# HS Calculus Scope & Sequence

Course Name: Total Hrs: Module Name Total Hours Module Description High School Math 50 Number of Modules CALC-505: Limits and Continuity 5 10

In this module, we will explore the concept of limits graphically, numerically, through “mental math” and algebraically (a foundational skill which must be mastered). By developing a more formal definition and understanding of limits, we will be able to explore graphs of old and new families of functions, describe the behavior of these graphs more accurately as the graphs approach infinity, or have a discontinuity. We will also develop templates for rigorously proving whether or not a limit exists at a point and whether or not a function is continuous at a given point, or on an interval. Key Learning (Non-video) Big idea of a limit: what does the notation mean? When does a Experiences limit fail to exist? Finding limits through various methods: calculator, direct evaluation, algebraic manipulation. Focus on proper notation. Need to be able to find limits graphically, numerically and algebraically. Will need to include several model problems which have been worked out from start to finish, especially for evaluating limits through algebraic manipulation. (Video) Finding limits through mental math – will need to connect back to behavior of the graphs, especially helpful with trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Focus on proper notation. (Video) Processes for (1) proving a limit exists at a given point, and (2) proving a function is continuous over a given domain. Need to show students doing Power Teaching moves. (Non-video) Finding horizontal and vertical asymptotes of a function using limits. Need to work through enough examples that they can identify the horizontal asymptotes of a rational function quickly by examining the degrees of the polynomials in the numerator and the denominator. Also create problems where they are given the horizontal and vertical asymptotes and are then asked to create the original function.

Comment [k1]: These are grounded in the AP rubrics, right? I remember you talking about this. I love that teachers will see this right off the bat.

Comment [k2]: This is great. I think for this, having common student mistakes shown would be really powerful

Comment [k3]: Are these specific techniques you use? Or Yes PREP as a network?

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-510: The Slope of the Tangent Line 5

In this module, teachers will use newly developed skills for finding limits, to find the slope of a tangent line, by finding the limit of the slopes of the secant lines. Once this is in place, we will develop connections between the behavior of the original function and the sign of the derivative at that point. Additionally, we will expand the concept of average rate of change to that of the instantaneous rate of change, solve application problems involving instantaneous rate of change, and develop a template for properly explaining their answers in the context of the situation. Key Learning (Video) Model how the slope of a secant line (average rate of change) becomes Experiences the slope of the tangent line (instantaneous rate of change), and that the slope of the tangent line describes the behavior of the function at a given point. Will need to capture students using sticks and sliders to model the process of the secant line becoming a tangent line. For right now, will only be using the formula ( ) ( ) ( ) (Non-video) Develop a problem set which requires the application of the derivative at a point in numerous representations: graphical, numerical, analytical, etc. Connecting the value of the derivative back to the behavior of the function at a given point; include some examples of particle-motion, position and velocity only. (Non-video) Now that we know how to find the slope of the tangent line at a point, use this information to write the equation of a tangent line and then estimate values of the original function using the tangent line. Using knowledge of the graph, determine whether the estimate generates an overestimate or an under-estimate to the true value. (Non-video) Develop the proper meaning for instantaneous rate of change of a function at a given point, emphasize the importance of the units, behavior at a point not over an interval, etc. Can include some sample student responses: strong ones as well as “developing” ones. What feedback would you provide to the students?
Comment [k4]: Could this be a strong video example as well?

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-515: The Derivative as a Function 5

In the previous module, we introduced the idea of the derivative as the slope of the tangent line at a fixed point on a given curve. Now, we are going to study the derivative as a function. Given this more robust idea of the derivative, we will be able to describe the behavior of the original function more completely. We will be able to determine intervals in which the original function is either increasing or decreasing, points where there is a relative maximum or minimum point, as well discuss endpoint behavior, without having the graph of the original function to refer to. As the module unfolds, we will also introduce the second derivative as another tool for refining our graph of the original function. Key Learning (Video) Given a function, using our knowledge of the slope of the tangent line, Experiences create the graph of the first derivative. Draw connections between relative maxima of the original function, and the roots of the first derivative; original function is increasing, implies the first derivative is positive, etc. (Non-video) Defining and proving differentiability. Given a piecewise-defined function, using our previous template, prove that the function is first continuous, then determine whether or not the function is also differentiable. This will lead into a problem set which requires students to determine the values of parameters which will generate a differentiable function. (Non-video, definitions could benefit from some voice-over) Define key vocabulary terms: concave up, concave down, point of inflection, relative extrema, critical points, cusp points, etc., build a table which connects the behavior of ( ), ( ) and ( ). Using these relationships, complete a problem set which involves matching functions, with their first derivatives, second derivatives and anti-derivatives; given a function, describe the behavior of the first and second derivatives; given the graph of the first derivative, determine the behavior of the original function and the second derivative, etc. (Video, possibly non-video) Connecting function, derivative and second behavior to particle motion. Given a position function, determine intervals where the velocity is positive, negative, etc.; connect behavior of the velocity function to the acceleration of the particle at a given time, etc.

