# ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference

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Table of Contents

1. About This Reference .............................................................................................................................. 1 1.1. Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Conventions Used in This Reference .................................................................................................. 1 1.2.1. Applicable Products ................................................................................................................. 2 1.2.2. Product Codes ......................................................................................................................... 3 1.3. Product Capabilities .......................................................................................................................... 3 2. Element Classifications ........................................................................................................................... 5 2.1. Overview of Element Characteristics ................................................................................................. 5 2.1.1. Identifying Element Types ........................................................................................................ 5 2.1.2. 2-D vs. 3-D Elements ................................................................................................................. 5 2.1.3. Element Shape Characteristics .................................................................................................. 6 2.1.4. Element Degrees of Freedom and Discipline ............................................................................. 6 2.1.5. User-Defined Elements ............................................................................................................. 6 2.2. Summary of Element Types ............................................................................................................... 6 2.3. Selecting Elements for Your Analysis ................................................................................................ 22 2.4. Current-Technology Elements ......................................................................................................... 38 2.4.1. Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies ................................................................................ 39 2.5. Degenerated Shape Elements ......................................................................................................... 39 2.5.1. Obtaining the Best Results from Degenerated Shape Elements ............................................... 40 2.5.2. Degenerated Triangular 2-D Solid and Shell Elements ............................................................. 40 2.5.2.1. Triangular Shell Elements Are Preferred in Some Cases ................................................... 40 2.5.3. Degenerated Triangular Prism Elements ................................................................................. 41 2.5.4. Degenerated Tetrahedral Elements ......................................................................................... 41 2.5.5. Surface Stresses on Condensed Element Faces ........................................................................ 41 2.6. Special-Purpose Elements ............................................................................................................... 41 2.6.1. Superelements ....................................................................................................................... 41 2.6.2. User-Defined Elements ........................................................................................................... 42 2.7. GUI-Inaccessible Elements .............................................................................................................. 42 3. General Element Features ..................................................................................................................... 43 3.1. Element Input ................................................................................................................................. 43 3.1.1. Element Name ....................................................................................................................... 43 3.1.2. Nodes .................................................................................................................................... 43 3.1.2.1. Internal nodes ............................................................................................................... 44 3.1.3. Degrees of Freedom ............................................................................................................... 44 3.1.4. Material Properties ................................................................................................................. 44 3.1.5. Sections ................................................................................................................................. 45 3.1.6. Real Constants ....................................................................................................................... 45 3.1.7. Element Loading .................................................................................................................... 45 3.1.7.1. Surface Loads ................................................................................................................ 46 3.1.7.1.1. Applying Surface Loads ......................................................................................... 47 3.1.7.1.2. Multiple Surface Loads .......................................................................................... 47 3.1.7.1.3. Surface Load Labels and Keys ................................................................................ 47 3.1.7.1.4. Tapered Surface Load ............................................................................................ 47 3.1.7.2. Body Loads .................................................................................................................... 47 3.1.7.2.1. Applying Body loads ............................................................................................. 48 3.1.7.2.2. Temperature Body Loads ....................................................................................... 48 3.1.7.3. Inertial Loads ................................................................................................................. 48 3.1.7.4. Initial Stresses ................................................................................................................ 48 3.1.8. Nodal Loading ....................................................................................................................... 49 3.1.9. Element Properties and Controls (KEYOPTs) ............................................................................ 49

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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference 3.1.9.1. Element KEYOPT Defaults .............................................................................................. 49 3.1.9.1.1. Consider Automatic Element Selection .................................................................. 49 3.1.9.1.2. KEYOPT Settings May Vary Between Products ........................................................ 49 3.1.10. Special Element Features ...................................................................................................... 50 3.2. Solution Output .............................................................................................................................. 50 3.2.1. Output File Contents .............................................................................................................. 50 3.2.2. Results File and Database Contents ......................................................................................... 50 3.2.3. Nodal Solution ....................................................................................................................... 51 3.2.4. Element Solution .................................................................................................................... 51 3.2.4.1. The Element Output Definitions Table ............................................................................ 52 3.2.4.2. The Item and Sequence Number Table ........................................................................... 52 3.2.4.3. Surface Loads ................................................................................................................ 52 3.2.4.4. Integration Point Solution (Output Listing Only) ............................................................. 53 3.2.4.5. Centroidal Solution (Output Listing Only) ....................................................................... 53 3.2.4.6. Element Nodal Solution ................................................................................................. 53 3.2.4.7. Element Nodal Loads ..................................................................................................... 53 3.2.4.8. Nonlinear Solutions ....................................................................................................... 54 3.2.4.9. 2-D and Axisymmetric Solutions .................................................................................... 54 3.2.4.10. Member Force Solution ................................................................................................ 54 3.2.4.11. Failure Criteria ............................................................................................................. 54 3.3. Coordinate Systems ........................................................................................................................ 56 3.3.1. Understanding the Element Coordinate System ...................................................................... 56 3.3.1.1. Modifying the Element Orientation ................................................................................ 57 3.3.2. Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System .......................................................... 58 3.3.3. Solution Coordinate Systems .................................................................................................. 58 4. Elements for Stress Analysis ................................................................................................................. 61 4.1. Continuum Stress Elements ............................................................................................................. 61 4.1.1. Stress States in 2-D Continuum Elements ................................................................................ 61 4.1.1.1. Plane Stress ................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.1.2. Plane Strain ................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.1.3. Generalized Plane Strain ................................................................................................ 62 4.1.1.4. Axisymmetric ................................................................................................................ 62 4.1.1.5. General Axisymmetric .................................................................................................... 62 4.1.1.5.1. Alternate General Axisymmetric Method for Linear Problems ................................. 63 4.1.2. Element Technologies ............................................................................................................ 63 4.1.2.1. Technologies for Lower-Order Quad and Brick Elements ................................................. 63 4.1.2.1.1. B-bar Method (Selective Reduced Integration) ....................................................... 64 4.1.2.1.2. Enhanced Strain Formulation ................................................................................ 64 4.1.2.1.3. Simplified Enhanced Strain Formulation ................................................................ 64 4.1.2.1.4. Uniform Reduced Integration ................................................................................ 64 4.1.2.2. Technologies for Lower-Order Tetrahedron Elements ...................................................... 65 4.1.2.3. Technologies for Higher-Order Quad or Brick Elements ................................................... 65 4.1.2.4. Technologies for Higher-Order Triangle or Tetrahedron Elements .................................... 65 4.1.3. Mixed u-P Formulation ........................................................................................................... 65 4.1.3.1. Overview of Mixed u-P Element Technologies ................................................................ 65 4.1.3.2. Mixed u-P Element Summary ......................................................................................... 66 4.1.3.3. Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations ......................................................................... 67 4.1.3.4. Mixed u-P Models and Overconstraint or No Unique Solution ......................................... 68 4.1.4. Generalized Plane Strain Options ............................................................................................ 68 4.1.5. Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads ............................................................. 70 4.1.5.1. General Axisymmetric Elements ..................................................................................... 70 4.1.5.1.1. Example: 3-D General Axisymmetric Model ............................................................ 73

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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference 4.1.5.2. Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements .................................................................................. 76 4.1.5.2.1. Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads ............................ 77 4.2. Shell Elements ................................................................................................................................ 81 4.2.1. Shell Shear and Warping ......................................................................................................... 81 4.2.2. Shell Element Coordinate System ........................................................................................... 81 4.2.3. Shell Element Nodes .............................................................................................................. 82 4.3. Beam and Link (Truss) Elements ...................................................................................................... 82 4.4. Pipe Elements ................................................................................................................................. 82 4.5. Reinforcing Elements ...................................................................................................................... 83 4.5.1. Discrete Reinforcing ............................................................................................................... 83 4.5.2. Smeared Reinforcing .............................................................................................................. 83 4.6. Surface Elements ............................................................................................................................ 84 4.7. Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations ...................................................... 84 4.8. Elements Under Linear Perturbation ................................................................................................ 87 4.8.1. Material Properties of Structural Elements in Linear Perturbation ............................................ 88 4.8.1.1. Specifying Material Behavior in Linear Perturbation ........................................................ 88 4.8.2. Interpretation of Structural Element Results After a Linear Perturbation Analysis ..................... 89 4.8.3. Loads, Initial Conditions, and Other Limitations in Linear Perturbation ..................................... 89 5. Elements for Multiphysics Analysis ....................................................................................................... 91 5.1. Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis ............................................................................................ 91 5.1.1. Coupled-Field Element Classifications ..................................................................................... 91 5.1.2. Selecting Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis ..................................................................... 92 5.2. Elements for Thermal Analysis ......................................................................................................... 94 5.2.1. Thermal Elements for the Structural Region ............................................................................ 94 5.2.2. Thermal Elements for the Fluid Region .................................................................................... 95 5.2.3. Thermal Loading Elements ..................................................................................................... 95 5.2.3.1. Using Thermal Surface-Loading Elements ....................................................................... 95 5.2.3.2. Using Contact Elements to Load Thermal Models ........................................................... 96 5.2.4. Thermal Control Element ........................................................................................................ 96 5.2.5. Other Elements Useful in a Thermal Analysis ........................................................................... 96 5.3. Elements for Acoustic Analysis ........................................................................................................ 96 5.4. Elements for Electric and Magnetic Analysis .................................................................................... 97 6. Element Library ................................................................................................................................... 101 I. Element Library .................................................................................................................................... 103 SOLID5: 3-D Coupled-Field Solid .......................................................................................................... 105 INFIN9: 2-D Infinite Boundary .............................................................................................................. 115 LINK11: Linear Actuator ....................................................................................................................... 119 PLANE13: 2-D Coupled-Field Solid ....................................................................................................... 123 COMBIN14: Spring-Damper ................................................................................................................. 133 MASS21: Structural Mass ..................................................................................................................... 139 PLANE25: Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid .................................................................. 143 MATRIX27: Stiffness, Damping, or Mass Matrix ...................................................................................... 151 SHELL28: Shear/Twist Panel ................................................................................................................. 157 FLUID29: 2-D Axisymmetric Harmonic Acoustic Fluid ........................................................................... 163 FLUID30: 3-D Acoustic Fluid ................................................................................................................. 169 LINK31: Radiation Link ......................................................................................................................... 175 LINK33: 3-D Conduction Bar ................................................................................................................ 179 LINK34: Convection Link ...................................................................................................................... 183 PLANE35: 2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid .................................................................................... 187 SOURC36: Current Source .................................................................................................................... 191 COMBIN37: Control ............................................................................................................................. 195 FLUID38: Dynamic Fluid Coupling ....................................................................................................... 205

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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference COMBIN39: Nonlinear Spring ............................................................................................................... 209 COMBIN40: Combination .................................................................................................................... 217 SHELL41: Membrane Shell ................................................................................................................... 225 INFIN47: 3-D Infinite Boundary ............................................................................................................ 233 MATRIX50: Superelement (or Substructure) ......................................................................................... 237 PLANE53: 2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid .................................................................................................. 241 PLANE55: 2-D Thermal Solid ................................................................................................................ 251 SHELL61: Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell ............................................................................... 257 SOLID62: 3-D Magneto-Structural Solid ............................................................................................... 273 SOLID65: 3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid .............................................................................................. 283 LINK68: Coupled Thermal-Electric Line ................................................................................................. 293 SOLID70: 3-D Thermal Solid ................................................................................................................. 297 MASS71: Thermal Mass ........................................................................................................................ 303 PLANE75: Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid .................................................................... 307 PLANE77: 2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid .................................................................................................... 313 PLANE78: Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid .................................................................... 319 FLUID79: 2-D Contained Fluid .............................................................................................................. 325 FLUID80: 3-D Contained Fluid .............................................................................................................. 329 FLUID81: Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid .............................................................................. 335 PLANE83: Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Structural Solid .................................................................. 341 SOLID87: 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid ................................................................................. 349 SOLID90: 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid ................................................................................................... 353 CIRCU94: Piezoelectric Circuit .............................................................................................................. 359 SOLID96: 3-D Magnetic Scalar Solid ..................................................................................................... 367 SOLID97: 3-D Magnetic Solid ............................................................................................................... 373 SOLID98: Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid ............................................................................................ 385 INFIN110: 2-D Infinite Solid .................................................................................................................. 395 INFIN111: 3-D Infinite Solid .................................................................................................................. 401 INTER115: 3-D Magnetic Interface ........................................................................................................ 407 FLUID116: Coupled Thermal-Fluid Pipe ................................................................................................ 411 HF118: 2-D High-Frequency Quadrilateral Solid ................................................................................... 421 HF119: 3-D High-Frequency Tetrahedral Solid ...................................................................................... 427 HF120: 3-D High-Frequency Brick Solid ................................................................................................ 435 PLANE121: 2-D 8-Node Electrostatic Solid ............................................................................................ 443 SOLID122: 3-D 20-Node Electrostatic Solid ........................................................................................... 449 SOLID123: 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid ......................................................................... 455 CIRCU124: Electric Circuit .................................................................................................................... 461 CIRCU125: Diode ................................................................................................................................. 473 TRANS126: Electromechanical Transducer ............................................................................................ 479 FLUID129: 2-D Infinite Acoustic ............................................................................................................ 489 FLUID130: 3-D Infinite Acoustic ............................................................................................................ 493 SHELL131: 4-Node Thermal Shell ......................................................................................................... 497 SHELL132: 8-Node Thermal Shell ......................................................................................................... 505 FLUID136: 3-D Squeeze Film Fluid Element .......................................................................................... 513 FLUID138: 3-D Viscous Fluid Link Element ............................................................................................ 523 FLUID139: 3-D Slide Film Fluid Element ................................................................................................ 527 FLUID141: 2-D Fluid-Thermal ............................................................................................................... 533 FLUID142: 3-D Fluid-Thermal ............................................................................................................... 543 ROM144: Reduced Order Electrostatic-Structural ................................................................................. 553 SURF151: 2-D Thermal Surface Effect ................................................................................................... 557 SURF152: 3-D Thermal Surface Effect ................................................................................................... 567 SURF153: 2-D Structural Surface Effect ................................................................................................. 577

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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference SURF154: 3-D Structural Surface Effect ................................................................................................. 585 SURF156: 3-D Structural Surface Line Load Effect ................................................................................. 593 SHELL157: Thermal-Electric Shell ......................................................................................................... 599 SURF159: General Axisymmetric Surface .............................................................................................. 605 LINK160: Explicit 3-D Spar (or Truss) ..................................................................................................... 615 BEAM161: Explicit 3-D Beam ................................................................................................................ 619 PLANE162: Explicit 2-D Structural Solid ................................................................................................ 633 SHELL163: Explicit Thin Structural Shell ................................................................................................ 639 SOLID164: Explicit 3-D Structural Solid ................................................................................................. 651 COMBI165: Explicit Spring-Damper ...................................................................................................... 657 MASS166: Explicit 3-D Structural Mass ................................................................................................. 661 LINK167: Explicit Tension-Only Spar ..................................................................................................... 663 SOLID168: Explicit 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid ................................................................. 667 TARGE169: 2-D Target Segment ........................................................................................................... 671 TARGE170: 3-D Target Segment ........................................................................................................... 679 CONTA171: 2-D 2-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact ............................................................................. 691 CONTA172: 2-D 3-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact ............................................................................ 707 CONTA173: 3-D 4-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact ............................................................................. 723 CONTA174: 3-D 8-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact ............................................................................. 741 CONTA175: 2-D/3-D Node-to-Surface Contact ...................................................................................... 759 CONTA176: 3-D Line-to-Line Contact ................................................................................................... 777 CONTA177: 3-D Line-to-Surface Contact .............................................................................................. 793 CONTA178: 3-D Node-to-Node Contact ............................................................................................... 805 PRETS179: Pretension .......................................................................................................................... 819 LINK180: 3-D Spar (or Truss) ................................................................................................................. 823 SHELL181: 4-Node Structural Shell ....................................................................................................... 829 PLANE182: 2-D 4-Node Structural Solid ................................................................................................ 845 PLANE183: 2-D 8-Node or 6-Node Structural Solid ............................................................................... 853 MPC184: Multipoint Constraint Element .............................................................................................. 861 MPC184-Link/Beam: Multipoint Constraint Element: Rigid Link or Rigid Beam ....................................... 867 MPC184-Slider: Multipoint Constraint Element: Slider ........................................................................... 873 MPC184-Revolute: Multipoint Constraint Element: Revolute Joint ......................................................... 877 MPC184-Universal: Multipoint Constraint Element: Universal Joint ....................................................... 887 MPC184-Slot: Multipoint Constraint Element: Slot Joint ........................................................................ 897 MPC184-Point: Multipoint Constraint Element: Point-in-plane Joint ...................................................... 905 MPC184-Trans: Multipoint Constraint Element: Translational Joint ........................................................ 913 MPC184-Cylin: Multipoint Constraint Element: Cylindrical Joint ............................................................ 921 MPC184-Planar: Multipoint Constraint Element: Planar Joint ................................................................ 933 MPC184-Weld: Multipoint Constraint Element: Weld Joint .................................................................... 945 MPC184-Orient: Multipoint Constraint Element: Orient Joint ................................................................ 951 MPC184-Spherical: Multipoint Constraint Element: Spherical Joint ....................................................... 957 MPC184-General: Multipoint Constraint Element: General Joint ............................................................ 963 MPC184-Screw: Multipoint Constraint Element: Screw Joint ................................................................. 973 SOLID185: 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid ................................................................................................ 983 SOLID186: 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid .............................................................................................. 999 SOLID187: 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid ........................................................................... 1015 BEAM188: 3-D 2-Node Beam .............................................................................................................. 1021 BEAM189: 3-D 3-Node Beam .............................................................................................................. 1039 SOLSH190: 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid Shell ..................................................................................... 1055 INTER192: 2-D 4-Node Gasket ............................................................................................................ 1065 INTER193: 2-D 6-Node Gasket ............................................................................................................ 1069 INTER194: 3-D 16-Node Gasket .......................................................................................................... 1073

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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference INTER195: 3-D 8-Node Gasket ............................................................................................................ 1077 MESH200: Meshing Facet .................................................................................................................. 1081 FOLLW201: Follower Load ................................................................................................................. 1085 INTER202: 2-D 4-Node Cohesive ........................................................................................................ 1089 INTER203: 2-D 6-Node Cohesive ........................................................................................................ 1093 INTER204: 3-D 16-Node Cohesive ....................................................................................................... 1097 INTER205: 3-D 8-Node Cohesive ........................................................................................................ 1101 SHELL208: 2-Node Axisymmetric Shell ............................................................................................... 1105 SHELL209: 3-Node Axisymmetric Shell ............................................................................................... 1115 CPT212: 2-D 4-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid ............................................................ 1125 CPT213: 2-D 8-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid ............................................................ 1131 COMBI214: 2-D Spring-Damper Bearing ............................................................................................. 1137 CPT215: 3-D 8-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid ............................................................ 1143 CPT216: 3-D 20-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid ......................................................... 1149 CPT217: 3-D 10-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid .......................................................... 1155 FLUID220: 3-D Acoustic Fluid 20-Node Solid Element ......................................................................... 1161 FLUID221: 3-D Acoustic Fluid 10-Node Solid Element ......................................................................... 1167 PLANE223: 2-D 8-Node Coupled-Field Solid ....................................................................................... 1173 SOLID226: 3-D 20-Node Coupled-Field Solid ...................................................................................... 1187 SOLID227: 3-D 10-Node Coupled-Field Solid ...................................................................................... 1201 PLANE230: 2-D 8-Node Electric Solid ................................................................................................. 1215 SOLID231: 3-D 20-Node Electric Solid ................................................................................................ 1221 SOLID232: 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electric Solid .............................................................................. 1227 PLANE233: 2-D 8-Node Electromagnetic Solid ................................................................................... 1231 SOLID236: 3-D 20-Node Electromagnetic Solid .................................................................................. 1239 SOLID237: 3-D 10-Node Electromagnetic Solid .................................................................................. 1249 HSFLD241: 2-D Hydrostatic Fluid ....................................................................................................... 1257 HSFLD242: 3-D Hydrostatic Fluid ....................................................................................................... 1263 SURF251: 2-D Radiosity Surface ......................................................................................................... 1269 SURF252: 3-D Radiosity Surface ......................................................................................................... 1273 REINF263: 2-D Smeared Reinforcing ................................................................................................... 1277 REINF264: 3-D Discrete Reinforcing .................................................................................................... 1285 REINF265: 3-D Smeared Reinforcing ................................................................................................... 1293 SOLID272: General Axisymmetric Solid with 4 Base Nodes .................................................................. 1301 SOLID273: General Axisymmetric Solid with 8 Base Nodes .................................................................. 1309 SOLID278: 3-D 8-Node Thermal Solid ................................................................................................. 1317 SOLID279: 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid ............................................................................................... 1327 SHELL281: 8-Node Structural Shell ..................................................................................................... 1339 SOLID285: 3-D 4-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid with Nodal Pressures ............................................ 1353 PIPE288: 3-D 2-Node Pipe .................................................................................................................. 1359 PIPE289: 3-D 3-Node Pipe ................................................................................................................. 1377 ELBOW290: 3-D 3-Node Elbow ........................................................................................................... 1393 USER300: User-Defined Element ........................................................................................................ 1409 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................... 1411 Index ...................................................................................................................................................... 1413

List of Figures

4.1. Generalized Plane Strain Deformation ................................................................................................... 69 4.2. General Axisymmetric Elements and Their Coordinate Systems (KEYOPT(2) = 3) ...................................... 71 4.3. Axisymmetric Radial, Axial, Torsion and Moment Loadings ..................................................................... 78 viii

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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Element Reference 4.4. Bending and Shear Loading (ISYM = 1) .................................................................................................. 79 4.5. Uniform Lateral Loadings ...................................................................................................................... 80 4.6. Bending and Shear Loading (ISYM = -1) ................................................................................................. 80 4.7. Displacement and Force Loading Associated with MODE = 2 and ISYM = 1 ............................................. 80

List of Tables

3.1. Surface Loads Available in Each Discipline ............................................................................................. 46 3.2. Body Loads Available in Each Discipline ................................................................................................. 47 3.3. Orthotropic Material Failure Criteria Data .............................................................................................. 54 4.1. Number of Independent Pressure Degrees of Freedom in One Element .................................................. 66 4.2. Fourier Terms for General Axisymmetric Elements .................................................................................. 72 4.3. Recommendation Criteria for Element Technology (Linear Material) ....................................................... 85 4.4. Recommendation Criteria for Element Technology (Nonlinear Materials) ................................................ 86 4.5. Elements Supporting Linear Perturbation Analysis ................................................................................. 87

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**Chapter 1: About This Reference
**

Welcome to the Element Reference. The following topics are available to introduce you to ANSYS, Inc. element technology: 1.1. Overview 1.2. Conventions Used in This Reference 1.3. Product Capabilities

1.1. Overview

The purpose this reference is to help you understand, select, and use elements for your analysis. The reference begins with a general description of the elements, focusing on common features or properties, and including information about how elements, loads, coordinate systems, and output are defined. See "General Element Features". Elements are then introduced by classifications based on dimensions, application or discipline, and elements with special properties and shapes. See "Element Classifications". Subsequent documentation includes specific information about each element class, such as continuum stress, shells, beams, pipes, and others. Basic assumptions, advantages, and limitations of each element class are discussed. Common formulation and element usage techniques are also described. Finally, a complete library of detailed element descriptions, arranged in order by element number, is presented. The element library is the definitive reference for element documentation. See Part I, Element Library. This reference is not a primary source of conceptual or procedural information. See the appropriate analysis guides for that information.

**1.2. Conventions Used in This Reference
**

This reference uses the following conventions to help you identify various types of information: Type style or text UPPERCASE or UPPERCASE Indicates Uppercase indicates an element name (such as SOLID273 or ELBOW290). Bold uppercase indicates a command name (such as K or DDELE). Bold> Bold Bold text in mixed case indicates a menu path within the graphical user interface (GUI), a series of menu options for accessing a command from the GUI. One or more angle brackets (>) separate menu items in a menu path.

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Chapter 1: About This Reference Type style or text Indicates A command shown in the text is sometimes followed by its GUI equivalent in parentheses, as shown in this example: *GET command (Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data). ITALICS Uppercase italic letters (such as VALUE, INC, TIME) generally indicate command arguments for numeric values. In some cases (where indicated in the documentation), nonnumeric convenience labels (for example, ALL and P) can also be entered for these arguments. Italics COURIER Mixed case italic letters (such as Lab or Fname) indicate command arguments for alphanumeric values. A courier font indicates command input or output.

Any mention of a given element implies a reference (link) to the appropriate element documentation, where you can find detailed information about that element.

1.2.1. Applicable Products

This reference applies to the following family of products: ANSYS Multiphysics (includes all structural, thermal, electromagnetics, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) capabilities, excludes explicit dynamics) ANSYS Mechanical (includes all structural and thermal capabilities; excludes electromagnetics, CFD, and explicit dynamics capabilities) ANSYS Structural (includes all structural linear and nonlinear capabilities) ANSYS Professional (Nonlinear Thermal and Nonlinear Structural) ANSYS Emag (Low Frequency and High Frequency) ANSYS FLOTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA ANSYS PrepPost ANSYS ED ANSYS Mechanical/ANSYS Emag (combination of All Mechanical and Emag capabilities) ANSYS Mechanical/CFX-Flo (combination of All Mechanical and CFX-Flo capabilities) Element Option Availability Even if an element is available in a particular product, some of its options may not be. Most element descriptions include a Product Restrictions section which details any specific restrictions the element may have in each of the products. ANSYS Multiphysics Some element key option (KEYOPT) settings have defaults in the derived products that differ from those in ANSYS Multiphysics. Such cases are clearly documented under the Product Restrictions section of the documentation for the element. If you intend to use your derived product input file in ANSYS Multiphysics, you should explicitly input these settings in the derived product, rather than letting them default; otherwise, behavior in ANSYS Multiphysics will differ. Connections and High Performance Computing

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Product Capabilities While connection capabilities and High Performance Computing are included as part of the release distribution, they are separately-licensed products. Contact your ASD if you want to install and run any of the separately-licensed products at your site.

1.2.2. Product Codes

A list of product codes appears near the top of the first page of each element description. The codes represent individual products in the ANSYS family of products. The element is valid only for the product codes listed. An element that is valid within the entire set of products has the following list of product codes: MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS FL EM EH DY PP VT EME MFS The codes represent each of the products in the ANSYS family of products: Code MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS FL EM EH DY PP VT EME MFS Product ANSYS Multiphysics ANSYS Mechanical ANSYS Structural ANSYS Professional - Nonlinear Thermal ANSYS Professional - Nonlinear Structural ANSYS DesignSpace ANSYS DesignSpace - Structural ANSYS FLOTRAN ANSYS Emag - Low Frequency ANSYS Emag - High Frequency ANSYS LS-DYNA ANSYS PrepPost ANSYS DesignXplorer ANSYS Mechanical/ANSYS Emag ANSYS Mechanical/CFX-Flo

If the code for a given product appears, an element is valid for that product. Exceptions are noted under Product Restrictions in the documentation for that element. In most cases, elements valid in ANSYS Multiphysics are also valid in the ANSYS ED and ANSYS Multiphysics 1, 2, and 3 products. (ANSYS ED and ANSYS Multiphysics 1, 2, and 3 are not listed as separate product codes.

1.3. Product Capabilities

A complete list of engineering capabilities available in the various ANSYS, Inc. products is available on the ANSYS, Inc. Web site at http://www.ansys.com/assets/brochures/capabilities-brochure.pdf.

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**Chapter 2: Element Classifications
**

A large library of element types is available for use in your analysis. To help you select elements for your analysis, basic characteristics of the element types, and their groupings, are described here. The following topics related to element types and classifications are available: 2.1. Overview of Element Characteristics 2.2. Summary of Element Types 2.3. Selecting Elements for Your Analysis 2.4. Current-Technology Elements 2.5. Degenerated Shape Elements 2.6. Special-Purpose Elements 2.7. GUI-Inaccessible Elements Detailed descriptions for each element type are given in Element Library (p. 101).

**2.1. Overview of Element Characteristics
**

The following element overview topics are available: 2.1.1. Identifying Element Types 2.1.2. 2-D vs. 3-D Elements 2.1.3. Element Shape Characteristics 2.1.4. Element Degrees of Freedom and Discipline 2.1.5. User-Defined Elements

**2.1.1. Identifying Element Types
**

An element type is identified by a name (eight characters maximum), such as PIPE288, consisting of a group label (PIPE) and a unique identifying number (288). The element descriptions in Element Library (p. 101) are arranged in order of these identification numbers. The element is selected from the library for use in the analysis by inputting its name on the element type command (ET).

2.1.2. 2-D vs. 3-D Elements

Models may be either 2-D or 3-D depending upon the element types used. A 2-D model must be defined in an X-Y plane. They are easier to set up, and run faster than equivalent 3-D models. Axisymmetric models are also considered to be 2-D. If any 3-D element type is included in the element type (ET ) set, the model becomes 3-D. Some element types (such as COMBIN14) may be 2-D or 3-D, depending upon the KEYOPT value selected. Other element types (such as COMBIN40) have no influence in determining the model dimensions. A 2-D element type may be used (with caution) in 3-D models.

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications

**2.1.3. Element Shape Characteristics
**

In general, four shapes are possible: point, line, area, or volume. • • • • A point element is typically defined by one node, such as a mass element. A line element is typically represented by a line or arc connecting two or three nodes. Examples are beams, spars, pipes, and axisymmetric shells. An area element has a triangular or quadrilateral shape and may be a 2-D solid element or a shell element. A volume element has a tetrahedral or brick shape and is usually a 3-D solid element.

**2.1.4. Element Degrees of Freedom and Discipline
**

The degrees of freedom of the element determine the discipline for which the element is applicable: structural, thermal, fluid, electric, magnetic, or coupled-field. Select an element type with the necessary degrees of freedom characterize the model's response. Including unnecessary degrees of freedom increases the solution memory requirements and running time. Similarly, selecting element types with unnecessary features--for example, using an element type with plastic capability in an elastic solution--also increases the analysis run time.

**2.1.5. User-Defined Elements
**

You can create your own element type and use it in an analysis as a user-defined element. User-defined elements are described in Creating a New Element in the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features.

**2.2. Summary of Element Types
**

The following tables show elements listed by group label in numerical order, along with a description and graphical representation for each. BEAM Elements CIRCU Elements COMBIN Elements CONTAC Elements CPT Elements FLUID Elements FOLLW Elements HF Elements HSFLD Elements INFIN Elements INTER Elements LINK Elements MASS Elements MATRIX Elements MESH Elements MPC Elements PIPE Elements PLANE Elements PRETS Elements REINF Elements ROM Elements SHELL Elements SOLID Elements SOLSH Elements SOURC Elements SURF Elements TARGE Elements TRANS Elements

BEAM Elements BEAM161 Explicit 3-D Beam 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, VX, VY, AX, AY, AZ

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Summary of Element Types BEAM Elements BEAM188 Structural 3-D 2-Node Beam 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ BEAM189 Structural 3-D 3-Node Beam 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ CIRCU Elements CIRCU94 Coupled-Field Piezoelectric Circuit 2 or 3 nodes 2-D space DOF: VOLT, CURR CIRCU124 Magnetic Electric Circuit 2-6 nodes 3-D space DOF: VOLT, CURR, EMF CIRCU125 Magnetic Electric Diode 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: VOLT COMBIN Elements COMBIN14 Combination Spring-Damper 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ COMBIN37 Combination Control 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, TEMP COMBIN39 Combination Nonlinear Spring 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, TEMP COMBIN40 Combination 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, TEMP Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications COMBIN Elements COMBI165 Explicit Dynamics Spring-Damper 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AV, AZ COMBI214 Combination Spring-Damper Bearing 2 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, Graphic Pictorials

CONTAC Elements CONTA171 2-D 2-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact 2 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, TEMP, VOLT, AZ CONTA172 2-D 3-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact 3 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, TEMP, VOLT, AZ CONTA173 3-D 4-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, MAG CONTA174 3-D 8-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, MAG CONTA175 2-D/3-D Node-to-Surface Contact 1 node 2-D/3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, AX, MAG CONTA176 3-D Line-to-Line Contact 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ CONTA177 3-D Line-to-Surface Contact 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ CONTA178 3-D Node-to-Node Contact 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ

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Summary of Element Types CPT Elements CPT212 2-D 4-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, PRES CPT213 2-D 8-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, PRES CPT215 3-D 8-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, PRES CPT216 3-D 20-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, PRES CPT217 3-D 10-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, PRES FLUID Elements FLUID29 2-D Acoustic Fluid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, PRES FLUID30 3-D Acoustic Fluid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, PRES FLUID38 Dynamic Fluid Coupling 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ FLUID79 2-D Contained Fluid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications FLUID Elements FLUID80 3-D Contained Fluid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ FLUID81 Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ FLUID116 Coupled Thermal-Fluid Pipe 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: PRES, TEMP FLUID129 2-D Infinite Acoustic 2 nodes 2-D space DOF: PRES FLUID130 3-D Infinite Acoustic 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: PRES FLUID136 3-D Squeeze Film Fluid 4, 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: PRES FLUID138 3-D Viscous Fluid Link 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: PRES FLUID139 3-D Slide Film Fluid 2, 32 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ FLUID141 2-D Fluid-Thermal 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: VX, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP, ENKE, ENDS FLUID142 3-D Fluid-Thermal 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: VX, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP, ENKE, ENDS Graphic Pictorials

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Summary of Element Types FLUID Elements FLUID220 3-D Acoustic Fluid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, PRES FLUID221 3-D Acoustic Fluid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, PRES FOLLW Elements FOLLW201 3-D Follower Load 1 node 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ HF Elements HF118 2-D High-Frequency Magnetic Electric Quadrilateral Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: AX HF119 3-D High-Frequency Magnetic Electric Tetrahedral Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: AX HF120 3-D High-Frequency Magnetic Electric Brick Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: AX HSFLD Elements HSFLD241 2-D Hydrostatic Fluid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, HDSP, PRES HSFLD242 3-D Hydrostatic Fluid 9 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, HDSP, PRES Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications INFIN Elements INFIN9 2-D Infinite Boundary 2 nodes 2-D space DOF: AZ, TEMP INFIN47 3-D Infinite Boundary 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: MAG, TEMP INFIN110 2-D Infinite Solid 4 or 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: AZ, VOLT, TEMP INFIN111 3-D Infinite Solid 8 or 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: MAG, AX, AY, AZ, VOLT, TEMP INTER Elements INTER115 3-D Magnetic Electric Interface 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: AX, AY, AZ, MAG INTER192 Structural 2-D Interface 4-Node Gasket 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY INTER193 Structural 2-D Interface 6-Node Gasket 6 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY INTER194 Structural 3-D Interface 16-Node Gasket 16 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ INTER195 Structural 3-D Interface 8-Node Gasket 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ INTER202 Structural 2-D Interface 4-Node Cohesive 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY INTER203 Structural 2-D Interface 6-Node Cohesive 6 nodes 2-D space

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Summary of Element Types INTER Elements DOF: UX, UY INTER204 Structural 3-D Interface 16-Node Cohesive 16 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ INTER205 Structural 3-D Interface 8-Node Cohesive 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ LINK Elements LINK11 Structural 3-D Linear Actuator 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ LINK31 Radiation Link 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP LINK33 Thermal 3-D Conduction Bar 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP LINK34 Convection Link 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP LINK68 Coupled Thermal-Electric Line 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP, VOLT LINK160 Explicit 3-D Spar (or Truss) 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AY, AZ LINK167 Explicit Tension-Only Spar 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AY, AZ LINK180 Structural 3-D Spar (or Truss) 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications MASS Elements MASS21 Structural Mass 1 node 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ MASS71 Thermal Mass 1 node 3-D space DOF: TEMP MASS166 Explicit 3-D Structural Mass 1 node 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AY, AZ MATRIX Elements MATRIX27 Stiffness, Damping, or Mass Matrix 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ MATRIX50 Superelement (or Substructure) 2-D or 3-D space DOF: Determined from included element types MESH Elements MESH200 Meshing Facet 2-20 nodes 2-D/3-D space DOF: None KEYOPT Dependent MPC Elements MPC184 Structural Multipoint Constraint 2 or 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ KEYOPT Dependent PIPE Elements PIPE288 3-D 2-Node Pipe 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ PIPE289 3-D 3-Node Pipe 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ 14

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Summary of Element Types PIPE Elements ELBOW290 3-D 3-Node Elbow 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ PLANE Elements PLANE13 2-D Coupled-Field Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP, AZ, UX, UY, VOLT PLANE25 Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ PLANE35 2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid 6 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP PLANE53 2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: VOLT, AZ, CURR, EMF PLANE55 2-D 4-Node Thermal Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP PLANE75 2-D Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP PLANE77 2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP PLANE78 2-D Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP PLANE83 2-D Axisymmetric - Harmonic 8-Node Structural Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications PLANE Elements PLANE121 2-D 8-Node Electrostatic Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: VOLT PLANE162 Explicit 2-D Structural Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, VX, VY, AX, AY PLANE182 2-D 4-Node Structural Solid 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY PLANE183 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY PLANE223 2-D 8-Node Coupled-Field Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, TEMP, VOLT PLANE230 2-D 8-Node Electric Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: VOLT PLANE233 2-D 8-Node Electromagnetic Solid 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: AZ, VOLT PRETS Elements PRETS179 2-D/3-D Pretension Combination 3 nodes 2-D/3-D space DOF: UX REINF Elements REINF263 2-D Smeared Reinforcing Up to 8 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTZ Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials

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Summary of Element Types REINF Elements REINF264 3-D Discrete Reinforcing Up to 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ REINF265 3-D Smeared Reinforcing Up to 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Graphic Pictorials

ROM Elements ROM144 Reduced-Order Electrostatic-Structural Coupled-Field 20 or 30 nodes 3-D space DOF: EMF, VOLT, UX SHELL Elements SHELL28 Structural 3-D Shear/Twist Panel 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ SHELL41 Structural 3-D Membrane Shell 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ SHELL61 2-D Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell 2 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTZ SHELL131 4-Node Thermal Shell 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: TBOT, TE2, TE3, TE4, . . . TTOP SHELL132 8-Node Thermal Shell 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: TBOT, TE2, TE3, TE4, . . . TTOP SHELL157 Thermal-Electric Shell 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP, VOLT

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Chapter 2: Element Classifications SHELL Elements SHELL163 Explicit Thin Structural Shell 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AY, AZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, SHELL181 4-Node Structural Shell 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ SHELL208 2-Node Axisymmetric Shell 2 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, ROTZ SHELL209 3-Node Axisymmetric Shell 3 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX, UY, ROTZ SHELL281 8-Node Structural Shell 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Graphic Pictorials

SOLID Elements SOLID5 3-D Coupled-Field Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, MAG SOLID62 3-D Magneto-Structural Coupled-Field Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ, AX, AY, AZ, VOLT SOLID65 3-D Reinforced Concrete Structural Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX, UY, UZ SOLID70 3-D Thermal Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP SOLID87 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP

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AX.© SAS IP. AY. Inc.0 . AZ SOLID185 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. Inc. UZ SOLID186 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. AY. . VOLT. VX. AZ SOLID168 Explicit 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. TEMP. UY. 19 . VZ. VX. VY. UY. UY. UZ. UZ. MAG SOLID122 3-D 20-Node Electrostatic Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: VOLT SOLID123 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: VOLT SOLID164 Explicit 3-D Structural Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX.Summary of Element Types SOLID Elements SOLID90 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP SOLID96 3-D Magnetic Scalar Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: MAG SOLID97 3-D Magnetic Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: AX. AZ. UY. VZ. CURR.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. VOLT. AX. UZ. UY. AY. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. VY. UZ Graphic Pictorials Release 14. EMF SOLID98 Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX.

to 48-Node General Axisymmetric Solid (KEYOPT(2) = 3) DOF: UX. UZ Graphic Pictorials SOLID273 8. UY.Chapter 2: Element Classifications SOLID Elements SOLID187 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. UZ. VOLT SOLID237 3-D 10-Node Electromagnetic Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: AZ. UZ. Inc. UZ SOLID278 3-D 8-Node Thermal Solid 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP 20 Release 14. VOLT SOLID231 3-D 20-Node Electric Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: VOLT SOLID232 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electric Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: VOLT SOLID236 3-D 20-Node Electromagnetic Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: AZ. UY. VOLT SOLID272 4. UY. . . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. UY.0 . UY. UZ SOLID226 3-D 20-Node Coupled-Field Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. TEMP. TEMP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. Inc. All rights reserved.to 96-Node General Axisymmetric Solid (KEYOPT(2) = 3) DOF: UX. VOLT SOLID227 3-D 10-Node Coupled-Field Solid 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX.

