma ray camera to make computer-aided images of heart muscle to identify if any part of it is damaged. The isotope has an extremely short half-life, so it rapidly disappears and presents little danger to the patient.

Cancer Treatment
“Radiation therapy” relies on the fact that rapidlydividing cancer cells are more easily killed by gamma radiation than normal healthy cells. The isotope cobalt-60 (which emits beta and strong gamma radiation) is commonly used as a source of radiation which is accurately beamed into the tumour.

In paper manufacture, alpha emitting isotopes such as Americium-241, are used for thickness control. A radiation detector constantly measures the percentage of radiation which penetrates the paper as it moves at high speed through “thicknessing” rollers. If the radiation level drops, this means the paper is too thick, so the rollers are automatically adjusted.

Radio-isotopes in Engineering
In aircraft construction, the airplane parts may be welded together. It is essential that the welded joints are totally strong and free of defects. X-rays are not able to penetrate the metal welds, but gamma rays can. To “see” inside the weld, gamma rays (again, cobalt-60) are used like X-rays; they are beamed through the welded joint and an image captured by a “gamma-ray camera”. Analysis of the image allows engineers to be sure of the quality of the welding.

Another example is the use of iodine-131 in the treatment of thyroid cancer. The thyroid gland is located in the throat, and produces a vital hormone which has iodine atoms in it. This gland is the only part of the body which uses iodine, and enzymes in the gland are able to chemically “recognize” iodine ions and very efficiently “harvest” iodine from the blood stream. Iodine-131 is radioactive and emits beta and gamma rays.
If a small amount of I-131 is injected into a patient who has a tumour in the thyroid gland, the radiation level is so low that there is little risk to their healthy tissue. However, due to the chemistry of the iodine, the thyroid gland rapidly absorbs the isotope and concentrates it. The radiation is concentrated in the “target organ” and is very effective in destroying the tumour. I-131 has a short half-life and the radiation disappears rapidly.
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Radio-isotopes in Agriculture
Radio-iosotopes are not used directly in farming, but are very important in Agricultural research, such as that carried out by the CSIRO. For example, to study and compare the rates of uptake of fertilisers into crop plants, isotopes such as nitrogen-15 and phosphorus-32 are commonly used. Small concentrations of these isotopes can be included in a fertiliser applied to experimental plants. The uptake of the fertiliser, and where it ends up in the plant, can be “traced” by using radiation detection equipment. This research ultimately helps farmers to produce food crops more efficiently and economically. 23
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Location of Thyroid Gland

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The “Standard Model” of Matter
After 100 years of scientific research into the sub-atomic quantum universe, just what is the latest “picture” we have for the structure of matter? Our modern understanding is known as the “Standard Model”, and is a description of both matter and energy (since these are inter-changeable) at its most fundamental level.

The Four Fundamental Forces:
Gravity (the weakest of all) acts between all masses, and holds planets, stars & galaxies together and in orbit. Electomagnetic Force
acts only between charged particles. It is responsible for holding atoms and molecules together (all chemical bonds are basically electrical) as well as causing all electrical and magnetic phenomena. is involved in radioactivity such as when an electron and an anti-neutrino are produced during beta decay in the nucleus.

So far, it has NOT been possible to combine Quantum Mechanics and the Standard Model of Matter with Einstein’s Relativity Physics. This would be the GUT; “Grand United Theory”, which would combine an explanation of EVERYTHING.

The Nuclear Weak Force

The Structure of Matter
Many Particles, but Just Two Families. Once the “atom-smashing” Particle Accelerators were developed, scientists began detecting a bewildering assortment of sub-atomic particles. This confusion has now been simplified with the realisation that all these particles belong to just 2 basic types or classes:

The Nuclear Strong Force (the strongest of all) acts only between particles of the “hadron” family. It acts only over very short range and is what holds protons and neutrons together in the atomic nucleus.
We now know that protons & neutrons are composed of smaller particles called quarks.

Leptons
include the electron, and the neutrino family.(there are several types of neutrino) As well as being the particles which flow in an electric current, electrons are at home in orbit around a nucleus. Remember too, that they have wave properties and form (de Broglie’s) “standing waves” within (Bohr’s) allowed orbits.