Comment [k5]: This is great!

Comment [k6]: Do you envision this as a reading? Or would you want to do a screencast where you talk through how this would play out in a classroom? Comment [k7]: Definitely agree here. RGSE will make sure you have all the right equipment to create these voice-over moments.

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-520: Rules of Differentiation 5

In order to expand our study of Calculus to more complex functions, we need to enhance our understanding of the derivative and find ways to quickly and efficiently take the derivative of a given function. Through the development of this module, we will explore the Power Rule, the Product Rule, the Quotient Rule, and the Chain Rule. Once these rules of differentiation have been mastered, we can then develop rules for taking derivatives of inverse functions, trigonometric functions, as well as exponential and logarithmic functions. In addition to applying these rules to the analytical representation of a function, we must also apply the rules and graphical and numerical representations of functions and their derivatives. , we can develop the functional representation for the derivative at any point. This will allow us to explore more complex problems, describe the behavior of the original function at all points, and develop “shortcuts” for taking the derivative of polynomial functions. (Video) Starting with the graph of ( ) ( ), graphically demonstrate that the derivative must be ( ) ( ); repeat the process for ( ) ( ) and ( ) . This is a nice way to enhance the student’s understanding of the graphical connection between a function and its derivative at a specific point. (Non-video) Extension questions which will require the students to develop derivative rules for non-polynomial functions such as ( ) √ , ( ) and ( ) , and ( ) . For the derivatives of ( ) and ( ) , I might work out the proof step by step and then ask the student to justify what is being done in each step – both of these proofs require nonelementary techniques to prove. (Non-video) Using the Product Rule, Quotient Rule, and Chain Rule, find derivatives of functions which involve combinations of these rules. Will need to include problems which require application of the derivative rules in numerical, graphical and analytical situations. ( )
( ) ( )

Comment [k8]: I really like the focus on developing and then applying these rules.

Key Learning (Video) Using the formula Experiences

Comment [k9]: This is fantastic!

Comment [k10]: In thinking about producing this, it could be really great to have a student’s voice talking through their justifications. Just thinking through ways to make each of the nonvideo KLEs pop a bit.

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-525: Applications of Derivatives 5

Now that we have mastered the various derivative rules and have developed an understanding of instantaneous rate of change, we will begin to explore applications of the derivative: particle motion, optimization problems, simple rate functions and related rates, all of which regularly appear on the free response portion of the AP Exam. Because these questions are sure to appear on the AP Exam, we will continue to revisit these ideas in later modules, connecting new techniques and skills to these concepts. Key Learning (Video) Solve an application problem which requires creating an initial Experiences functional representation, then find the derivative, thenand then use the derivative to determine the optimal solution. Will need to use the number line test to organize the results from the derivative. Consider using the open-top box problem as the model. (Non-video) Create a problem set for optimization problems. With some problems, the original function will be given;, in others, the optimization equation will need to be generated using the given information and some knowledge of geometry formulas. (Non-video) Return to particle motion. Using derivative rules from the previous module, determine velocity, speed and acceleration for more complex functions. Can also tie in optimization techniques here. (Non-video) – consider doing a voice-over for the introduction) Using the chain rule, find derivatives of functions with respect to time. Proper explanation of the answers in the context of the situation will be essential. (Non-video) Our first rate function. Need to develop a rate function which can be explored using our current understanding of the derivative. Students will need to use proper notation, correct units, and maintain decimal point accuracy in their final answers. Will need to include instructions for finding the derivative of a function at a given point on the graphing calculator.