.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. UY. UY. All rights reserved. Inc. 21 . HDSP SOLSH Elements SOLSH190 Structural Solid Shell 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. UZ SURF156 3-D Structural Surface Line Load 3 to 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. UZ SOURC Elements SOURC36 Magnetic Electric Current Source 3 nodes 3-D space DOF: None SURF Elements SURF151 2-D Thermal Surface Effect 2 or 4 nodes 2-D space DOF: TEMP SURF152 3-D Thermal Surface Effect 4 to 10 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP SURF153 2-D Structural Surface Effect 2 or 3 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX. UZ Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Graphic Pictorials Release 14. UY SURF154 3-D Structural Surface Effect 4 to 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. UY.Summary of Element Types SOLID Elements SOLID279 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid 20 nodes 3-D space DOF: TEMP SOLID285 3-D 4-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid with Nodal Pressure 4 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX.0 . Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. UY. UZ.© SAS IP.

UZ-VOLT Graphic Pictorials 2. Primary applications are as follows: Structural Fluid Contact Load Explicit Dynamics Magnetic Electric Combination Meshing Thermal Electric Circuit Matrix Reinforcing Acoustic Coupled-Field Infinite User-Defined Within each element category. UY. UY. UZ Graphic Pictorials SURF251 2-D Radiosity Surface 2 nodes 2-D space SURF252 3-D Thermal Radiosity Surface 3 or 4 nodes. 3-D space TARGE Elements TARGE169 Contact 2-D Target Segment 3 nodes 2-D space DOF: UX. Currenttechnology elements take precedence. UY-VOLT. TEMP TARGE170 Contact 3-D Target Segment 8 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. .© SAS IP. UY. ROTZ.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. TEMP Graphic Pictorials TRANS Elements TRANS126 Electromechanical Transducer 2 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX-VOLT. the elements appear in order of shape function (topology).3. All rights reserved. Inc. . Selecting Elements for Your Analysis Use this list of elements sorted by application to select the best elements for your analysis.0 . Structural 22 Release 14.Chapter 2: Element Classifications SURF Elements SURF159 3-D General Axisymmetric Surface 2 to 36 nodes 3-D space DOF: UX. Inc. UZ.

to 48-Node General Axisymmetric Solid Release 14. .© SAS IP. 23 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.0 .Selecting Elements for Your Analysis Type Structural Solid Dimension 3-D Element SOLID185 8-Node Structural Solid Pictorial SOLID186 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID187 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid SOLID285 4-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid with Nodal Pressures SOLID65 8-Node Reinforced Concrete Structural Solid 2-D PLANE182 4-Node Structural Solid PLANE183 8-Node Structural Solid PLANE25 4-Node AxisymmetricHarmonic Structural Solid PLANE83 8-Node AxisymmetricHarmonic Structural Solid General Axisymmetric SOLID272 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.Chapter 2: Element Classifications SOLID273 8. Inc.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.to 96-Node General Axisymmetric Solid Structural Solid Shell 3-D SOLSH190 8-Node Structural Solid Shell Structural Shell 3-D SHELL181 4-Node Structural Shell SHELL281 8-Node Structural Shell SHELL28 4-Node Structural Shear/Twist Panel SHELL41 4-Node Structural Membrane Shell 2-D SHELL208 2-Node Axisymmetric Shell SHELL209 3-Node Axisymmetric Shell SHELL61 2-Node AxisymmetricHarmonic Structural Shell Structural Layered Composite 3-D SOLID185 8-Node Layered Solid SOLID186 20-Node Layered Structural Solid 24 Release 14. . .0 .

Selecting Elements for Your Analysis SOLSH190 8-Node Solid Shell Structural Beam 3-D BEAM188 2-Node Structural Beam BEAM189 3-Node Structural Beam Structural Pipe 3-D PIPE288 2-Node Pipe PIPE289 3-Node Pipe ELBOW290 3-Node Elbow Structural Line 3-D LINK180 2-Node Structural 3-D Spar (or Truss) LINK11 2-Node Structural Linear Actuator Structural Point Structural Interface 3-D 3-D MASS21 1-Node Structural Mass INTER194 Interface 16-Node Gasket INTER195 Interface 8-Node Gasket INTER204 Interface 16-Node Cohesive INTER205 Interface 8-Node Cohesive Release 14. 25 .0 . All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.© SAS IP. . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Inc.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . . All rights reserved. Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 2: Element Classifications 2-D INTER192 Interface 4-Node Gasket INTER193 Interface 6-Node Gasket INTER202 Interface 4-Node Cohesive INTER203 Interface 6-Node Cohesive Structural Multipoint Constraint 3-D MPC184 MPC184-Link/Beam MPC184-Slider MPC184-Revolute MPC184-Universal MPC184-Slot MPC184-Point MPC184Translational MPC184Cylindrical MPC184-Planar MPC184-Weld MPC184-Orient MPC184-Spherical 26 Release 14.

27 .0 .) Type Explicit Solid Dimension 3-D Element SOLID164 8-Node Explicit Structural Solid Pictorial SOLID16810-Node Explicit Tetrahedral Structural Solid 2-D PLANE162 4-Node Explicit Solid Explicit Shell 3-D SHELL163 4-Node Explicit Thin Structural Shell Explicit Beam Explicit Line 3-D BEAM161 3-Node Explicit Beam 3-D LINK160 3-Node Explicit Spar (or Truss) LINK167 3-Node Explicit TensionOnly Spar COMBI165 2-Node Explicit SpringDamper Explicit Point Thermal Type 3-D MASS166 1-Node Explicit Structural Mass Element Pictorial Dimension Release 14. . All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.Selecting Elements for Your Analysis MPC184-General MPC184-Screw Explicit Dynamics (Explicit dynamics analyses can use only explicit dynamic elements.

Chapter 2: Element Classifications Thermal Solid 3-D SOLID278 8-Node Thermal Solid SOLID279 20-Node Thermal Solid SOLID70 8-Node Thermal Solid SOLID87 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid SOLID90 20-Node Thermal Solid 2-D PLANE35 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid PLANE55 4-Node Thermal Solid PLANE75 4-Node AxisymmetricHarmonic Thermal Solid PLANE77 8-Node Thermal Solid PLANE78 4-Node AxisymmetricHarmonic Thermal Solid Thermal Layered Solid 3-D SOLID278 8-Node Thermal Solid 28 Release 14. . Inc. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .

. Inc.0 .Selecting Elements for Your Analysis SOLID279 20-Node Thermal Solid Thermal Shell 3-D SHELL131 4-Node Thermal Shell SHELL132 8-Node Thermal Shell Thermal Line 3-D LINK31 2-Node Radiation Link LINK33 2-Node Thermal Conduction Bar LINK34 2-Node Convection Link Thermal Point Thermal Electric 3-D 3-D MASS71 1-Node Thermal Mass LINK68 2-Node Coupled ThermalElectric Line SHELL157 4-Node Thermal-Electric Shell Acoustic Type Acoustic Volume Dimension 3-D Element FLUID30 8-Node Acoustic Fluid Pictorial FLUID220 20-Node Acoustic Fluid FLUID221 10-Node Acoustic Fluid Release 14. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 29 .© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc. . Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 2: Element Classifications 2-D FLUID29 4-Node Acoustic Fluid Acoustic Planar 3-D FLUID130 4-Node Infinite Acoustic Acoustic Line 2-D FLUID129 2-Node Infinite Acoustic Fluid Type Fluid Volume Dimension 3-D Element FLUID80 8-Node Contained Fluid Pictorial HSFLD242 9-Node Hydrostatic Fluid 2-D FLUID79 4-Node Contained Fluid FLUID81 4-Node AxisymmetricHarmonic Contained Fluid HSFLD241 4-Node Hydrostatic Fluid Fluid CFD 3-D FLUID142 8-Node Fluid-Thermal 2-D FLUID141 4-Node Fluid-Thermal 30 Release 14. .

.© SAS IP.Gap 3-D FLUID38 2-Node Dynamic Fluid Coupling FLUID136 4. Inc.Selecting Elements for Your Analysis Fluid .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.or 32-Node Slide Film Fluid Fluid Pipe 3-D FLUID116 2-Node Coupled Thermal-Fluid Pipe Magnetic Electric Type --Dimension 3-D Element SOLID96 8-Node Magnetic Scalar Solid Pictorial SOLID97 8-Node Magnetic Solid INTER115 4-Node Magnetic Electric Interface HF119 10-Node High-Frequency Magnetic Electric Tetrahedral Solid HF120 20-Node High-Frequency Magnetic Electric Brick Solid SOLID122 20-Node Electrostatic Solid Release 14.or 8-Node Squeeze Film Fluid FLUID138 2-Node Viscous Fluid Link FLUID139 2.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 31 . All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .Chapter 2: Element Classifications SOLID123 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid SOLID231 20-Node Electric Solid SOLID232 10-Node Tetrahedral Electric Solid SOLID236 20-Node Electromagnetic Solid SOLID237 10-Node Electromagnetic Solid 2-D PLANE53 8-Node Magnetic Solid HF118 8-Node High-Frequency Magnetic Electric Quadrilateral Solid PLANE121 8-Node Electrostatic Solid PLANE230 8-Node Electric Solid PLANE233 8-Node Electromagnetic Solid Electric Circuit Type Dimension Element Pictorial 32 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Inc. Inc.

Selecting Elements for Your Analysis --3-D SOURC36 3-Node Magnetic Electric Current Source CIRCU124 2. All rights reserved. . Inc.to 6-Node Magnetic Electric Circuit CIRCU125 2-Node Magnetic Electric Diode 2-D CIRCU94 2. 33 .or 30-Node ReducedOrder Electrostatic-Structural Coupled-Field SHELL157 4-Node Thermal-Electric Shell Release 14.0 . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.or 3-Node CoupledField Piezoelectric Circuit Coupled-Field Type --Dimension 3-D Element SOLID226 20-Node Coupled-Field Solid Pictorial SOLID227 10-Node Coupled-Field Solid SOLID5 8-Node Coupled-Field Solid SOLID62 3-D Magneto-Structural Solid LINK68 2-Node-Coupled ThermalElectric Line SOLID98 10-Node Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid ROM144 20.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

.Chapter 2: Element Classifications CPT215 8-Node Coupled PorePressure Mechanical Solid CPT216 20-Node Coupled PorePressure Mechanical Solid CPT217 10-Node Coupled PorePressure Mechanical Solid 2-D PLANE223 8-Node Coupled-Field Solid PLANE13 4-Node Coupled-Field Solid CPT212 4-Node Coupled PorePressure Mechanical Solid CPT213 8-Node Coupled PorePressure Mechanical Solid Contact Type --Dimension 3-D Element TARGE170 8-Node Contact 3-D Target Segment Pictorial CONTA173 4-Node Surface-toSurface Contact CONTA174 8-Node Surface-toSurface Contact 34 Release 14. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. .0 . Inc.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

.© SAS IP. 35 . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.0 .Selecting Elements for Your Analysis CONTA176 3-Node Line-to-Line Contact CONTA177 3-Node Line-to-Surface Contact CONTA178 2-Node Node-to-Node Contact 2-D/3-D 2-D CONTA175 1-Node Node-to-Surface Contact TARGE169 3-Node Contact 2-D Target Segment CONTA171 2-Node Surface-toSurface Contact CONTA172 3-Node Surface-toSurface Contact Combination Type --Dimension 3-D Element COMBIN14 2-Node Combination Spring-Damper Pictorial COMBIN37 4-Node Combination Control COMBIN39 2-Node Combination Nonlinear Spring COMBIN40 2-Node Combination 2-D/3-D PRETS179 3-Node Pretension Combination Release 14.

or 20-Node Infinite Solid 2-D INFIN9 2-Node Infinite Boundary INFIN110 4.to 8-Node Structural Surface Effect 36 Release 14.to 10-Node Thermal Surface Effect Pictorial 8 SURF154 4. . Damping.0 . 8 .© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. or Mass Matrix Pictorial 2-D/3-D MATRIX50 Superelement (or Substructure) Infinite Type --Dimension 3-D Element INFIN47 4-Node Infinite Boundary Pictorial INFIN111 8. Inc.Chapter 2: Element Classifications 2-D COMBI214 2-Node Combination Spring-Damper Bearing Matrix Type --Dimension 3-D Element MATRIX27 2-Node Stiffness.or 8-Node Infinite Solid Load Type --Dimension 3-D Element SURF152 4. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

to 20-Node Smeared Reinforcing 2-D REINF263 2.Selecting Elements for Your Analysis SURF156 3. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.or 4-Node Structural Surface Line Load SURF159 2. All rights reserved. Inc.or 3-Node Structural Surface Effect SURF251 2-Node Radiosity Surface Meshing Type --Dimension 2-D/3-D Element MESH200 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.to 20-Node Meshing Facet Pictorial Reinforcing Type --Dimension 3-D Element REINF264 2.to 36-Node General Axisymmetric Surface FOLLW201 1-Node Follower Load SURF252 3.to 20-Node Discrete Reinforcing Pictorial REINF265 2.to 8-Node Smeared Reinforcing Release 14.or 4-Node Thermal Surface Effect SURF153 2. 37 .0 . .© SAS IP.or 4-Node Thermal Radiosity Surface 2-D SURF151 2.

Inc. Precise control of the element technologies (ETCONTROL) used in element formulation for applicable elements. current-technology elements appear first. ANSYS. 22). which uses the domain-integration approach to calculate the J-Integrals for both linear and elastoplastic material behavior at a designated tip location (2D) or at specific location along the crack front (3-D) through a structure component. Rezoning for solid elements. Custom user-defined material models created via the UserMat subroutine. Association of a single element with several material constitutive options (such as a combination of hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity with Prony series expansion). Legacy elements may eventually be replaced by new elements. Current-technology elements are more advanced and feature-rich than legacy elements. Initial state conditions (INISTATE) that may exist in the structure (available in the elements listed in Initial State Element Support). For example. Fracture mechanics parameter calculation (CINT). Linear perturbation based on nonlinear analysis. which quickly evaluates response surfaces for various type of applications (such as structural and frequency sweep analysis). 38 Release 14. Hill plasticity.© SAS IP. provided by elements such as REINF265 when used with 3-D solid and shell elements (referred to as the base elements) to achieve the effect of extra reinforcement to those elements. Inc. 3-D smeared reinforcing. viscoelasticity. and others).4. shape memory alloy. Variational Technology for optimization analysis.” Most of the elements listed are current-technology elements in the sense that they are the best technologies that ANSYS. Current-Technology Elements As technology advances. All rights reserved. and viscoelasticity. as they are not typically associated with specific material types. rate-dependent plasticity. You can readily identify them. continues to develop robust new element types using the most current technologies available.0 . enhanced Drucker-Prager plasticity. A curve-fitting tool (TBFT) for calibrating material parameters through experimental data. A layered-section option (via SECDATA and other section commands) for shell and solid elements.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. is able to offer at the current product release. a viscous-based algorithm for improving convergence behavior when instabilities are expected. cast iron plasticity. • • • • • • • • • • • • In Selecting Elements for Your Analysis (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. which currently supports creep. . support for the following capabilities is available only in applicable currenttechnology elements: • A vast array of material constitutive options (such as anisotropic hyperelasticity.Chapter 2: Element Classifications User-Defined Type --Dimension --USER300 Element Pictorial --- 2. nor do they specify restrictions such as “linear. . Inc. Nonlinear stabilization. hyperelasticity. hyperelasticity. plasticity. A few legacy elements are still supported to meet the needs of longtime users who have input files containing those elements.

see Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations (p.4. 3. While a given KEYOPT setting can allow you to approximate the behavior of a legacy element. Degenerated elements are often used for modeling transition regions between fine and coarse meshes. Degenerated Triangular 2-D Solid and Shell Elements Release 14.5. For more information. degree-of-freedom constraint.5. but is modeled with at least one triangular face. . may in future releases move legacy element documentation to the Feature Archive or undocument those elements altogether. Inc. Suggested Current Element Type [2] ANSYS CFX-Flo ANSYS CFX-Flo INFIN110 INFIN111 PLANE223 SOLID272 PLANE233 SOLID273 SHELL181 SOLID226 Suggested Setting(s) to Approximate Legacy Element Behavior [3] Element KEYOPT ----------KEYOPT(6) = 0 --KEYOPT(6) = 0 KEYOPT(1) = 1. try the ETCONTROL command for element and KEYOPT recommendations. In some cases. Inc. The following table lists the remaining legacy elements and suggests current-technology elements to use instead.5.2. ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. an element KEYOPT setting.1. For structural-only analyses. or command may be necessary to more precisely reproduce the behavior of a given legacy element. or may require adaptation via appropriate constraints for specific 2-D analyses. 2. Obtaining the Best Results from Degenerated Shape Elements 2.0 . KEYOPT(3) = 2 --See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide ------Comments ----------- Legacy Element Type [1] FLUID141 FLUID142 INFIN9 INFIN47 PLANE13 PLANE25 PLANE53 PLANE83 SHELL41 SOLID5 1. 2. a suggested current element may require a more refined mesh in some cases. for example. it may not be the most desirable KEYOPT for the current element. Inc.Degenerated Shape Elements 2. 84).1. however. Current Element Technologies It is good practice to use current-technology elements rather than legacy elements in your analysis wherever possible. the table does not imply that all legacy elements listed are immediate targets for such action. Legacy vs.© SAS IP. After considering element redundancy and consistency issues. All rights reserved. Degenerated Shape Elements A degenerated element is an element whose characteristic face shape is quadrilateral. or for modeling irregular and warped surfaces.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The table is not a definitive listing of legacy-to-current element equivalents in terms of either formulation or use of shape functions. The following topics concerning degenerated shape elements are available: 2. 39 .

The centroid location printed for a degenerated triangular element is usually at the geometric centroid of the element. 2.5.5. the analysis terminates. When forming a degenerated triangular element by repeating node numbers.2. Degenerated Triangular 2-D Solid and Shell Elements Degenerated triangular 2-D solid and shell elements may be formed from 4-node quadrilateral elements by defining duplicate node numbers for the third and fourth (K and L) node locations. it defaults to node K.3. they are automatically suppressed (degenerating the element to a lower order). condenses to a point. the face numbering remains the same. All rights reserved.© SAS IP.5. Warping is measured by the relative angle between the normals to the face at the nodes.0 . Face 3. the stress results are most easily interpreted if the I-J lines of the elements are all parallel. Degenerated elements formed from quadrilateral and brick elements without midside nodes are much less accurate than those formed from elements with midside nodes and should not be used in highstress gradient regions. A flat face (no warping) has all normals parallel (zero relative angle). Element loads specified on a nodal basis should have the same loads specified at the duplicate node locations. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for element warping details and other element checking details. A warning message is output if warping is beyond a small. Elements should be oriented with alternating diagonals.2.5. K.Chapter 2: Element Classifications 2. J. If the L node is not input. 2. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Triangular (or prism) elements should be used in place of a quadrilateral (or brick) element with large warping. K. either at input or during large deflection. If warping is excessive.4.5. When using triangular elements in a rectangular array of nodes.5. .1. Quadrilateral shaped elements should not be skewed such that the included angle between two adjacent faces is outside the range of 90° ± 45° for non-midside-node elements or 90° ± 60° for midside-node elements. because the element coordinate system is relative to the I-J line. Obtaining the Best Results from Degenerated Shape Elements Use degenerated shape elements with caution. Inc. For shell elements.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Degenerated Tetrahedral Elements 2. Triangular Shell Elements Are Preferred in Some Cases Triangular shell elements are preferred for severely skewed or warped elements. Degenerated Triangular Prism Elements 2. if possible. The node pattern then becomes I.5. Warping occurs when the four nodes of a quadrilateral shell element (or solid element face) are not in the same plane. best results are obtained from an element pattern having alternating diagonal directions. Inc. If extra shape functions are included in the element. 40 Release 14. Surface Stresses on Condensed Element Faces 2. however.1. but tolerable value.

J. Superelements 2. M.6. Element loads should have the same loads specified at the duplicate node locations. If extra shape functions are included in the element. they are partially suppressed.5. N.1.Special-Purpose Elements 2.0 . using superelements typically results in greater solution efficiency. All rights reserved. M.© SAS IP. O. condenses to a line. Degenerated Triangular Prism Elements Degenerated triangular prism elements may be formed from 8-node 3-D solid elements by defining duplicate node numbers for the third and fourth (K and L) and the seventh and eighth (O and P) node locations. Pressures (or convection conditions) should not be defined on a condensed face. Superelements You can combine existing linear elements into a superelement (or substructure) named MATRIX50. or using the same group of elements over a large number of load steps. Elements should be oriented with alternating diagonals. O.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.6.3. they are automatically suppressed. Inc. Element nodal loads should have the same loads specified at the duplicate node locations. Degenerated Tetrahedral Elements A degenerated tetrahedral element may be formed from a triangular prism element by a further condensation of face 6 to a point. K. K.6.2.4. Special-Purpose Elements Two special element types are available: 2. In such cases. The node pattern then becomes I.5. 2. Surface Stresses on Condensed Element Faces Surface stress (or convection heat flow) printout should not be requested on a condensed face. 2. The input node pattern should be I. if possible. K.5. When forming a degenerated prism element by repeating node numbers. If extra shape functions are included in the element.5. 2.1.6. User-Defined Elements 2. J. For further information. M. 41 . M. the face numbering remains the same. . The integration points are proportionately rearranged within the element. see: • • "Substructuring" in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide to learn how to perform an analysis using superelements Substructuring Analysis in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for a discussion of the substructure matrix procedure Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. however. Face 4. M. The centroid location printed for a degenerated element is not at the geometric centroid but is at an average nodal location. This capability is especially useful when you are repeating the same action many times in the model. K. Inc.

named USER300. see the documentation for the USER300 element.© SAS IP. Inc. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. of virtually any type.6. see Creating a New Element via the User-Defined Element API in the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features. User-Defined Elements You can create a custom element. For detailed instructions. .0 . For more information.Chapter 2: Element Classifications 2. Inc. 2. GUI-Inaccessible Elements These elements are available via the ET family of commands only and are inaccessible from within the GUI: REINF263 REINF264 REINF265 SURF251 SURF252 2-D Smeared Reinforcing 3-D Discrete Reinforcing 3-D Smeared Reinforcing 2-D Radiosity Surface 3-D Thermal Radiosity Surface 42 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. available on the product-distribution media. All rights reserved.2.7.

or can be input directly (E).1. Release 14. Many features are common to all elements in the library. 3. The node order determines the element coordinate system orientation for some element types.10. The following topics address the common features: 3. 56) for a description of the element coordinate system. Element Loading 3.1.3. identifying number (285).2.1.5.4. and so on. or even element types. Sections 3.0 .Chapter 3: General Element Features The element library offers many element formulations or types. Material Properties 3. K.6. All rights reserved. 101) are arranged in order of these identification numbers.9. Real Constants 3. The table usually contains information about the following: 3. The node numbers must correspond to the order indicated in the "Nodes" list. Inc. See Element Classifications (p.1.1. Nodes The nodes associated with the element are listed as I.1.1. may be unavailable based on the product-licensing options in effect at your site. Connectivity can be defined by automatic meshing.1. Inc. Element Name An element type is identified by a name (eight characters maximum). such as SOLID285.7. Element Name 3. Nodal Loading 3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Special Element Features 3. 101) includes a summary table of element input.1.1. 5) for a list of all available elements.1. See Coordinate Systems (p. Coordinate Systems Some element features.1. Elements are connected to the nodes in the sequence and orientation shown on the input figure for each element type. 3. Any restrictions for an element are documented in the "Product Restrictions" section for that element. Solution Output 3. The I node is the first node of the element.2.3.© SAS IP. Degrees of Freedom 3.1. Element Input Element Library (p. Nodes 3.1. Element Properties and Controls (KEYOPTs) 3.8. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element descriptions in Element Library (p.1.1. Element Input 3. . 43 . J.2. consisting of a group label (SOLID) and a unique. The element is selected from the library for use in the analysis by inputting its name on the element type command (ET).

4. an important one in any analysis. heat flows. pressures. and thermal conductivity. . which constitute the primary nodal unknowns to be determined by the analysis.. such as the mixed u-P formulation of PLANE182. DENS for density.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. voltages. MPC184 and Lagrangian-multiplier-based contact elements. SHELL208 and PIPE288 with quadratic and cubic options. however. Linear Material Properties Some properties for non-thermal analyses are called linear properties because typical solutions with these properties require only a single iteration. and so on. Inc. Materials for Explicit Dynamic Analyses 44 Release 14. A basic description of the nonlinear material properties is given in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. . and piezoresistivity). All rights reserved. etc. but rather are implied by the element types attached to them.Chapter 3: General Element Features 3. Derived results. All material properties can be input as functions of temperature. Internal nodes The program also uses internal nodes for elements with Lagrangian multiplier in their formulations. Some elements require other special data which must be input in tabular form. A basic description of the linear material properties is given in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. Degrees of freedom are not defined on the nodes explicitly by the user. Such data are also input via the TB family of commands and are described with the element in Element Library (p.1.3. coefficient of thermal expansion. The choice of element types is therefore.2. rotations. 3. 3. be used for some linear material properties (such as anisotropic elasticity. linear material properties are input via the MP family of commands. Typical material properties include Young's modulus (of elasticity). EY. Internal nodes are inaccessible and require no input from you or any other action on your part. Inc. Each property is referenced by a label: EX.1. etc. Internal nodes are generated automatically during the solution phase of an analysis to make more degrees of freedom available for the elements. material structural damping.© SAS IP. piezoelectric matrix. temperatures. Material Property Input Typically. are computed from these degree of freedom results. such as stresses. or in "Material Models" in the Material Reference if they apply to a family of elements. 101). Nonlinear material properties are input via the TB family of commands. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and EZ for the directional components of Young's modulus. Material Properties Most element types use various material properties. They may be displacements. and other elements such as BEAM188.0 . Nonlinear Material Properties Properties such as stress-strain data and B-H curves are called nonlinear because an analysis with these properties usually requires an iterative solution.1. density.1. The TB family of commands can. Degrees of Freedom Each element type has a degree of freedom set.

For example. . Reinforcing Sections -.1. Real Constants Data required for the calculation of the element matrices and load vectors. Element loads are always associated with a particular element (even if the input is at the nodes).these flags are simply turned on by specifying their label on the appropriate command. but are used to indicate that a certain type of calculation is to be performed. The real constant values that you input (R and RMORE) must correspond to the order indicated in the list. rather than describing a missing dimension of the model. stranded coil parameters. Typical real constants include hourglass stiffness. Flags are not actually loads. a specified face of an acoustic element is treated as an interface between a fluid portion and a structural portion of the model.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Similarly. Certain elements may also have flags. Inc. Inc. sections may significantly reduce the number of degrees of freedom and lower computational requirements. body loads. Sections Sections are generally used to describe the geometry in the missing direction(s) of an idealized model. To learn more about how real constants are used within each element type. Flags are associated either with a surface (FSI and MXWF) and are applied as surface loads (below).1. and plane thicknesses. For a complete list of available section types.5.An axis of symmetry around which a plane of general axisymmetric solid elements is revolved. For example. With each element type that supports them. Special section types are also available. a description of the real constants is given in the "Real Constants" list.© SAS IP. Axisymmetric Sections -. when the FSI (fluid-structure interaction) flag is active. Release 14. respectively. By idealizing a structure and capturing calculations that are common to many elements.Reinforcing sections allow you to describe the reinforcing fibers collectively within an existing structure rather than model each fiber individually. For the FSI and MXWF flags.A shell cross section defines the geometry of the shell in a plane parallel to the shell x-y plane. or with an element (MVDI) and are applied as body loads (below). MXWF and MVDI are flags used to trigger magnetic force (Maxwell surface) and Jacobian force (virtual displacement) calculations. contact parameters. or cylinder. see the description of each element type in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.A beam cross section defines the geometry of the beam in a plane perpendicular to the element axial direction. 3. sphere. but which cannot be determined by other means. Following are common section types: • • • • Beam Sections -.1. in certain magnetics elements.7.6. are input as real constants. Shell Sections -. 45 . values have no meaning .0 . 101). a contact section corrects the geometry of a meshed circle. 3. Element Loading Element loads are surface loads. Details about flags are discussed under the applicable elements in Element Library (p. 3. see the SECTYPE command. All rights reserved.Element Input Material models used in explicit dynamic analyses are discussed in Material Models in the ANSYS LSDYNA User's Guide. and inertial loads.

1. its value (which can range from zero to one) is specified. Surface Loads Some element types allow surface loads. Inc.7.1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.7. All rights reserved.1. Inc. Surface Loads 3.3.2. which refers to loads defined at the nodes and are not directly related to the elements.7. Surface loads are typically pressures for structural element types. on the appropriate command. Flags are always step-applied (i. convections or heat fluxes for thermal element types. 46)] CONV HFLUX INF MXWF INF MXWF CHRGS INF TEMP FSI IMPD Impedance All Superelement Load Vector 1. 2. current and other ocean loads can be applied to some line and surface element types.1. 46 Release 14.Chapter 3: General Element Features For the MVDI flag. and so on. The following topics related to element loading are available: 3.1 Surface Loads Available in Each Discipline Discipline Structural Thermal Surface Load Pressure Label PRES [1 (p.© SAS IP.4.1. Body Loads 3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. For more information.1. 49). Initial Stresses Also see Nodal Loading (p.1.0 . the KBC command does not affect them). Inertial Loads 3. SELV Convection Heat Flux Infinite Surface Magnetic Electric Maxwell Surface Infinite Surface Maxwell Surface Surface Charge Density Infinite Surface Temperature Fluid Fluid-Structure Interface Not to be confused with the PRES degree of freedom Buoyancy. along with the label. wave. Table 3. 3. see OCTYPE and related ocean commands.7.. 46)] [2 (p.7.e. . .

Label TEMP [1 (p. A surface load applied on the edge of a shell element is on a per-unit-length basis. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 48)] JS 47 . Load numbers are shown on the element figures (within circles) and point in the direction of positive load to the face upon which the load acts. some elements allow multiple loads on a single element face (as indicated with the load numbers after the load labels).1. 3. the load label (Lab). Also. All rights reserved.7. 3. 49).© SAS IP.1. the film coefficient and the bulk temperature. For more information. which allows different values to be defined at the nodes of an element.1. not per-unit area. 3.2. and so on. 3.2 Body Loads Available in Each Discipline Discipline Structural Body Load Temperature Fluence FLUE Thermal Magnetic Heat Generation Rate Temperature Current Density Virtual Displacement MVDI Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Applying Surface Loads Surface loads (such as pressures for structural elements and convections for thermal element) are typically input via the SF and SFE commands.1. can be entered via the SFE command. 48)] HGEN TEMP [1 (p.1. The surface load can be defined on element faces via the SFE command by using a key (LKEY).3.0 .4.2. Surface Load Labels and Keys Surface loads are designated by a label and a key.1.7. The label indicates the type of surface load and the key indicates where on the element the load acts.1. Body Loads Some element types allow body loads. and the load value. Inc. Tapered Surface Load A tapered surface load. Multiple Surface Loads Some elements allow multiple types of surface loads (as shown with the load labels listed under "Surface Loads" in the input table for each element type).7. it may be convenient to apply the loading the face nodes of an element (which are then processed like face input). rather than applying surface loading to an element face.1. For example.1. heat-generation rates for thermal element types.1. .7. Inc. see Nodal Loading (p. Table 3. Surface loads may also be input in a nodal format. The SF command can define surface loads by using nodes to identify element faces.Element Input 3. Body loads are typically temperatures for structural element types.7. The CONV load label requires two values. Tapered loads are input in the same order that the face nodes are listed.