&

Hadrons

Leptons

Hadrons are made from QUARKS
Hadrons include the proton and neutron, and a family of particles called mesons. All the hadrons are composed of combinations of “quarks”. Each quark has a charge of either +2/3 or -1/3 (compared to the charge of an electron = -1). Then there are the

Bosons
These are quantum “particlewaves” and are the means by which all the particles exert forces on each other.

The best known is the “photon” of electromagnetic radiation, Protons contain 3 quarks with charge = +2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = +1 such as light. When formed in the nucleus Neutrons contain 3 quarks with charge= +2/3 -1/3 -1/3 = 0 during beta decay, the Gravity is thought to involve electron (and an antiQuarks themselves come in a variety of “flavours” which “gravitons”, but these have not have been given whimsical names such as “charm” and neutrino) is instantly ejected yet been proven to exist. “strange”. These names are labels for quantum states and at high speed. bear no connection to the normal meanings of these words. The nuclear forces are carried by gluons (strong force) and W-particles (weak).

Anti-Particles and Anti-Matter
It has been discovered that for every Hadron and Lepton that exists, there is also a corresponding anti-particle. For example, there are electrons, and there are anti-electrons (“positrons”) which have the same mass, but opposite electric charge. There are also anti-protons, anti-neutrons, and so on. As you know, the other particle formed in beta-decay is an anti-neutrino. Theoretically, there could exist “anti-matter” with atoms made entirely of anti-particles. When any particle and its anti-particle meet, they mutually annihilate each other... all the mass is converted into energy (photons of gamma radiation) according to E=mc2.
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Worksheet 9

Applications of Nuclear Physics
Student Name..........................................

Fill in the blank spaces The Manhattan Project brought the world into the a).......................... Age and was one of the b)............................... scientific research projects in history. It led to technologies such as c)......................................... from which the world gets about 20% of its electricity. d)....................................... were a threat to civilization during the “e)............................ War”. Rockets were developed to carry weapons, but now we rely on them for f)........................ ................................. The many uses of g)............................ substances in Medicine and Industry are also direct “spin-offs”. Nuclear research is still going on. Neutrons are excellent “probes” or “bullets” because h).................................. ................. In addition, i)....................... ................................. are used to accelerate j)............................... particles up to near the k).................. ............................ From the l).................... & .................... from a collision, scientists are able to infer the structure of matter. A nuclear fission reactor has 3 main components: • Fuel Rods made of a “fissile” material such as m)................................. or ................................... • n)........................ Rods (made of o).......................) These control the rate of fission by absorbing p)......................... • The Moderator, which is usually q)................................. or “heavy water”. Its job is to r).................................... the neutrons so that fission is more likely to occur. The energy released by the fission reaction is used to make steam, which then drives a s)............................. and ............................. to make t)...........................

Nuclear reactors not only provide electricity, but are used to make many artificial u)............................... isotopes that are useful in Medicine and Industry. Medical uses include v)............................. and diagnosis, as well as treating w)..................... by irradiation. An isotope used for imaging is x)............................., while y)........................ radiation for cancer therapy often comes from the isotope z)............................. This same isotope is also used in industry, for example, to aa)...................................... surgical dressing and bandages after manufacture and packaging. In paper manufacture, the isotope ab).................... is used to control the thickness by measuring the penetration of ac).............................. through the paper. In engineering, gamma rays from ad)......................... are used to check the quality of ae).........................................., for example in aircraft construction. In agricultural research, isotopes such as af)...................... and ............................. are used to “trace” the movement of chemicals into and through a plant. Our modern “picture” of matter is called the ag)................... .............................. There are many sub-atomic particles, but they all belong to 2 classes: • ah)........................, including the electron and a variety of ai)...................... • aj)..........................., including the ak)....................... and ............................ Each of these is composed of smaller (although more massive) particles called al)...........................

COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

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Worksheet 10

Test Questions

section 4

Student Name...............................

1. Assess the significance of the Manhattan Project to society, including mention of 2 technologies that were developed from it.

4. Using named examples of 4 different radio-isotopes, describe an application of radioactivity in a) medicine.

b) industry.

c) engineering. 2. Explain the basic principles of a fission reactor, outlining the composition and function of the fuel rods, moderator and control rods.

d) agriculture.

3. a) What properties of neutrons make them useful as “probes” to investigate the nucleus?