Comment [k11]: I think including a line in here about how these problems also relate to other content areas and are how non-mathematicians use calculus could be helpful

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Module Name CALC-530: Accumulation and the Definite Integral Total Hours 5 Module The area bounded a function ( ), the vertical lines and and the Description axis is the new big idea in Calculus… the definite integral. We will use

numerous methods to estimate this area (Riemann Sums) which will eventually lead to an exact method for determining the true area. In addition to finding estimates and actual values for this area, we will focus on the meaning of this area as it has real-world significance in several situations. As the module progresses, we will uncover the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus which states that we can use the definite integral to get information about a function from its derivative. Calculating derivatives and calculating definite integrals, are connected concepts. Key Learning (Video) Introduction to the definite integral as the area bounded by a curve Experiences and the from a starting point to an ending point. Using a finite number of rectangles, we will estimate the area using the left-endpoint method and then determine whether this estimate represents an overestimate or an under-estimate. In the video will need to model how we can use the calculator to determine the true area. Consider using Geometry Sketchpad to generate a model that can be manipulated in real-time. (Non-video) The swimming pool problem is an application of rate functions AND the definite integral. This problem will require all Riemann Sums techniques, error estimation, unit analysis, and complete explanations of all answers. (Video – a longer one) To find the exact area bounded by a function and the axis, we start with a finite number of rectangles, then through limits, we expand to infinitely many rectangles which changes the sum to a definite integral. This process will be repeated in the unit on volumes of revolution, and I want to make sure that they have seen this at least one. (Non-video) A problem set which will include other applications of the definite integral: particle motion, population growth, business applications, etc. Problems will contain a mixture of calculator active and calculator inactive questions. Proper units and explanations of answers which are appropriate to the context of the problem are essential.
Comment [k12]: When you get to designing this KLE, we can talk through some ways we can make the longer video more interactive.

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-535: Special Topics in Integration and Differentiation 5

In this module, we will extend our understanding of Riemann Sums, the Definite Integral, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus beyond the derivative of a general function and physics applications. We will explore rate functions in a variety of situations, including amusement park attendance, rates of fluids flowing into and out of containers, and population growth and decline to name a few. The big ideas of the derivative as a measure of rate of change and the integral as the area under a curve will be given much more relevance to real world situations. In addition to connecting old ideas to new situations, we will develop the Mean Value Theorem for derivatives, and more useful properties of the definite integral, including linearity, and additivity. This is a module which is rich with AP Free Response questions. Key Learning (Video) Given two rate functions, for example ( ) is the rate at which sand is Experiences being added to a pile and ( ) is the rate at which sand is being removed from the pile, determine when the amount of sand in the pile is an absolute maximum. The process for proving absolute extrema is a critical one for the AP exam which will be used again and again. Follow the video by a non-video assignment which continues with these two functions and requires the student to answer questions involving one or more of the functions – very calculator active. (Non-video) Develop the formula for finding the average value of a function on a closed interval. Once this technique has been developed, find the average value of a function given the graphical representation, the analytic representation and a numerical representation. We will explore applications of the average value in physics, economics and other rate functions. (Video) Develop the Mean Value Theorem from an intuitive stand point. Use either the “speed trap” model OR given a differentiable function, select two points, construct the secant line, find a point on the function where the tangent line is parallel to the secant line. (Non-Video) Develop and apply the template for using the Mean Value Theorem. Will need to develop numerical examples for particle motion, analytical representations, and examples where the MVT cannot be applied because the function fails to be differentiable.

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-540: The Integral as a Function 5

At the start of this module, we will explore and develop the indefinite integral. Rather than looking at the integral as the area under the curve, we will be exploring the integral as an antiderivative of the integrand. Since there are no longer limits of integration, we will need to develop a “tool kit” of techniques for integration – the power rule, integration by inspection, and integration by substitution will be the ones focused on during this module. We will also use the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to formally connect the derivative with the anti-derivative. In the previous module, we have evaluated definite integrals with the calculator; we will now have the opportunity to revisit ideas and problems from the previous modules, but without the calculator this time. Key Learning (Non-Video) Definite integrals vs. indefinite integrals. We need to understand Experiences the difference between the questions being asked by the two types of integrals: definite integrals represent the area bounded between a curve and the indefinite integral is a function which has the original function as its derivative. Using an intuitive approach, students will find indefinite integrals by the “guess and check” method, given the derivative of a function, find the original function. (Video) Teaching integration by substitution as a method for “undoing” the chain rule. Now that we can find simple anti-derivatives, and have found some by inspection, we need a stronger process for finding more complicated antiderivatives, this is where integration by substitution comes in. (Non-video) Given a collection of definite and indefinite integrals, evaluate the original integral expression. For definite integrals, check the answer using the calculator. For indefinite integrals, check the final answer by taking the derivative. The problem will set will need to be scaffolded so that it builds form easy problems (can be done using a basic integration rule), to more medium level problems (integration by substitution) to more complex problems (those that require algebraic manipulation before an integration rule can be applied). (Non-video) Develop and apply the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Problems involving graphical analysis, building new functions from old, determining critical points of the antiderivative from the original function, etc. Again, this is a critical skill which will appear regularly on the free response portion of the AP Exam.