For thermal elements using the diagonalized specified heat matrix option in a transient analyses. are applicable to all elements with structural degrees of freedom and having mass (that is.). and can be applied to the same points for all selected elements or can be applied differently for each element. HGEN FORC Label VLTG TEMP [1 (p.1.1. The load values input on the BFE command must correspond to the order indicated in the "Body Load" list. . spinning. see the INISTATE command.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the temperature does not contribute to the element load vector but is only used for material property evaluation.1. The stresses specified in the input file can be applied to the element centroids or element integration points. see Nodal Loading (p. .© SAS IP. Heat-generation rates are input per-unit-volume unless otherwise noted with the element. For more information. a spatially varying heat generation rate is averaged over the element.7. 49). and Initial State Loading in the Basic Analysis Guide. The element format is usually in terms of the element nodes but may be in terms of fictitious corner points as described for each element. For more information about the initial state capability.7.1.0 .2. Body loads are input via the BF or BFE commands. solid.2. optionally. 3. The INISTATE command sets constant initial stress for selected elements and. The stresses can also be a written to an external file. Initial Stresses Initial stresses can be set as constant or read in from a file for most current-technology beam. 3.3. 48)] Not to be confused with the TEMP degree of freedom 3. Inertia loads are typically entered via the ACEL and OMEGA commands. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Body loads can also be applied in a nodal format.Chapter 3: General Element Features Discipline Electric Body Load Voltage Drop Temperature Charge Density CHRGD Fluid Heat Generation Rate Force Density 1. Corner point numbers are shown on the element figures where applicable. All rights reserved.7. Inc.2. The command also allows you to read in a file specifying the initial stresses. only for specified materials. elements having mass as an input real constant or having a density (DENS) material property). Inc. Applying Body loads Body loads are designated in the "Input Summary" table of each element by a label and a list of load values at various locations within the element. and shell element types. Temperature Body Loads For some structural elements. Inertial Loads Inertial loads (gravity. link. 48 Release 14.4. 3. plane.1.7. etc.

and so on.9.. printout.rst) output. as follows: • • Values for the first six KEYOPTs (KEYOPT(1) through KEYOPT(6)) can be input via the ET or KEYOPT command.8.1. formulation.1. KEYOPT Settings May Vary Between Products 3. and KEYOPTs can be adjusted as needed. KEYOPT Settings May Vary Between Products Exercise caution when using the same input for other ANSYS. The command sets element options based on the associated constitutive models of the element type. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. as some default KEYOPT settings may vary between products. element behavior in the other product may differ.1. see Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations. Element KEYOPT Defaults The following topics concern element KEYOPT defaults: 3.1. temperatures.0 .© SAS IP.1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. Because KEYOPTs can be combined.1.1. element technologies. Inc. the KEYOPTs can be used to control stress states.1. degrees of freedom.9.1.1. a great deal of flexibility is available for refining the element type to perfectly suit a specific problem. and output for some beam and shell elements.1. with the element loading format taking precedence. Nodal loads are associated with the degrees of freedom at the node and are typically entered via the D and F commands (such as nodal displacement constraints and nodal force loads).9. For more information. If you intend to use an input file in more than one product. Values for KEYOPT(7) or greater are input via the KEYOPT command. Depending on the element type.1. results file (. Nodal Loading Unlike element loads. The KEYOPT is the most important element input and should be selected with care. otherwise. it is a good practice to explicitly input these settings. products. nodal loads are defined at the nodes and are not directly related to the elements. loads.9. Release 14. 3. All rights reserved. such as KEYOPT(1).Element Input 3. etc.9. Inc. . element coordinate systems. Such cases are indicated in the "Product Restrictions" section of the affected elements. A basic description of each KEYOPT is given with the detailed description of each element type. rather than letting them default. it is often more convenient to allow automatic selection of element technologies via the ETCONTROL command. Consider Automatic Element Selection 3.9. Each KEYOPT can be set to a specific value. KEYOPTs are identified by number. Element Properties and Controls (KEYOPTs) Elements use KEYOPTs (or key options) to control element behavior.1. The nodal or element loading format may be used for an element. formulation options. Inc. 3. 49 . KEYOPT(2). 3. Consider Automatic Element Selection Although element KEYOPT defaults can accommodate many problem types.2.2.

nodal and reaction loads.1. or Jobname. In POST1.DB) The output file is viewable via the GUI. depending on the OUTPR settings.RTH. or load steps. postprocessing the stress in the material x direction (typically 50 Release 14. the special features make the element nonlinear and therefore require an iterative solution. Special Element Features The "Special Features" list in the documentation for each element indicates that certain additional capabilities are available for the element. 3. and the element solutions. PRESOL. PLNSOL. . and PLESOL). Solution Output Solution output is written to the: • • • Output file (Jobname. 3. Jobname.0 . For example. . the SET command identifies the load step that you intend to postprocess.2.1.OUT) Results file (Jobname.2.RST.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Jobname. All rights reserved. Results items for area and volume elements are generally retrieved from the database via standard results output commands (such as PRNSOL. The database and results file data can be postprocessed.RFL) Program database (Jobname.© SAS IP. Inc. They are controlled by KEYOPTs in certain elements.10.Chapter 3: General Element Features 3.2. The labels on these commands correspond to the labels shown in the input and output description tables for each element. The element solutions are the solution values at the integration points or centroid. Output File Contents The output file contains the nodal degree-of-freedom solution.RMG. Special element features can include any of the following: Adaptive descent Birth and death Cohesive zone materials Concrete Cracking Creep Crushing Debonding Elasticity Element technology autoselect Error estimation Explicit dynamic analysis Field coupling Fluid pressure penetration Gasket material Generalized cross-section Geometry correction Hyperelasticity Initial state Initial stress import Isotropic friction Large deflection Large strain Linear perturbation Magnetic materials Nonlinear Nonlinear stabilization Ocean loading Orthotropic friction Plasticity Porous Media Preintegrated general shell sections Prestress Radiation Rezoning Section definition Stress stiffening Swelling User-defined friction User-defined material Viscoelasticity 3. Results File and Database Contents The results file contains data for all requested (OUTRES) solutions.2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. In most cases.

and pipes) and contact elements. Some items do not appear in the solution listing but are written to the results file. such as nodal displacements. 3. which in this case corresponds to the global Y direction. Most elements have 2 tables which describe the output data and ways to access that data for the element. Y. However.3. 3. except for the coupled-field elements PLANE223. (An exception is EPTO. YC.forces at displacement constraints. the printed UX solution will be in the nodal X direction.© SAS IP.RSOL and OUTRES. ROTZ) are output in radians. For vector degrees of freedom and corresponding reactions. and pressures the reaction solution calculated at constrained nodes .4. the output will be either in terms of convection or heat flux. and phase angles from a harmonic analysis are output in degrees. Coordinate locations XC. which is available for all structural solid and shell elements even though it is not shown in the output description tables for those elements. Inc. It is output at all degrees of freedom that have a nonzero stiffness or conductivity and can be controlled by OUTPR. for thermal elements accepting either surface convection (CONV) or nodal heat flux (HFLUX).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. DSYM. These tables are the "Element Output Definitions" table and the "Item and Sequence Numbers" tables used for accessing data through the ETABLE and ESOL commands. For example. such as integration point data. . The reaction solution is calculated at all nodes that are constrained (D. the output nodal solution will also be in the rotated coordinate system. Instead. ROTY. If a node was input with a rotated nodal coordinate system. or Z. fluid flows at pressure degree-of-freedom constraints. The output is.NSOL (for results file output). etc.Solution Output labeled SX) is identified as item S and component X on the postprocessing commands. temperatures. all derived data for structural line elements (such as spars. Element Solution The element output items (and their definitions) are shown along with the element type description.0 . 51 .NSOL (for printed output) and OUTRES. coupledfield forces appear if they are computed to be zero. All rights reserved. and so on. For a node with the rotation θxy = 90°. a sequence number identifies those items. Rotational displacements (ROTX.2. Release 14.2. all derived data for thermal line elements. Normally.RSOL. Nodal Solution The nodal solution from an analysis consists of: • • the degree-of-freedom solution. beams. items not appearing are either not applicable to the solution or have all zero results and are suppressed to save space. The degree-of-freedom solution is calculated for all active degrees of freedom in the model. Its output can be controlled by OUTPR. and layer data for layered elements.) Generic labels do not exist for some results data. SOLID226. which are determined by the union of all degree-of-freedom labels associated with all the active element types. Only items shown both on the given results command and in the element input/output tables are available for use with that command. Not all of the items shown in the output table will appear at all times for the element. and SOLID227. heat flows at temperature degree-of-freedom constraints. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. in some cases. Most of the output items shown appear in the element solution listing. Inc. ZC are identified as item CENT and component X.). the total strain. the output during solution is in the nodal coordinate system. dependent on the input.

S.EQV where ABC is a user-defined label for future identification on listings and displays. To save space.0 . The Definition column defines each label and. for temperatures. also lists the label used on the printout. items in the table which are available via the Component Name method of the ETABLE command are identified by special notation (:) included in the output label. that list the Item and sequence number required for data access using the Sequence Number method of the ETABLE command. fluence (FLUE).4. and the ETABLE command for accessing this data would be: ETABLE.2. in which case they are listed and separated by commas. All rights reserved.2. Inc.RMG. The Element Output Definitions Table The first table.( See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide for more information. Beam elements which allow an offset from the node on the SFBEAM command an have additional output labeled OFFST.2. Similarly.© SAS IP.4. in some instances.Chapter 3: General Element Features 3. and the portion after the colon corresponds to the Comp field.3. For example.4. Items listed as SMISC refer to summable miscellaneous items. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.RTH. etc.2. Inc. "Element Output Definitions. and SFBEAM commands for pressure input. respectively. or set of tables. Jobname. it cannot be stored in the "element table.). See the SF. if an item is not marked in the R column. In addition.RST. . and heat generation (HGEN)). Only the data which you request with the solution commands (OUTPR and OUTRES) are included in printout and on the results file.) The number of columns in each table and the number of tables per element vary depending on the type of data available and the number of locations on the element where data was calculated.ABC. pressure output is often omitted when values are zero. this table outlines which data are available for solution printout (Jobname. if different. The Item and Sequence Number Table Many elements also have a table. S:EQV is defined as equivalent stress. (See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide for an example. other surface load items (such as convection (CONV) and heat flux (HFLUX)). 52 Release 14.1. SFE. Other data having labels without colons can be accessed through the Sequence Number method.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. As an added convenience. discussed with the "Item and Sequence Number" tables below. In some cases there is more than one label which can be used after the colon. The R column indicates items which are written to the results file and which can be obtained in postprocessing. while NMISC refers to non-summable miscellaneous items. The O column indicates those items which are written to the output window and/or the output file. and body load input items (such as temperature (TEMP). and which data are available on the results file (Jobname.) The label portion before the colon corresponds to the Item field on the ETABLE command. Surface Loads Pressure output for structural elements shows the input pressures expanded to the element's full linearly or bilinearly varying load capability." 3. Jobname.OUT and/or display to the terminal). are often omitted when the values are zero (or. when the T-TREF values are zero). 3. ." describes possible output for the element. See Table 2: "PLANE182 Item and Sequence Numbers" for a sample item and sequence number table.

All rights reserved. You can control the output of element nodal loads via the OUTPR. Output is usually in the element coordinate system.2. See the element descriptions in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for details about integration point locations and output. In postprocessing.4. Centroidal Solution (Output Listing Only) Output (such as stress. The output quantities are calculated as the average of the integration point values. 53 . 3. in turn.2. Also the ERESX command may be used to request integration point data to be written as nodal data on the results file. Integration Point Solution (Output Listing Only) Integration point output is available in the output listing with most current-technology elements. Element nodal data consist of the element derived data (such as strains. These data are usually calculated at the interior integration points and then extrapolated to the nodes. the SX stress is in the same direction as EX. 3. For example. The component output directions for vector quantities correspond to the input material directions which.7.Solution Output To save space. surface output is often omitted when all values are zero. the damping loads and inertia loads are also printed.2. Inc. and inertia loads at a particular degree of freedom. shell elements.5. In such cases the nodal solution is the value at the integration point nearest the node. and various other elements. Exceptions occur if an element has active (nonzero) plasticity. and gradients) evaluated at each of the element's nodes.4.6. the ETABLE command can calculate the centroidal solution of each element from its nodal values. Element Nodal Loads Element nodal loads refer to an element's loads (forces) acting on each of its nodes.4.NLOAD command (for printed output) and the OUTRES. This type of output is available for 2-D and 3-D solid elements. If the problem is dynamic. For output of ocean-loading information on supported element types. Element Nodal Solution The term element nodal means element data reported for each element at its nodes. fluxes.NO is input.4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.2. They are printed out at the end of each element output in the nodal coordinate system and are labeled as static loads.0 .4. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. summed over all elements connected to that degree Release 14. 3. creep. Element nodal loads relate to the reaction solution in the following way: the sum of the static. see the OCTYPE and OCDATA commands. damping. 3. or swelling at an integration point or if ERESX. The location of the integration point is updated if large deflections are used. strain. Averaging of the nodal data from adjacent elements is done within the POST1 postprocessor. The location of the centroid is updated if large deflections are used.NLOAD command (for results file output). are a function of the element coordinate system.© SAS IP. and temperature) in the output listing is given at the centroid (or near center) of certain elements. stresses.

4. Elastic strains are printed after any creep corrections. Inc.10. plus the applied nodal load (F or FK command). Failure Criteria Failure criteria are commonly used for orthotropic materials. The listing of this output is activated via a KEYOPT described with the element and is in addition to the nodal load output. see "Structures with Material Nonlinearities" in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. The failure criteria constants entered via the FC command are: Table 3. and all appropriate output data are on a per-unit-of-depth basis. allow an option to specify the depth (thickness). Y.4. EPSW. respectively. The global Y axis must be the axis of symmetry.9.Chapter 3: General Element Features of freedom. Input failure criteria using the FC command (and related commands in the FCxxxxxx family) in the POST1 postprocessor. the X.0. Member forces are in the element coordinate system and the components correspond to the degrees of freedom available with the element.4.© SAS IP. EPCR. stresses are computed after the plasticity correction but before the creep correction. Member Force Solution Member force output is available with most structural line elements.Failure strain in material x-direction in tension (must be positive). Many 2-D solids.2. 3.0 . and the structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. axial. In particular. etc. hoop. Nonlinear Solutions For information about nonlinear solutions due to material nonlinearities. Nonlinear strain data (EPPL. 3.) are always the value from the nearest integration point.3 Orthotropic Material Failure Criteria Data FC Lab1 Value EPEL FC Lab2 Value XTEN f Constant ( ε xt ) . . is equal to the negative of the reaction solution at that same degree of freedom. the total forces for the 360° model are output for an axisymmetric structural analysis and the total convection heat flow for the 360° model is output for an axisymmetric thermal analysis. For temperature-dependent failure data. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. you can input up to six temperatures. 3. 3. If creep is present. Z. An axisymmetric analysis is based on 360°.2. . All rights reserved. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Calculation and all appropriate output data are on a full 360° basis. 2-D and Axisymmetric Solutions A 2-D solid analysis is based upon a per-unit-of-depth calculation. 54 Release 14.2. Strains must have absolute values less than 1.2.4.8.11. and in-plane shear stresses and strains. and XY stresses and strains correspond to the radial. however. For axisymmetric analyses.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Failure strain in material z-direction in tension (must be positive).Failure strain in material x-z plane (shear) (must be positive).Failure strain in material y-direction ε© in compression (default = .Solution Output FC Lab1 Value FC Lab2 Value XCMP f Constant ( ε x ) .Failure stress in material y-direction in tension (must be positive). YCMP Release 14. All rights reserved.0 .Failure strain in material x-direction ¡ in compression (default = .Failure stress in material x-direction in tension (must be positive).© SAS IP. YCMP ZTEN ( ε z ) . ε# ( !" ) . ZCMP XY ε ( ) . YTEN ε£ ( y¢ ) .BC ) (may not be positive).σ 34 ) (may not be positive).Failure strain in material z-direction in compression (default = .§¨ ) (may not be positive). ( ε ) . . ( σ '( ) .ε t ) (may not be positive). 2 ) & YZ XZ S XTEN XCMP YTEN σ8 ( 67 ) .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ε¦ ( ¤¥ ) . σA ( 9@ ) .Failure strain in material x-y plane (shear) (must be positive). Inc.ε ) (may not be positive). 55 .Failure stress in material x-direction 5 in compression (default = . Inc.Failure strain in material y-z plane (shear) (must be positive). ( ε $% ) .Failure strain in material y-direction in tension (must be positive).Failure stress in material y-direction σD in compression (default = . ( σ 01 ) .

Understanding the Element Coordinate System The element coordinate system is used for: • • 56 Orthotropic material input Pressure loading input on certain faces of the surface effect elements Release 14.3.1. 3.0. All rights reserved. σ #$ . σ 56 . or 89 . See Specifying Failure Criteria in the Structural Analysis Guide for more information about this material option.0 and 2. Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System 3. and set Cxz and Cyz to zero. Inc.0 . &' . Values between -1. For 2-D analysis. ( σ ) .0).x-y coupling coefficient for Tsai-Wu Theory (default = -1. B YZ XZ XYCP YZCP XZCP Tsai-Wu coupling coefficients must be between -2.Failure stress in material x-z plane (shear) (must be positive).y-z coupling coefficient for Tsai-Wu Theory (default = -1.© SAS IP.Failure stress in material z-direction ¤ in compression (default = .σ¢£ ) (may not be positive).3.Failure stress in material x-y plane (shear) (must be positive).Failure stress in material z-direction in tension (must be positive). set σ ! .2.0 are recom" % 1 σ( mended.1.3. . and σ )0 to a value several orders of magnitude larger 4 7 σ@ than σ 23 .3. ¡ ZCMP XY σ¥ ( xy ) . . Solution Coordinate Systems 3. ( ) . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Failure stress in material y-z plane (shear) (must be positive).0). ( ) . ( ) .Chapter 3: General Element Features FC Lab1 Value FC Lab2 Value ZTEN f Constant ( σ zt ) .x-z coupling coefficient for Tsai-Wu Theory (default = -1. Coordinate Systems The following coordinate system topics are available: 3.0).3.3. Understanding the Element Coordinate System 3.0 and 0. ( σ © ) . σ¨ ( ¦§ ) .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.

General axisymmetric elements For general axisymmetric solid elements (SOLID272 and SOLID273). Release 14. Inc. Axisymmetric elements For axisymmetric elements. and θ = 0 on the master plane.0 . such as stresses. general axisymmetric elements can be rotated about any axis. 57 .1. Elements departing from this description have their default element coordinate system orientation described in Element Library (p. Inc. the r. and thermal gradients. For midside-node shell elements. The z and y-axes are determined as described for the default orientation. Shell elements For area shell elements (such as SHELL181). the general orientation is determined by the cylindrical coordinate system. for example.1. is allowed for some elements by a real constant angle specification (see. relative to the previous orientation. the default orientation is generally parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system. the z-axis normal to the shell surface (with the outward direction determined by the right-hand rule around the element from node I to J to K). 3. Shell elements For shell elements. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Modifying the Element Orientation Unless otherwise changed. All rights reserved. A further rotation. the real constant angle rotation (if any) is relative to the default orientation.Coordinate Systems • Output of element quantities. For non-midside-node shell elements. for some elements. orthogonal systems. only rotations in the X-Y plane are valid. If no ESYS or KEYOPT orientation is specified.3. In general. the ESYS definition overrides. the real constant THETA for SHELL181). the default orientation generally has the x-axis aligned with element I-J side. however. the element coordinate system orientation is the default orientation for that element type. If the projection is a point (or the angle between the local x-axis and the normal to the shell is 0° (plus a tolerance of 45°)). If both are specified. the projection is evaluated at each integration point and may vary in direction throughout the element. Line elements For line elements. and the y-axis perpendicular to the x and z-axes. θ.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Element coordinate systems are right-handed. . strains.© SAS IP. by a KEYOPT selection. the local yaxis projection is used for the element x-axis direction. Some elements also allow element coordinate system orientations to be defined by user written subroutines (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features). A default element coordinate system orientation is associated with each element type. the ESYS orientation uses the projection of the local system on the shell surface. Solid elements For solid elements (such as PLANE182 or SOLID185). The coordinate systems of axisymmetric elements may only be rotated about the global Z-axis. 101). with z and the origin defined via SECTYPE and SECDATA commands. The orientation may be changed for area and volume elements by making it parallel to a previously defined local system (ESYS) or. and z directions adhere to the right-hand rule. these systems are described below. The element x-axis is determined from the projection of the local x-axis on the shell surface. the projection is evaluated at the element centroid and is assumed constant in direction throughout the element. the default orientation is generally with the x-axis along the element I-J line.

3. element solution coordinate systems are generally identical to the nodal or the element coordinate systems adopted by the elements.3. resulting in loss of moment equilibrium. 3. Solution Coordinate Systems For homogeneous elements. Damping. . or Mass Matrix COMBIN37 Control Element FLUID38 Dynamic Fluid Coupling COMBIN39 Nonlinear Spring with KEYOPT(4) = 0 COMBIN40 Combination Element TRANS126 Electromechanical Transducer These elements. Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System A few special elements operate solely within the nodal coordinate system: COMBIN14 Spring-Damper with KEYOPT(2) = 1. For large-deflection analyses. Inc. especially for the case of two-node elements with coincident nodes. Mass and inertia relief calculations will not be correct. the nodes are not coincident. giving unexpected results. All element coordinate systems shown in the element figures assume that no ESYS orientation is specified. the element coordinate system rotates from the initial orientation described above by the amount of rigid body rotation of the element. there is no mechanism for the element to transfer the resulting moment load. stresses. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. Accelerations operate normally in the global Cartesian system. The orientation of output element quantities can be adjusted.3. See Rotating Results to a Different Coordinate System in the Basic Analysis Guide Element coordinate systems can be displayed as a triad with the /PSYMB command or as an ESYS number (if specified) with the /PNUM command. which can include moment coupling when appropriate additional terms are added to the matrix. The layers are rotated by the angles input on the SECDATA or RMORE commands. allow for easy directional control. however. the accelerations effectively act on any element mass in the nodal system. Triad displays do not include the effects of any real constant angle. • 3. and the load is not acting parallel to the line connecting the two nodes. If any of the nodes have been rotated (NROTAT). consider the following: • • If the nodes of elements containing more than one node are not rotated in precisely the same way. UY. Inc. If UX. or 6 MATRIX27 Stiffness. Material properties. 58 Release 14.Chapter 3: General Element Features Layered elements Layered elements use the x-axis of the element coordinate system as a base from which to rotate each layer to the layer coordinate system.0 . 2. It is therefore good practice not to apply accelerations when these elements use rotated nodes.2. 5. Because no transformation is done between the nodal and global systems. and strains for layered elements are based on the layer coordinate system. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 4. force equilibrium may not be maintained. not the element coordinate system. defined in the nodal coordinate system. or UZ degrees of freedom are being used. .3. The sole exception is MATRIX27.

Inc. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Coordinate Systems For composite elements. see Rotating Results to a Different Coordinate System in the Basic Analysis Guide.LSYS command. . The solution coordinate systems in composite elements are also called layered coordinate systems. such as layers in a layered-shell element (SHELL181) and fibers in a discrete reinforcing element (REINF264).0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. For more information.© SAS IP. Release 14. 59 . and are specifically identified via the RSYS. Inc. solution coordinate systems can be independently defined for different components.

0 . Inc. .60 Release 14.© SAS IP. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

The following topics related to continuum elements are available: 4.1.1. especially for solid structures. Plane Strain 4. they are still useful for benchmarking purposes. Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads 4. The element categories can be identified by how the elements represent the geometry of the structures. Reinforcing Elements 4.1.6.2. Continuum Stress Elements 4.1. Beam and Link (Truss) Elements 4. Surface Elements 4. Continuum Stress Elements Continuum stress elements represent the volume of a model used for deflection and stress analysis.8.4. Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations 4.1. Continuum stress elements have few.1. They can be used for any structural analysis.1.1.1. Generalized Plane Strain 4.4.1. Axisymmetric Release 14. Pipe Elements 4. Element Technologies 4.1. beam.1. Stress States in 2-D Continuum Elements The following topics about stress states in continuum elements assumes global Cartesian directions and applies to the PLANE182 and PLANE183 elements unless otherwise noted: 4. Generalized Plane Strain Options 4.5. or to obtain more detailed results for such structures. Inc.1.1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. pipe or other special elements. the basic deformation and/or formulation assumptions.4.1.1. 61 .7. surface. and the primary purpose of the elements.© SAS IP.1. Elements can be either 2-D or 3-D and are usually obtained by meshing areas or volumes. Mixed u-P Formulation 4. Inc. They do not include shell. Although continuum stress elements may not be computationally efficient for structures having one or two dimensions that are much smaller than the remaining dimension(s). Stress States in 2-D Continuum Elements 4.1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Various categories of elements are available to meet the needs of many types of industries. Plane Stress 4.3. Elements Under Linear Perturbation 4.3.5. if any.1.0 .Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis Elements for stress analysis are used primarily in mechanical and civil engineering.2. basic deformation assumptions and are the primary elements for stress analysis. All rights reserved. Shell Elements 4.3. contact.2. The following related topics are available: 4.

The model in the Z direction can also have a uniform curvature. Plane strain is generally used on thick structures such as the cross-section of a dam. 62 . The stress in the Z direction is always zero.1. when rotated about the global Cartesian Y axis. The general axisymmetric elements offer the following benefits: • • • The deformations can be nonaxisymmetric.1. 4. recommends using the SOLID272 and SOLID273 elements to simulate general axisymmetric characteristics. you can input a thickness as well. therefore. Besides PLANE182 and PLANE183.1. flat plates pulled in tension may be analyzed with plane stress. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5. Inc.1.1. forms the actual model. SHELL208 and SHELL209 support axisymmetric analyses. with all terms of the Fourier series solved simultaneously. Plane stress is generally used on flat.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis 4.1. .4. Inc. The strain in the Z direction is always zero. Generalized Plane Strain Generalized plane strain is similar to plane strain. General Axisymmetric General axisymmetric is the same as axisymmetric except that the deformations can be nonaxisymmetric. 4. The geometry can be thought of as the cross-section.1. Although a unit thickness is generally assumed.1. see Generalized Plane Strain Options (p. An axisymmetric analysis can be used for a nuclear containment building under internal pressure or vertical earthquake. All rights reserved. as are the XZ and YZ shear stresses.1. where the deformation is assumed to be solely in the plane of the structure.1. For more information. Axisymmetric Axisymmetric geometry is defined in the X-Y plane with positive X values.3. 4. Release 14. as are the XZ and YZ shear strains. except that the Z direction strain is not required to be zero. Inc. or to model long structures with a load at the end. ANSYS. For example.5. The deformations are modeled internally as a Fourier series. 4. Plane Strain Plane strain is a stress state that varies only in the X and Y directions. the model and the loading and deformations are constant around the circumference.0 .1.© SAS IP. The Z direction strain may vary linearly in the X and Y directions (but not in the Z direction).1. All nonlinearities are supported. General Axisymmetric 4. Generalized plane strain can be used for modeling a section of cylindrical geometries.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. removing the implied restriction of plane strain that the model extends without limit in the Z direction. thin structures. 68). Unless otherwise described.1. Plane Stress Plane stress is a stress state that varies only in the X and Y directions.2. which.

1. Enhanced Strain Formulation 4. Supported elements are PLANE25.1.3. B-bar Method (Selective Reduced Integration) 4. and you must perform both tasks manually.© SAS IP. Only linear behavior is supported.1. An example axisymmetric-harmonic application is simulating a nuclear containment building subjected to a horizontal earthquake. Current-technology elements are more advanced and feature-rich than legacy elements. Due to the limitations of axisymmetric-harmonic elements.1.3.1. Inc.0 . The method presented here is provided for legacy support only. and SHELL61.1.2.2.2. Element Technologies Traditional isoparametric continuum elements have never been sufficiently robust or accurate enough for general stress analysis.1. The deformations are modeled as a Fourier series. continues to develop robust new element types using the latest technologies available.4. see General Axisymmetric Elements (p.1.Technologies for Lower-Order Tetrahedron Elements 4. All rights reserved. For more information. recommends using general axisymmetric elements instead.1. The following topics concerning current element technologies for general stress analysis are available: 4. ANSYS. see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p.5. 76). 70). yet most nonlinear materials are either nearly or fully incompressible.1. 63 .1.1.Technologies for Higher-Order Triangle or Tetrahedron Elements 4.Technologies for Higher-Order Quad or Brick Elements 4.2. lower-order elements are prone to shear locking in bending-dominated problems. with each term of the Fourier series solved separately and then combined in postprocessing.2.2. Inc.1.1. Inc.2.1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Continuum Stress Elements An example general axisymmetric application is simulating threaded pipe connections.2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. For more information.2.2. general axisymmetric can be simulated with harmonic axisymmetric elements when the problem is linear. Both lower. 4. Technologies for Lower-Order Quad and Brick Elements The following current technologies are available for lower-order quad and brick elements: 4.1. Alternate General Axisymmetric Method for Linear Problems Alternatively. As technology advances. Simplified Enhanced Strain Formulation 4.4.1. 4. Even in a linear analysis.Technologies for Lower-Order Quad and Brick Elements 4.1. ANSYS. .and higher-order elements experience volumetric locking when materials are incompressible or nearly incompressible.1.2.1.2. Uniform Reduced Integration Release 14. Current-technology continuum elements are available to overcome such problems. PLANE83.

This technology can be used with mixed u-P formulations. The formulation introduces certain number of internal (and inaccessible) degrees of freedom to overcome shear locking. the enhanced strain formulation option is less efficient than either the uniform reduced integration option. this option is more efficient than the ¡ method (selective reduced integration) and the enhanced strain formulations. When used with mixed u-P.1.1. 4. verify the solution accuracy by comparing the total energy (SENE label on the ETABLE command) and the artificial energy (AENE label on the ETABLE) introduced by hourglass control.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. Because there are no internal degrees of freedom to handle volumetric locking. It replaces volumetric strain at the Gauss integration point with the average volumetric strain of the elements. use the enhanced strain formulation of the element. this formulation is not ideal when the material is nearly incompressible. the solution is generally acceptable.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis 4. prevent any shear locking in bending-dominated problems.1. For the plane stress state. Inc. Enhanced Strain Formulation The enhanced strain formulation prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems and volumetric locking in nearly incompressible cases. 4. . B-bar Method (Selective Reduced Integration) The B-bar ( f ) method helps to prevent volumetric locking in nearly incompressible cases. When using uniform reduced integration. All internal degrees of freedom are introduced automatically at the element level and condensed out during the solution phase of the analysis.1.2. consider this option last.0 . Simplified Enhanced Strain Formulation The simplified enhanced strain formulation prevents shear locking in bending-dominated problems. except that it introduces only the internal degrees of freedom necessary to prevent shear locking.4.3.1. If it is not clear whether the deformation is bendingdominated. This method cannot.2. however. 64 Release 14.1. Because the artificial energy introduced to control the hourglass effect can diminish solution accuracy.2. If the ratio exceeds five percent. Uniform Reduced Integration The uniform reduced integration method helps to prevent shearing locking in bending-dominated problems and volumetric locking in nearly incompressible cases. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. This formulation is similar to the enhanced strain formulation. All internal degrees of freedom are introduced automatically at the element level and condensed out during the solution phase of the analysis. method (selective reduced integration) option or the This technology can be used with mixed u-P formulations. Because of the extra internal degrees of freedom and static condensation. In such cases. You can also monitor the total energy and artificial energy during the solution phase of the analysis (OUTPR. however. the simplified enhanced strain formulation yields the same results as the enhanced strain formulation. . except when also using the mixed u-P formulation. this formulation is identical to the enhanced strain formulation. Because it has only one integration point. Inc. and an additional internal degree of freedom for volumetric locking (except for the case of plane stress in 2-D elements).2.1. refine the mesh. the enhanced strain formulation is still recommended.VENG).2. If the ratio of artificial energy to total energy is less than five percent. 4.1. All rights reserved.

3. Unlike the hyperelastic elements. or. such as volumetric locking. used mixed u-P formulation.3. such as: PLANE182. Release 14.1. checkerboard pattern of stress distributions.1. Mixed u-P Formulation Mixed u-P elements use both displacement and hydrostatic pressure as primary unknown variables. uniform reduced integration is the better choice. and in most other current-technology elements where KEYOPT(6) > 0. occasionally. Lagrange multipliers extend the internal virtual work so that the volume constraint equation is included explicitly. Technologies for Higher-Order Triangle or Tetrahedron Elements The second-order elements do not have shear locking.3. Inc.1. SOLID185.3.1. Mixed u-P elements are intended to overcome these problems. This introduces hydrostatic pressure (or volume change rate for nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials) as a new independent variable.1. Technologies for Higher-Order Quad or Brick Elements Higher-order elements (actually second-order here) do not have shear locking due to the quadratic shape functions.0 . higher-order elements use uniform reduced integration as the default or only option. To avoid this problem. 4. Mixed u-P Element Summary 4. Overview of Mixed u-P Element Technologies Incompressible material behavior may lead to difficulties in numerical simulation. If full integration is necessary for an analysis involving nonlinear material.2. The stabilization allows for a robust and accurate element. The hourglass effect is not an issue if the model has at least two elements for 2-D problems. SOLID272. 4. Mixed u-P Models and Overconstraint or No Unique Solution 4. Lagrange multiplier based mixed u-P elements (current-technology solid elements with KEYOPT(6) > 0 and SOLID285) can also be used to overcome incompressible material problems.© SAS IP. If you observe volumetric locking.4. inaccuracy of solution. SOLID187. use it with mixed u-P formulation to limit the risk of volumetric locking. Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations 4.2.1. but they are prone to volumetric locking if the full-integration scheme is used. 4. . All rights reserved. Hourglass control is therefore not needed. The full integration option is used primarily for linear analysis.4.3.3.1.2.1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The following related topics are available: 4.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.2. and SOLID273. and volumetric locking is generally not an issue. SOLID186. PLANE183.Continuum Stress Elements 4. Overview of Mixed u-P Element Technologies 4. Mixed u-P formulation is available in SOLID285.1. The program achieves stabilization by enhancing the strain field with three internal degrees of freedom (which are condensed out at the element level). They are designed to model material behavior with high incompressibility such as fully or nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials and nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials (high Poisson ratio or undergoing large plastic strain).2. or at least two elements in each direction for 3-D problems. 65 .3.1. as it is difficult for hourglass mode to propagate beyond one element. Uniform reduced integration can be used with mixed u-P formulation. Technologies for Lower-Order Tetrahedron Elements Linear tetrahedron elements use mixed u-P formulation with pressure stabilization.3. Inc. and for nonlinear analysis. SOLSH190.1. divergence.

See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for further details. All rights reserved. and the value of KEYOPT(6). and user-defined. 66). . With current-technology elements. 4. The mixed u-P formulation of the current-technology solid elements offers options for handling incompressible material behavior.1. polynomial form. but are solved at the global level. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Constant Linear Linear Linear Constant Linear Linear Linear Constant Linear Linear Constant in the r-z plane and Fourier interpolation in the circumferential (θ) direction Linear in the r-z plane and Fourier inter- SOLID273 Uniform integration in the r-z plane. Furthermore.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis the hydrostatic pressure variables are not condensed on the element level.3. Inc. such as Mooney-Rivlin. Table 4. . as shown in Table 4. the mixed u-P formulation is associated with hyperelastic models. 1 KEYOPT(2) x 3 66 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you can combine the mixed u-P formulation with the enhanced strain formulation method. Neo-Hookean.0 .1 Number of Independent Pressure Degrees of Freedom in One Element Element Basic Element Technology KEYOPT(6) Number of Pressure DOFs 1 3 3 3 1 4 4 4 1 4 4 KEYOPT(2) Interpolation Function PLANE182 PLANE182 PLANE183 PLANE183 SOLID185 SOLID185 SOLID186 SOLID186 SOLID187 SOLID187 SOLSH190 SOLID272 method (selective reduced integration) or uniform reduced integration Enhanced strain formulation Uniform reduced integration (KEYOPT(1) = 0) 3-point integration (KEYOPT(1) = 1) method (selective reduced integration) or uniform reduced integration Enhanced strain formulation Uniform reduced integration Full integration 4-point integration 4-point integration Enhanced strain formulation Full integration in the r-z plane.© SAS IP. element technology. Mixed u-P Element Summary The number of independent hydrostatic pressure degrees of freedom depends on the element type.2. You can combine the mixed u-P formulation with other element technologies such as the method (also known as the selective reduced integration method) and the uniform reduced integration method. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Ogden. Arruda-Boyce.1: Number of Independent Pressure Degrees of Freedom in One Element (p.

the program resets any KEYOPT(6) setting to 0 automatically for pure displacement formulation. especially when the deformation is close to being fully incompressible. hydrostatic pressure is added as a degree of freedom at each node. For 2-D elements PLANE182 and PLANE183. . The mixed u-P formulation is not needed in plane stress. Therefore. elastic strain only agrees with stress in an element on the average instead of pointwise. The best element choice varies from problem to problem. the mixed u-P formulation of the current-technology elements Release 14. using the mixed u-P formulation with either of the plane stress options (KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 3). the volume constraint equation is checked for each element of a nonlinear analysis.0 x 10-5. Nearly incompressible materials include hyperelastic materials and elastoplastic materials. The default tolerance for the volumetric compatibility or volume constraint check is 1.Continuum Stress Elements Element Basic Element Technology KEYOPT(6) Number of Pressure DOFs Interpolation Function polation in the circumferential (θ) direction SOLID285 Stabilized pressure formulation --4 Linear The hydrostatic pressure has an interpolation function one order lower than the one for volumetric strain. All rights reserved. The currenttechnology elements with mixed u-P formulation and SOLID285 are available for nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials.0 .3.3. 4. For such cases. (most efficient). For current-technology mixed u-P elements. 67 . The number of elements in which the constraint equation is not satisfied is reported in the output file.© SAS IP.1. Inc. as indicated in these general guidelines: • For material behavior with very small compressibility: Use a current-technology element with mixed u-P formulation or SOLID285. The incompressibility is therefore checked at each node (similar to forces).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Applications of Mixed u-P Formulations Incompressible material behavior can be divided into two categories: fully incompressible materials and nearly incompressible materials. or SOLID285. and the thickness is adjusted based on this incompressible assumption. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For the SOLID285 element. the incompressibility condition is assumed. set KEYOPT(6) = 1. For more information. For moderate compressibility: Use PLANE182/SOLID185 with nology element with mixed u-P formulation. Nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials are materials with Poisson's ratio close to 0. For element SOLID187. a current-tech- • • When deformation is highly confined: Use a current-technology element with mixed u-P formulation.5. or elastoplastic materials undergoing very large plastic deformation. see the documentation for the CNVTOL command. Typical fully incompressible materials are hyperelastic materials. You can change this value if necessary (SOLCONTROL). Inc. You must use a current-technology element with mixed u-P formulation or SOLID285 to model this material behavior.