5. Discuss the the key features of the “Standard Model” of matter including the main “classes” of particles, examples of each, and whether each is composed of anything smaller.

b) Identify and briefly describe another technology used in modern nuclear research to investigate the structure of matter.

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC
In all the Core Topics you were given examples of a “Mind Map” as a way to summarise the content of the topic. If you have found this a useful way to summarise and learn, then you may want to do it again. By now you should have developed the skills to do it yourself...

Rutherford & Bohr Models of the Atom de Broglie & Matter Waves

FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS
Into the Nucleus Applications of Nuclear Physics

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Answer Section Worksheet 1
1.

Electrons in orbit around central nucleus Atom mostly empty space Nucleus

1 = RH( 1/nf - 1/ni ) λ = 1.097x107( 1/12 - 1/82 ) 1/λ = 1.080 x 107 ∴ λ = 9.20x10-8 m ( = 92 nm) Visible light has wavelengths from about 400-700 nm. This is much shorter, therefore is in the ultra violet.

7.

2

2

2. The existing theory for EMR stated that electrons accelerating in circular motion should constantly emit light energy, but obviously they don’t. 3. a) Balmer Series is the 4 lines of visible light in the emission spectrum for hydrogen. b) 1 = RH( 1/nf2 - 1/ni2 ) λ = 1.097x107( 1/22 - 1/42 ) 1/λ = 2.057 x 106 ∴ λ = 4.86x10-7 m c) c = λ.f, ∴ f = c/λ = 3.00x108 /4.86 x10-7 = 6.17x1014Hz. E = h.f = 6.63x10-34 x 6.17x1014 = 4.09x10-19 J. d) The energy difference between the 2nd and 4th quantum levels (or “allowed orbits”). 4. It is very unlikely that Bohr could have developed his atomic model without the evidence of the hydrogen spectrum. The fact that there were distinct lines at precise wavelengths all pointed to quanta of energy, rather than variable amounts. 5. a) More energy, because it is the difference between 5th-2nd orbits, compared to 4th-2nd. b) Higher frequency, because Plank’s E = hf shows a direct relationship between energy and frequency. c)Shorter, because frequency and wavelength are inversely related by the wave equation , v=lf. 6. a) • electrons revolve only in certain stable, “allowed orbits” • Energy must be absorbed, or emitted, in quantised amounts when an electron jumps from one orbit to another. • Within the “allowed orbits” the electron’s angular momentum is quantised to a multiple of h/2π. b) * it applied only to the hydrogen atom. * it could not explain the different intensities of the spectral lines. * it could not explain the “hyperfine” spectral lines. * it could not explain the “Zeeman Effect”.

Worksheet 2
a) nucleus b) J.J.Thomson c) orbit d) accelerating/in circular motion e) (electromag) radiation f) glow g) emission spectrum h) wavelengths i) discharge tube j) spectroscope k) hydrogen l) Balmer m) Rhydberg n) wavelength o) revolve only in “allowed” orbits p) radiate energy/emit light q) jump r) absorb or emit s) wavelength/frequency t) Plank’s u) Rhydberg v) allowed w) angular momentum x) hydrogen y) intensities/brightness z) Zeeman aa) hyperfine ab) divided into sub-orbits

Worksheet 3
a) particle c) wave e) standing g) very little i) experiment k) electrons m) diffraction o) Diffraction q) semi-circular s) add together u) cancel w) Heisenberg b) particles d) wavelength f) wavelengths h) evidence j) Davisson & Germer l) interference n) wave p) spread out r) interfere t) amplitude v) bright and dark x) Pauli

Worksheet 4
1. a) λ = h = 6.63x10-34/(9.11x10-31 x 2.25x106) mv = 3.23x10-10 m b) λ = h mv so v = h/mλ = 6.63x10-34/9.11x10-31x4.75x10-9 = 1.53x105 ms-1. c) c = λf, so f = c/λ = 3.00x108/4.75x10-9 = 6.32x1016 Hz d) E = h.f = 6.63x10-34 x 6.32x1016 = 4.19x10-17 J.