Comment [k13]: Love it.

Comment [k14]: This is great.

Comment [k15]: The connection to the AP exam shines throughout these modules.

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description

CALC-545: The Differential Equations and Implicit Differentiation 5

In this module, we will take the two BIG IDEAS of AP Calculus: (1) the derivative as the slope of the tangent line and (2) the indefinite integral of a function and apply them in new ways. With implicit differentiation, we will need to develop methods for analyzing curves which are not functions (conic sections, etc.). This will be an excellent opportunity for teachers to hone their derivative skills from earlier in the Calculus course.

Additionally, we will be solving differential equations through algebraic manipulation followed by anti-differentiation and through the creation and interpretation of slope fields. Solving differential equations will require us to further develop our skills with finding anti-derivatives of functions; a very challenging concept for Calculus students. We will use differential equations to model and solve real world phenomena (population growth and decay, Newton’s Law of Cooling and others). Key Learning (Video) Model the process for finding derivatives of implicitly defined Experiences functions. Through algebraic manipulation, need to demonstrate that the result is the same as rewriting the function explicitly, then finding the derivative. Since not all functions can be written explicitly, implicit differentiation is a very powerful tool that allows us to solve a larger class of problems. (Non-video) Create a problem which set which requires students to analyze implicitly defined curves: determining extrema, slopes of tangent lines at a given point, use of the second derivative test, location of vertical tangents, etc. The problem set will also contain multiple choice and free response questions which have appeared on previous AP Exams. (Video) Using separation of variables, solve a differential equation given an initial condition. Solve the problem twice: the first time, use the initial condition after the integration step; the second time, solve the equation for , then use the initial condition. (Non-video) Problem set involving more differential equations to be solved using separation of variables. Will need to create at least one more model problem, involving a more sophisticated technique. Then, solve application problems (population growth, particle motion, etc.) involving separation of variables. The problem set will contain multiple choice as well as free response questions which have appeared on released AP Exams.

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Module Name CALC-500: Area and Volume Total Hours Module In this last major module of study, we are going to generalize the process of Description finding the area between a curve and the axis bounded by two vertical

lines, to the area between two curves, the area between three curves, and beyond. Once we can find the area between curves, we will then extend the idea to include volumes of solids formed by revolving two-dimensional regions around the axis, the axis, and other horizontal and vertical lines. Finally, we will apply this same process to determine the volumes of solids with known cross sections: semi-circles, ellipses, rectangles, square, and so on. Throughout this module, the graphing calculator, as well as strong visuals will be essential. Key Learning (Video) To find the area bounded between two or more functions, we can Experiences determine the area using multiple definite integrals OR we can use properties of integrals to write the expression as a single integral. Will need to find the area using integration techniques and then again using the graphing calculator. (Non-video) Solve more complex problems involving area between two or more curves. Will start with easy problems: the intersection points are given; then move to problems where the endpoints for integration need to be determined; then eventually move to problems which involve more than two curves and creative approaches to determining the areas. Use of the graphing calculator to find roots and intersections points, and store these values in the calculator’s memory will be required skills in this problem set. (Video) Using Geometry Sketchpad, model the washer method for determining volumes of revolution. Students need to see how we expand our twodimensional process (areas of rectangles) to a three dimensional-model (cylinders and washers) to determine the volume of revolution. (Video) Volumes of solids with known cross sections. When teaching this topic, students need to “see” the solid which is being produced before they can generate the integral expression which can be used to determine the final volume. Through a few quick demonstrations, we can show the process for setting up the integral expression which matches the description of the shape. Then, using the graphing calculator, we can determine the final volume. Outside of the video, students will be encouraged to find the volume without using their calculator, using only their integration techniques. (Non-video) Create a problem set which combines area, volume, and volumes of known cross sections. We can start with a given region of the plane, then determine the area and volume of different shapes, determine the value of such that the line divides the region into pieces of equal area; and revolve the given regions around horizontal and vertical lines which are not the axis or axis. For some of these problems, will need to create a

Geometry Sketchpad model that they can refer to OR find a website which allows the student to create the desired region, revolve around the appropriate line, and determine the final volume. Notes I think we are going to want to create more videos to support this unit. This is the most visual unit in the course and students need lots of opportunities to develop their instincts.

Comment [k16]: I agree with this – we can talk more about what this will look like as you plan this module in more detail.

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Module Name Total Hours Module Description Key Learning Experiences Notes Associated Readings/Links