SOLID285 is not likely to be overconstrained.4. This direction cannot be the tangential direction of the boundary at this node. It also offers a more efficient way to simulate certain 3-D deformations using 2-D element options.1: Number of Independent Pressure Degrees of Freedom in One Element (p. UY. That means the solution is the particular one with zero force at the node in that direction where no displacement is prescribed.3. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. At each node. These are the best values for Nd/Np. An overconstrained model means that globally or locally. gives more practical results for deformation problems where the Z-direction dimension is not long enough.1.0 . Inc. In this case. Try pure displacement formulation (KEYOPT(6) = 0) first. and UZ).1. as shown in the following figure: 68 Release 14. yielding better performance. The overconstrained problem can be overcome by increasing the number of nodes without any displacement boundary conditions. because the extra pressure degrees of freedom are involved in mixed formulation. you must also avoid the “no unique solution” situation. All rights reserved. therefore. the number of displacement degrees of freedom without any prescribed values (Nd) is less than the number of hydrostatic pressure degrees of freedom (Np). rather than the infinite value assumed for standard plane strain. .4. Mixed u-P Models and Overconstraint or No Unique Solution Avoid overconstrained models when using current-technology elements with mixed u-P formulation. 66) for the specific numbers used with the current-technology elements. . or by refining the mesh. 4.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis and SOLID285 is more robust. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. (See Table 4. If you are using mixed formulation with element SOLID187. any stress field in equilibrium would be still in equilibrium and not cause any further deformation by adding an arbitrary value of hydrostatic pressure. it has one pressure degree of freedom and three degrees of freedom (UX. the hydrostatic pressure cannot be determined. This problem can be solved simply by having at least one node on the boundary in at least one direction without a prescribed displacement boundary condition. Generalized Plane Strain Options The generalized plane strain feature assumes a finite deformation domain length in the Z direction.) If different type elements are included. however. The deformation domain or structure is formed by extruding a plane area along a curve with a constant curvature. Since hydrostatic pressure is independent from deformation. When the mixed u-P formulation of the current-technology plane and solid elements is applied to fully incompressible hyperelastic materials. it should be determined by the force/pressure boundary condition. 4. If no force/pressure boundary condition is applied. Np can be calculated by the number of elements times the number of pressure degrees of freedom within each element. or the solution is not unique. On the other hand. The optimal values for Np and Nd are Nd/Np = 2 for 2-D problems and Nd/Np = 3 for 3-D problems. it is good practice to specify hydrostatic pressure interpolation (KEYOPT(6) = 2). Np is the summation of the products over each type of mixed formulation element. Generalized plane strain. No unique solution occurs if all boundary nodes have prescribed displacements in each direction and the material is fully incompressible.© SAS IP.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. You can apply boundary conditions and loads and check the results of the fiber length and rotation angle changes. using the commands GSBDATA. called the starting (or reference) point. All rights reserved. The curve direction along the extrusion path is called the fiber direction. Two internal nodes are created automatically at the solution stage for the generalized plane strain option to carry the extra three degrees of freedom. Inc. and reaction forces can also be viewed through OUTPR.0 . GSSOL. then the amount of deformation of all cross sections is identical throughout the curve. This ending point can be different from regular nodes. and must be meshed. and reaction forces. The starting plane must be the X-Y plane. and GSLIST. Any deformation. The existing plane strain and axisymmetric options are particular cases of the generalized plane strain option.© SAS IP. The boundary conditions and loads in the fiber direction are specified by applying displacements or forces at the ending point. The starting point creates an ending point on the ending plane through the extrusion process. The generalized plane strain option introduces three new degrees of freedom for each element. and the 3-D deformation can be simulated by solving the deformation problem on the starting plane. therefore. in that it is designated by the same X-Y coordinates that are fixed in plane during deformation. All inputs and outputs are in the global Cartesian coordinate system.1 Generalized Plane Strain Deformation trting lne trting oint inding lne pier hiretion inding oint The extrusion begins at the starting (or reference) plane and stops at the ending plane. and does not vary at any curve position in the fiber direction. The applied nodal force on the starting plane is the total force along the fiber length. and if the starting plane and ending plane remain perpendicular to the fiber direction during deformation.Continuum Stress Elements Figure 4. Inc. rotation angle change. GSGDATA. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The starting and ending planes must be perpendicular to this fiber direction at the beginning and ending intersections. can be represented by the deformation on the starting plane. The geometry in the fiber direction is specified by the rotation about X and Y of the ending plane and the fiber length passing through a point that you specify on the starting plane. The results of the fiber length change. If the boundary conditions and loads in the fiber direction do not change over the course of the curve. Release 14. . 69 .

see SOLID272 . equally spaced around the circumference. However. 70 Release 14.© SAS IP.General Axisymmetric Solid with 4 Base Nodes in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. and the nodes of the quadrilaterals.1.General Axisymmetric Solid with 8 Base Nodes in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. Integration points in the circumferential direction are located on both the nodal and integration planes. . see SOLID272 . For more information. general axisymmetric elements (SOLID272. The sign of the rotation angle or angle change is determined by how the fiber length changes when the coordinates of the ending point change. If the fiber length decreases when the X coordinate of the ending point increases. The same 3-D analysis would incorporate many more degrees of freedom in the fiber direction. and can support any load and deformation mode. The elements can therefore apply to any analysis type. the rotation angle about Y is positive. Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads Axisymmetric problems should be modeled using axisymmetric elements.0 . triangles. loading often varies around the circumference. including geometric nonlinear analyses.1. If loading is also axisymmetric. In Eigenvalue analyses. the rotation angle about X is positive. Two methods are available for handling nonaxisymmetric loading: • • General Axisymmetric Elements -. the generalized plane strain option usually reports fewer Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors than you would obtain in a 3-D analysis.Support any type of material or loading Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements -. and SURF159) introduce the Fourier series into the interpolation functions to describe the change of displacements in the circumferential (θ) direction. 4. and the solution may be slightly different from regular 3-D simulations when any of the three designated degrees of freedom is not restrained. and lines are called base nodes.Restricted to linear materials and sinusoidal loading. generalized plane strain employs only three degrees of freedom to account for these deformations. For more information. SOLID273. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. triangles. Because the mass matrix terms relating to degrees of freedom in the fiber direction are approximated for modal and transient analyses. 4. If the fiber length increases when the Y coordinate of the ending point increases. A nodal plane (copied from the master plane) is a radial plane of Fourier nodes. There are n nodal planes (where KEYOPT(2) = n). All rights reserved. An integration plane is a plane which sits equally between any two adjacent nodal planes.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. . The elements can have any axis as the axisymmetric axis (defined via SECTYPE and SECDATA commands). you cannot use the lumped mass matrix for these types of analyses. An axisymmetric model greatly reduces the modeling and analysis time compared to that of an equivalent 3-D model. Inc.General Axisymmetric Solid with 4 Base Nodes and SOLID273 . Inc. such as Eigen buckling and modal analysis. Because it reports only homogenous deformation in the fiber direction. or lines on the master plane are called base elements. General Axisymmetric Element Terminology The plane on which quadrilaterals or triangles are defined is called the master plane.5.5. You need only define base elements on a flat plane.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis The fiber length change is positive when the fiber length increases. General Axisymmetric Elements Different from harmonic axisymmetric elements. the analysis is relatively straightforward. The quadrilaterals.

The default element coordinate system is a cylindrical coordinate system having the axisymmetric axis as z.0 . resulting in x(r).) where i = r. For more detailed information. The axisymmetric axis must be on the master plane. and the number of Fourier nodes specified via KEYOPT(2). input peak values of loads. are interpolated by ui = hi(s. θ. however. (SOLID272 is a lower-order element and SOLID273 is a higher-order element. as shown: Figure 4. and z from the right-hand coordinate system. and θ = 0 at the master plane. 71 . the origin defined via the SECDATA command. All rights reserved.t)(c1 + a1cosθ + b1sinθ + a2cos2θ + b2sin2θ + a3cos3θ + b3sin3θ . . Release 14. z and hi(s. and the base elements must be on one side of the axis. All generated nodes are equally distributed circumferentially.) The order of Fourier terms is determined by the number of Fourier nodes. and solve for each term as one load step. The right-hand rule determines the direction of θ. θ. A base element or base node must be associated with one axisymmetric axis before issuing the NAXIS command.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. see General Axisymmetric Solids in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.2 General Axisymmetric Elements and Their Coordinate Systems (KEYOPT(2) = 3) The displacements in the r. The nodes can have their own coordinate systems defined in any direction. . Inc. and z directions. you apply all physical loads (forces and displacements) at the nodes and solve the problem only once to obtain the solution. General axisymmetric elements differ from harmonic axisymmetric elements in that you do not specify the symmetric and unsymmetric terms.Continuum Stress Elements The NAXIS command automatically creates a full 3-D finite-element model using the base elements. Instead. .t) is the standard interpolation function for 2-D elements.t) is determined by the element type. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. The order of hi(s. y(θ). the axisymmetric axis. as is the case with the nodes of any other solid element.© SAS IP.

Solve localized deformation problems with a greater number of Fourier nodes (higher-order Fourier terms).. . which you input via the element's KEYOPT(2)... All rights reserved. Generally. unlike the axisymmetric option of 2-D elements such as PLANE182.. b5sin5θ c1. The KEYOPT(2) setting. set KEYOPT(2) > 1. displacements are interpolated using Fourier terms in the circumferential direction (rather than being interpolated piecewise using linear/quadratic functions as in 3-D solid elements). it is more efficient to use the axisymmetric elements. Be aware that the deformation is not as localized as it would be when using standard 3-D solid elements. . a2cos2θ.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis or the number of nodes created in the circumferential direction for one base node (including the base node itself ). the deformation is also axisymmetric but. a1cosθ. a6cos6θ. a4cos4θ..2: Fourier Terms for General Axisymmetric Elements (p.© SAS IP. The greater the number of Fourier nodes. 72). .. a5sin5θ c1. a2cos2θ. a3cos3θ. b2sin2θ c1. a5cos5θ. with general axisymmetric elements. the more accurate the simulation of complicated deformation modes.2 Fourier Terms for General Axisymmetric Elements KEYOPT(2) Value Number of Fourier Nodes (and Nodal Planes) 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fourier Terms Degrees Between Nodal Planes 360 120 90 72 60 51. . a1cosθ.. a1cosθ. a1cosθ. b2sin2θ. a5cos5θ. a1cosθ.. a3cos3θ. 72 Release 14. Inc. This number is also the number of nodal planes in the circumferential direction. If no torsion load exists. b2sin2θ. .. b1sinθ.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . a6sin6θ For KEYOPT(2) = 1. . a2cos2θ. b1sinθ. . b1sinθ c1. a1cosθ. b1sinθ. b1sinθ.73 30 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 c1 c1.43 45 40 36 32. . b3sin3θ c1. and the Fourier terms are shown in Table 4. . . a1cosθ. b1sinθ. a2sin2θ c1. a1cosθ. Inc. . a4sin4θ c1. b1sinθ. the general axisymmetric elements allow torsion. a2cos2θ.. Table 4. b1sinθ. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a4cos4θ. b1sinθ. . a1cosθ. a1cosθ. a3sin3θ c1. each Fourier term has different coefficients except when KEYOPT(2) is an even number (in which case the highest terms of the sine and cosine have the same coefficient). the number of Fourier nodes. b1sinθ. To simulate unsymmetric deformation. b4sin4θ c1.

10. both modeled with 12 Fourier nodes (KEYOPT(2) = 12) and the global Y axis as the axis of symmetry.© SAS IP.6.0 .5.0.list /title.18.5 k.2.6.4.0.0.3.1.2.0. If more than 12 nodes are necessary.0.1 !use type 1 for bolt component mat.1 !generate the master plane nodes and elements for bolt component ! esize.12.5 type.1 secn.5.axis !define general axisymmetric section secd. Inc..1..1.5 k.5 k.0.1.5.4.4.1. The model represents a simple thread connection made of two parts. Generally.8.10 ! k.5 k.0. The maximum allowed number of Fourier nodes is 12.0.1.23.7.4.18.Continuum Stress Elements Contact is usually a local phenomenon.5 k.9.5.5 k.5.5.272.12 a.5 k.1 !use general axisymmetric section amesh.13.0.5.5.2.14. /batch.10 ! a.23.4.7.12 !define general axisymmetric SOLID272 with 12 nodes along circumferential direction et.17.7.4.0.5 k. Inc.0. 4.11.0.15.5 k.17.1.3.1. Example: 3-D General Axisymmetric Model The following example input file shows how to use commands and the SOLID272 element to generate a 3-D general axisymmetric model.7.5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5 k.21.19.nuxy. Sample input for generating general axisymmetric solid elements /prep7 ! et.5.10.0.24.2.5 k.0.1.0 k. a general axisymmetric element may not be computationally efficient.3.14.10 k.8.16.2. therefore.6.12 ! sect.5 k.4.4.0 k.3 ! ! ! Create 2D geometry of thread connection (bolt/nut) ! k.20.ex.0.15. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0.5 k.5.1.1.19. .0.272.0e5 !define elastic material properties mp.4. a bolt and a nut.2.10 k. higher-order Fourier terms are necessary.7.0.5.4.4.4.9.20.0.0.4.24.5.0. it is better to use a standard 3D solid element for such cases.2.13 ! ! !Mesh 2D geometry ! esize.0 k.21.1 !use different mesh Release 14.4.4.3.4.7.5 k.2 !use pattern 2 with global cartesian coordinate system (0)and y as axis of symmetry (2) ! mp. All rights reserved.22.0.8.16. 73 .1.1.0 k.0.0.0.8.22.6.11.5 k.5 k.

s.1 !numbering shown with colors only eplot !visualise the 2D model ! ! !Generate full 3D axisymmetric model of bolt and nut using 12 planes ! naxis ! /view.all ! eplot !display full 3D axisymmetric model of bolt and nut ! fini The input listing generates the following 2-D and 3-D meshes: 74 Release 14.s.0 .. . .1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.1. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.© SAS IP.1 !use general axisymmetric section amesh.1 !display elements with general axisymmetric shape ! esel.1 !display element type numbers /NUMBER.type.1 !display 3D axisymmetric model of bolt eplot ! esel.1 secn.2 !display 3D axisymmetric model of nut eplot ! esel.1 !isometric view ! nplot !display the 12 nodal planes along circumferential direction ! /eshape.type.2 !use type 2 for nut component mat.TYPE.1.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis type.2 !generate the master plane nodes and elements for nut component ! /PNUM..

Inc.Continuum Stress Elements The general axisymmetric elements representing the bolt and nut are shown separately in the figures below: Release 14.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . All rights reserved. 75 . Inc.© SAS IP.

2. SHELL61. convection areas. Unless otherwise stated. All nodes along the y-axis centerline (at x = 0.Y) finite-element model. All rights reserved. magnetic fluxes. recommends general axisymmetric elements SOLID272 and SOLID273 for such applications because they can accept any type of load and can support nonlinear analyses.1. electric charges. and one node with a positive X coordinate must also have a specified or constrained 76 Release 14.0 plane. Further.0 on the centerline. Axisymmetric elements are modeled on a 360° basis. unless a pinhole effect is desired. The forces (FX. PLANE75. Hence.) for the structural elements are input and output in the nodal coordinate system. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. PLANE78.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis 4. etc. is available only for a few element types. Inc.0) should have the radial displacements (UX if not rotated) specified as zero. and damping coefficients must also be input in on a 360° basis. Inc. The boundary conditions are described in terms of the structural elements. moments. thermal capacitances. Similarly.) and displacements (UX. FLUID81. you can also use a special class of axisymmetric elements called harmonic elements: PLANE25. input real constants representing volumes. fluid flows. heat generations. . and magnetic current segments must be input in this manner. Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements An axisymmetric structure can be represented by a plane (X.5. If an element type allows torsion. . all UZ degrees of freedom should be set to 0. UY. forces. spring constants.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the radial direction is in the +X direction. the model is developed only in the +X quadrants. while axisymmetric. so all input and output nodal heat flows. At least one value of UY should be specified or constrained to prevent rigid body motions. However. Torsion. FY. current flows. Inc. ANSYS. and PLANE83. the model must be defined in the Z = 0.© SAS IP.0 . etc. The harmonic elements allow a nonaxisymmetric load and support linear analyses. The global Cartesian Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of symmetry.

4. etc. regardless of the current value of MODE.5.© SAS IP. The harmonic axisymmetric elements allow nonaxisymmetric loads.e. In addition.0 .) for the structural elements are input and output in the nodal coordinate system.. nonharmonic elements. θ is the circumferential coordinate implied in the model. Input values for temperature. Pressures and temperatures may be applied directly. a superelement generated with particular MODE and ISYM values must have the same values in the "use" pass. The symmetry condition is determined from the ISYM value also input on the MODE command.The following cases are provided to aid the user in obtaining a physical understanding of the MODE parameter and the symmetric (ISYM=1) and antisymmetric (ISYM=-1) loading conditions. pressures. The loading cases are described in terms of the structural elements. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.).Continuum Stress Elements value of UZ. etc. All rights reserved. the load is defined as a series of harmonic functions (Fourier series). Y) finite-element model.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Repeat for each set of results. UY. Inc. Loading Cases . Caution should be used if the harmonic elements are mixed with other.1. 101) and in the appropriate sections of the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference should be reviewed to see which deformation shape corresponds to the symmetry conditions. see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. displacement. The element matrices for harmonic elements are dependent upon the number of harmonic waves (MODE) and the symmetry condition (ISYM). For stress stiffened (prestressed) structures. Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads An axisymmetric structure (defined with the axial direction along the global Y axis and the radial direction parallel to the global X axis) can be represented by a plane (X. Inc. forces. is input with the MODE command. is usually input only about the Y axis. a load F is given by: F(θ) = A0 + A1 cos θ + B1 sin θ + A2 cos 2 θ + B2 sin 2 θ + A3 cos 3 θ + B3 sin 3 θ + . the number of harmonic waves ( ℓ ). Similarly. The use of an axisymmetric model greatly reduces the modeling and analysis time compared to that of an equivalent 3-D model. Acceleration. is usually input only in the axial (Y) direction. displacements. if any.2. A load case may be defined with LCWRITE. For more information.) and displacements (UX. Results of the analysis are written to the results file. PLANE78. such as large deflection and/or contact analyses. FLUID81.. 77 . The number of harmonic waves.. The harmonic elements should not be used in nonlinear analyses.1. . it is assumed that the nodal coordinate system is parallel to the global Cartesian Release 14. The load coefficient is determined from the standard boundary condition input (i. In all cases illustrated. and pressure should be the peak value. if any. only the stress state of the most recent previous MODE = 0 load case is used. SHELL61. and the symmetry condition (cos ℓ θ or sin ℓ θ). PLANE75. For this reason. etc. angular velocity. Note that ℓ = 0 represents the axisymmetric term (A0). The forces (FX. then combine or scale the load cases as desired with LCOPER. The results may be scaled and summed at various circumferential (θ) locations with POST1. Stress (and temperature) contour displays and distorted shape displays of the combined results can also be made. or the mode number. The input value for force and heat flow should be a number equal to the peak value per unit length times the circumference. A term is defined by the load coefficient (A ℓ or B ℓ ). For these elements (PLANE25. and PLANE83) . neither the element matrices nor the triangularized matrix is reused in succeeding substeps if the MODE and ISYM parameters are changed. The description of the element given in Element Library (p. The deflections and stresses are output at the peak value of the sinusoidal function. 77). This may be done by storing results data at the desired θ location using the ANGLE argument of the SET command. For example. FY. Each term of the above series must be defined as a separate load step.

All functions are based on sin θ or cos θ. Figure 4. Similarly. where Tpeak is the input element or nodal temperature. Case B: (MODE = 1. Pressures and temperatures are applied directly as their peak values at θ = 0°.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The input and output values of UX. positive X coordinate must have a specified or constrained value of UZ if applicable. Case A: (MODE = 0. etc. Gravity (g) acting in Release 14. The harmonic thermal elements (PLANE75 and PLANE78) are treated the same as PLANE25 and PLANE83. UZ. The total applied moment (M) due to a tangential input force (FZ) acting about the global axis is: = ∫# = ∫3 $π ¦§¨© © !¦v© ©" !¦©" 4π ( −% ) 2π& 0 1 (& 0 1 (&' θ0 = −& 1 % where FZ is on a full 360° basis. Nodes at the centerline (X = 0. FX.0) should have UX and UZ (and ROTZ. . with the following substitutions: UY to TEMP.An example of this case is the bending of a pipe. one node with a nonzero.This is the case of axisymmetric loading except that torsional effects are included. The thermal load vector is computed from Tpeak.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis coordinate system. Inc. angular velocity. if any. Figure 4. Figure 4. respectively. 78 . ISYM=1) . represent the peak values of the displacements or forces. At least one value of UY should be specified or constrained to prevent rigid body motions.© SAS IP.3 (p.. Pressures and temperatures may be applied directly. Inc. FX. When Case A defines the stress state used in stress stiffened analyses.3 Axisymmetric Radial. is usually input only about the Y axis. FZ and MZ are all ignored for thermal elements. 79) shows the corresponding forces or displacements on a nodal circle. Acceleration. ROTZ. The effects of UX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. FX and FY (and ROTZ and MZ for SHELL61) occur at θ = 0°. Torsion and Moment Loadings The total force (F) acting in the axial direction due to an axial input force (FY) is: = ∫H = ∫¤ Pπ @fore per unit lengthAB@inrement lengthA ¥π p G £π ¡ ¢ dθ¡ = p where FY is on a full 360° basis. Calculated reaction forces are also on a full 360° basis and the above expressions may be used to find the total force. 78) shows the various axisymmetric loadings.0 . whereas the peak values of UZ and FZ occur at θ = 90°. Axial. The reference temperature for thermal strain calculations (TREF) is internally set to zero in the thermal strain calculation for the harmonic elements if MODE > 0. and FY to HEAT. if any. is usually input only in the axial (Y) direction. torsional stress is not allowed. UY. Also. The peak values of UX. The loading description may be extended to any number of modes.4 (p. for SHELL61) specified as zero. ISYM not used) . unless a pinhole effect is desired.

© SAS IP.0) for the same net effect. Inc. 79 . Calculated reaction forces are also the peak values on a full 360° basis and the above expression may be used to find the total force. whereas the peak values of σ yz and σ xz occur at 90 °. All rights reserved.5 (p. equal magnitudes of UX and UZ (or FX and FZ) may be combined as shown in Figure 4.4 Bending and Shear Loading (ISYM = 1) The total applied force in the global X direction (F) due to both an input radial force (FX) and a tangential force (FZ) is: = ∫H Pπ @fore per unit lengthAB@diretionl osineAB@inrement lengthA = ∫§ = ¨π p ¡¢£ θ¤ G ¦π ¤ ¥ θ + θ π − θ θ − where FX and FZ are the peak forces on a full 360° basis.Continuum Stress Elements the global X direction should be input (ACEL) as ACELX = g. The peak values of σx. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Release 14.0. An applied moment (M) due to an axial input force (FY) for this case can be computed as follows: = ∫' (π © !"#$© v %&#$©& !"# = ∫) 0π θ π θ θ = An additional applied moment (M) is generated based on the input moment (MZ): = ∫W Xπ 123456 764 89CD E69FDIQR1SC465DC39TE 53UC96QR1C9546V69D E69FDIQ =∫ π θ θ θ = If it is desired to impose a uniform lateral displacement (or force) on the cross section of a cylindrical structure in the global X direction.0 . These net forces are independent of radius so that they may be applied at any radius (including X = 0. σz and σ xy occur at θ = 0° . ACELY = 0. and ACELZ = -g.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. σ y. . 80). Figure 4.

ROTZ should be related to UY by means of constraint equations at the loaded nodes.© SAS IP. If it is necessary to have the nodal circle moving in a rigid manner. FLUID81. the nodal circle moves in an uniform manner. of the same magnitude. Figure 4.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis Figure 4. at least one value of UX or UZ. ISYM = -1) .7 Displacement and Force Loading Associated with MODE = 2 and ISYM = 1 80 Release 14. . In practice. a uniform load is applied about the circumference. however. in general. ISYM = 1) . Node points on the centerline (X = 0. it can be done via constraint equations (CE) so that UX = -UZ. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. When FX and FZ are input in this manner.0 . Also.6 Bending and Shear Loading ( ISYM = -1) The same description applying to Case B applies also to Case C. 80).6 (p. Inc. . Further. as well as one value of UY (not at the centerline). For SHELL61. but the resulting UX and UZ are not. which may be enforced with constraint equations. or ROTZ.0) should have UY specified as zero.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All functions are based on sin 2 θ and cos 2 θ. Case D: (MODE = 2. Figure 4.The displacement and force loadings associated with this case are shown in Figure 4. since this element has no static shear stiffness. if plane sections (Y = constant) are to remain plane. and the direction cosine are changed to positive signs.This case (shown in Figure 4. the location of the peak values of various quantities are switched between the 0° and 90° locations. 80)) represents a pipe bending in a direction 90° to that described in Case B. All rights reserved.7 (p. Case C: (MODE = 1. except that the negative signs on UZ. To prevent rigid body motions. Inc. UX must equal -UZ at all points along the centerline. it seems necessary to do this only for the harmonic fluid element. should be specified or constrained in some manner.5 Uniform Lateral Loadings When UX and UZ are input in this manner. FZ.

With the exception of SHELL61. but not necessarily normal.© SAS IP. The following additional topics concerning shell elements are available: 4.2. important for relatively thick shells. As a result. Shell Shear and Warping 4. and associating them with section data to represent shell thickness and properties.2. Various shell element types tolerate a different degree of warping before their results become questionable (as described in Warping Factor in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference). Inc. Eight-node shell elements can accept a much greater degree of warping. Shell Element Nodes 4. For accurate stresses in this area. Shell Element Coordinate System 4. allowing for a simple and efficient simulation of a thin structure. do not expect the in-plane rotational stiffness to carry a load. 4. as such an element may be part of a fine mesh of a larger model that acts as a shell. Four-node shell elements that do not have all of their nodes in the same plane are considered to be warped.1. Shell elements are usually created by meshing a surface representing the position and shape of the structure. Normals to the shell middle surface stay straight. all shell elements allow shear deformation. stresses do not vary through the thickness).2. consider using submodeling. If the structure acts as a shell. with its orientation determined by one of the following: Release 14.2. The element x-axis is in the plane. their midside nodes cannot be dropped. Additional cases can be defined. Shell Shear and Warping The only shear on the free surfaces of a shell element is in-plane. Shell Elements Use shell elements to model thin structures (where one dimension is much smaller than the other two dimensions). as shell elements do not have a true in-plane rotational stiffness. The program does not verify that the element thickness exceeds its width (or many times its width).2. consequently. the in-plane strain variation through the thickness cannot be more complex than linear.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .2. These elements allow deformation in the plane of the surface only (that is. 81 . Shell Element Coordinate System The element coordinate system for all shell elements has the z-axis normal to the plane. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Shell elements decouple the deformation on the surface and the deformation in the normal direction. The in-plane rotational (drill) stiffness is added at the nodes for solution stability. Inc. The assumption of linear in-plane strain variation through the thickness is invalid at the edges of layered composite shell elements that have different material properties at each layer.Shell Elements Additional Cases: There is no programmed limit to the value of MODE.2. If the initial shape of the model is curved. 4. but unlike other midside-node elements. then the radius/thickness ratio is important because the strain distribution through the thickness departs from linear as the ratio decreases.0 .2. Some shell elements have an option allowing them to be used as membrane elements. you can use shell elements. No firm rules exist to indicate when it is best to use shell elements.3.1.

For curved elements.2. For link elements. Shell Element Nodes Nodes are normally located on the center plane of the element. 4. Beam elements assume the direct stresses in the nonaxial direction to be zero. If bending resistance is negligible. and deformation are also ignored. Inc. Typically. Use node offsets with care when modeling initially curved structures with either flat or curved elements. 82 Release 14.0 . and ignore the deformations in the nonaxial directions (although cross sections can be scaled in a nonlinear analysis). or both are normally different in the y and z directions.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis • • • The ESYS command Side I-J of the element Real constants 4.3. element loads. a 3-D spar (or truss). . Although beams can be used in cases where link/truss elements suffice. All rights reserved. Pipe Elements Use pipe elements to represent straight. Simulating beam/truss structures is relatively simple. a beam element must be oriented about its own axis.© SAS IP. an increased mesh density in the circumferential direction may improve the results. Beam and Link (Truss) Elements Use beam or link (truss) elements to represent relatively long. slender to moderately stubby/thick pipe structures. thin pieces of structural continua (where two dimensions are much smaller than the other dimension). The available beam element types are: • • BEAM188. 4.3. they are not as computationally efficient as link elements. stress gradients. . a 3-D three-node beam Both elements are based on Timoshenko beam theory which includes shear-deformation effects. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The elements are associated with section data to represent the beam or truss cross sections. as elements can be created by meshing lines or curves representing the position and shape of the structure (rather than by meshing the volumes). Inc. as their cross-section data includes interior fluid and outside insulation.4. a node not lying on its own axis. Because bending resistances.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. consider using LINK180. the orientation is accomplished via an orientation node. You can offset nodes from the center plane using one of the following methods: • • The SECOFFSET command A rigid link (MPC184) that connects a middle surface node to an out-of-plane node. a 3-D two-node beam BEAM189. The elements are especially useful in the offshore drilling industry. The elements can account for unrestrained warping and restrained warping of cross-sections. shear stress.

5. a 3-D three-node pipe Both elements are based on Timoshenko beam theory which includes shear-deformation effects. see the documentation for the reinforcing elements (REINFnnn).5. and orientation. however: • A pipe cross-section is normally axisymmetric so that the bending resistance is the same in both directions. spacing.5.5. Element orientation (via an orientation node) is still necessary. Each layer of fibers is simplified as a homogenous membrane having unidirectional stiffness. pipe elements are created by meshing lines or curves. A pipe differs from a beam in the following ways. Discrete Reinforcing 4. The element can account for cross-sectional distortion.Reinforcing Elements A pipe element is a special form of beam element. Inc. 83 . 4. Inc. • • A pipe can account for both internal and external pressures. Fibers in the same layer must have uniform cross-section. spacing. however. 4. a special 3-D three-node pipe used for modeling curved pipes. Smeared Reinforcing The smeared reinforcing method is suitable for modeling clusters of reinforcing fibers appearing in layer or sheet form.1. 4. A pipe element has support for many nonlinear material models.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5. The available pipe element types are: • • PIPE288. This method is suitable for modeling sparsely placed fibers. such as cross-section area. The smeared reinforcing elements are: Release 14. Smeared Reinforcing For further information. All rights reserved. and orientation.1. or fibers with nonuniform properties. Multiple reinforcing fibers are allowed in a single element. As with beams. Discrete Reinforcing The discrete reinforcing method allows reinforcing fibers to be accounted for individually. Two methods are supported for modeling reinforcing cables or fibers: 4.2. and the elements must be associated with section data. The discrete reinforcing element REINF264 is used to add individual fibers to 3-D link. Reinforcing Elements Reinforced materials are used extensively in civil engineering construction and composite structures. material. beam.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. shell and solid elements.© SAS IP. Also available is ELBOW290. Use reinforcing elements to model reinforcement in either of two forms: cable (such as steel rebar in reinforced concrete) or fiber (such as the carbon fiber in fiber-reinforced composites). material.2. a 3-D two-node pipe PIPE289. . as the element loads can differ in the y and z directions.

an element might offer two to four technologies. Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations With the variety of technologies available in many elements. choosing the best settings to solve your problem efficiently can be challenging. and the associated constitutive models of the element type. The program can offer suggestions (or reset the technology settings) to help you achieve the best solution via the ETCONTROL command. Surface Elements As its name implies. and axisymmetric shell elements. plane strain.49 Linear elastic materials with Poisson's ratio > 0.7.6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The materials associated with each element type are detected at the solution stage and are classified as: • Elastoplastic materials. Particularly in the newer structural and solid elements for stress analysis.© SAS IP.49 Anisotropic materials Elastoplastic materials (other nonlinear materials except hyperelastic materials) Nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials Fully incompressible hyperelastic materials Hyperelastic materials. .0 . All rights reserved. a surface element (SURFnnn) is normally attached to the surface of a solid element.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis • • REINF263 -. including: 84 Release 14. The command helps you to select the appropriate element technologies by considering the stress state.Used with 3-D solid and shell elements. . 4.Used with 2-D solids such as plane stress. Inc. 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. you can include a number of specialized surface effects without having to apply them individually to the solid elements in your model. Examples of surface effects include: • • • • • • • • Hydrostatic pressure Ocean loading Directed pressure Radiation Surface mass Thermal connection with FLUID116 Surface tension Foundation stiffness Not all effects are available with all surface elements. including: – – – – • – – Linear elastic materials with Poisson's ratio <= 0. ETCONTROL supports all applicable current-technology elements. Inc. By using a surface element. axisymmetric and generalized plane strain. REINF265 -. the options set on the element type.

86)] KEYOPT(2) = 2 PIPE289 1. 86)] KEYOPT(4) = 1 KEYOPT(15) = 1[2 (p.0 . with the bottom ones more difficult to solve numerically.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. one element type could be associated with more than one constitutive model.) No change. The list of constitutive models above is organized in order of complexity. Only when the element section is not circular. When an element type is associated with multiple constitutive models. otherwise.3 Recommendation Criteria for Element Technology (Linear Material) Linear Materials Only Element Stress State / Option Default Membrane-only option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) SOLID272 SOLID273 SOLID285 PLANE182 PLANE183 SOLID185 SOLID186 SOLID187 BEAM188 BEAM189 SHELL208 SHELL209 SHELL281 PIPE288 Plane stress Not plane stress Plane stress Not plane stress Poisson's ratio (ν) <= 0. (Default element settings are best. which need more complicated element technology. KEYOPT(1) = 0 Release 14. KEYOPT(3) = 0. otherwise.) No change. otherwise. KEYOPT(3) = 0.49 (or anisotropic materials) SHELL181 KEYOPT(3) = 2 for higher accuracy of membrane stress. the more complex one is used in the automatic selection of the element technology. (Default element settings are best. 86)] KEYOPT(4) = 2 KEYOPT(15) = 1[2 (p.© SAS IP. . When using ETCONTROL.) KEYOPT(3) = 2. Inc. (Default element settings are best. Inc. All rights reserved.) KEYOPT(3) = 2 KEYOPT(4) = 2 KEYOPT(15) = 1[2 (p.) KEYOPT(1) = 2 KEYOPT(1) = 3 KEYOPT(1) = 2 No change. 86)] KEYOPT(3) = 2 KEYOPT(4) = 1 KEYOPT(15) = 1[2 (p. (Default element settings are best. 85 . For this case. the suggestions/resettings are based on elastoplastic materials. KEYOPT(8) = 2 for all cases KEYOPT(3) = 2 for higher accuracy of stress.Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations In practical application.49 Poisson's ratio (ν) > 0. KEYOPT(8) = 0 for all cases KEYOPT(6) = 0 KEYOPT(6) = 1 No change. KEYOPT(1) = 1[1] KEYOPT(1) = 1[1] KEYOPT(8) = 2 KEYOPT(8) = 2 No change. linear elastic and elastoplastic materials. for example. (Default element settings are best. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the suggestions given or settings changed are described in the tables below. (Default element settings are best.) KEYOPT(2) = 3 KEYOPT(2) = 0 No change. Table 4.

otherwise KEYOPT(1) = 0. KEYOPT(8) = 0 higher accuracy of membrane stress. (Default element settings are best. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. otherwise. Only when the element cross section is composite.© SAS IP.)[1] No change.)[1] KEYOPT(6) = 1 No change. (Default element settings are best.4 Recommendation Criteria for Element Technology (Nonlinear Materials) Nonlinear Materials Element Stress State / Option Elastoplastic mater.) no change (default element settings are best)[1] KEYOPT(2) = 2[1] KEYOPT(2) = 0[1] No change. Only when the element section is not circular. KEYOPT(3) = 0.Hyperelastic materials only ials (may also have hyperelastic materials) KEYOPT(3) = 2 for KEYOPT(3) = 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KEYOPT(1) = 1[2] KEYOPT(1) = 1[2] KEYOPT(8) = 2 KEYOPT(8) = 2 KEYOPT(8) = 0 KEYOPT(8) = 0 KEYOPT(2) = 0[1] No change. otherwise. Inc. ANSYS.) KEYOPT(3) = 2. 2. 87)] KEYOPT(4) = 2 KEYOPT(15) = 1[3 (p. . KEYOPT(15) = 0 Table 4. (Default element settings are best. then KEYOPT(6) = 1 is required. otherwise. If even one of your hyperelastic materials is fully incompressible.) KEYOPT(3) = 2 KEYOPT(4) = 2 KEYOPT(15) = 1[3 (p.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis 2. Release 14.0 . KEYOPT(8) = 2 for all cases KEYOPT(3) = 2 for higher accuracy of stress. 87)] PIPE289 1. KEYOPT(8) = 0 for all cases KEYOPT(1) = 2 KEYOPT(1) = 2[1] KEYOPT(3) = 0. (Default element settings are best. All rights reserved. Therefore. KEYOPT(8) = 0 SHELL181 Default Membrane-only option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) PLANE182 PLANE183 SOLID185 SOLID186 SOLID187 SOLID272 SOLID273 SOLID285 BEAM188 BEAM189 SHELL208 SHELL209 SHELL281 PIPE288 Plane stress Not plane stress Plane stress Not plane stress KEYOPT(1) = 0 KEYOPT(1) = 0[1] No change. recommends using a different element type for such materials to avoid using the more costly mixed u-P formulation where it is not needed. KEYOPT(3) = 0. 86 . (Default element settings are best. Inc.