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Worksheet 4 (cont)
2. His proposal had very little impact at first. It was a “neat” idea, and mathematically valid, but the scientific community took little notice because there was no evidence from observation or experiment to link it to. It was not until the hypothesis was tested by Davisson and Germer that the Physics world really took notice. 3. Outline: In a vacuum tube, a beam of cathode rays (electrons) were beamed at a specially prepared nickel crystal. Result: They detected an interference pattern in that part of the beam that reflected from the crystal. Significance: this proved that electrons showed wave properties (diffraction & interference) and confirmed de Broglie’s hypothesis. 4. The “allowed orbits” are where the the electron can exist as a standing wave around the nucleus. The orbit circumference is exactly equal to an integral number of electron wavelengths. 5. a) When waves pass through a small gap in a barrier, the gap acts like a point source of waves, which spread out in a semi-circular pattern. b)

z) increases by 1 aa) stays the same ab) different amounts of energy ac) another particle was produced ad) anti-neutrino ae) Strong Nuclear Force af) electrostatic repulsion ag) extremely short ah) nucleons ai) defect aj) converted to energy ak) E = mc2 al) fission am) neutron an) splits apart ao) neutrons ap) chain aq) mass conversion/defect ar) Manhattan as) Enrico Fermi

Worksheet 6 1. 218 Po 2.
84
Polonium

237 93

Np

3. 206 82
Lead

Pb

Neptunium

4. 237 93 6. 227 89

Np

5.

214 86 223 87 240 92

Rn
4 2

Neptunium

Radon

Ac

Fr

+

He

+

γ γ

Francium

7.

244

Pu 94

U

+

4 2

He

+

Uranium

Beta Decay Equations
1.

a) 131
6. In the 1920’s, Atomic Physics was using a mixture of “classical” ideas, overlaid with the new quantum ideas, but it was artificial and contrived. It was Heisenberg (“Uncertainty Principle”) and Pauli (“Exclusion Principle”) who developed the theoretical framework of Quantum Mechanics so it could become a coherent, modern scientific model of matter. 54

Xe Mg

b) 234
91

Pa Np
0

c)

3 2

He Ni

d)

24 12

e) 239
93 8 4 55 31 16 38 18

f)

60 28

2.

a)

8 3 54

Li Xe

Be Cs

+ +

e -1 1 e -1 1
0 -1 1 0 0

+ + + +

ν ν ν ν

+ + + +

γ γ γ γ

Worksheet 5
a) in the atomic nucleus b) protons & neutrons c) neutrons d) protons e) positive f) Chadwick g) alpha h) gamma i) paraffin wax j) protons k) conservation of momentum and energy l) particle m) a proton n) electric charge o) changing into a different element p) nuclear q) radioactive r) fission or fusion s) too large t) 2 protons & 2 neutrons u) decreases by 4 v) deceases by 2 w) gamma rays x) proton y) electron
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b) 135 c) 31
15

135

P Cl

S Ar

+ +

e-

d) 38
17

e -1 1

29

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Worksheet 7
1. Mass defect = (mass reactants) - (mass products) = (9.0122+4.0026)-(11.9967+1.0087) = 13.0148-13.0054 = 0.0094 u Energy release = 0.0094 x 931.5 = 8.756 MeV 2. Mass defect = (mass reactants) - (mass products) = (235.0439+1.0087)-(140.8167+91.8804+3.0261) = 236.0526 - 235.7232 = 0.3294 u Energy release = 0.3294 x 931.5 = 306.8 MeV 3. Mass defect = (mass reactants) - (mass products) =(7.0160+1.0073)-(4.0026 x 2) = 8.0233 - 8.0052 = 0.0181 u Energy release = 0.0181 x 931.5 = 16.86 MeV 4. Mass defect = (mass reactants) - (mass products) =(239.0446+1.0087) - (144.8115+91.8804+3.0261) = 240.0533 - 239.7180 = 0.3353 u Energy release = 0.3353 x 931.5 = 312.3 MeV 5. Mass defect = (mass reactants) - (mass products) =(21.9780+4.0026) - (24.9575+1.0073) = 25.9806 - 25.9648 = 0.0158 u Energy release = 0.0158 x 931.5 = 14.72 MeV

4. It was noticed that the electrons produced by beta decay varied a lot in the energy they carried, although the process was thought to be the same in each case. Why? Pauli suggested that there was another particle involved, which shared the total energy with the electron... the neutrino (actually an anti-neutrino). This explanation of beta decay was so convincing that the existence of the neutrino was accepted many years before its actual detection. 5. a)A fission reaction is set off by a neutron striking a suitable nucleus. The fission process produces 2 or 3 new neutrons, each of which can set off another fission. Therefore, once started, it is possible to have a chain reaction of fissions. b) If 2 or more neutrons are released, and each sets off another fission, the chain reaction will grow exponentially. This is an uncontrolled reaction. If some neutrons are absorbed so that each fission sets off exactly 1 other fission, then the chain reaction will continue, but at a steady, controlled rate.