Elements Under Linear Perturbation Most current-technology elements support linear perturbation analysis. The suggestions are available in output. SOLID186.5 Elements Supporting Linear Perturbation Analysis Category Spars Beams Pipes 2-D Solids 3-D Solids Shells Solid-Shell Interface LINK180 BEAM188. the setting for KEYOPT(3) depends on your problem and your purpose if the element type is associated with any non-hyperelastic materials. SHELL281 SOLSH190 INTER192. SHELL208.SET.. 4. known as the base (or prior) analysis. For SHELL181. SOLID187. SHELL209.. is issued. KEYOPT(1) is always suggested for non-circular cross section beams and should be reset when ETCONTROL. The following elements can be used in a linear perturbation analysis as well as any downstream analyses: Table 4. the program cannot reset it automatically. ETCONTROL provides suggestions or resets the KEYOPTs for the element technology settings (i. KEYOPT(2) for SOLID185 and SOLID186).. but it displays a message with the recommended setting (even if you used ETCONTROL. Element Name(s) 87 . the KEYOPT setting changes the number of degrees of freedom at each node. and SOLID227. so it must be set before you issue any D. Because the ETCONTROL reset is done at the beginning of the solution stage. and similar commands. the element behaviors are based on the properties and behavior of the base analysis. BEAM189 PIPE288. but are different from the base analysis. Only when the element cross section is composite..e. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All nonlinear stress/strain data should be input as true-stress/true-(logarithmic-) strain.8. If an element type is defined but not associated with any material. The stress states and options are mentioned only when they affect the suggestions or settings.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PLANE183 SOLID185.© SAS IP. . KEYOPT(1) for PLANE182. DA. INTER193. KEYOPT(15) = 0 For the solid elements listed above. the true-stress/true-strain data and engineering-stress/engineering-strain data are essentially identical.). when fully incompressible hyperelastic materials are associated with non-plane stress states. Inc. For small strains. However. but the change does not occur automatically. see the individual element descriptions in the Element Reference for information on ETCONTROL suggestions/resettings. SOLID285 SHELL181. The Mixed u-P formulation KEYOPT(6) is reset when necessary. In this case. SOLID226. For BEAM188 and BEAM189. For the coupled-field elements PLANE223.Elements Under Linear Perturbation 3. all output data is also indicated as true-stress/true-strain. a message appears indicating stating that you should change KEYOPT(1) to 1. Inc. DK.0 . otherwise.. All rights reserved. INTER195 Release 14. Because linear perturbation is based on a solution at a particular time from a linear or nonlinear analysis. Accordingly. INTER194. that is. You should reset this manually if the defined criteria matches your problem. no suggestions or resets are done for that element type.SET. PIPE289 PLANE182.

however. all of the nonlinear effects are taken into consideration and “frozen” so that the loading and deformation is linear. SURF156.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis Category Contact Specialty Element Name(s) TARGE169. Specifying Material Behavior in Linear Perturbation Any nonlinear material must behave linearly in the linear perturbation analysis.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The linear perturbation analysis can be understood as an iteration in the nonlinear base analysis. MESH200. CONTA178 COMBIN14. SURF153.8. In the linear perturbation analysis. Linear Materials For pure linear elastic materials used in the base analysis. that they could be identical or very similar if a. • For most materials. FOLLW201. CONTA174. the program uses the consistent tangent on the material constitutive curve for the linear perturbation. the parts defined via MP commands) for the linear perturbation. CONTA171. Material Properties of Structural Elements in Linear Perturbation The base analysis of the linear perturbation can be a nonlinear analysis with nonlinear materials. Hyperelastic Materials For hyperelastic materials used in the base analysis. CONTA177. The material-handling key (MatKey) specified via the PERTURB command is ignored. The material-handling key (MatKey) specified via the PERTURB command is ignored.1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the material properties are assumed to be linear elastic. CONTA176. It is possible. If the tangent option (MatKey = TANGENT) is in effect. 4. HSFLD242 4. the tangent option gives different material properties than those given by the automatic option. the same material properties used in the linear perturbation are also used in the stress-expansion pass and in all subsequent downstream analyses.© SAS IP. CONTA175. Inc. HSFLD241. For all materials. All rights reserved. MASS21. Because the material constitutive curve is a line. COMBI214. Nonlinear Materials Other Than Hyperelastic Materials For any nonlinear materials other than hyperelastic materials used in the base analysis. SURF154. MPC184. The program obtains the consistent tangent at the point where restart or linear perturbation occurs.8.1. 88 . geometric nonlinearity. The nonlinear effects are also carried to the stress expansion pass and the following downstream analysis. Inc. The program obtains the material property data (material Jacobian) based on the tangent of the hyperelastic material's constitutive law at the point where restart or linear perturbation occurs. or contact elements included in the model. CONTA173. large rotation. the tangent is the same as the line.) the material Release 14. the program uses the linear portion of the nonlinear materials (that is. CONTA172. if any. the same properties are used in the linear perturbation. . as follows: • If the default automatic material-handling behavior (MatKey = AUTO) is in effect. TARGE170.0 . In the linear perturbation analysis. The program determines the material properties based on the material-handling key (MatKey) specified via the PERTURB command.1. This includes large deformation. the material properties are assumed to be linear elastic. the geometric nonlinearity at the substep where linear perturbation is initiated is completely inherited in ¡¢ of Equation 17–198 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. PRETS179. if any. MATRIX27. and contact effects.

all the output quantities of the linear perturbation analysis are reported consistently in global. Therefore. the reported strain energy (for example.. The one exception is that hydrostatic pressure is the value from the linear perturbation analysis instead of from the base analysis. PLESOL. No element can be activated or deactivated using the birth and death feature during the second phase of a linear perturbation analysis. PRESOL.8.© SAS IP. depending on the material properties and loading conditions. Thus. Release 14.) are also available. This is only applicable to linear perturbation eigenvalue buckling analysis. local. and with linear elastic material properties for any material other than hyperelastic materials. stress state ratio.0 . the Euler angles or the geometric nonlinear effects of the base analysis are available in the results file.EPTO). Interpretation of Structural Element Results After a Linear Perturbation Analysis After a linear perturbation analysis. For a linear perturbation eigenvalue buckling analysis. however.3. For plane stress cases. As discussed above. the reported stress. swelling strains. the stress and elastic strain are the values due to the mode shapes. The nonlinear solution quantities such as equivalent stress. Initial Conditions.. Because a linear perturbation analysis can be understood as an extra iteration of a base analysis. the strain after the linear perturbation analysis is the elastic strain due to the linear perturbation analysis. and Other Limitations in Linear Perturbation The following restrictions apply to linear perturbation analysis: • • Perturbation loads cannot be non-mechanical loading. this is allowed in the first phase of linear perturbation. However. Temperatures saved in the linear perturbation results (Jobname. or b. These loads cannot be modified or deleted during the linear perturbation analysis.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the effects of any geometric nonlinearity are taken into consideration in the stress expansion. and plastic state variable (for example. as the perturbation load). 4.. The total strain is the sum of all strains (for example.NL. except for the elastic energy density which is energy density calculated in the linear perturbation analysis.) are inherited from the base analysis. For hyperelastic materials. and contact results from the base analysis are available in the results data of the linear perturbation analysis. and the total strain is the same as the elastic strain.. PLESOL. for example. as in the base analysis. any plastic strains. . Inc.) the material is rate-dependent. and thermal strains are the values due to the linear perturbation analysis.Elements Under Linear Perturbation is elasto-plastic rate-independent and is unloading (or has neutral loading) at the restart point. Inc.2.rstp) are the temperatures which have been modified during the second phase of the linear perturbation procedure (that is. all history-dependent results of the base analysis are inherited in the results of the linear perturbation analysis. elastic strain. the reference temperature is the temperature from which the linear perturbation analysis is restarted (and not the reference temperature [TREF] from the base analysis). and rotated local coordinate systems. The energy densities (for example.. In a linear perturbation buckling analysis. the direct strain in the Z direction is calculated with the incompressible condition for hyperelastic materials. a thermal load can be modified by specifying a new temperature in the second phase of the linear perturbation procedure. 4.SEND. Loads. such as initial conditions (INISTATE command) or swelling effects.. If the base analysis includes geometric nonlinearity. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.SENE) includes the elastic part due to linear perturbation and others inherited from the base analysis (if any). for linear perturbation modal analysis. • 89 . PLNSOL.8. creep strains. All rights reserved.

.© SAS IP. Inc. All rights reserved. 90 Release 14. Inc.Chapter 4: Elements for Stress Analysis • Linear perturbation analyses do not support user-defined materials (user subroutine UserMat).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .0 .

Coupled-Field Element Classifications 5. Selecting Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis For more information. The program handles coupling between the physics by calculating the necessary element matrices or element load vectors. temperature-dependent material properties. and multiphysics contact. and highly nonlinear coupled-field analyses that include material and geometric nonlinearities. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1.2.Chapter 5: Elements for Multiphysics Analysis Many elements are available for creating models for analyses that involve various physics and that are not strictly structural in nature.1. Coupled-field elements are recommended for strongly coupled physics such as piezoelectric. 91 . the multiple physics are solved simultaneously (in a single analysis with a single mesh and model).3.1.2.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Elements for Acoustic Analysis 5.4. Inc. thermoelectric. Inc. .1. Coupled-Field Element Classifications The following types of coupled-field elements are available: • Continuum Elements – – – – – – • • General purpose coupled-field elements Coupled pore-pressure mechanical elements Thermal-electric link and shell elements Magneto-structural element Electromagnetic elements Fluid elements Reduced-Order Elements Contact Elements Release 14. The following additional topics are available: 5.1. Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis 5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A coupled-field element has all necessary degrees of freedom necessary for solving a coupled-field problem.1. When a coupledfield element is used. The following related topics are available: 5.1. Elements for Thermal Analysis 5. electromagnetic. Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis Coupled-field elements are available for combining various types of physics. see the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.0 . Elements for Electric and Magnetic Analysis 5. 5.

Inc. .2. Selecting Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis Continuum Elements General Purpose CoupledField PLANE223 -. UY. UZ.1. MAG Coupled Pore-Pressure Mechanical CPT212 --Lower-order quadrilateral CPT213 -. AZ SOLID98 -.Chapter 5: Elements for Multiphysics Analysis 5. VOLT.Lower-order hexahedral UX.Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID226 -.Lower-order line SHELL157 -. TEMP. UY.Lower-order shell Magneto-Structural Degrees of Freedom UX. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Higher-order hexahedral CPT217 -.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Higher-order tetrahedral Degrees of Freedom UX. VOLT. VOLT.Lower-order hexahedral CPT216 -.Higher-order hexahedral SOLID227 -. TEMP. TEMP. PRES UX. CONC UX. Inc. All rights reserved.© SAS IP.Lower-order quadrilateral UX. PRES Degrees of Freedom TEMP. VOLT. TEMP. UY. UZ. CONC Coupled-Physics Capabilities Structural-thermal Piezoresistive Electroelastic Piezoelectric Thermal-electric Structural-thermo-electric Thermo-piezoelectric Thermo-diffusion Structural-diffusion Structural-thermo-diffusion Structural-thermo-electro-magnetic Thermo-electro-magnetic Piezoelectric Structural-thermo-electro-magnetic Piezoelectric Electromagnetic Structural-thermo-electro-magnetic Thermo-electro-magnetic Piezoelectric Coupled-Physics Capabilities Pore-pressure SOLID5 -. VOLT.Higher-order tetrahedral UX. UY. UY. UZ.Higher-order tetrahedral Thermal-Electric LINK68 -. MAG PLANE13 -. UY. TEMP. UZ.Higher-order quadrilateral CPT215 -. UY. VOLT Coupled-Physics Capabilities Thermal-electric Degrees of Freedom Coupled-Physics Capabilities 92 Release 14.0 .

UX Contact Elements UX. 93 . AZ.Lower-order hexahedral FLUID116 -. VOLT UX (UY.Lower-order quadrilateral [1 (p. Inc.Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis Continuum Elements SOLID62 -. VOLT.Reduced-order electrostatic-structural CONTA171 -.0 . All rights reserved. UZ).Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID236 -. UY. UZ. CURR.Lower-order hexahedral Fluid FLUID29 -. UY.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. UZ.Low-order and high-order quadrilateral FLUID220 -.Lower-order hexahedral Electromagnetic PLANE233 -.Edge-based mixed-order tetrahedral PLANE53 -. PRES UX. VOLT Structural-thermal Structural-thermo-electric Thermal-electric Structural-electric Reduced-order electrostaticstructural AZ. UZ.3-D lower-order surface-to-surface contact UX. VOLT.Electromechanical transducer ROM144 -. PRES Thermal-fluid Squeeze film fluid-structure interaction Acoustic fluid-structure interaction Electromagnetic Stranded coil Circuit-coupled stranded coil Circuit-coupled electromagnetic Coupled-Physics Capabilities Acoustic fluid-structure interaction UX. PRES PRES. UY. UY. EMF Structural-electromagnetic Coupled-Physics Capabilities Electromagnetic Stranded coil Release 14. . UZ. Inc. VOLT Degrees of Freedom AZ. TEMP.Edge-based mixed-order hexahedral SOLID237 -. 94)] FLUID136 -.© SAS IP. VOLT EMF. 94)] FLUID221 -. UY. AZ. TEMP UX.2-D lower-order surface-to-surface contact CONTA172 -. VOLT. UY.Lower-order pipe [2 (p.2-D higherorder surface-to-surface contact CONTA173 -. VOLT. AY.Higher-order hexahedral [1 (p. 94)] FLUID30 -.Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID97 -. TEMP. UZ. EMF Degrees of Freedom UX. CURR. UY.Higher-order tetrahedral [1 (p. AY. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. AX. EMF AX. PRES UX. 94)] Reduced-Order Elements TRANS126 -.

Thermal Elements for the Structural Region Typically. see the Thermal Analysis Guide.Chapter 5: Elements for Multiphysics Analysis Continuum Elements CONTA174 -.Thermal Control Element 5. Inc. VOLT Use the following table to select coupled-field elements: 1.Thermal Elements for the Structural Region 5.Higher-order tetrahedral-only thermal solid SOLID90 -.2.2. See Elements for Acoustic Analysis (p. The 0-D element can be used to represent a lumped mass (that is.2.1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .2. Elements for Thermal Analysis When performing a thermal analysis. Use the following information to select elements for modeling various regions as well as elements to apply loads: 5.2. All rights reserved. 96) for more information See Elements for Thermal Analysis (p. TEMP.2-D / 3-D node-to-surface contact UX. UY. see Selecting Elements for Your Analysis.Lower-order element that can degenerate SOLID279 -. (UZ). accurate thermal solid that can degenerate 94 Release 14.4. .1. 1-D elements serve to couple these regions.Thermal Loading Elements 5. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Other Elements Useful in a Thermal Analysis A complex thermal model often has a combination of all or most of the element types described.© SAS IP.2. Use the following table to select thermal elements for the structural region: Continuum 3-D Application Modeling homogeneous materials and layered solids / composites Elements SOLID278 -. 5. 2. Inc. the solid region should be meshed with 2-D or 3-D continuum elements. 94) for more information For related information. consider the dimensionality of the problem as well as the loads required.2.Higher-order element that can degenerate Modeling homogeneous materials SOLID70 -. a reducedorder model of a continuum region).2. For more information.3-D higherorder surface-to-surface contact CONTA175 -.Lower-order thermal solid that can degenerate SOLID87 -.Thermal Elements for the Fluid Region 5.0 .Higher-order.5.3. 5.

see Selecting Elements for Your Analysis.3-D thermal surface effect Release 14.2-D thermal surface effect SURF152 -. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1.3. Using Contact Elements to Load Thermal Models 5. PLANE35 -. use FLUID116.© SAS IP.Elements for Thermal Analysis Continuum 2. Although you can apply the loads directly on the continuum elements. or radiation. which are overlaid onto other thermal elements. 2. All rights reserved. the surface loads can consist of convection.0 . For related information. Thermal Elements for the Fluid Region For the 1-D continuum. and radiation (to a point) on solid regions: • • SURF151 -.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.3. The element can be connected to nodes in the structural region.1.2. Thermal Loading Elements Two methods are available for applying loads to thermal elements: 5.2. In most cases. to represent fluid temperature for flow-through pipes/internal channels. . heat flux. it is more convenient to apply them via surfaceeffect elements. a reduced-order coupled thermal-fluid pipe.Uniaxial 3-D conduction bar [2] LINK34 -.2.Triangular thermal solid (compatible with PLANE77) PLANE55 -. Inc.Higher-order thermal solid LINK33 -.3. Inc. Use these surface-effect elements to apply convection. Using Thermal Surface-Loading Elements In a thermal model. use an equivalent structural shell element (such as SHELL281) instead. Using Thermal Surface-Loading Elements 5. contact elements can be used in place of this element. 5.Uniaxial radiation link [2] MASS71 -.3. 5. [1] Elements SHELL131 -.5-D Application Analyzing the in-plane temperature distribution of thin structures such as plates or shells. 95 .2.Uniaxial convection link [2] LINK31 -.3-D lower-order shell with inplane and through-thickness thermal conduction capability SHELL132 -.Thermal solid with 2-D thermal conduction PLANE77 -.Thermal mass point element If the model containing the conducting shell element is to be analyzed structurally.2.2.2. heat flux.3-D higher-order shell with inplane and through-thickness thermal conduction 2-D Modeling irregular meshes Modeling a plane or an axisymmetric ring Modeling curved boundaries 1-D Conduction link between regions Convection link between regions Radiation link between regions 0-D Representing a body having thermal capacitance but with no significant temperature gradients 1.

Thermal Control Element Use the COMBIN37 control element to enable or disable heat flow between two points when the temperature (or other control parameters) reach a specified threshold value. used with CONTA173 and CONTA174.2.2. Use these contact elements between solid regions: 2-D Contact Elements • • • CONTA171 -. or combine a group of linear thermal elements into a MATRIX50 superelement for greater solution efficiency. 5. . 5.4.Target segment.5.3. it is sometimes necessary to account for convection. Use the following fluid elements to simulate 2-D acoustic or coupled acoustic problems: 96 Release 14.Higher-order surface-to-surface contact element pasted on the surface of a region TARGE169 -.2-D radiosity surface SURF252 -. conduction. is also available. Inc.Lower-order surface-to-surface contact element pasted on the surface of a region CONTA172 -.2. which can couple thermal and other physics. which must be pasted on the target region A special 2-D/3-D node-to-surface contact element.2. which must be pasted on the target region 3-D Contact Elements • • • CONTA173 -. used with CONTA171 and CONTA172.Higher-order surface-to-surface contact element pasted on the surface of a region TARGE170 -.© SAS IP. Frictional forces between the contacting surfaces can also be a source of heat generation. All rights reserved. 5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. it is also possible to load thermal models via contact elements. CONTA175. You can also create a custom element via USER300 to model special physics.Lower-order surface-to-surface contact element pasted on the surface of a region CONTA174 -. Inc. or radiation between the regions. modal and transient acoustic analysis. Elements for Acoustic Analysis An acoustic analysis calculates either the propagation properties of pure acoustic waves in the given environment or the coupled acoustic structural interaction (FSI).3.0 .Target segment. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Using Contact Elements to Load Thermal Models Besides surface loads. . also consider coupled-physics elements. Other Elements Useful in a Thermal Analysis In addition to the thermal and related loading elements described here. Support is available for time-harmonic.3-D radiosity surface 5. When two or more structural regions are in close vicinity or contact. You can use it with either TARGE169 or TARGE170.Chapter 5: Elements for Multiphysics Analysis Use these surface-radiosity elements to apply grey body radiation (where view factors are unknown): • • SURF251 -.

High-order tetrahedral Electric PLANE230 -. see the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide.Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID231 -. Inc.Axisymmetric harmonic acoustic fluid FLUID129 -. Electric and Magnetic Analyses Electrostatic PLANE121 -. Inc.4.Higher-order acoustic fluid 20-node solid FLUID221 -.Higher-order acoustic fluid 10-node solid For more information.High-order tetrahedral Degrees of Freedom VOLT Application Current-based static. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. time-transient and time-harmonic quasistatic electric field analyses Degrees of Freedom VOLT Application Charge-based static and timeharmonic quasistatic electric field analyses Release 14. It is used to envelope a model made of FLUID29 finite elements.High-order hexahedral SOLID232 -.Acoustic fluid FLUID220 -. Elements for Electric and Magnetic Analysis Elements available for modeling electromagnetic phenomena are classified as follows: • Continuum: Electrostatic Electric Magnetic Electromagnetic Infinite • • • Source Circuit Contact Use the following table to select an appropriate element for your application.Elements for Electric and Magnetic Analysis • • FLUID29 -. 97 .0 . 5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Use these fluid elements for 3-D simulation: • • • FLUID30 -. . see "Acoustics" in the Fluids Analysis Guide.High-order hexahedral SOLID123 -.Infinite acoustic This element is a companion to FLUID29.© SAS IP. For more details about the elements used for electromagnetic analyses.Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID122 -.

Edge-based mixed-order hexahedral SOLID237 -. VOLT. . VOLT MAG. AX.Chapter 5: Elements for Multiphysics Analysis Electric and Magnetic Analyses Magnetic SOLID96 -. CURR. CURR CIRCU124 VOLT. EMF CIRCU125 Contact VOLT Degrees of Freedom 98 Release 14. AY. 2-D massive coil. VOLT. VOLT. mutual inductor. inductor.Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID97 -. current source. arc) for magnetostatic analysis Application Resistor. current source. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. EMF Application Magnetostatic analysis Application Static.Low-order hexahedral Electromagnetic PLANE53 -. transient and harmonic analyses Diode for electric circuit analysis Application Degrees of Freedom MAG Degrees of Freedom AZ. transient or harmonic electromagnetic and stranded coil analyses Circuit CIRCU94 Degrees of Freedom VOLT. voltage source. voltage source for a piezoelectric-circuit and charge-based transient and harmonic analyses Resistor. VOLT Degrees of Freedom --Application Open boundary for an unbounded electric or magnetic field problem Application Current source primitive (coil. All rights reserved. capacitor. circuit-coupled stranded coil. transient or harmonic electromagnetic. EMF AX.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Lower-order hexahedral PLANE233 -. AZ. stranded coil. AY. Inc. CURR.© SAS IP. AZ. circuit-coupled electromagnetic analyses Static. bar.Higher-order quadrilateral SOLID236 -. Inc. stranded coil. inductor.Edge-based mixed-order tetrahedral Infinite INFIN110 INFIN111 Source SOURC36 Degrees of Freedom AZ. capacitor.0 . CURR. . 3-D massive coil. controlled sources for a current-based static. EMF AZ.

2-D higherorder surface-to-surface contact CONTA173 -. All rights reserved. VOLT Electric and magnetic contact Release 14.3-D higherorder surface-to-surface contact CONTA175 -.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. .3-D lower-order surface-to-surface contact CONTA174 -.0 . MAG. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.VOLT MAG.2-D / 3-D node-to-surface contact AZ.2-D lower-order surface-to-surface contact CONTA172 -.© SAS IP. VOLT AZ.Elements for Electric and Magnetic Analysis CONTA171 -. 99 .

© SAS IP. Inc. Inc. .100 Release 14. All rights reserved. .0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Inc. etc. 1) and General Element Features (p.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. which describes how the element input items (such as the real constants. More detailed information about each element is available in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. KEYOPT switches. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. material properties. All rights reserved.0 . 43) before examining the element descriptions in Part I:Element Library (p.) are used to produce the element output. 101 . which appear in numerical order. Release 14. . Please read About This Reference (p. 43) and are referenced where applicable. 103).Chapter 6: Element Library Following are descriptions of each element. Inc. Descriptions common to several elements appear in separate sections of General Element Features (p.

. All rights reserved. Inc.102 Release 14. Inc. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .© SAS IP.

Element Library .

.

Scalar potential formulations (reduced RSP. or general GSP) are available for modeling magnetostatic fields in a static analysis.© SAS IP. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX. SOLID5 has a 3-D magnetic. The element has eight nodes with up to six degrees of freedom at each node. piezoelectric. electric. and MURZ material property labels. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and MGZZ. When used in structural and piezoelectric analyses. difference DSP. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. . 105). orthotropic relative permeability is specified through the MURX.SOLID5 3-D Coupled-Field Solid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SOLID5 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. Figure 1 SOLID5 Geometry R S y s t x v u @rism yptionA Q w x uDv yD T w P s t I SOLID5 Input Data The geometry. ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as SOLID226. thermal. and structural field capability with limited coupling between the fields. and SOLID98. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZERO = 4 π x 10-7 Henries/meter. SOLID62. MGYY. See SOLID5 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZERO. 105 . Coupled field elements with similar field capabilities are PLANE13. MGXX. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. MURY. Inc. MGYY. node locations. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. In addition to MUZERO. Inc. and MGZZ represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. All rights reserved. Release 14. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command. SOLID5 has large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required. Inc. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT(1) value). Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. radiation. 43). K. These forces are not applied in solution as structural loads. the calculated temperatures override any input nodal temperatures. AMPS. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID5 Input Summary" (p. The various types of scalar magnetic potential solution options are defined with the MAGOPT command. SOLID5 Input Summary Nodes I. With the F command. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions.0 . MAG) and VALUE corresponds to the value (displacements. scalar magnetic potential). Positive pressures act into the element. Current for the scalar magnetic potential options is defined with the SOURC36 element the command macro RACE. FLUX) and VALUE corresponds to the value (force. and anisotropic elastic properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads. J. FZ. When the temperature degree of freedom is active (KEYOPT(1) = 0. or through electromagnetic coupling. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. If the temperature degree of freedom is present. . piezoelectric. unspecified nodal values of temperature and heat generation rate default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. heat generation rate and magnetic virtual displacement may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF and BFE]. L. 49).SOLID5 Permanent magnet polarization directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. UY.) A maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. N. Pressure.1 or 8). convection or heat flux (but not both). Inc. and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) is applied in subsequent iterations as heat generation rate. FY. With the D command. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details. . All rights reserved. 56). Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. P 106 Release 14. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (UX.© SAS IP. The body loads. HEAT. voltage. UZ. M. VOLT. TEMP. heat flow. temperature. BFE] are ignored. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. Nonlinear magnetic. O. current or charge. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. In general. magnetic flux). temperature. applied body force temperatures [BF. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. 106). the Lab variable corresponds to the force (FX. 105) using the SF and SFE commands.

HG(P) Magnetic Virtual Displacements -VD(I). HG(N). face 5 (L-I-M-P). BETD.© SAS IP. ALPD. UZ. MAG if KEYOPT (1) = 0 TEMP. Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Large deflection Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Element degrees of freedom: 0 -UX. KXX. GXY. T(P) Heat Generations -HG(I). T(O). CTEY. KZZ. NUYZ. Radiation (using Lab = RDSF). ANEL. (PRXY. T(N). . HG(J). EY. MAG if KEYOPT (1) = 1 UX. 107 . C. EFZ. T(M). VOLT. VD(J). VD(L). EZ. PERX. ALPX. PRYZ. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. DENS. UZ if KEYOPT (1) = 2 UX. ENTH. VD(P) Electric Field -EFX. face 3 (J-K-O-N). NUXZ). VD(O). RSVZ. VD(K). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). HG(K). face 4 (K-L-P-O). KYY. Convection or Heat Flux (but not both). Inc. THSZ). and PIEZ data tables (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference) Surface Loads Pressure. GXZ. T(J). UY. TEMP. TEMP. PRXZ or NUXY. plus BH. EFY. UY. Inc. THSY. VOLT. RSVY.SOLID5 Degrees of Freedom UX. ALPZ (or CTEX. VOLT if KEYOPT(1) = 3 TEMP if KEYOPT (1) = 8 VOLT if KEYOPT (1) = 9 MAG if KEYOPT (1) = 10 Real Constants None Material Properties EX. MAG 1 -TEMP. 112). UY. CTEZ or THSX. MURX. T(K). HG(O). MURZ. MAG Release 14. PERZ. MURY. VOLT. face 2 (I-J-N-M). PERY. HG(L). MGXX. See "SOLID5 Assumptions and Restrictions" (p. MUZERO. and Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K). UY. HG(M). MGZZ. T(L). ALPY. UZ. RSVX. GYZ. VD(M). UZ. VOLT.0 . MGYY. VD(N).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 50). . The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The reaction forces. Inc. UY. current. UY. 109). UZ. and magnetic flux at the nodes can be printed with the OUTPR command.0 .© SAS IP. 109). All rights reserved. UZ 3 -UX. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. heat flow. Inc. . VOLT 8 -TEMP 9 -VOLT 10 -MAG KEYOPT(3) Extra shapes: 0 -Include extra shapes 1 -Do not include extra shapes KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 2 -Nodal stress or magnetic field printout SOLID5 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms • • Nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID5 Element Output Definitions (p.SOLID5 2 -UX. 108 Release 14. Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p.

The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. HG(O). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. T(M). ZC PRES TEMP HGEN S:X. XY. HG(M). YC. 3 EPEL:EQV Element Number Element nodes . I. Z. P. HG(J). HG(P) Component stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [4] Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 Release 14. N. Inc. 109 . O. P6 at M. XY. Y. O. K. HG(K).I. P Input Temperatures: T(I). In either the O or R columns. O. P. 2. T(L).0 . J. T(P) Input Heat Generations: HG(I). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. M.OUT. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. M. P Element material number Element volume Location where results are reported P1 at nodes J. N. ESOL). P5 at L. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.SOLID5 Figure 2 SOLID5 Element Output ¢ w D fD etF x v D fD etF s t ¡ D fD etF y u The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. T(O). K. XZ EPEL:1. All rights reserved. M. N.© SAS IP. O. P2 at I. YZ. Z. YZ. L. N. HG(L). Y. K.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(N). P4 at K. . 2. T(J). HG(N). L. J. I. P3 at J. T(K). 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X. L. Table 1 SOLID5 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. XZ S:1.

YZ. Y. UM TG:X. Y. Y. Y. MUY. Y. Z. All rights reserved. Y. Z) Maxwell magnetic force components (X. Y. MUZ H: X. Z EF:X.© SAS IP. Y. and electromechanical coupled (UM) energies Thermal gradient components Vector magnitude of TG Thermal flux components Vector magnitude of TF (heat flow rate/unit crosssection area) Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Definition O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 110 Release 14. . Y. Inc. Y. Z JSSUM JHEAT: D:X. Inc. XZ EPTH:EQV LOC MUX. Z TG:SUM TF:X. Y. Z EF:SUM JS:X. Z D:SUM UE. XY.0 . Z) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Lorentz magnetic force components (X. UD. Y. Z) Virtual work force components (X. dielectric (UD). Z) Vector magnitude of EF Source current density components Vector magnitude of JS Joule heat generation per unit volume Electric flux density components Vector magnitude of D Elastic (UE). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Z) Combined (FJB or FMX) force components Electric field components (X. Z B:SUM FJB FMX FVW FMAG:X. Y.SOLID5 Name EPTH:X. Z H:SUM B:X. Y. Z TF:SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG Thermal strains Equivalent thermal strains [4] Output location (X. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

4.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved... Inc. 111 . Element solution at the centroid printed out only if calculated (based on input data). Inc. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.. The following notation is used in Table 2: SOLID5 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.SOLID5 Name HFLXAVG Definition Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux O R 2 1. 3. The solution results are repeated at each node and only if a surface load is input..J. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP..© SAS IP.PRXY).P sequence number for data at nodes I.P FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 SOLID5 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 MUX MUY MUZ FVWX FVWY FVWZ ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item E I J K L M N O P SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 5 18 - 1 6 9 - 4 10 13 - 3 14 17 - 8 19 21 - 7 12 22 - 11 16 23 - 15 20 24 - Release 14.. 111) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates..0 .. 111): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID5 Element Output Definitions (p. Nodal stress or magnetic field solution (only if KEYOPT(5) = 2). Table 2: SOLID5 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.J. 2. 109) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . The reduced scalar and general scalar potential options do not have this restriction. magnetic.e. Inc. the source elements must be placed so that the resulting Hs field fulfills boundary conditions for the total field. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint). Stress stiffening is available for KEYOPT(1) = 0. Temperatures and heat generation rates. temperature. • • • • • • 112 Release 14.© SAS IP. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. electric. . the normal component of magnetic flux density (B) is assumed to be zero. Perform a pure structural analysis instead (KEYOPT(1) = 2). so that as µ ¡ ∞ in these regions. the resulting field H ¡ 0. but not piezoelectric) When using SOLID5 with SOURC36 elements.SOLID5 Output Quantity Name FVWSUM UE UD UM Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item E I J K L M N O P NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 7 16 17 18 - - - - - - - - ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC2 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC3 31 32 33 34 35 36 FC4 37 38 39 40 41 42 FC5 43 44 45 46 47 48 FC6 49 50 51 52 53 54 SOLID5 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • The element requires an iterative solution for field coupling (displacement.0 . At a free surface of the element (i. and structural terms are coupled through an iterative procedure. magnetic. include any user defined heat generation rates. All rights reserved. The thermal. A prism shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p. 39). Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. electrical. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. if internally calculated. Large deflection capabilities available for KEYOPT(1) = 2 and 3 are not available for KEYOPT(1) = 0. Do not constrain all VOLT DOFs to the same value in a piezoelectric analysis (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 3). 105) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The difference scalar magnetic potential option is restricted to singly-connected permeable regions. The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side.. and 3.

In an MSP analysis. If KEYOPT(1) = 0 (default) or 1. KEYOPT(1) cannot be set to 10.0 .DB and Jobname. see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. avoid using a closed domain and use an open domain. closed with natural flux parallel boundary conditions on the MAG degree of freedom.ESAV files that were created by ANSYS Multiphysics. The only active degrees of freedom are MAG and VOLT. KEYOPT(1) settings of 0. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. you cannot restart a job in ANSYS Mechanical using Jobname. SOLID96. If you used the MAG degree of freedom. you may see incorrect results when the formulation is applied using SOLID5. 1. The element does not have stress stiffening or birth and death features. The electric field body load is not used during solution and is applicable only to POST1 charged particle tracing. . KEYOPT(3) is not applicable. For more information. 2. Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. Inc. 113 . thermal. The Maxwell force flags and magnetic virtual displacements body loads are not applicable. plus the BH data table). 3 and 8 are invalid.© SAS IP. The magnetic material properties (MUZERO. The only applicable body loads are temperatures (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacements. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the BH data table) are not allowed. ANSYS Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled.SOLID5 • This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. or infinite elements. To be compatible. the following restrictions apply: • • • • • This element does not have magnetic capability. All rights reserved. and does not have structural. the elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. Inc. The only allowable material properties are the magnetic and electric properties (MUZRO through PERZ. The only applicable surface loads are Maxwell force flags. ANSYS Emag • • • • • • • This element has only magnetic and electric field capability. The MAG degree of freedom is not active. MUR_. the MAG degree of freedom is inactive. If you use a closed domain. or SOLID98 elements and the boundary conditions are not satisfied by the Hs field load calculated by the BiotSavart procedure based on SOURC36 current source primitive input.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. or piezoelectric capability. • • • • SOLID5 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. MG__.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. .0 .© SAS IP.114 Release 14. .

A summary of the element input is given in "INFIN9 Input Summary" (p. unsymmetric. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The enclosed element type can be the PLANE13 or PLANE53 magnetic elements. node locations. 43). The element x-axis is oriented along the length of the element from node I toward node J.© SAS IP. 117). With the thermal degree of freedom steady-state or transient analysis (linear or nonlinear) may be done. The element has two nodes with a magnetic vector potential or temperature degree of freedom at each node. static or dynamic. or the PLANE55. The matrix is made symmetric by averaging the off-diagonal terms to take advantage of a symmetric solution with a slight decrease in accuracy. With the magnetic degree of freedom (AZ) the analysis may be linear or nonlinear. . A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Figure 1 INFIN9 Geometry ∞ emiEinfinite foundry ilement homin pinite ilement homin s t x ∞ INFIN9 Input Data The geometry. and a typical application is shown in Figure 2 (p. All rights reserved. PLANE77. INFIN9 is used to model an open boundary of a 2-D planar unbounded field problem. See INFIN9 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. and PLANE35 thermal elements.0 . 115). Inc. Release 14. The element is defined by two nodes and the material properties. in general. Inc. The coefficient matrix of this boundary element is. ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as INFIN110.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 116).INFIN9 2-D Infinite Boundary MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions INFIN9 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 115 . KEYOPT(2) can be used to prevent an unsymmetric matrix from being made symmetric. Nonzero material properties must be defined.

Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . depending on the problem) INFIN9 Output Data The boundary element has no output of its own since it is used only to provide a semi-infinite boundary condition to a model consisting of other elements. All rights reserved. Inc. 116 Release 14. . .© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.INFIN9 INFIN9 Input Summary Nodes I. J Degrees of Freedom AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT (1) = 1 Real Constants None Material Properties MUZRO if KEYOPT (1) = 0 (has default value for MKS units or can be set with the EMUNIT command) KXX if KEYOPT (1) = 1 Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Element degree of freedom: 0 -Magnetic option (AZ degree of freedom) 1 -Thermal option (TEMP degree of freedom) KEYOPT(2) Coefficient matrix formation: 0 -Make the coefficient matrix symmetric 1 -Coefficient matrix is used as generated (symmetric or unsymmetric.

D. and by a semi-infinite radial line from the global coordinate system origin through node J. • • • • • • • • • • • • Release 14. the matrices are presumed to be unsymmetric. share the same nodes). The semi-infinite sector is assumed to be bound on three sides by the boundary element. The boundary element must lie "against" an enclosed element (that is.0). or other load commands. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. The line of boundary elements should be located away from the region of interest of the enclosed elements for better accuracy. the midside nodes of these elements must be removed at the interface with INFIN9 [EMID]. PLANE77.© SAS IP. 117 . or PLANE35. The element assumes that the degree of freedom (DOF) value at infinity is always zero (0. That is. . All rights reserved. An axisymmetric option is not available. When used in a model with the higher-order elements PLANE53. isotropic.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If KEYOPT(2) = 1. and linear without containing any sources or sinks.0 . The origin of the global coordinate system must be inside the model and as centrally located as possible. the DOF value at infinity is not affected by TUNIF.INFIN9 Figure 2 INFIN9 Element Usage wgneti gore @vexiIQA eir @vexiIQA foundry ilements @sxpsxWA INFIN9 Assumptions and Restrictions • • The boundary element assumes a straight line segment. Acute or wide intersection angles should be avoided by "filling-in" the model with the other elements so that the line of boundary elements around the model is smooth and concave when viewed from the global coordinate system origin. Inc. The boundary element should be as normal as possible to the radial lines. the length of which must be nonzero. The element cannot be deactivated with the EKILL command. The exterior semi-infinite domain is assumed to be homogeneous. Inc. by a semiinfinite radial line from the global coordinate system origin through node I. The line of boundary elements need not totally surround the model.

INFIN9 INFIN9 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 1 (TEMP) instead of 0 and cannot be changed. and does not have thermal capability. ANSYS Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled. ANSYS Emag • • • • This element has only magnetic field capability. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. The only active degree of freedom is AZ. The AZ degree of freedom is not active. . The only allowable material property is MUZERO.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . The material property MUZRO is not allowed. Inc.© SAS IP.0 . All rights reserved. the following restrictions apply: • • • • This element does not have magnetic field capability. 118 Release 14. Inc. KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 (default).

The element is defined by two nodes. and mass. and z directions.© SAS IP. Figure 1 LINK11 Geometry vo C wyui u s wGP g wGP t LINK11 Input Data The geometry and node locations for the element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The stroke is relative to the zero force position of the element.Mass (force*time2/length) Material Properties BETD. Inc. . 119 . All rights reserved. a stiffness. UZ Real Constants K . No bending or twist loads are considered.Stiffness (force/length) C . The element is a uniaxial tension-compression element with three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. 43). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. A summary of the element input is given below. ALPD Release 14. y. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The stroke (length) is defined through the surface load input using the PRES label. LINK11 Input Summary Nodes I.LINK11 Linear Actuator MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions LINK11 Element Description LINK11 may be used to model hydraulic cylinders and other applications undergoing large rotations. See LINK11 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 119). The element initial length Lo and orientation are determined from the node locations. J Degrees of Freedom UX. Inc.Viscous damping coefficient (force*time/length) M . 49). A force may be defined in the same manner as an alternate to the stroke.0 . viscous damping.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. UY.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Stroke face 2 . See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.OUT. ESOL). 120). In either the O or R columns.I.0 . All rights reserved. J Initial element length Current element length (this time step) Axial force (spring force) Damping force Applied stroke (element load) Measured stroke Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 120 Release 14. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. 50). . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.© SAS IP.LINK11 Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 . Inc.Axial Force Body Loads None Special Features Birth and death Large deflection Stress stiffening KEYOPTs None LINK11 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal displacement solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: LINK11 Element Output Definitions (p. . “Y” indicates that the item is always available. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Table 1 LINK11 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES ILEN CLEN FORCE DFORCE STROKE MSTROKE Element Number Nodes . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.

121) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Surface load pressure indicators are not displayed for element or node plots. 121 .0 . 121): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: LINK11 Element Output Definitions (p.© SAS IP. The following notation is used in Table 2: LINK11 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. No bending of the element is considered. Release 14. A twist (torsion) about the element x-axis (defined from node I to node J) has no effect. The mass is equally divided between the nodes. axially loaded at the ends. LINK11 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. . as in a pin-jointed structure.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 120) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 LINK11 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name FORCE ILEN CLEN STROKE MSTROKE DFORCE ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 LINK11 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • The element must not have a zero length. All rights reserved. Inc.LINK11 Table 2: LINK11 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. The element assumes a straight line. Inc.

. Inc. Inc.122 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . All rights reserved. .© SAS IP.

node locations.PLANE13 2-D Coupled-Field Solid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE13 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis.0 . Figure 1 PLANE13 Geometry Q v u uDv R ilement oordinte system @shown for P uiy@RA a IA s t @ringle option E not reommended for struturl pplitionsA ¨ ¡¢ £x¥£¦§ s ¡¢ ¢£¤¥£¦§ I t PLANE13 Input Data The geometry. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command. PLANE13 is defined by four nodes with up to four degrees of freedom per node. See PLANE13 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Inc. EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZERO. electrical. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX and MGYY. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZRO = 4 π x 10-7 henries/meter. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. 123). SOLID98. The B-H curve will be used in each Release 14. PLANE13 has a 2-D magnetic. piezoelectric. piezoelectric. ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as PLANE223. 123 . . Permanent magnet polarization and orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. PLANE13 has large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities. orthotropic relative permeability is specified through the MURX and MURY material property labels. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. and SOLID62. Inc. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. and anisotropic elastic properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. In addition to MUZERO. and structural field capability with limited coupling between the fields. thermal. 56). PLANE13 also has large strain capabilities.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Nonlinear magnetic B-H. All rights reserved. The element has nonlinear magnetic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. and structural material properties. When used in purely structural analyses. electrical. thermal. Other coupled-field elements are SOLID5.© SAS IP. The element input data includes four nodes and magnetic. MGXX and MGYY represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p.

Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT(1) value). 124). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. UY. AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 6 UX. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. When the temperature degree of freedom is active (KEYOPT(1) = 2 or 4).0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. If the temperature degree of freedom is present. convection or heat flux (but not both). TEMP. unspecified nodal temperatures and heat generation rates default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF command. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated are identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required). Inc. applied body force temperatures [BF. See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details. and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. radiation. L Degrees of Freedom AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT (1 ) = 2 UX. BFE] are ignored. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE13 Input Summary" (p. if any. 124 Release 14. Source current density loads may be applied to an area [BFA] or input as an element value [BFE]. Inc. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. NUYZ. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. Positive pressures act into the element. EZ. Body loads . K. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. (PRXY. 123) using the SF and SFE commands. 43). Nodal forces. EY. UY if KEYOPT (1) = 3 UX. VOLT if KEYOPT (1) = 7 Real Constants None Material Properties EX. . PRYZ.temperature. J. 49). In general.© SAS IP. the calculated temperatures override any input nodal temperatures. and magnetic virtual displacement . BFE].PLANE13 element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. heat generation rate. PLANE13 Input Summary Nodes I. NUXZ). 76). PRXZ or NUXY. All rights reserved. AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 4 VOLT. These forces are not applied in solution as structural loads.may be input at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF. Pressure. . A maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. UY. Heat generation from Joule heating is applied in Solution as thermal loading for static and transient analyses. Air elements in which local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF].

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. UY.CTEZ or THSX. spare. PERY. HG(J). VD(L) Source Current Density -spare. MGYY. MGXX.PLANE13 ALPX. Radiation (using Lab = RDSF). . VD(K). T(L) Heat Generations -HG(I). JSZ(I). JSZ(K). face 2 (K-J). BETD. DENS. VD(J). plus BH. spare. All rights reserved. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). ALPY. KXX. and Piezoelectric data tables (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference) Surface Loads Pressure. VOLT degrees of freedom KEYOPT(2) Extra shapes: Release 14. spare. MURX. Convection or Heat Flux (but not both). ALPD. PERX. spare.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (or CTEX. face 3 (L-K). GXY. T(K).© SAS IP. RSVZ. JSZ(J). JSZ(L). spare. AZ degrees of freedom 6 -VOLT. and Maxwell Force Flags-face 1 (J-I). CTEY. UY. AZ degrees of freedom 7 -UX. MURY. ANEL. ENTH. 125 . PHASE(I). KYY. THSY. Inc. HG(L) Magnetic Virtual Displacements -VD(I). UY degrees of freedom 4 -UX. ALPZ. spare.0 . Inc. spare. T(J).THSZ). HG(K). MUZERO. C. TEMP. PHASE(L) Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Large deflection Large strain Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Element degrees of freedom: 0 -AZ degree of freedom 2 -TEMP degree of freedom 3 -UX. PHASE(K). PHASE(J).

126 Release 14. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. . 50). All rights reserved. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Inc. Inc.PLANE13 0 -Include extra shapes 1 -Do not include extra shapes KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane strain (with structural degrees of freedom) 1 -Axisymmetric 2 -Plane stress (with structural degrees of freedom) KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system defined: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal stress printout PLANE13 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE13 Element Output Definitions (p. . 127).0 . Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. 127). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

Inc. 2.OUT. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.0 . P4 at I. ESOL). All rights reserved. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. XY EPEL:1.© SAS IP. Table 1 PLANE13 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. I. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. T(K). HG(L) Stresses (SZ = 0. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. HG(J).0 for plane stress elements) Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Release 14. . T(J). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In either the O or R columns. YC PRES TEMP HGEN S:X. XY EPTH:EQV Element Number Nodes . Z.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. K. J. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Y. 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X.I. K. P2 at K. Z. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported P1 at nodes J. J. magnetic flux density vectors point in opposite directions for planar (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and axisymmetric (KEYOPT(3) =1) analyses. 127 . 2. Y. P3 at L. Z. XY S:1. L Input temperatures T(I). Inc. T(L) Input heat generations HG(I). Y. 3 EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.PLANE13 Figure 2 PLANE13 Element Output u v ¦ ¦D f¦D etF i ement ¡utput ¢£¤et£¡ns sh¡wn ¥¤e f¡¤ ui¦y§R¨ a H © @or xilA s ©D f©D etF @or rdilA t Because of different sign conventions for Cartesian and polar coordinate systems. HG(K).

Y) FMX(X. UD. All rights reserved.PLANE13 Name TG:X. Inc. Y) FMAG:X. Y.© SAS IP. and electromechanical coupled (UM) energies Output location (X. Y D:SUM UE. . .0 . Y) Vector magnitude of EF Electric flux density components (X.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Y FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG TJB(Z) TMX(Z) TVW(Z) Definition Thermal gradient components and vector sum Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum Electric field components (X. Y B:SUM JSZ JTZ JHEAT: FJB(X. SUM TF:X. SUM EF:X. Y H:SUM B:X. Y) FVW(X. MUY H:X. Y EF:SUM D:X. available for static analysis only Total current density Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz force components Maxwell force components Virtual work force components Combined (FJB and FMX) force components Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Lorentz torque about global Cartesian +Z axis Maxwell torque about global Cartesian +Z axis Virtual work torque about global Cartesian +Z axis O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 128 Release 14. dielectric (UD). Y) Vector magnitude of D Elastic (UE). Y. UM LOC MUX. Y) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Source current density. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Output at each node. J. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Y. and XY stress output correspond to the radial. the X and Y directions correspond to the radial and axial directions. Y)). SEQV. EPEL. HSUM. TVW(Z)) represent time-average values. 2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor. hoop. 52) of this manual for more information.J. The macros POWERH. TMX(Z). FMAGSUM. B. MUX. FMX(X. if KEYOPT(5) = 1. Inc. forces (FJB(X. forces (FJB(X. and in-plane shear stresses. 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. FVW(X. Y).PRXY). joule losses (JHEAT). and torque (TJB(Z). BSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point. . MUY. 127) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. Names of Items Output SINT. H. 129 . Table 2 PLANE13 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Pt. For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(4) = 0. Table 3: PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. respectively. axial. Solution Nodal Solution 1. The following notation is used in Table 3: PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. These values are stored in the "Real" data set. Available only if a surface load is input. and velocity effects if calculated. FMAGSUM. Inc. The X.PLANE13 1. K. For harmonic analysis. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. HSUM.© SAS IP. For harmonic analysis. SEQV. including eddy current effects. Y)). and TORQSUM can be used to retrieve this data. if KEYOPT(5) = 2. Y).K. The macros POWERH. BSUM SINT. These values are stored in the "Real" data set. S. 2. Y). 3. Z. Solution values are output only if calculated (based on input data).L sequence number for data at nodes I. FMX(X. Y).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . 130) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. TMX(Z). H. TVW(Z)) represent time-average values. L Release 14. FVW(X. and TORQSUM can be used to retrieve this data. and torque (TJB(Z). All rights reserved. B. joule losses (JHEAT). S. 130): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE13 Element Output Definitions (p. respectively.

The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p.PLANE13 FCN sequence number for solution items for element Face N Table 3 PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name JSZ P1 P2 P3 P4 MUX MUY FVWX FVWY FVWSUM JTZ UE UD UM TJB(Z) TMX(Z) TVW(Z) Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 35 36 37 I 4 9 J 3 6 K 5 8 L 7 10 - ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 11 12 13 14 15 16 FC2 17 18 19 20 21 22 FC3 23 24 25 26 27 28 FC4 29 30 31 32 33 34 PLANE13 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • The element requires an iterative solution for field coupling (displacement.© SAS IP.0 . Inc. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 123) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. electric. Inc. but not piezoelectric) The area of the element must be positive. . 130 Release 14. temperature. magnetic. All rights reserved.

they act as stranded conductors. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. TEMP) instead of 0. For a BFE. This is valid for both planar and axisymmetric models. thermal. SOLID236. The AZ degree of freedom is not active. simply define very small piezoelectric material properties for them. • • • • PLANE13 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. PLANE13 (and PLANE53) are not like the 3-D elements SOLID97 and SOLID237. MG__.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. it acts as a solid conductor modeling eddy current effects. If set to 4 or 6. To be compatible. When SOLID97.AMPS. For more information. 131 . and they must all have the piezoelectric degrees of freedom activated. Inc. For the VOLT. the AZ degree of freedom is not active. the extra displacement and VOLT shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results.. and cannot be set to 0. If a model has at least one element with piezoelectric degrees of freedom (displacements and VOLT) activated. MUR_. the following restrictions apply: • • • • This element has only structural. Permanent magnets are not permitted in a harmonic analysis. The magnetic and electric material properties (MUZERO. for a harmonic or transient analysis. or piezoelectric capability. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. the elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. • • • Do not constrain all VOLT DOFs to the same value in a piezoelectric analysis (KEYOPT(1) = 7). Without BFE. For structural and piezoelectric problems. Release 14. Current density loading (BFE..© SAS IP. and coupling all VOLT degrees of freedom for elements in each of such regions. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. When this element does not have the VOLT degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 4). its behavior depends on the applied load.0 . This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. and does not have magnetic capability..JS load. and the BH data table) are not allowed. the element acts as a stranded conductor. and SOLID237 do not have the VOLT degree of freedom. ..PLANE13 • • • • An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. All rights reserved. then all elements where a VOLT degree of freedom is needed must be one of the piezoelectric types. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 4 (UX. Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. UY. A skin-effect analysis (where eddy current formation is permitted in conducting regions with impressed current loading) is performed by using KEYOPT(1) = 6. Inc. ANSYS Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled. specifying a resistivity. In this respect.JS loads. If the piezoelectric effect is not desired in these elements. Transient magnetic analyses should be performed in a nonlinear transient dynamic analysis. see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. Perform a pure structural analysis instead (KEYOPT(1) = 3).JS) is only valid for the AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 0). AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 6) use F.

The heat generation body loads are not applicable. All rights reserved. or piezoelectric capability.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and does not have structural. 132 Release 14. . . thermal. KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 (default) or 6. ANSYS Emag • • • • • • This element has only magnetic and electric field capability. plus the BH data table). The only allowable material properties are the magnetic and electric properties (MUZRO through PERY.0 . The only active degrees of freedom are AZ and VOLT. Inc. The element does not allow any special features. The only applicable surface loads are Maxwell force flags.PLANE13 • The Maxwell force flags surface loads are not applicable.© SAS IP. KEYOPT(3) = 2 is not applicable. Inc. The temperature body load is only used for material property evaluation.

Inc. and z axes. No bending or torsion is considered. The damping portion of the element contributes only damping coefficients to the structural damping matrix. No bending or axial loads are considered. . The torsional spring constant and damping coefficient have units of Force * Length / Radian and Force * Length * Time / Radian.cvd θ/dt where cv is the damping coefficient given by cv = (cv)1 + (cv)2v. All rights reserved. y.COMBIN14 Spring-Damper MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS Product Restrictions COMBIN14 Element Description COMBIN14 has longitudinal or torsional capability in 1-D. The element is defined by two nodes.0 . and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p.cvdux/dt or Tθ = .© SAS IP. these values should be on a full 360° basis. the damping coefficient units are Force * Time / Length. A general spring or damper is also available in the stiffness matrix element (MATRIX27). The longitudinal spring constant should have units of Force / Length. Masses can be added by using the appropriate mass element (see MASS21). See COMBIN14 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. The damping force (F) or torque (T) is computed as: Fx = . y. a spring constant (k) and damping coefficients (cv)1 and (cv)2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 133). 133 . Another spring-damper element (having its direction of action determined by the nodal coordinate directions) is COMBIN40. Figure 1 COMBIN14 Geometry t gv k s s D ¡¢ orque t 2-D elements must lie in a z = constant plane COMBIN14 Input Data The geometry. node locations. or 3-D applications. For a 2-D axisymmetric analysis. The torsional spring-damper option is a purely rotational element with three degrees of freedom at each node: rotations about the nodal x. The damping capability is not used for static or undamped modal analyses. 2-D. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The longitudinal spring-damper option is a uniaxial tension-compression element with up to three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. respectively. Release 14. and z directions. The spring-damper element has no mass. The spring or the damping capability may be removed from the element. Inc.

UY. If an initial force is given. Inc. 58)). a preload is presumed to exist. ILENGTH. The KEYOPT(2) = 7 and 8 options allow the element to be used in a thermal or pressure analysis. the preload is ramped in the first load step if KBC. All rights reserved. either through an initial (force-free) length (ILENGTH) or an initial force (IFORCE) input. . (Blank). UY if KEYOPT (3) = 2 see list below if KEYOPT(2) > 0 Real Constants K. Inc. ILENGTH is interpreted as the initial number of turns (rotations) in the spring (the spring is pre-wound) and IFORCE is the torque preload in the spring. For the 3-D torsional spring option (KEYOPT(3) = 1).0 . (Blank). KEYOPT(1) must be set to 1. A summary of the element input is given in "COMBIN14 Input Summary" (p.© SAS IP.COMBIN14 v is the velocity calculated in the previous substep. The second damping coefficient (cv)2 is available to produce a nonlinear damping effect characteristic of some fluid environments.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. KEYOPT(2) = 1 through 6 is used for defining the element as a one-dimensional element. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. the element operates in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. 134). Material Properties BETD Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Birth and death Large deflection Linear perturbation Nonlinear (if CV2 is not zero) Stress stiffening 134 Release 14. COMBIN14 Input Summary Nodes I. 43). In a nonlinear analysis. With these options. ROTY. CV2. If (cv)2 is input (as real constant CV2). IFORCE See Table 1: COMBIN14 Real Constants (p. Only one of the input options may be used to define the preload. UZ if KEYOPT (3) = 0 ROTX. ROTZ if KEYOPT (3) = 1 UX.0 is set. J Degrees of Freedom UX. 135) for a description of the real constants. The right-hand rule from node I to node J is used to define positive and negative turns as well as positive and negative torque. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . If the initial length is different than the input length defined by the nodal coordinates. a negative value indicates the spring is initially in compression and a positive value indicates tension. CV1. A preload in the spring may be specified in one of two ways.

. 1 Name K Description Spring constant Release 14.© SAS IP. 135 .COMBIN14 KEYOPT(1) Solution type: 0 -Linear Solution (default) 1 -Nonlinear solution (required if CV2 is nonzero) KEYOPT(2) Degree-of-freedom selection for 1-D behavior: 0 -Use KEYOPT(3) options 1 -1-D longitudinal spring-damper (UX degree of freedom) 2 -1-D longitudinal spring-damper (UY degree of freedom) 3 -1-D longitudinal spring-damper (UZ degree of freedom) 4 -1-D Torsional spring-damper (ROTX degree of freedom) 5 -1-D Torsional spring-damper (ROTY degree of freedom) 6 -1-D Torsional spring-damper (ROTZ degree of freedom) 7 -Pressure degree of freedom element 8 -Temperature degree of freedom element Note KEYOPT(2) overrides KEYOPT(3) KEYOPT(3) Degree-of-freedom selection for 2-D and 3-D behavior: 0 -3-D longitudinal spring-damper 1 -3-D torsional spring-damper 2 -2-D longitudinal spring-damper (2-D elements must lie in an X-Y plane) Table 1 COMBIN14 Real Constants No. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.0 . All rights reserved.

136). 136).OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. J Definition O Y Y R Y Y 136 Release 14. Inc. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. In either the O or R columns.0 . ESOL). . and “-” indicates that the item is not available.© SAS IP. Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. All rights reserved. . Inc. t wist Table 2 COMBIN14 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES Element Number Nodes . 50).COMBIN14 No.I. Figure 2 COMBIN14 Stress Output pore treth orque s The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 5 6 7 Name CV1 CV2 (Blank) ILENGTH IFORCE Description Damping coefficient Damping coefficient (KEYOPT(1) must be set to 1) -Initial force-free length (Initial number of turns if torsional spring (KEYOPT(3) = 1)) Initial force (or torque if torsional spring (KEYOPT(3) = 1)) COMBIN14 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: COMBIN14 Element Output Definitions (p. 2 3 4.

137) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. nodes I and J should not be coincident. The torsion spring element stiffness acts only about its length. Table 3: COMBIN14 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. as in a torsion bar. The element allows only a uniform stress in the spring. 52) of this manual for more information. the length of the spring-damper element must not be zero (that is. YC.COMBIN14 Name XC.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ZC FORC or TORQ STRETCH or TWIST RATE VELOCITY DAMPING FORCE or TORQUE 1. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. The longitudinal spring element stiffness acts only along its length.0 . All rights reserved.TRANS and damping present) O Y Y Y Y Y R 1 Y Y Y Y Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Definition Location where results are reported Spring force or moment Stretch of spring or twist of spring (radians) Spring constant Velocity Damping force or moment (zero unless ANTYPE. 137 . Release 14. since the node locations determine the spring orientation). . the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement. The following notation is used in Table 3: COMBIN14 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Inc. 136) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 COMBIN14 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name FORC STRETCH VELOCITY DAMPING FORCE ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 COMBIN14 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • If KEYOPT(2) is zero. Inc. 137): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: COMBIN14 Element Output Definitions (p. In a thermal analysis.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). nodes I and J are interchanged. In the Mechanical application. respectively. Nodes I and J. however. If the nodal coordinate systems are rotated relative to each other. . then. The element. KEYOPT(3) is not applicable. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to compress the spring. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . • If KEYOPT(2) is greater than zero. If CV2 is not zero. Inc. This degree of freedom is specified in the nodal coordinate system and is the same for both nodes (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. If. CV1 and CV2 are not allowed. • • COMBIN14 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. DesignSpace • • KEYOPT(2) = 7 is not applicable. The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to stretch the spring. Only stress stiffening and large deflections are allowed. For noncoincident nodes and KEYOPT(2) = 1. the element has only one degree of freedom. 138 Release 14. Any changes are ignored. ANSYS Professional Structural Analysis: • • • • No damping capability. the same degree of freedom may be in different directions (thereby giving possibly unexpected results). the element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution (KEYOPT(1) = 1). Also. The BETD material property is not allowed. if the nodes are offset from the line of action. moment equilibrium may not be satisfied.© SAS IP. The spring or the damping capability may be deleted from the element by setting K or CV equal to zero. for a given set of conditions. 58)). That is. KEYOPT(2) = 7 and KEYOPT(2) = 8 are not applicable . if KEYOPT(3) = 1 (torsion) is used with large deflection. no moment effects are included. assumes only a 1-D action. All rights reserved. KEYOPT(2) = 7 or 8 is not allowed. the coordinates will not be updated. The restrictions described below only apply if KEYOPT(2) is greater than zero. Inc. or 3.0 . 2.COMBIN14 • • • • Only the KEYOPT(2) = 0 option supports stress stiffening or large deflection. ANSYS Professional Thermal Analysis: • • KEYOPT(2) defaults to 8. The preload may not change after the first load step.

y. 139). as well as the use of a temperature-dependent density. UY. y.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A summary of the element input is given in "MASS21 Input Summary" (p. concentrated mass components (Force*Time2/Length) in the element coordinate directions. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. See MASS21 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. and rotary inertias (Force*Length*Time2) about the element coordinate axes. Another element with a full mass matrix capability (off-diagonal terms) is MATRIX27. If the element requires only one mass input. UZ if KEYOPT (3) = 2 UX. UZ. Figure 1 MASS21 Geometry z x s wxD wyD wz sxxD syyD szz y ilement oordinte system shown for ui y@PA a I MASS21 Input Data The mass element is defined by a single node.© SAS IP. 139). ROTX. and z axes. Inc. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 139 . ROTZ if KEYOPT (3) = 3 Release 14. 43) gives a general description of element input. MASS21 Input Summary Nodes I Degrees of Freedom UX. ROTZ if KEYOPT (3) = 0 UX. KEYOPT(1) = 1 defines the mass in volume*density form. The element coordinate system may be initially parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system or to the nodal coordinate system (KEYOPT(2)). UY. All rights reserved. ROTY.MASS21 Structural Mass MP ME ST PR PRN DS DSS <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS Product Restrictions MASS21 Element Description MASS21 is a point element having up to six degrees of freedom: translations in the nodal x. A different mass and rotary inertia may be assigned to each coordinate direction.0 . Inc. Element Input (p. The coordinate system for this element is shown in Figure 1 (p. which allows plotting of the mass using /ESHAPE. Options are available to exclude the rotary inertia effects and to reduce the element to a 2-D capability (KEYOPT(3)). UY. The element coordinate system rotates with the nodal coordinate rotations during a large deflection analysis. it is assumed to act in all appropriate coordinate directions.

and MASSZ are concentrated mass components in the element coordinate directions. See also KEYOPT(2)).© SAS IP. Inc. UY if KEYOPT (3) = 4 (degrees of freedom are in the nodal coordinate system) Real Constants MASSX. IZZ. if KEYOPT (3) = 0 MASS.MASS21 UX. MASSY. IZZ. MASSZ. if KEYOPT (3) = 3 MASS. if KEYOPT (3) = 4 (MASSX. . IYY. and IZZ are rotary inertias about the element coordinate axes. Material Properties DENS (if KEYOPT(1) = 1). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. MASSY. if KEYOPT (3) = 2 MASS. ALPD Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Birth and death Large deflection Linear perturbation KEYOPT(1) Real constant interpretation (mass/volume or rotary inertia/density): 0 -Interpret real constants as masses and rotary inertias 1 -Interpret real constants as volumes and rotary inertias/density (Density must be input as a material property) KEYOPT(2) Initial element coordinate system: 0 -Element coordinate system is initially parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is initially parallel to the nodal coordinate system KEYOPT(3) Rotary inertia options: 0 -3-D mass with rotary inertia 2 -3-D mass without rotary inertia 3 -2-D mass with rotary inertia 4 -2-D mass without rotary inertia 140 Release 14. . Inc. IYY.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. IXX. IXX.

Inc. MASSY. Release 14. The standard mass summary printout is based on the average of MASSX. All terms are used during the analysis. MASS21 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. the full matrix is used. and MASSZ if (KEYOPT(3) = 0). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. There is no element solution output associated with the element unless element reaction forces and/or energies are requested. The mass element has no effect on the static analysis solution unless acceleration or rotation is present. ANSYS Professional • The only special feature allowed is large deflection.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. MASS21 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • 2-D elements are assumed to be in a global Cartesian Z = constant plane. In an inertial relief analysis. Inc.MASS21 MASS21 Output Data Nodal displacements are included in the overall displacement solution. 141 . or inertial relief is selected [IRLF].

All rights reserved. Inc.© SAS IP.142 Release 14. .0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .

respectively. 77). See PLANE25 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. or torsion.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 56). 143). shear. and z direction. Figure 1 PLANE25 Geometry v R y ¤¥¦ §x©§ ¤¥¦ ¦§¨©§ s Q u P D ¡ ¢ £ @ringulr yptionA t I ilement oordinte system @shown for iy@IA a IA PLANE25 Input Data The geometry. The element input data includes four nodes. the number of harmonic waves (MODE on the MODE command). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. y. 143 . The MODE and ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. these directions correspond to the radial. node locations. The element is defined by four nodes having three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x. 77) for a description of various loading cases. should be input on a full 360° basis. if any. with directions corresponding to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. and tangential directions. PLANE25 is used for 2-D modeling of axisymmetric structures with nonaxisymmetric loading. For unrotated nodal coordinates. ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as SOLID272 (KEYOPT(6) = 0). The material may be orthotropic. Inc. See PLANE83 for a multi-node version of this element. Examples of such loading are bending. the symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command) and the orthotropic material properties.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc. Harmonically varying nodal forces.0 . Release 14. . axial.PLANE25 Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE25 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis.

PLANE25 Input Summary Nodes I. face 2 (K-J). PRXZ (or NUXY.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. UY. BETD. face 3 (L-K). 51)). Positive pressures act into the element.© SAS IP. ALPX. All rights reserved. ALPZ (or CTEX. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX. PRXY. KEYOPT(3) is used for temperature loading with MODE greater than zero and temperature-dependent material properties. NUYZ. If all other temperatures are unspecified. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE25 Input Summary" (p. If MODE equals zero. 144). PRYZ. T(L) Mode Number Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE) Loading Condition Symmetry condition (MODE) Special Features Birth and death Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Element coordinate system: 144 Release 14. KEYOPT(2) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. GXY. ALPY. For any other input pattern. THSY. KEYOPT(4). DENS. . Inc. Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. and (6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution (p. they default to T(I). K.0 . Inc. Element Input (p. . T(K). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). material properties are always evaluated at the average element temperature.PLANE25 Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. ALPD Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). J. GXZ. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. CTEZ or THSX. NUXZ). 43) gives a general description of element input. EZ. Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. 49). L Degrees of Freedom UX. GYZ. THSZ). EY. T(J). CTEY. Material properties may only be evaluated at a constant (nonharmonically varying) temperature. (5). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. 143).

KEYOPT(2) Extra displacement shapes: 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(3) If MODE is greater than zero. 145 .PLANE25 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side. use temperatures for: 0 -Use temperatures only for thermal bending (evaluate material properties at TREF) 1 -Use temperatures only for material property evaluation (thermal strains are not computed) KEYOPT(4) Extra stress output: 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(5) Combined stress output: 0 -No combined stress solution 1 -Combined stress solution at centroid and nodes KEYOPT(6) Include extra surface output (surface solution valid only for isotropic materials): 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Surface solution for face I-J also 2 -Surface solution for both faces I-J and K-L also PLANE25 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Release 14.0 . All rights reserved.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

I. ISYM = 1 loading case. Figure 2 PLANE25 Stress Output v u s t ¡ ¡ @or xilA @or rdilA ¢t£ess ¤¥£et¥¦ns sh¦wn §£e f¦£ ¨i y¢I© a H© The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. 77) The sign convention on the surface shears is such that for a rectangular element that is lined up parallel to the axes with node J in the positive Y direction from node I. the shear stresses on surfaces I-J and K-L are analogous to the centroidal SYZ in both definition and sign.PLANE25 • Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE25 Element Output Definitions (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. in the MODE = 1. The same occurs for the reaction forces (FX. Solution Output (p. K. In the displacement printout. For more information about harmonic elements. Inc. We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the results. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Stress components which are inherently zero for a load case are printed for clarity. L Material number Definition O Y Y Y R Y Y Y 146 Release 14. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. UX and UY are the peak values at θ = 0° and UZ is the peak value at θ = 90°. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. 146). Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. All rights reserved.0 . For example. see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p.OUT. etc. Table 1 PLANE25 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Element Number Nodes . . 50) gives a general description of solution output. FY.). Inc. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. the UZ component is out-of-phase with the UX and UY components. J. In either the O or R columns. 146). ESOL). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .© SAS IP. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.

These items are output only if KEYOPT(5) = 1. YC S:X. PER.PRXY). hoop) at PK ANG locations Shear stresses (radial-axial. 3 Definition Loading key: 1 = symmetric. perpendicular. radial-hoop) at PK ANG locations Principal stresses at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). only one location is given. Y. These items are printed only if KEYOPT(6) is greater than zero. XZ S:1. Equivalent stress at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). Y.I. 4. Inc. if MODE = 0. . shear) at PK ANG locations and where extreme occurs (EXTR) O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y 1 S:INT 1 1 S:EQV 1 1 EPEL:X. only one location is given. 148) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. SH) S(PAR. only one location is given. hoop. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the Basic Analysis Guide Release 14. T(K). Z.PLANE25 Name ISYM MODE VOLU: PRES TEMP PK ANG XC. Y. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Z. Location where results are reported Direct stresses (radial. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.J. Z. P3 at L. Z. if MODE = 0. axial. 2. hoop. T(L) Angle where component stresses have peak values: 0 and 90/MODE degrees. P2 at K. PER.0 . 147 . P4 at I. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. -1 = antisymmetric Number of waves in loading Volume Pressure P1 at nodes J. Blank if MODE = 0. perpendicular. if MODE = 0. XY EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. YZ. SH) Y 1 2 2 2 Y Y 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1. Stress intensity at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). T(J). All rights reserved. Elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Face label Surface average temperature Surface strains (parallel.L Temperatures T(I). shear) at PK ANG locations and where extreme occurs (EXTR) Surface stresses (parallel. Inc. 3. axial-hoop.K. XY EPTH:EQV FACE TEMP EPEL(PAR. Table 2: PLANE25 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Z S:XY.© SAS IP.

K.K. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE25 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Inc. 148): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE25 Element Output Definitions (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.L sequence number for data at nodes I. .J.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .J. 52) for more information. All rights reserved.L Table 2 PLANE25 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I J K L SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 2 7 THETA = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 4 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3 6 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 5 8 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 THETA = 90/MODE EXTR Values 148 Release 14. 146) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. Inc. .© SAS IP.PLANE25 and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.

KEYOPT(5) = 1. The element must be defined in the global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. 149 . you should use at least two elements through the thickness. Release 14. . Inc.0) loads without significant torsional stresses to generate the stress state used for stress stiffened modal analyses using this element.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. 143) and the global X-axis must be the radial direction. Negative X coordinates should not be used. The element should not be used with the large deflection option.PLANE25 Note The NMISC items (1 thru 60) in the above table represent the combined stress solution.0 . All rights reserved. 51) are met. See Surface Solution for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command. The element assumes a linear elastic material. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. Modeling hint: If shear effects are important in a shell-like structure. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution (p. This element does not support spectrum analysis. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Post-analysis superposition of results is valid only with other linear elastic solutions. PLANE25 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • The area of the element must be positive. Inc. You can use only axisymmetric (MODE. If MODE = 0. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results. • • • • PLANE25 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. their values are zero at THETA = 90/MODE and at EXTR. 39)).

Inc.0 . . . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.150 Release 14. All rights reserved. Inc.

(KEYOPT(2) = 2 or 3). The units of the stiffness constants are Force/Length or Force*Length/Radian and the damping constants. but the combined regular and stress stiffness matrix is positive definite. UZ. ROTZ for node I followed by the same for node J. A structural matrix that combines the effects of many elements is normally positive or zero definite. If one node is not used. If it is desired to input a negative definite element matrix. Force*Time/Length and Force*Length*Time/Radian.© SAS IP. the default. y. as the unsymmetric solvers are designed to solve any system of equations. UY. All matrices generated by this element are 12 by 12. y. Damping. The degrees of freedom are ordered as UX. Figure 1 MATRIX27 Schematic t s uD gD or w MATRIX27 Input Data The node locations and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. The matrix is assumed to relate two nodes. ROTY. All rights reserved. damping.MATRIX27 Stiffness. elements are the springdamper element (COMBIN14). A simple example of such a circumstance is a beam element loaded with half of the buckling load. or mass coefficients in matrix form. and the mass element (MASS21). resulting in a final system of equations is still positive or zero definite. there are no limits on the form of the matrix. When using MATRIX27 with symmetric element matrices (KEYOPT(2) = 0). Inc. the user should set KEYOPT(1) = 1 so that the negative definite checking will be bypassed. but less general. . The stress stiffness matrix is negative definite. or mass matrix constants are input as real constants. Other similar. damping. 151). The mass constants should have units of Force*Time2/Length or Force*Time2*Length/Radian.0 . 151 . The stiffness. as are the element matrices that contribute to it. as long as it is not singular. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. However. The element is defined by two nodes and the matrix coefficients. Release 14. or Mass Matrix MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions MATRIX27 Element Description MATRIX27 represents an arbitrary element whose geometry is undefined but whose elastic kinematic response can be specified by stiffness. There may be unusual circumstances where an element matrix is negative definite. simply let all rows and columns relating to that node default to zero. and this is okay if there are other matrices connected to the same nodes that are positive definite. each with six degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x. ROTX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. positive or zero definite matrices should be input using KEYOPT(1) = 0. and z axes. when using an unsymmetric or skew-symmetric element matrix. See MATRIX27 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.

C144 . All rights reserved. if a simple spring of stiffness K in the nodal x direction is desired....Define the upper triangular portion of the symmetric matrix (if KEYOPT(2) = 0) C1. J Degrees of Freedom UX. ROTY. MATRIX27 Input Summary Nodes I. A summary of the element input is given in "MATRIX27 Input Summary" (p..MATRIX27 The matrix constants should be input according to the matrix diagrams shown in "MATRIX27 Output Data" (p.0 . .Define all terms of the unsymmetric matrix (if KEYOPT(2) = 2) C1.. C2. Inc. C78 . Element Input (p. ALPD Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Birth and death Linear perturbation KEYOPT(1) Matrix form (only works with KEYOPT(2) = 0): 0 -Input positive or zero definite matrices only 1 -Input positive. or negative definite matrices KEYOPT(2) Matrix formulation: 0 -Symmetric matrices (78 constants required) 2 -Unsymmetric matrices(144 constants required) 3 -Skew symmetric matrices (66 constants required) KEYOPT(3) Real constant input data: 152 Release 14. ROTZ Real Constants C1. For example. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the input constants would be C1 = C58 = K and C7 = -K for KEYOPT(2) = 0 and KEYOPT(3) = 4. .Define upper triangular portion (less diagonal terms) if skew symmetric (KEYOPT(2) = 3) Material Properties BETD. Inc. UY. 43) gives a general description of element input.© SAS IP. C66 .. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. zero. UZ. 152). C2. C2. 153). ROTX. .

For KEYOPT(2) = 0. Solution Output (p.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the unsymmetric matrix has the form: Release 14. 153 . .MATRIX27 2 -Defines a 12 x 12 mass matrix 4 -Defines a 12 x 12 stiffness matrix 5 -Defines a 12 x 12 damping matrix KEYOPT(4) Element matrix output: 0 -Do not print element matrix 1 -Print element matrix at beginning of solution phase MATRIX27 Output Data The solution output associated with the element consists of node displacements included in the overall nodal solution. Inc. the symmetric matrix has the form: gI gP gIQ gQ gIR gPR F F F F F F F F gIP gPQ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F gQR F F F F F F F F gRQ F F F F F F F gSI F F F F F F gSV F F F F F gTR F F F F gTW ymmetri F F F gUQ F F gUT F gUV For KEYOPT(2) = 2. There is no element solution output associated with the element unless element reaction forces and/or energies are requested.0 . Inc. 50) gives a general description of solution output. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KEYOPT(4) = 1 causes the element matrix to be printed (for the first substep of the first load step only).

All rights reserved. . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the skew symmetric matrix has the form: ¢ £ ¡¢ ¡£ H ¢¢ H kew ymmetri MATRIX27 Assumptions and Restrictions • Nodes may be coincident or noncoincident. 154 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.MATRIX27 gI gIQ gPS F F F F F F F F gIQQ H gP gIR gPT F F F F F F F F gIQR ¡ H gQ gIS gPU F F F F F F F F gIQS F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ H F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ H F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ H F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ H F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ H F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ H F F F F F F F F F F F F ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦§ H gIP gPR gQT F F F F F F F F gIRR ¡¡ ¢¡ £¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦¨ ¦¦ H For KEYOPT(2) = 3.0 . . Inc.© SAS IP.

ON] all off-diagonal terms must be zero. ANSYS Professional • • • • • Damping and unsymmetric matrices are not allowed. The matrix terms are associated with the nodal degrees of freedom and are assumed to act in the nodal coordinate directions (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. Real constants C79 through C144. for unsymmetric matrices. The BETD material property is not allowed. The birth and death special feature is not allowed. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a note is printed for those cases where this can be easily detected. KEYOPT(3) = 5 is not allowed. KEYOPT(2) can only be set to 0 (default). With a lumped mass matrix [LUMPM. . Inc. 155 . are not applicable.0 .MATRIX27 • • • Since element matrices should normally not be negative definite. Inc. 58)). MATRIX27 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.156 Release 14. Inc. Inc. . . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

56). a thickness. y. J. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. node locations.SHELL28 Shear/Twist Panel MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SHELL28 Element Description SHELL28 is used to carry shear load in a frame structure. 157 . ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area. K. L Release 14. 157). All rights reserved. and z axes. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. See SHELL28 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. SHELL28 Input Summary Nodes I. or rotations about the nodal x. Inc.© SAS IP. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. A summary of the element input is given in "SHELL28 Input Summary" (p. Inc. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. whether or not GXY is entered. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. 157). they default to T(I). The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. For any other input pattern. . If all other temperatures are unspecified. KEYOPT(1) is used to select whether the element should be used as a shear panel or as a twist panel. Figure 1 SHELL28 Geometry v z y s x u rgu t SHELL28 Input Data The geometry. GXY may be entered directly or calculated from EX and either NUXY or PRXY. and z directions. y. 43) gives a general description of element input. Real constant SULT is the ultimate shear stress used for the margin of safety calculation. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Temperatures are used only for material property evaluation. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. The only material properties actually used are GXY and DENS. EX must be input. The element is defined by four nodes. Also.0 . and material properties. Element Input (p. 49).

SHELL28 Degrees of Freedom UX. ROTZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Real Constants THCK . BETD. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.0 . 158 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ROTY. 159) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. T(L) Special Features Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Element behavior: 0 -Shear panel 1 -Twist panel SHELL28 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SHELL28 Element Output Definitions (p. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. UY. PRXY (or NUXY). Inc.Ultimate shear stress ADMSUA . GXY. Solution Output (p. T(K).Added mass/unit area Material Properties EX. Inc.Panel thickness SULT . T(J). . 159). . ALPD Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). 50) gives a general description of solution output.© SAS IP. UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 0 ROTX. DENS.