Worksheet 9
a) Atomic/Nuclear b) most significant c) nuclear power stations d) Nuclear weapons e) Cold f) launching satellites g) radioactive h) their lack of electric charge makes it more likely they will collide with the nucleus i) particle accelerators j) charged k) speed of light l) radiation & particles m) uranium or plutonium n) Control o) cadmium/boron p) neutrons q) graphite r) slow down s) turbine & generator t) electricity u) radioactive v) imaging w) cancer x) thallium-201 y) gamma z) cobalt-60 aa) sterilise ab) americium-241 ac) alpha particles ad) cobalt-60 ae) welded joints af) nitrogen-15 & phosph-31 ag) Standard Model ah) leptons ai) neutrinos aj) Hadrons ak) proton & neutron al) quarks

Worksheet 8
1. Chadwick used a radioactive material to fire alpha particles at a beryllium target. This produced a penetrating radiation that others thought were gamma rays. Chadwick let this radiation strike a paraffin wax target. From this came streams of protons, dislodged by the “mystery” rays. He used the laws of conservation of energy and momentum to calculate the nature of the radiation that had dislodged the protons. This showed it was particles with mass about 1u, and no electric charge... neutrons. 2. Calculations showed that gravity was too weak to hold the nucleons together in the face of electrostatic repulsion between protons. No other forces were known, but there must exist another force in the nucleus. This “Strong Nuclear Force” must attract all nucleons, and must be very powerful. It must be extremely short-ranged, and work only across the distance of a single nucleus. 3. a) Every nucleus larger than hydrogen has a mass slightly less than the sum of the protons and neutrons it contains. The difference is the mass defect. b) The “missing mass” of the mass defect is mass that has converted to energy according to E=mc2. This energy provides the “binding energy” of the strong nuclear force.

Worksheet 10
1. This was one of the most significant scientific projects in history. It led directly to the development of nuclear weapons which (during the Cold War) threatened to destroy civilization, and still have that potential. It also lead to nuclear technologies such as the many uses of radioactive isotopes in Medicine (eg for imaging, diagnosis & cancer treatment) Both these technologies, and others, have had profound impacts upon society, both positive and negative.

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Worksheet 10 (cont)
2. The fuel rods are composed of uranium or plutonium which undergoes fission. Each rod is below the critical mass for a chain reaction, but when many rods are inserted into the reactor, a chain reaction can be sustained. Control rods are made from cadmium or boron and are good neutron absorbers. These control the rate of the reaction by adjusting how many neutrons are available to continue the chain reaction. The moderator is graphite or “heavy water” which slows the neutrons down. This makes collisions more likely to set off a fission, and allows the reactor to run efficiently at a steady rate. 3. a) Neutrons have no electrical charge. This makes them more penetrating, and less likely to be deflected by electrons or protons before they collide with a nucleus. b) Particle Accelerators use powerful electromagnets to accelerate charged objects up to very high speeds. They are then allowed to collide head-on, or to strike “target” atoms. The radiation and particle tracks from the collision are studied to reveal information about the structure of matter.

4. a) Iodine-131 can be used to treat thyroid cancer. Iodine becomes concentrated in the thyroid gland where the radiation kills tumour cells with minimal damage to healthy tissue. b) Americium-241 is used to monitor the thicknes of paper during manufacture. The penetration of alpha particles through the paper is used as a measure of thickness, and equipment adjusted automatically. c) Gamma rays from cobalt-60 can be used to “image” welded joints in aircraft manufacture. d) Nitrogen-15 is used as a “tracer” in agricultural research. Added to soil or fertilizer, its uptake and travel through the plant can be traced by radiation detection equipment. 5. There are many sub-atomic particles, but they all belong to 2 classes: Leptons include the electron, and a variety of neutrinos. These are fundamental particles, not composed of anything smaller. Hadrons include the proton and neutron and others. These are composed of combinations of different quarks. A proton, for example, is composed of 3 quarks, bound together by a huge mass defect.

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