© SAS IP. K.I.L) SXY(MAX) SMARGN FDIK. FKJ FJK. Table 1 SHELL28 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: SXY XC. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. FLK FKL. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In either the O or R columns. ESOL). FJI FIJ.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.SHELL28 Figure 2 SHELL28 Stress Output psv pvvs pvs s pts v puv pvuv pvu u ptu pvtu pvst pst t put The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. FIL SFLIJ SFLJK SFLKL Element Number Nodes . T(L) Shear stresses at corner nodes Maximum of four corner shear stresses Margin of safety on shear Forces along diagonals I-K and J-L Forces at node I from node L and node J Forces at node J from node I and node K Forces at node K from node J and node L Forces at node L from node K and node I Shear flow on edge I . FDJL FLI. “Y” indicates that the item is always available.0 . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T(J). J. 159 . Inc. ZC TEMP SXY(I. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.K.K Shear flow on edge K . L Material number Volume Average of four corner shear stresses Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I). YC. .J. T(K).J Shear flow on edge J .L Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Release 14. Inc.

Force at node L Moments about diagonals I-K and J-L O 1 1 1 1 1 2 R 1 1 1 1 1 2 The values are output only if KEYOPT(1) = 0 The values are output in place of FDIK and FDJL only if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Table 2: SHELL28 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. MDJL 1. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 160) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.SHELL28 Name SFLLI FZI FZJ FZK FZL MDIK. Definition Shear flow on edge L . Inc. 3. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. .Force at node I Z .I Z .© SAS IP.Force at node J Z . 159) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 SHELL28 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name FDIK (MDIK) FDJL (MDJL) FLI FJI FIJ FKJ FJK FLK FKL FIL FZI FZJ FZK ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 160 Release 14. 2.Force at node K Z . Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 160): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SHELL28 Element Output Definitions (p. . 52) of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 2: SHELL28 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.

Inc. and SHELL281. • • SHELL28 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. you can expect the accuracy of the element to degrade if nonrectangular shapes are used. compression. Its use should be restricted to applications which have historically used such an element. This element is most often used with a latticework of beam or spar elements. SHELL181.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 161 . This element is not recommended for general use. Release 14. ANSYS Professional • The BETD material property is not allowed. bending. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. which automatically combine tension. but no normal stress along the edges. shear. . because it carries only shear (and not tension or compression) loading.SHELL28 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Output Quantity Name FZL SXY SXYI SXYJ SXYK SXYL SXYMAX SMARGN SFLIJ SFLJK SFLKL SFLLI SHELL28 Assumptions and Restrictions • • Zero area elements are not allowed. you should use other shell elements such as SHELL41. This element is based on the premise of having only shear. This condition occurs most often when the elements are numbered improperly. For all other applications.0 . Inc. If this element is used alone it is almost always unstable. Since this is possible only for rectangles. and twisting effects. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. All rights reserved.

Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.162 Release 14. .0 . All rights reserved. Inc.© SAS IP. .

77). 163 . may be included. The MODE and ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. the number of harmonic waves (MODE on the MODE command). full harmonic and full transient method analyses (see the description of the TRNOPT command). are applicable only at nodes that are on the interface.0 . Inc. Typical applications include sound wave propagation and submerged structure dynamics. modal and reduced harmonic analyses. Figure 1 FLUID29 Geometry v Q u uD v R P @or xilA s I @or rdilA t s t ¡¢£ngu¤£¡ ypt¢¥n¦ FLUID29 Input Data The geometry. Acceleration effects. We recommend MU values from kGρ Release 14. The speed of sound ( SONC where k is the bulk modulus of the fluid (Force/Area) and ρo is the mean fluid density (Mass/Volume) (input as DENS). All rights reserved. Experimentally measured values of the boundary admittance for the sound absorbing material may be input as material property MU. the symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command). a reference pressure. the element is also applicable to static. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element is defined by four nodes. The governing equation for acoustics. The element can be used with other 2-D structural elements to perform unsymmetric or damped modal. and the isotropic material properties. 163). but absorption of sound at the interface is accounted for by generating a damping matrix using the surface area and boundary admittance at the interface. such as in sloshing problems. namely the 2-D wave equation. The translations. When there is no structural motion.FLUID29 2-D Axisymmetric Harmonic Acoustic Fluid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID29 Element Description FLUID29 is used for modeling the fluid medium and the interface in fluid/structure interaction problems. node locations. The element has the capability to include damping of sound absorbing material at the interface. has been discretized taking into account the coupling of acoustic pressure and structural motion at the interface. .© SAS IP. The dissipative effect due to fluid viscosity is neglected. The reference pressure (PREF) is used to calculate the element § ) in the fluid is input by sound pressure level (defaults to 20x10-6 N/m2). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Inc. See FLUID29 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. however. The element has four corner nodes with three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and pressure.

Nodal flow rates should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. a corresponding unsymmetric eigensolver [MODOPT] must be used.0 .FLUID29 0. Nodal flow rates. Fluid-structure interfaces (FSI) may be flagged by surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p.0 represents no sound absorption and MU = 1. However. they default to T(I). SFEDELE] removes the flag. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. The surface load label IMPD with a value of unity should be used to include damping that may be present at a structural boundary with a sound absorption lining. 43). face 3 (L-K). SFE] will couple the structural motion and fluid pressure at the interface. A zero value of IMPD removes the damping calculation.Reference pressure Material Properties DENS. . a symmetric eigensolver [MODOPT] may be used within the modal analysis. DENS. SFADELE. SONC. Deleting the FSI specification [SFDELE. even for a modal analysis. 49). face 4 (I-L) 164 Release 14.0 represents full sound absorption. The flag specification should be on the fluid elements at the interface. J.0 to 1. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. See Acoustics in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on the use of the fluid-structure interaction flag. For any other input pattern. SONC and MU are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures. Vertical acceleration (ACELY on the ACEL command) is needed for the gravity regardless of the value of MODE. the absence of coupling between the fluid and structure. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. face 2 (K-J). MU Surface Loads Fluid-structure Interface Flag -face 1 (J-I). UY. may be specified using the F command where both the real and imaginary components may be applied. K. L Degrees of Freedom UX. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. for the coupled (unsymmetric) problem. 164). A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID29 Input Summary" (p. KEYOPT(2) is used to specify the absence of a structure at the interface and. FLUID29 Input Summary Nodes I. MU = 0.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0. values greater than 1. Specifying the FSI label (without a value) [SF. Inc. 163). PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 0 PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 1 Real Constants PREF . SFA. . however. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Since the absence of coupling produces symmetric element matrices. if any.0 are allowed. 76). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. The displacement degrees of freedom (UX and UY) at the element nodes not on the interface should be set to zero to avoid zero-pivot warning messages. Inc. therefore.

face 2 (K-J). 50) gives a general description of solution output. Solution Output (p. Inc.FLUID29 Impedance -face 1 (J-I). 166). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Release 14.© SAS IP. All rights reserved.0 plane (elements must not have positive Y coordinates) FLUID29 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements and pressures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID29 Element Output Definitions (p.0 . 165 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. face 3 (L-K). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. face 4 (I-L) Mode Number Input mode number on MODE command Loading Condition Input for ISYM on MODE command 1 -Symmetric loading -1 -Antisymmetric loading Special Features None KEYOPT(2) Structure at element interface: 0 -Structure present at interface (unsymmetric element matrix) 1 -No structure at interface (symmetric element matrix) KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Planar 1 -Axisymmetric 2 -Axiharmonic KEYOPT(7) Free surface effect: 0 -Do not include sloshing effect 1 -Include sloshing effect on face of elements located on Y = 0. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.0 . and “-” indicates that the item is not available. YC TEMP PRESSURE PG( X. T(K). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. K. Element Number Nodes . Table 2: FLUID29 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. ESOL).© SAS IP.OUT. SUM) VL( X.I. T(J). 52) of this manual for more information.LEVEL 1. Table 1 FLUID29 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. . J. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. Y. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I). Y. Inc. T(L) Average pressure Pressure gradient components and vector sum Fluid velocity components and vector sum Sound pressure level (in decibels) Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y 1 1 Output only if ANTYPE. 166) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.FLUID29 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID29 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. 2. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.HARMIC Available only at centroid as a *GET item. SUM) SOUND PR. 166): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID29 Element Output Definitions (p. Inc. 166) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 FLUID29 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name PGX PGY ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC E 1 2 166 Release 14. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. In either the O or R columns.

Inc. Inc. The mean density and pressure are uniform throughout the fluid.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Analyses are limited to relatively small acoustic pressures so that the changes in density are small compared with the mean density. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM. FLUID29 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. 163). . LEVEL SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 3 4 1 2 3 4 Output Quantity Name FLUID29 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • The area of the element must be positive. All elements must have 4 nodes.0 . 167 . Note that the acoustic pressure is the excess pressure from the mean pressure. There is no mean flow of the fluid. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L nodes (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.ON] is not allowed for this element.FLUID29 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item VLX VLY PRESSURE PGSUM VLSUM SOUND PR. The acoustic pressure in the fluid medium is determined by the wave equation with the following assumptions: – – – – – The fluid is compressible (density changes due to pressure variations). Release 14. Inviscid fluid (no dissipative effect due to viscosity). 39)).© SAS IP.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.0 . .© SAS IP. .168 Release 14. Inc. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

The governing equation for acoustics. . y and z directions and pressure. Inc.O. The element has the capability to include damping of sound absorbing material at the interface as well as damping within the fluid. Acceleration effects. the element is also applicable to modal and reduced harmonic analyses. may be included. Typical applications include sound wave propagation and submerged structure dynamics.FLUID30 3-D Acoustic Fluid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID30 Element Description FLUID30 is used for modeling the fluid medium and the interface in fluid/structure interaction problems. 169 . The translations. The element can be used with other 3-D structural elements to perform unsymmetric or damped modal. The element has eight corner nodes with four degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x. Inc.P I K.L 3 y L x I L J K Pyramid Option Release 14. has been discretized taking into account the coupling of acoustic pressure and structural motion at the interface. however. See FLUID30 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. full harmonic and full transient method analyses (see the description of the TRNOPT command).N. See FLUID220 for a higher order hexahedral option and FLUID221 for a higher order tetrahedral option Figure 1 FLUID30 Geometry 4 5 P O J 6 M 2 N Tetrahedral Option M N I K Z I Y X Surface Coordinate System K.O.N. such as in sloshing problems.P M. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .L J Wedge Option 1 J M.P O. When there is no structural motion.© SAS IP. namely the 3-D wave equation. are applicable only at nodes that are on the interface. All rights reserved.

See Acoustics in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on the use of the fluid-structure interaction flag. 169). 169). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. and VISC are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures.0 . and the isotropic material properties. The dissipative effect due to fluid viscosity can be included (input as MP. Since the absence of coupling produces symmetric element matrices. k G o Nodal flow rates may be specified using the F command where both the real and imaginary components may be applied. Inc. The reference pressure (PREF) is used to calculate the element sound pressure level (defaults to 20x10-6 N/m2). a symmetric eigensolver (MODOPT) may be used within the modal analysis. The surface load label IMPD with a given complex impedance value can be used to include damping that may be present at a structural boundary with a sound absorption lining. which requires a corresponding unsymmetric eigensolver 170 Release 14. if MXWF surfaces have not been flagged manually. SFEDELE] removes the flag. a reference pressure. KEYOPT(2)=1 is used to specify the absence of a structure at the interface and the absence of coupling between the fluid and structure. The sloshing surface must be parallel to the zplane of the global Cartesian system. The FSI interface may be automatically flagged if acoustic elements are adjacent to solid structural elements (except for shell elements) and FSI interfaces have not been flagged manually.© SAS IP. . These impedance boundary conditions may also be applied to a flagged FSI interface. BFA or BFV command with the label JS (in units of mass/length^3/time). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. SFADELE. node locations. which is standard atmospheric pressure in units of N/m2. Both the amplitude and initial phase may be applied so that the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation is solved. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. SFE] will couple the structural motion and fluid pressure at the interface. All rights reserved.FLUID30 FLUID30 Input Data The geometry. The sloshing surface can be flagged by the surface load label FREE. BFL. DENS. The displacement degrees of freedom (UX. When near or far field parameters are required. the reference temperature T0 (TREF command) and the reference static pressure (real constant PSREF) should be defined. Nodal temperatures may be input by body load commands. The nodal static pressure can also be input by the BF command with the Lab = CHRGD. Inc. SFA.VISC). A zero value of IMPD removes the damping calculation. 49). . the surface load label MXWF should be applied to the equivalent source surface. PSREF defaults to 101325. The speed of sound ( ρ ) in the fluid is input by SONC where k is the bulk modulus of the fluid (Force/Area) and ρo is the mean fluid density (Mass/Volume) (input as DENS). The surface load label SHLD with a given amplitude and initial phase angle is used to define a normal sound speed on the exterior surface. For a non-uniform acoustic medium.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Deleting the FSI specification [SFDELE. The flag specification should be on the fluid elements at the interface. SONC. KEYOPT(2)=0 (the default) specifies a coupled (unsymmetric) problem. UY and UZ) at the element nodes not on the interface should be set to zero to avoid zero-pivot warning messages. If all other temperatures are unspecified. Mass sources may be specified using the BF. The element is defined by eight nodes. Fluid-structure interfaces (FSI) may be flagged by surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. Specifying the FSI label (without a value) [SF. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The impedance sheet inside a fluid may be defined using the BF or BFA command with the label IMPD. they default to T(I). The label MXWF may be automatically applied to a PML-acoustic medium interface or exterior surface with the label INF. For any other input pattern.

P Degrees of Freedom UX. 2. or 3 PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 1 Real Constants PREF . normal speed (SHLD). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Inc. UZ. sloshing surface (FREE). and Robin boundary surface (INF): face 1 (J-I-L-K).Reference pressure PSREF . PRFAR. impedance (IMPD). N. PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 0. 43). UY. VISC Surface Loads Fluid-structure interface flag (FSI). KEYOPT(4) is used to specify the existence of perfectly matched layers (PML) to absorb the outgoing sound waves. equivalent source surface (MXWF). Vertical acceleration (ACELZ on the ACEL command) is needed to specify gravity. acoustic incident waves may be specified outside of the model by using the AWAVE command.0 . All rights reserved. 171 .FLUID30 (MODOPT). When the pure scattered formulation is used (HFSCAT). Refer to Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) in the Mechanical APDL High-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for more information about using PML. SONC. The acoustic near. M.and far-field parameters may be calculated by PRNEAR. face 3 (J-K-O-N). face 5 (L-I-M-P). PLNEAR. O. a symmetric eigensolver may also be used for modal analysis (MODOPT) and a symmetric linear equation solver may be used for full harmonic analysis. if free surface effects are present (SF command with the FREE flag). Either the total field or pure scattered field formulation may be used (HFSCAT command). specifying symmetric algorithms in the presence of FSI coupling.© SAS IP. impedance (IMPD). temperature (TEMP) Special Features None KEYOPT(2) Structure at element interface: Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. face 2 (I-J-N-M). FLUID30 Input Summary Nodes I.Reference static pressure Material Properties DENS. or PLFAR. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Mass source (JS).. K. If KEYOPT(2)=2 or 3. These incident waves can be combined with a PML or Robin boundary surface (SF command with the INF flag). static pressure (CHRGD). 171). . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. acoustic incident waves may also be specified inside of the model by using the AWAVE command. For acoustic scattering analysis. even for a modal analysis. Inc. L. A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID30 Input Summary" (p. J. face 4 (K-L-P-O).

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. J. 172). . K.© SAS IP. PRESOL. O. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. and PLESOL).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. YC. Inc.OUT. ZC Element Number Nodes . PRNSOL. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Nodal sound pressure level (SPL) Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID30 Element Output Definitions (p. . L. N. Inc. Table 1 FLUID30 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. ESOL). P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Definition O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 172 Release 14. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. • • A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.FLUID30 0 -FSI interfaces present (unsymmetric element matrix) 1 -Acoustic analysis without FSI interface (symmetric element matrix) 2 -FSI interfaces present for modal analysis (symmetric element matrix) 3 -FSI interfaces present for full harmonic analysis (symmetric element matrix) KEYOPT(4) PML absorbing condition: 0 -Do not include PML absorbing condition 1 -Include PML absorbing condition FLUID30 Output Data The solution output associated with the element consists of the following: • • Nodal displacements and pressures included in the overall nodal solution Nodal velocity for modal and full harmonic or nodal pressure gradient for transient analysis is included in the element nodal solution via standard results output commands with Item = PG (for example.0 . See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. All rights reserved. 50).I. In either the O or R columns. M. PLVECT. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.

T(M).Z. T(N). 52) of this manual for more information. T(J). The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID30 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.Z. . Table 2: FLUID30 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. T(P) O Y Y Y R Y Y Y VL(X.HARMIC Available only at centroid as a *GET item.Y. T(L). All rights reserved. 173 . 2. Inc. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . T(K). Definition T(I). 172) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 FLUID30 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name PGX PGY PGZ VLX VLY VLZ PL2 PRESSURE PGSUM VLSUM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMICS NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 Release 14. T(O).SUM) Average pressure Velocity components and vector sum for modal and harmonic analysis or pressure gradient components and vector sum for transient analysis Fluid velocity components and vector sum Sound pressure level (in decibels) Square of the L2 norm of pressure over element volume Output only if ANTYPE.Y.FLUID30 Name TEMP PRESSURE PG(X.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.SUM) SOUND PR.© SAS IP. Inc. LEVEL PL2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 173): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID30 Element Output Definitions (p. 173) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.

A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P nodes (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. FLUID30 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. • The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM. The element may not be twisted such that it has two separate volumes. LEVEL NMISC E 4 Output Quantity Name FLUID30 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • The element must not have a zero volume. 169) or may have planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. Element nodes may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. A tetrahedron or pyramid shape is also available. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 39)). Analyses are limited to relatively small acoustic pressures so that the changes in density are small compared with the mean density. Inc. Inc.FLUID30 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SOUND PR.ON] is not allowed for this element.© SAS IP. Note that the acoustic pressure is the excess pressure from the mean pressure.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This occurs usually when the element nodes are not in the correct sequence. 174 Release 14. All elements must have 8 nodes. The symmetric matrix formulation (KEYOPT(2) = 2) is not allowed for coupled modal analysis with viscous material.0 . The acoustic pressure in the fluid medium is determined by the wave equation with the following assumptions: – – – – • • The fluid is compressible (density changes due to pressure variations). There is no mean flow of the fluid. All rights reserved. .

Inc.T(J)4) where: σ = Stefan-Boltzmann Constant (SBC) (defaults to 0. and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (SBC). the value is input as a real constant. The emissivity may be temperature dependent. the emissivity. If it is constant. . a radiating surface area. See LINK31 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.119 x 10-10 (BTU/Hr*in2* °R4) ε = emissivity F = geometric form factor A = area (Length)2 q = heat flow rate (Heat/Time) Release 14. and the coordinate system for this radiation element are shown in Figure 1 (p. If it is temperature dependent. 175). temperature. a geometric form factor. For axisymmetric problems. at each node. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The emissivity may be constant or temperature (absolute) dependent.© SAS IP. the values are input for the material property EMIS and the real constant value is used only to identify the material property number. In this case the MAT value associated with element is not used. The link has a single degree of freedom. 175 . All rights reserved. An empirical relationship allowing the form factor and area to multiply the temperatures independently is also available.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The standard radiation function is defined as follows: q = σ εFA(T(I)4 . the radiation area should be input on a full 360° basis. node locations. The element is defined by two nodes. Figure 1 LINK31 Geometry t s LINK31 Input Data The geometry.0. Inc. The radiation element is applicable to a 2-D (plane or axisymmetric) or 3-D.0 .LINK31 Radiation Link MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions LINK31 Element Description LINK31 is a uniaxial element which models the radiation heat flow rate between two points in space. If the model containing the radiation element is also to be analyzed structurally. the radiation element should be replaced by an equivalent (or null) structural element. EMIS defaults to 1. steady-state or transient thermal analysis.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 43).Emissivity (If EMISSIVITY = -n.T(J)) where the [ ]p term is evaluated at the temperature of the previous substep. temperature definition) SBC . Inc. J Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA . use material n for emissivity vs. .Geometric form factor EMISSIVITY ..© SAS IP.Radiating surface area FORM FACTOR . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. both TUNIF and TOFFST should not be zero).Stefan-Boltzmann constant Material Properties EMIS (required only if EMISSIVITY = -N) Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Birth and death Nonlinear KEYOPT(3) Radiation equation: 0 -Use standard radiation equation 1 -Use empirical radiation equation 176 Release 14.0 . LINK31 Input Summary Nodes I.AT(J)4) where F and A are arbitrary input constants.LINK31 The nonlinear temperature equation is solved by a Newton-Raphson iterative solution based on the form: [(T(I)2 + T(J)2)(T(I) + T(J))]p(T(I) . 176). Inc. . All rights reserved. An empirical radiation function of the following form may also be selected with KEYOPT(3): q = σ ε(FT(I)4 .e. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. The initial temperature should be near the anticipated solution and should not be zero (i. A summary of the element input is given in "LINK31 Input Summary" (p.

Inc. hr. 52) of this manual for more information. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.LINK31 The Stefan-Boltzmann constant (SBC) defaults to 0.0 . ESOL). 177 . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. in. 178): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: LINK31 Element Output Definitions (p.© SAS IP. Element Number Nodes . Table 2: LINK31 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. YC. All rights reserved. ZC EMIS(I. Inc.OUT. 177) The heat flow rate is positive from node I to node J.I. 178) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 177) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Release 14. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. . J) HEAT RATE 1. In either the O or R columns. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. J Temperatures .1190E-10 with units of Btu. °R (or °F if TOFFST is used) LINK31 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: LINK31 Element Output Definitions (p. J) TEMP(I.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. J Material number AREA Location where results are reported Emissivity . The following notation is used in Table 2: LINK31 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.I.I. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Table 1 LINK31 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. 50). J Heat flow rate from node I to node J Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

inches. Other data input for this analysis must be consistent with this set of units or an appropriate conversion factor should be included in the radiation element's real constants.LINK31 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 LINK31 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name HEAT RATE TEMPI TEMPJ EMISI EMISJ AREA FORM FACTOR ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 LINK31 Assumptions and Restrictions • If the default Stefan-Boltzmann constant is used.0 . . Nodes may or may not be coincident. 178 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. An iterative solution is required with this element.© SAS IP. • • LINK31 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Inc. hours and °R (or °F + TOFFST). the units associated with this element are Btu. All rights reserved.

© SAS IP. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. and the coordinate system for this conducting bar are shown in Figure 1 (p. temperature. 179).LINK33 3-D Conduction Bar MP ME <> PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions LINK33 Element Description LINK33 is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See LINK33 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. The conducting bar is applicable to a steadystate or transient thermal analysis. 49). . Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. All rights reserved. If the model containing the conducting bar element is also to be analyzed structurally. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. Figure 1 LINK33 Geometry t s x LINK33 Input Data The geometry. 43). 179). The thermal conductivity is in the element longitudinal direction.0 . Inc. node locations. A summary of the element input is given in "LINK33 Input Summary" (p. The element has a single degree of freedom.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. J Release 14. The element is defined by two nodes. the bar element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element. LINK33 Input Summary Nodes I. at each node point. a cross-sectional area. and the material properties. 179 . The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). Inc.

YC. Inc. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. ESOL). DENS. C. .Cross-sectional area Material Properties KXX. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Inc. In either the O or R columns.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 50). ENTH Surface Loads None Body Loads Heat Generation -HG(I). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. HG(J) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPTS None LINK33 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: LINK33 Element Output Definitions (p. 180) The heat flow rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive from node I to node J. Table 1 LINK33 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.OUT. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. ZC LENGTH AREA Element Number Nodes . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Length Input area Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y 180 Release 14.LINK33 Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA .0 . . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.I.

A free end of the element (i. 52) of this manual for more information. so nodes I and J must not be coincident.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 180) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 LINK33 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name HEAT RATE TEMPI TEMPJ THERMAL FLUX LENGTH AREA ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 LINK33 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • Heat is assumed to flow only in the longitudinal element direction. The following notation is used in Table 2: LINK33 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Inc.e. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.I. The element must not have a zero length. Definition Temperatures . 181) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.LINK33 Name TEMP(I. J) HEAT RATE THERMAL FLUX 1. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. 181): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: LINK33 Element Output Definitions (p. J Heat flow rate from node I to node J Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) O Y Y Y R Y Y Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item. LINK33 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. 181 . Release 14. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. Table 2: LINK33 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. ..0 .

. Inc. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.182 Release 14. .

The element has a single degree of freedom. Figure 1 LINK34 Geometry t s LINK34 Input Data The geometry and node locations for this convection element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The convection function is defined as follows: q = hf*A*E*(T(I) . All rights reserved. 183 . the convection element should be replaced by an equivalent (or null) structural element. and a film coefficient.T(J)) where: q = heat flow rate (Heat/Time) hf = film coefficient (Heat/Length2*Time*Deg) A = area (Length2) T = temperature (this substep) (Deg) E = empirical convection term = F*ITp(I) .0 . In an axisymmetric analysis the convection area must be expressed on a full 360° basis. a convection surface area.Tp(J)In + CC/hf Tp = temperature (previous substep) (Deg) n = empirical coefficient (EN) CC = input constant Release 14. If the model containing the convection element is also to be analyzed structurally. temperature.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element is defined by two nodes. at each node point. two empirical terms. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. . See LINK34 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 183).LINK34 Convection Link MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions LINK34 Element Description LINK34 is a uniaxial element with the ability to convect heat between its nodes. The convection element is applicable to a 2-D (plane or axisymmetric) or 3-D. The element may have a nonlinear film coefficient which may also be a function of temperature or time. The empirical terms n (input as EN) and CC determine the form of the convection equation in conjunction with KEYOPT(3). Inc.

J Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA .0 is assumed for F.0 . 43). the F value input in this field will ramp within a load step if KBC = 0.Input constant Material Properties HF Surface Loads Convections -1 .0 unless KEYOPT(3) = 2.Alternate input of HF and F if KEYOPT(3) = 2 (see text above) Body Loads Heat Generation -HG(I). If the F value is zero (or blank) or negative. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. . This option uses the VAL1 field of the SFE command with KVAL = 0 for the hf value and KVAL = 2 for the F value. A summary of the element input is given in "LINK34 Input Summary" (p. An SFE command must be included (even if the values are left blank) for all LINK34 elements having KEYOPT(3) = 2. If the hf value is zero (or blank). Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. F = 1. 184). HG(J) Special Features Birth and death Nonlinear if real constant EN is not equal to zero or if KEYOPT(3) = 3 KEYOPT(2) Evaluation of film coefficient: 0 -Use average of T(I) and T(J) to evaluate HF 184 Release 14.© SAS IP. Note.Convection surface area EN . a value of 1. If KEYOPT(3) = 3. Inc. A special option obtained with KEYOPT(3) = 2 allows an alternate input for hf and an input scale factor (F). E equals the larger of ITp(I) .LINK34 Note E = F if n and CC = 0.Tp(J)In or CC/hf. The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). the HF material property is used for hf. . All rights reserved. LINK34 Input Summary Nodes I. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes.Empirical coefficient CC . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0.

© SAS IP. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.T(J)| to evaluate HF KEYOPT(3) Film coefficient and scale factor: 0 -Standard element input and empirical term 2 -Use alternate input for HF and F (input with SFE command) 3 -Use discontinuous empirical term LINK34 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: LINK34 Element Output Definitions (p. YC H AREA TEMP HEAT RATE Element Number Nodes .OUT. Inc.LINK34 1 -Use greater of T(I) or T(J) to evaluate HF 2 -Use lesser of T(I) or T(J) to evaluate HF 3 -Use differential |T(I) .I. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. In an axisymmetric analysis. 185 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. the heat flow is on a full 360° basis. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 185) The heat flow rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive from node I to node J. 50). Table 1 LINK34 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES XC. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In either the O or R columns. . J Location where results are reported Film coefficient (includes empirical term) Input area Temperature at node I and node J Heat flow rate from node I to node J Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Release 14. ESOL). All rights reserved. Inc. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.0 .

Table 2: LINK34 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. (Only 2 iterations are performed if the element is linear.© SAS IP. the first term of E is defined to be zero. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. always performs an iterative solution. 52) of this manual for more information. the solver always assumes the element is nonlinear and. Inc.) LINK34 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. 186): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: LINK34 Element Output Definitions (p. 185) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Since all unspecified nodal temperatures are initially set to the uniform temperature. All rights reserved. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. a nonzero value of n may result in no heat flowing through the element in the first substep of a thermal solution. The following notation is used in Table 2: LINK34 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. . The element is nonlinear if n is nonzero or KEYOPT(3) = 3. . ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. Nodes may or may not be coincident. However.0 . 186) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. therefore.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J Table 2 LINK34 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name HEAT RATE TEMP H AREA ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 I 2 J 3 - LINK34 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • If Tp(I) = Tp(J) and n are nonzero. 186 Release 14.LINK34 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

The element may be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. they default to HG(I). The triangular shape makes it well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). 187 . If the model containing this element is also to be analyzed structurally. 187). See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. An edge with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. along that edge. each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.0 . Figure 1 PLANE35 Geometry u P Q x w @or xilA s @or rdilA I t v PLANE35 Input Data The geometry. 49).© SAS IP.PLANE35 2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE35 Element Description PLANE35 is a 6-node triangular element compatible with the 8-node PLANE77 element. The element has one degree of freedom. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. temperature. 56). The 6-node thermal element is applicable to a 2-D. See PLANE35 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. at each node. Release 14. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified. rather than parabolically. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. node locations. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. . and all others are unspecified.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. 187). the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE183). Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. Inc.

For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. HG(M). N Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. L. C.0 . face 3 (I-K) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). M. J. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. KYY. HG(N) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) Specific heat matrix: 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric PLANE35 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE35 Element Output Definitions (p. DENS. HG(L). 76). 188). 43). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. PLANE35 Input Summary Nodes I. face 2 (K-J). 188 Release 14. Inc. . HG(J). applied heat flux is positive into the element. K. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG(K). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. ENTH Surface Loads Convection or Heat Flux (but not both) and Radiation (using Lab = RDSF) -face 1 (J-I). 50).© SAS IP. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. 189) For an axisymmetric analysis the face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360° basis. .PLANE35 A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE35 Input Summary" (p.

Table 1 PLANE35 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. Table 2: PLANE35 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. J. YC HGEN TG:X. Inc. SUM TF:X. 190) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.© SAS IP. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Y. 2.PLANE35 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. K. L. SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG Element Number Nodes . M. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. N Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide Release 14.OUT. HG(L). All rights reserved.0 .I. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. ESOL). Y. HG(J).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. HG(N) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. HG(K). . 189 . If a surface load has been input Available only at centroid as a *GET item. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. HG(M). In either the O or R columns.

A free surface of the element (i.0 . along that face. rather than parabolically.© SAS IP. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . . The element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. 187) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. 189) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCN sequence number for solution items for element Face N Table 2 PLANE35 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 PLANE35 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • The area of the element must be positive.PLANE35 and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Inc. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will require a fine mesh at the surface. 52) of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE35 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.. A face with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. 190 Release 14. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. All rights reserved.e. Inc. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements. PLANE35 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. 190): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE35 Element Output Definitions (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Inc. The element input data includes three nodes and the following real constants (see "SOURC36 Input Summary" (p.Arc z SOURC36 Input Data The geometry. All rights reserved. 2 for Bar. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p.Coil y J I DY b) Type 2 . 192)): TYPE Source type .. node locations. Inc. number of turns times current per turn). Figure 1 SOURC36 Geometry y y x CUR J I DY K DY z I CUR DZ DZ a) Type 1 .© SAS IP. Release 14. . See SOURC36 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.0 . 191).SOURC36 Current Source MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions SOURC36 Element Description SOURC36 is a primitive (consisting of predefined geometries) used to supply current source data to magnetic field problems.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. CUR Total current flowing through source (i. The element represents a distribution of current in a model employing a scalar potential formulation (degree of freedom MAG).use 1 for Coil.e. The currents are used to calculate a source magnetic field intensity (Hs) using a numerical integration technique involving the Biot-Savart law.Bar CUR x K x J z K DZ c) Type 3 . The Hs term is used in the formulation as a magnetic load on the model. 3 for Arc. 191 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Inc. is available within the ANSYS command set. As a modeling aid. DY. . K (nodes I. EPS See Table 1: SOURC36 Real Constants (p. This macro enables the user to build a racetrack conductor from SOURC36 primitives. current flow direction.0 . In the case of circular sources (coils. (Blank). DZ. Inc. 192). Defaults to 0. A summary of the element input is given in "SOURC36 Input Summary" (p. EPS does not apply for bar sources. (Blank). (Blank). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. EPS Convergence criterion for source field (Hs) calculations for arc and coils. and orient the source) Degrees of Freedom None Real Constants TYPE. DZ Characteristic z dimension for source type. EPS represents the relative maximum difference in the field Hs calculated at any node during the iterative calculation of the source field. a magnetic command macro. J. . 192) for a description of the real constants.© SAS IP.001. Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPTS None Table 1 SOURC36 Real Constants No.SOURC36 DY Characteristic y dimension for source type. RACE. the length is determined from the first two nodes (I. arcs) the radius is determined from the first and third nodes (I.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. CUR. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Characteristic dimensions described above are in the element coordinate system. (Blank). J). All rights reserved. 43). SOURC36 Input Summary Nodes I. The macro is discussed in further detail in the Command Reference and in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. For bar sources. 1 Name TYPE Source type Description 192 Release 14. J and K define the characteristic length. K).

is available within the ANSYS command set.. For the arc (type 3) the subtended angle must be less than 180°.00005). All currents for a magnetostatic model employing the scalar potential formulation must be specified. Source element cannot have a zero inside radius (Radius ≠ DY/2 for types 1 and 3). the criteria may have to be tightened (i. no symmetry may be employed on the current source elements.001) provides for good accuracy in regions outside of the source primitive location. The nodes for this element need not be attached to any other elements. When you specify an arc using three points.© SAS IP. a factor of 20 increase would be represented by EPS = . SOURC36 Output Data The source element has no output of its own since it is used only to supply current source data to magnetic field problems. 8 9 DY DZ (Blank) EPS Convergence criteria for Hs calculations Name CUR Characteristic Y dimension Characteristic Z dimension Description Total current through source As a modeling aid. All source element nodes should be located a least 1E-6 units apart. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.e. Whereas symmetry conditions on the finite element model may be employed. Inc.SOURC36 No. The default value (. All rights reserved.0 . For the coil and the arc (types 1 and 3). Users concerned with accurate calculations within the coil and arc source primitive domain should experiment with the criteria until satisfied with the degree of accuracy obtained. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. 2 3 4 5 . ANSYS will always use the angle that is less than 180°. Inc. This macro enables the user to build a racetrack conductor from SOURC36 primitives.. the K-I line determines the radius (and the x axis) and the J node orients the x-y plane. RACE. For highly accurate calculations within the source primitive domain. Release 14. The third node must not be colinear with the first two nodes. SOURC36 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • The source element must have characteristic DY or DZ values that are greater than zero. • • • SOURC36 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. a magnetic command macro. The macro is discussed in further detail in the Command Reference and in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. Tightening the convergence criteria will significantly increase the solution run time. 193 . The EPS convergence criterion is a measure of the relative difference in the calculated Hs field used during an iterative numerical integration procedure for coil and arc source primitives.

Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.194 Release 14. Inc. .0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. .

several nonlinear constants (C1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element is defined by two pairs of nodes.0 . Other input values are stiffness (STIF). it may be useful to give node J a slightly greater coordinate value than node I. thus. these being active nodes (I. Similar unidirectional elements (without remote control capability) are COMBIN14. 1 if explicitly on). 0 if determined from starting value of control parameter. C3. damping coefficient (DAMP). OFFVAL). if nodes I and J are interchanged. 195). and a limiting sliding force (FSLIDE). controlling flow resistance as a function of pressure (relief valve). concentrated nodal masses (MASI. The element has many applications.COMBIN37 Control MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions COMBIN37 Element Description COMBIN37 is a unidirectional element with the capability of turning on and off during an analysis. Certain parameters associated with the control nodes are used to determine whether the control element is part of the structure (on) or not (off ) and. . and COMBIN40. for visualization purposes. Generally in the cases using UX. or temperature. Thus. Inc. UY. initial on/off element status (START: -1 if explicitly off. 195 . such as controlling heat flow as a function of temperature (thermostat). Release 14. element load (AFORCE: positive pulls node I in the positive nodal coordinate direction. L). Figure 1 COMBIN37 Geometry pvshi s wes ¡yg¢ t wet u } ¥ontrol xodes £ ¤ v yp¦§¨¦© i §i¨¦ ©y©¨¦m ¢y@QA a P ©hw COMBIN37 Input Data The functioning of this element is shown in Figure 1 (p. C4). The element has one degree of freedom at each node. etc. rotation about a nodal coordinate axis. it is recommended to have the active nodes be coincident as this eliminates the possibility of moment disequilibrium. The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I will stretch the spring. All rights reserved. controlling friction as a function of displacement (friction clutch). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. the same nodal motions will compress the spring. controlling damping as a function of velocity (mechanical snubber). MASJ). See COMBIN37 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. pressure. Inc. and pulls node J in the negative nodal coordinate direction). can be used to disconnect regions of the model during time dependent or iterative analyses. J) and optional control nodes (K. C2. or UZ as the active degrees of freedom. on/off control values (ONVAL. However. either a translation in a nodal coordinate direction. COMBIN39.

Also. force*time/length or moment*time/rotation for damping. 43). When the element is active and used in structural analyses. the control parameter is based only upon node K. 200). a rigid connection is assumed.COMBIN37 The FSLIDE value represents the absolute value of the spring force that must be exceeded before sliding occurs. the integral of the value. units are force/length or moment/rotation for stiffness. selected with the KEYOPT(3) option. The KEYOPT(1) option assigns to the parameters of the control nodes either the value of the degree of freedom. mass. J) have only one degree of freedom each. MASS21. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element is either on or off depending on the position of the control parameter with respect to the values of ONVAL and OFFVAL. and vice-versa). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. stiffness represents flow conductance with units of length2/time. in analyses with pressure degrees of freedom. If FSLIDE is 0. the sliding capability of the element is removed.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If node L is not defined. Inc. the element can exhibit nonlinear behavior according to the function: RVMOD = RVAL + C1|CPAR|C2 + C3|CPAR|C4. Also. the element's status depends on the direction of the CPAR (i. when used in combination with ONVAL and OFFVAL. In addition. where RVMOD is the modified value of an input real constant value RVAL (identified by KEYOPT(6)). The control nodes (K. If ONVAL = OFFVAL = 0.e. Inc. mass represents thermal capacitance with units of heat/degrees. for example: u P u v u u v v v P o ∫ t Control nodes need not be connected to any other element. 197). control nodes K and L need not be defined. All rights reserved. The active nodes (I.0. and element load represents heat flow with units of heat/time. A summary of the element input is given in "COMBIN37 Input Summary" (p. stiffness represents conductance and has units of heat/time*degrees. set the control behavior of the element. and force or moment for element load. FSLIDE modified to a negative value is set to zero.© SAS IP. For thermal analyses with temperature degrees of freedom.0 (or blank). RVMOD may also be defined by user subroutine USERRC and is accessed by KEYOPT(9) = 1. . on going from on to off. or time. note that when KEYOPT(4) = 0 and the control parameter (CPAR) is within the ONVAL/OFFVAL interval. As illustrated in Figure 2 (p. In a field analysis. Stiffness. For structural analyses. the element acts like any other spring/damper/mass element (such as COMBIN14. If time is the control parameter (KEYOPT(1)). Note.0 . C1 through C4 are other real constants. the on/off capability is ignored and the element is always active. L) can have the same. that is.. degree of freedom as specified with KEYOPT(2). or a different. damping. the first or second derivative of the value. force*time2/length or moment*time2/rotation for mass. . the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement. and CPAR is the control parameter (see KEYOPT(1)). and element load should be defined on a full 360° basis for axisymmetric analyses. the KEYOPT(4) and KEYOPT(5) options. 196 Release 14. and COMBIN40).

DAMP. UZ. C4. L (or I. AFORCE. OFFVAL. J. . ROTX. J. START. UY. K or I.© SAS IP. C1. 1 -UX (Displacement along nodal X axes) 2 -UY (along nodal Y) Release 14.COMBIN37 COMBIN37 Input Summary Nodes I. C3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. MASJ. ROTZ. 199) for a description of the real constants Material Properties ALPD. All rights reserved. or TEMP (depending on KEYOPT(2) and KEYOPT (3) below) Real Constants STIF. ROTY. PRESS. FSLIDE See Table 1: COMBIN37 Real Constants (p. J) Degrees of Freedom UX. MASI. C2.0 . 197 . ONVAL. 1 -Control on value (UK-UL) (or UK if L not defined) 2 -Control on first derivative of value with respect to time 3 -Control on second derivative of value with respect to time 4 -Control on integral of value with respect to time (zero initial condition assumed) 5 -Control on time value (KEYOPT(2) and nodes K and L ignored) KEYOPT(2) Degree of freedom for control nodes (K and L): N -Use degree of freedom N as listed for KEYOPT(3) (defaults to KEYOPT(3)) KEYOPT(3) Degree of freedom for active nodes (I and J): 0. BETD Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Adaptive descent Nonlinear KEYOPT(1) Control parameter: 0. K. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

200)): 0 -Overlapping ranges 1 -Unique ranges KEYOPT(5) ON-OFF position behavior (see Figure 2 (p.© SAS IP. .0 . (Both STIF and FSLIDE cannot be zero). . 200)): 0 -OFF-either-ON (or OFF-ON-OFF if unique) 1 -ON-either-OFF (or ON-OFF-ON if unique) KEYOPT(6) Real constants used for RVMOD function (used if C1 or C3 is not equal to zero. Inc. 2 -Use DAMP 3 -Use MASJ 4 -Use ONVAL 5 -Use OFFVAL 6 -Use AFORCE 7 -Use MASI 8 -Use FSLIDE 198 Release 14. see "COMBIN37 Input Data" (p. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 195)): 0. All rights reserved. 1 -Use STIF for nonlinear function.COMBIN37 3 -UZ (along nodal Z) 4 -ROTX (rotation about nodal X axes) 5 -ROTY (about nodal Y) 6 -ROTZ (about nodal Z) 7 -PRESS 8 -TEMP KEYOPT(4) ON-OFF range behavior (see Figure 2 (p.

the element forces are expressed on a full 360° basis. . 201).COMBIN37 KEYOPT(9) Method to define nonlinear behavior: 0 -Use RVMOD expression for real constant modifications 1 -Real constants modified by user subroutine USERRC Note See the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features information about user written subroutines Table 1 COMBIN37 Real Constants No.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 199 . Inc. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. STATUS and OLDST indicate if the element is on or off at the end of the current and previous substeps. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element value STRETCH is the relative deflection at the end of the substep less the amount of sliding (e. Release 14. The active nodal displacements and forces correspond to the degree of freedom selected with the KEYOPT(3) option.. Inc. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name STIF DAMP MASJ ONVAL OFFVAL AFORCE MASI START C1 C2 C3 C4 FSLIDE Spring stiffness Damping coefficient Nodal mass at node J "ON" control value "OFF" control value Element load Nodal mass at node I Initial on/off element status First scalar in RVMOD equation First exponent in RVMOD equation Second scalar in RVMOD equation Second exponent in RVMOD equation Limiting sliding force Description COMBIN37 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions (p.0 . For axisymmetric analysis. respectively. UJ-UI-SLIDE). 50). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.g.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ESOL). All rights reserved. 200 Release 14.© SAS IP.OUT. . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.0 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.COMBIN37 Figure 2 COMBIN37 Behavior as a Function of Control Parameter ypp yx ypp ui @RA a H nd ui @SA a H yx yx ypp ypp yx yppev yxev g¡e g¦se of yppev ≤ yxev yxev yppev ¢£¤¥ g¦se of yppev > yxev yx yx ypp ui @RA a H nd ui @SA a I yx ypp yx ypp ypp yppev yxev g¡e g¦se of yppev ≤ yxev ui @RA a I nd ui @SA a H ypp yx ypp yxev yppev g¡e g¦se of yppev > yxev ui @RA a I nd ui @SA a I yx ypp yx yppev yxev §or yxev¨ §or yppev¨ g¡e yppev yxev §or yxev¨ §or yppev¨ g¡e The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Inc.

COMBIN37 In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not available.

**Table 2 COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions
**

Name EL ACTIVE NODES CONTROL NODES XC, YC, ZC CONTROL PARAM STAT OLDST UI UJ UK UL STRETCH SFORCE AFORCE SLSTAT OLDSLS SLIDE 1. Element Number Nodes - I, J Nodes - K, L Location where results are reported CPAR value (see KEYOPT(1)) of the control nodes Element status STAT value of the previous time step Displacement of node I Displacement of node J Displacement of node K Displacement of node L Relative displacement Spring force in element Applied force in the element Sliding status Sliding status value of the previous time step Amount of sliding Definition O Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 R Y Y Y 5 Y 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4

If the value of the element status is: 0 - OFF 1 - ON

2.

For the thermal and fluid options, analogous items are output. Thermal option output items TEMPI, TEMPJ, TEMPK, TEMPL, DELTEMP, SHEAT, and AHEAT and fluid option output items PRESI, PRESJ, PRESK, PRESL, DELPRES, SFLOW, and AFLOW are respectively analogous to output items UI, UJ, UK, UL, STRETCH, SFORCE, and AFORCE. Output only if FSLIDE is greater than zero. If the value of the sliding status is: 0 - No sliding 1 - Sliding right (node J moving to right of node I) -1- Sliding left (node J moving to left of node I)

3.

4. 5.

If FSLIDE is greater than zero Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

201

COMBIN37 Table 3: COMBIN37 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 202) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 52) of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 3: COMBIN37 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 202): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions (p. 201) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data

**Table 3 COMBIN37 Item and Sequence Numbers
**

Output Quantity Name SFORCE AFORCE STAT OLDST SLSTAT OLDSLS STRETCH UI UJ UK UL CPAR SLIDE ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Analogous thermal and fluid option output items use the same item and sequence numbers. See footnote 2 (p. 201) of Table 2: COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions (p. 201).

**COMBIN37 Assumptions and Restrictions
**

• • • • • • The element may have only one degree of freedom per node which is specified in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. 58)). The element assumes only a one-dimensional action. Nodes I and J may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). No moment effects are included due to noncoincident nodes. That is, if the nodes are offset from the line of action, moment equilibrium may not be satisfied. The nonlinear capabilities of the element operate only in static and nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. If used in other analysis types, the element maintains its initial status (on or off ), throughout the analysis.

202

COMBIN37 • • • The real constants for this element are not allowed to be changed from their initial values. The element can not be deactivated with the EKILL command. Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

**COMBIN37 Product Restrictions
**

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS Structural • • KEYOPT(2) = 8 is not allowed. KEYOPT(3) = 8 is not allowed.

203

204

FLUID38

Dynamic Fluid Coupling MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions

**FLUID38 Element Description
**

FLUID38 is used to represent a dynamic coupling between two points of a structure. The coupling is based on the dynamic response of two points connected by a constrained mass of fluid. The points represent the centerlines of concentric cylinders. The fluid is contained in the annular space between the cylinders. The cylinders may be circular or have an arbitrary cross-section. The element has two degrees of freedom per node: for example, translations in the nodal x and z directions. The axes of the cylinders are then assumed to be in the nodal y directions. The element may be used in any structural dynamic analysis. For certain cases the axisymmetric harmonic fluid element, FLUID81 (with MODE = 1), can also be used. See FLUID38 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.

**Figure 1 FLUID38 Geometry
**

foundry I pluid egion foundry P y I P sD t y

x sD t

x

z girulr rossEsetion

z eritrry rossEsetion

**FLUID38 Input Data
**

The node locations and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. 205). The element is defined by two nodes and several real constants. The real constants are defined in Table 1: FLUID38 Real Constants (p. 207). KEYOPT(3) is used to select the form of the fluid coupling element. The form of the element determines the real constants required, the material properties (if any), and the matrices calculated. The density is input as material property DENS and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures. The damping matrix is calculated only if F is nonzero. KEYOPT(6) is used to select the direction of operation for the element. If KEYOPT(6) = 1, the X and Y labels used in this description should be interchanged. Similarly, if KEYOPT(6) = 3, interchange the Z and Y labels. A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID38 Input Summary" (p. 206). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. 43).

205

FLUID38

**FLUID38 Input Summary
**

Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UZ if KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 2, or UY, UZ if KEYOPT(6) = 1, or UX, UY if KEYOPT(6) = 3 Real Constants If KEYOPT(3) = 0: R2, R1, L, F, DX, DZ, WX, WZ If KEYOPT(3) = 2: M2, M1, MHX, MHZ, DX, DZ, WX, WZ, CX, CZ See Table 1: FLUID38 Real Constants (p. 207) for a description of the real constants Material Properties DENS if KEYOPT (3) = 0 None if KEYOPT (3) = 2 Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperature -T(I), T(J) Special Features None KEYOPT(3) Cross-section of cylinders: 0 -Concentric circular cylinders 2 -Concentric arbitrary cylinders KEYOPT(6) Flow axis parallel to: 0, 2 -Nodal Y axis (UX, UZ degrees of freedom) 1 -Nodal X axis (UX, UZ degrees of freedom)

206

FLUID38 3 -Flow axis parallel to nodal Z axis (UX, UY degrees of freedom)

**Table 1 FLUID38 Real Constants
**

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R2 R1 L F DX DZ WX WZ M2 M1 MHX MHZ DX DZ WX WZ CX CZ Name Description Radius of outer cylinder (length); node J refers to outer boundary Radius of inner cylinder (length); node I refers to inner boundary Length of cylinders Darcy friction factor for turbulent flow Estimate of maximum relative amplitude DX Estimate of maximum relative amplitude DZ Estimate of resonant X frequency (Rad/Time) Estimate of resonant Z frequency (Rad/Time) Mass of fluid that could be contained within the outer boundary (Boundary 2) in absence of inner boundary. Mass of fluid displaced by the inner boundary (Boundary 1) Hydrodynamic mass in X direction Hydrodynamic mass in Z direction Estimate of maximum relative amplitude DX Estimate of maximum relative amplitude DZ Estimate of resonant X frequency (Rad/Time) Estimate of resonant Z frequency (Rad/Time) Flow and geometry constant for X motion (mass/lenght) Flow and geometry constant for Z motion (mass/length)

Concentric Circular Cylinders: KEYOPT(3) = 0

Concentric Arbitrary Cylinders: KEYOPT(3) = 2

**FLUID38 Output Data
**

There is no element solution output associated with the element unless element reaction forces and/or energies are requested.

**FLUID38 Assumptions and Restrictions
**

• • • • • The element operates in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. 58)). No fluid coupling exists in the flow axis direction. The element has no nodal coordinate system transformation to account for nonparallel nodal coordinate systems. Nodes I and J may be located anywhere in space (preferably coincident). The lumped mass option [LUMPM] is not available with this element.

207

FLUID38

**FLUID38 Product Restrictions
**

There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

208

COMBIN39

Nonlinear Spring MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions

**COMBIN39 Element Description
**

COMBIN39 is a unidirectional element with nonlinear generalized force-deflection capability that can be used in any analysis. The element has longitudinal or torsional capability in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D applications. The longitudinal option is a uniaxial tension-compression element with up to three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. No bending or torsion is considered. The torsional option is a purely rotational element with three degrees of freedom at each node: rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. No bending or axial loads are considered. The element has large displacement capability for which there can be two or three degrees of freedom at each node. See COMBIN39 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. The element has no mass or thermal capacitance. These may be added by using the appropriate elements (see MASS21 and MASS71). A bilinear force-deflection element with damping and gaps is also available (COMBIN40).

Figure 1 COMBIN39 Geometry

p e Q P I s t EWW EP EI R H vyi h S WW @hxD pxA

EQ @hID pIA

sf ui y@RA a HD opertes in nodl oordinte system

**COMBIN39 Input Data
**

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. 209). The element is defined by two (preferably coincident) node points and a generalized force-deflection curve. The points on this curve (D1, F1, etc.) represent force (or moment) versus relative translation (or rotation) for structural analyses, and heat (or flow) rate versus temperature (or pressure) difference for a thermal analyses. The loads should be defined on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis.

209

COMBIN39 The force-deflection curve should be input such that deflections are increasing from the third (compression) to the first (tension) quadrants. Adjacent deflections should not be nearer than 1E-7 times total input deflection range. The last input deflection must be positive. Segments tending towards vertical should be avoided. If the force-deflection curve is exceeded, the last defined slope is maintained, and the status remains equal to the last segment number. If the compressive region of the force-deflection curve is explicitly defined (and not reflected), then at least one point should also be at the origin (0,0) and one point in the first (tension) quadrant. If KEYOPT(2) = 1 (no compressive resistance), the forcedeflection curve should not extend into the third quadrant. Note that this tension-only behavior can cause convergence difficulties similar to those that can be experienced by contact elements. See the Contact Technology Guide, as well as various contact element descriptions, for guidelines on overcoming convergence difficulties. Note that the number of points defining the loading curve (20 points) can be effectively doubled by using the reflective option. Slopes of segments may be either positive or negative, except that the slopes at the origin must be positive and, if KEYOPT(1) = 1, slopes at the ends may not be negative. Also, if KEYOPT(1) = 1, forcedeflection points may not be defined in the second or fourth quadrants and the slope of any segment may not be greater than the slope of the segment at the origin in that quadrant. The KEYOPT(1) option allows either unloading along the same loading curve or unloading along the line parallel to the slope at the origin of the curve. This second option allows modeling of hysteretic effects. As illustrated in Figure 2 (p. 213), the KEYOPT(2) option provides several loading curve capabilities. The KEYOPT(3) option selects one degree of freedom. This may be a translation, a rotation, a pressure or a temperature. Alternately, the element may have more than one type of degree of freedom (KEYOPT(4) > 0). The two nodes defining the element should not be coincident, since the load direction is colinear with the line joining the nodes. The longitudinal option (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 3) creates a uniaxial tension-compression element with two or three translational degrees of freedom at each node. No bending or torsion is considered. The torsional option (KEYOPT(4) = 2) creates a purely rotational element with three rotational degrees of freedom at each node. No bending or axial loads are considered. The stress stiffening capability is applicable when forces are applied, but not when torsional loads are applied. The element has large displacement capability with two or three degrees of freedom for each node when you use KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 3 in combination with NLGEOM,ON. Convergence difficulties caused by moving through rapid changes of the slope (tangent) of the forcedeflection diagram are sometimes helped by use of line search (LNSRCH,ON). A summary of the element input is given in "COMBIN39 Input Summary" (p. 210). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. 43).

**COMBIN39 Input Summary
**

Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, or TEMP. Make 1-D choices with KEYOPT(3). Make limited 2- or 3-D choices with KEYOPT(4).

210

COMBIN39 Real Constants D1, F1, D2, F2, D3, F3, D4, F4, ..., D20, F20 See Table 1: COMBIN39 Real Constants (p. 212) for a description of the real constants Material Properties BETD Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Large displacement Nonlinear Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Unloading path: 0 -Unload along same loading curve 1 -Unload along line parallel to slope at origin of loading curve KEYOPT(2) Element behavior under compressive load: 0 -Compressive loading follows defined compressive curve (or reflected tensile curve if not defined) 1 -Element offers no resistance to compressive loading 2 -Loading initially follows tensile curve then follows compressive curve after buckling (zero or negative stiffness) KEYOPT(3) Element degrees of freedom (1-D) (KEYOPT(4) overrides KEYOPT(3)): 0, 1 -UX (Displacement along nodal X axes) 2 -UY (Displacement along nodal Y axes) 3 -UZ (Displacement along nodal Z axes) 4 -ROTX (Rotation about nodal X axes) 5 -ROTY (Rotation about nodal Y axes)

211

COMBIN39 6 -ROTZ (Rotation about nodal Z axes) 7 -PRES 8 -TEMP KEYOPT(4) Element degrees of freedom (2-D or 3-D): 0 -Use any KEYOPT(3) option 1 -3-D longitudinal element (UX, UY and UZ) 2 -3-D torsional element (ROTX, ROTY and ROTZ) 3 -2-D longitudinal element. (UX and UY) Element must lie in an X-Y plane KEYOPT(6) Element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Also print force-deflection table for each element (only at first iteration of problem)

**Table 1 COMBIN39 Real Constants
**

No. 1 2 3 4 5, ... 40 Name D1 F1 D2 F2 D3, F3, etc. Description D value for the first point on force-deflection curve F value for the first point on force-deflection curve D value for the second point on force-deflection curve F value for the second point on force-deflection curve Continue input of D and F values up to a maximum of 20 points on the force-deflection curve

**COMBIN39 Output Data
**

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: COMBIN39 Element Output Definitions (p. 214)

The nodal displacements and forces correspond to the degrees of freedom selected with KEYOPT(3). For an axisymmetric analysis, the element forces are expressed on a full 360° basis. The element value STRETCH is the relative deflection at the end of the substep (e.g., UX(J) - UX(I) - UORIG, etc.). STAT and OLDST describe the curve segment number at the end of the current and previous substeps, respectively. STAT or OLDST = 0 indicates nonconservative unloading (KEYOPT(1) = 1). A status of 99 or -99 (as shown

212

COMBIN39 in Figure 1 (p. 209)) indicates that the active load point on the curve is outside of the supplied data. The slope of the last segment that is provided is simply continued beyond the last data point. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. 50). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

**Figure 2 COMBIN39 Force-Deflection Curves
**

p p p

@A h

@A h

@A h

refleted or defined uiy@IA a H @onservtiveA uiy@PA a H uiy@IA a H uiy@PA a I uiy@IA a H uiy@PA a P

for initil p p p loding

@A h

@A h

@A h refleted

uiy@IA a I @nononservtiveA uiy@PA a H

uiy@IA a I uiy@PA a I

uiy@IA a I uiy@PA a P

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.

213

COMBIN39 In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not available.

**Table 2 COMBIN39 Element Output Definitions
**

Name EL NODES XC, YC, ZC UORIG FORCE STRETCH STAT OLDST UI UJ CRUSH SLOPE 1. 2. Element Number Nodes - I, J Location where results are reported Origin shift upon reversed loading Force in element Relative displacement (includes origin shift) Status at end of this time step Same as STAT except status assumed at beginning of this time step Displacement of node I Displacement of node J Status of the force deflection curve after buckling Current slope Definition O Y Y Y 1 Y Y 2 2 Y Y 3 Y R Y Y 4 1 Y Y 2 2 Y Y -

If KEYOPT(1) = 1 If the value of STAT is: 0 - Indicates nonconservative unloading 1-20 - Curve segment number at end of time step 99 - Beyond last segment (last segment is extrapolated) (negative STAT values indicate compressive segments)

3.

If KEYOPT(2) = 2 and if the value of CRUSH is: 0 - Use defined tensile curve 1 - Use reflected compressive curve in tension (element has been compressed)

4.

Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

Table 3: COMBIN39 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 215) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 52) of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 3: COMBIN39 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 215): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: COMBIN39 Element Output Definitions (p. 214) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command

214

COMBIN39 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data

**Table 3 COMBIN39 Item and Sequence Numbers
**

Output Quantity Name FORCE STRETCH UI UJ UORIG STAT OLDST ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 6

**COMBIN39 Assumptions and Restrictions
**

• If you specify KEYOPT(4) = 0, the element has only one degree of freedom per node. This degree of freedom defined by KEYOPT(3), is specified in the nodal coordinate system and is the same for both nodes (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. 58)). KEYOPT(3) also defines the direction of the force. Nodes I and J may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). If you specify KEYOPT(4) ≠ 0, the element has two or three displacement degrees of freedom per node. Nodes I and J should not be coincident, since the line joining the nodes defines the direction of the force. The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to put the element in tension. The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. The nonlinear behavior of the element operates only in static and nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. As with most nonlinear elements, loading and unloading should occur gradually. When the element is also nonconservative, loads should be applied along the actual load history path and in the proper sequence. The element can not be deactivated with the EKILL command. The real constants for this element can not be changed from their initial values. Whenever the force that the element carries changes sign, UORIG is reset, and the origin of the forcedeflection curve effectively shifts over to the point where the force changed sign. If KEYOPT(2) = 1 and the force tends to become negative, the element "breaks" and no force is transmitted until the force tends to become positive again. When KEYOPT(1) = 1, the element is both nonlinear and nonconservative. In a thermal analysis, the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement.

•

• • • • • • • •

• •

215

COMBIN39

**COMBIN39 Product Restrictions
**

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS Structural • KEYOPT(3) = 8 (temperature DOF) is not allowed.

216

COMBIN40

Combination MP ME ST PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions

**COMBIN40 Element Description
**

COMBIN40 is a combination of a spring-slider and damper in parallel, coupled to a gap in series. A mass can be associated with one or both nodal points. The element has one degree of freedom at each node, either a nodal translation, rotation, pressure, or temperature. The mass, springs, slider, damper, and/or the gap may be removed from the element. The element may be used in any analysis. See COMBIN40 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Other elements having damper, slider, or gap capabilities are COMBIN14, MATRIX27, COMBIN37, and COMBIN39.

**Figure 1 COMBIN40 Geometry
**

uI pvshi w or wGP s qe w or wGP t g ype tes in n¡dl ¡¡ dinte system

uP

**COMBIN40 Input Data
**

The combination element is shown in Figure 1 (p. 217). The element is defined by two nodes, two spring constants K1 and K2 (Force/Length), a damping coefficient C (Force*Time/Length), a mass M (Force*Time2/Length), a gap size GAP (Length), and a limiting sliding force FSLIDE (Force). (Units listed here apply only to KEYOPT(3) = 0, 1, 2, or 3.) If the element is used in an axisymmetric analysis, these values (except GAP) should be on a full 360° basis. A spring constant of 0.0 (for either K1 or K2, but not both) or a damping coefficient of 0.0 will remove these capabilities from the element. The mass, if any, may be applied at node I or node J or it may be equally distributed between the nodes. The gap size is defined by the fourth element real constant. If positive, a gap of this size exists. If negative, an initial interference of this amount exists. If GAP = 0.0, the gap capability is removed from the element. The FSLIDE value represents the absolute value of the spring force that must be exceeded before sliding occurs. If FSLIDE is 0.0, the sliding capability of the element is removed, that is, a rigid connection is assumed. A "breakaway" feature is available to allow the element stiffness (K1) to drop to zero once a limiting force |FSLIDE| has been reached. The limit is input as -|FSLIDE| and is applicable to both tensile breaking and compressive crushing. A "lockup" feature may be selected with KEYOPT(1). This feature removes the gap opening capability once the gap has closed.

217

COMBIN40 The force-deflection relationship for the combination element is as shown in Figure 2 (p. 220) (for no damping). If the initial gap is identically zero, the element responds as a spring-damper-slider element having both tension and compression capability. If the gap is not initially zero, the element responds as follows: when the spring force (F1+F2) is negative (compression), the gap remains closed and the element responds as a spring-damper parallel combination. As the spring force (F1) increases beyond the FSLIDE value, the element slides and the F1 component of the spring force remains constant. If FSLIDE is input with a negative sign, the stiffness drops to zero and the element moves with no resisting F1 spring force. If the spring force becomes positive (tension), the gap opens and no force is transmitted. In a thermal analysis, the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement. The element has only the degrees of freedom selected with KEYOPT(3). The KEYOPT(3) = 7 and 8 options (pressure and temperature DOFs) allow the element to be used in a thermal analysis (with thermal equivalent real constants). A summary of the element input is given in "COMBIN40 Input Summary" (p. 218). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. 43).

**COMBIN40 Input Summary
**

Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, or TEMP (depending on KEYOPT(3) below) Real Constants Units for real constants will depend on the KEYOPT(3) setting. K1 - Spring constant C - Damping coefficient M - Mass GAP - Gap size FSLIDE - Limiting sliding force K2 - Spring constant (par to slide)

Note

If GAP is exactly zero, the interface cannot open. If GAP is negative, there is an initial interference. If FSLIDE is exactly zero, the sliding capability is removed. If FSLIDE is negative, the "breakaway" feature is used. Material Properties ALPD, BETD Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Adaptive descent

218

COMBIN40 Nonlinear (unless both GAP and FSLIDE equal zero) KEYOPT(1) Gap behavior: 0 -Standard gap capability 1 -Gap remains closed after initial contact ("lockup") KEYOPT(3) Element degrees of freedom: 0, 1 -UX (Displacement along nodal X axes) 2 -UY (Displacement along nodal Y axes) 3 -UZ (Displacement along nodal Z axes) 4 -ROTX (Rotation about nodal X axes) 5 -ROTY (Rotation about nodal Y axes) 6 -ROTZ (Rotation about nodal Z axes) 7 -PRES 8 -TEMP KEYOPT(4) Element output: 0 -Produce element printout for all status conditions 1 -Suppress element printout if gap is open (STAT = 3) KEYOPT(6) Mass location: 0 -Mass at node I 1 -Mass equally distributed between nodes I and J 2 -Mass at node J

**COMBIN40 Output Data
**

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

219

COMBIN40 • • Nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Figure 2 (p. 220)

Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. 220). The displacement direction corresponds to the nodal coordinate direction selected with KEYOPT(3). The value STR is the spring displacement at the end of this substep, STR = U(J)-U(I)+GAP-SLIDE. This value is used in determining the spring force. For an axisymmetric analysis, the element forces are expressed on a full 360° basis. The value SLIDE is the accumulated amount of sliding at the end of this substep relative to the starting location. STAT describes the status of the element at the end of this substep for use in the next substep. If STAT = 1, the gap is closed and no sliding occurs. If STAT = 3, the gap is open. If STAT = 3 at the end of a substep, an element stiffness of zero is being used. A value of STAT = +2 indicates that node J moves to the right of node I. STAT = -2 indicates a negative slide. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. 50). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

**Figure 2 COMBIN40 Behavior
**

pI

pv hi sf ¡¢£s¤¥ positive sf qe a HFH sf ¡¢£s¤¥ negtive

@uAt E @uAs C qe

k I pv hi

¦for g a uP a HFHD nd initil loding§

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not available.

**Table 1 COMBIN40 Element Output Definitions
**

Name EL NODES XC, YC, ZC Nodes - I, J Location where results are reported Definition Element Number O Y Y Y R Y Y 2

220

COMBIN40 Name SLIDE F1 STR1 STAT OLDST UI UJ F2 STR2 1. Definition Amount of sliding Force in spring 1 Relative displacement of spring 1 Element status STAT value of the previous time step Displacement of node I Displacement of node J Force in spring 2 Relative displacement of spring 2 If the value of STAT is: 1 - Gap closed (no sliding) 2 - Sliding right (node J moving to right of node I) -2 - Sliding left (node J moving to left of node I) 3 - Gap open 2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. O Y Y Y 1 1 Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y 1 1 Y Y Y Y

Table 2: COMBIN40 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 221) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 52) of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Table 2: COMBIN40 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 221): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: COMBIN40 Element Output Definitions (p. 220) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data

**Table 2 COMBIN40 Item and Sequence Numbers
**

Output Quantity Name F1 F2 STAT OLDST STR1 STR2 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4

221

COMBIN40 Output Quantity Name UI UJ SLIDE ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC E 5 6 7

**COMBIN40 Assumptions and Restrictions
**

• • • • The element has only one degree of freedom per node which is specified in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System (p. 58)). The element assumes only a 1-D action. Nodes I and J may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to open the gap. If, for a given set of conditions, nodes I and J are interchanged, the gap element acts as a hook element, i.e., the gap closes as the nodes separate. The real constants for this element can not be changed from their initial values. The element can not be deactivated with the EKILL command. The nonlinear options of the element operate only in static and nonlinear transient dynamic (TRNOPT,FULL) analyses. If used in other analysis types, the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis. A 0.0 value for GAP or FSLIDE removes the gap or sliding capability, respectively, from the element. The mass, if any, is 1-D. The element requires an iterative solution if GAP and/or FSLIDE are nonzero. A stiffness (K1 or K2) must be defined if the gap capability is used. Unreasonably high stiffness values should be avoided. The rate of convergence may decrease as the stiffness increases. If FSLIDE is not equal to zero, the element is nonconservative as well as nonlinear. Nonconservative elements require that the load be applied very gradually, along the actual load history path, and in the proper sequence (if multiple loadings exist). Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

• • • • • • • • •

•

**COMBIN40 Product Restrictions
**

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS Professional Structural Analysis: • • • No damping capability; CV1 and CV2 are not allowed. Only stress stiffening and large deflections are allowed. KEYOPT(3) = 7 or 8 is not allowed.

222

COMBIN40 • • The BETD material property is not allowed. FSLIDE and K2 not allowed.

ANSYS Structural • KEYOPT(3) = 7 and 8 (pressure and temperature DOFs) are not allowed.

223

224

SHELL41

Membrane Shell MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions

**SHELL41 Element Description
**

Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as SHELL181 (KEYOPT(1) = 1 or KEYOPT(3) = 2). SHELL41 is a 3-D element having membrane (in-plane) stiffness but no bending (out-of-plane) stiffness. It is intended for shell structures where bending of the elements is of secondary importance. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element has variable thickness, stress stiffening, large deflection, and a cloth option. See SHELL41 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.

**Figure 1 SHELL41 Geometry
**

zst z P v y T x Q I xst ¡ ringulr yption yst R uDv S u

¡

xIJ = Element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied. x = Element x-axis if ESYS is supplied.

**SHELL41 Input Data
**

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. 225). The element is defined by four nodes, four thicknesses, a material direction angle and the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. 56). The element x-axis may be rotated by an angle THETA (in degrees).

225

SHELL41 The element may have variable thickness. The thickness is assumed to vary smoothly over the area of the element, with the thickness input at the four nodes. If the element has a constant thickness, only TK(I) need be input. If the thickness is not constant, all four thicknesses must be input. The elastic foundation stiffness (EFS) is defined as the pressure required to produce a unit normal deflection of the foundation. The elastic foundation capability is bypassed if EFS is less than, or equal to, zero. ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. 49). Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. 225). Positive pressures act into the element. Because shell edge pressures are input on a per-unit-length basis, per-unit-area quantities must be multiplied by the shell thickness. The pressure loading is converted to equivalent element loads applied at the nodes. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Use KEYOPT(1) for a tension-only option. This nonlinear option acts like a cloth in that tension loads will be supported but compression loads will cause the element to wrinkle. You should not use this “cloth” option to model cloth materials, since real cloth materials do contain some bending stiffness. You can use the cloth option to efficiently model regions where wrinkling is to be approximated, such as for shear panels in aircraft structures. Wrinkling for this type of application may be in one (or both) orthogonal directions. If you do need to model a real cloth material, you can use the cloth option to simulate the tension part of the loading, but you will need to superimpose a very thin regular shell element to include a bending stiffness for the material. Superimposing a thin shell may also aid solution stability. Any out-of-planeness within the element or round off-error in nodal location may cause an instability in the displacement solution. To counteract this, a slight normal stiffness may be added to the element with the EFS real constant. KEYOPT(2) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. KEYOPT(4) provides various element printout options (see Element Solution (p. 51)). A summary of the element input is given in "SHELL41 Input Summary" (p. 226). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. 43).

**SHELL41 Input Summary
**

Nodes I, J, K, L Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ Real Constants TK(I), TK(J), TK(K), TK(L), THETA, EFS, ADMSUA See Table 1: SHELL41 Real Constants (p. 228) for a description of the real constants Material Properties EX, EY, PRXY or NUXY, ALPX, ALPY (or CTEX, CTEY or THSX,THSY), DENS, GXY, ALPD, BETD (X-direction defined by THETA real constant)

226

SHELL41 Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom, in +Z direction), face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top, in -Z direction), face 3 (J-I), face 4 (K-J), face 5 (L-K), face 6 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L) Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Large deflection Nonlinear (if KEYOPT(1) = 2) Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Element stiffness behavior: 0 -Stiffness acts in both tension and compression 2 -Stiffness acts in tension, collapses in compression ("cloth" option) KEYOPT(2) Extra displacement shapes: 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shape KEYOPT(4) Extra stress output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic printout at integration points 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(5) Member force output: 0 -No member force printout 1 -Print member forces in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(6) Edge output (isotropic material):

227

SHELL41 0 -No edge printout 1 -Edge printout for midpoint of side I-J 2 -Edge printout for midpoints of both sides I-J and K-L

Note

Edge printout valid only for isotropic materials

**Table 1 SHELL41 Real Constants
**

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name TK(I) TK(J) TK(K) TK(L) THETA EFS ADMSUA Shell thickness at node I Shell thickness at node J (defaults to TK(I)) Shell thickness at node K (defaults to TK(I)) Shell thickness at node L (defaults to TK(I)) Element x-axis rotation Elastic foundation stiffness Added mass/unit area Description

**SHELL41 Output Data
**

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: SHELL41 Element Output Definitions (p. 229)

Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. 229). The element stress directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Edge stresses are defined parallel and perpendicular to the IJ edge (and the KL edge). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. 50). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

228

Inc. T(L) Stresses Principal stress Stress intensity Equivalent stress Average elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 4 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Release 14. L.SHELL41 Figure 2 SHELL41 Stress Output zst z v u y yu x s t xst xIJ = Element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied. XY EPEL:EQV Element Number Nodes . and “-” indicates that the item is not available.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Z.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. I.OUT. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.I. P4 at K. T(J). “Y” indicates that the item is always available. ZC PRES TEMP S:X. In either the O or R columns. YC.0 . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. L Material number Surface area Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes I. 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X. J. K. K. Y. Y. Z. J. P3 at J. K. XY S:1. Table 2 SHELL41 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC. J. P2 at I. x = Element x-axis if ESYS is supplied. J. L. ESOL). 2. K. P6 at I. L Temperatures T(I). T(K). 229 . P5 at L.

231) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. if KEYOPT(4) = 1 Output at each node. S(X. Inc. Z. PER. 3. The element status is given by the following values: 0 .Collapse in both directions 3. S(X.Tension in both (orthogonal) directions 1 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. Y. Y. SEQV TEMP. OLD STATUSES TEMP EPEL(PAR. SINT. Y.SHELL41 Name EPTH:X. Edge I-J output. Z) SINT SEQV FX. SEQV TEMP. Z). Available only at centroid as a *GET item. S(PAR.Tension in one direction.0 . Z). SEQV FX. 2. . XY).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. if KEYOPT(4) = 2 Output if KEYOPT(6) = 2 Output at each node (in the element coordinate system) if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Table 4: SHELL41 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Definition Average thermal strain Equivalent thermal strain Diagonal tension angles (degrees) between element x-axis and tensile stress directions Element statuses at end of this time step Element statuses at end of previous time step Edge average temperature Edge elastic strains (parallel. All rights reserved. Z) S(PAR. XY EPTH:EQV ANGLES CURRENT STATS. . PER. Names of Items Output TEMP. FZ O 1 2 3 4 R - Output at each integration point. FY. collapse in other direction 2 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide 230 Release 14. PER. Inc. PER. 4. Table 3 SHELL41 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Stress Solution Nodal Stress Solution Edge K-L Member Forces 1. perpendicular. SINT. Z. if KEYOPT(6) is greater than zero. FZ 1. XY). FY. perpendicular. Z) Edge stresses (parallel. Z) Edge stress intensity Edge equivalent stress Nodal forces O Y Y 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 R Y Y 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 Y Output at the integration points only if KEYOPT(1) = 2 (meaningful only if STAT = 1) Output at the integration points only if KEYOPT(1) = 2. Z. 4. EPEL(PAR. SINT.

L sequence number for data at nodes I. Inc.K. 39)). 229) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. however. Zero area elements are not allowed. a small out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a slightly warped shape. 231): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: SHELL41 Element Output Definitions (p. 231 . . Release 14.SHELL41 and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .© SAS IP. The following notation is used in Table 4: SHELL41 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 52) of this manual for more information.K. If the warping is too severe. a fatal message results and a triangular element should be used (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.J. A slightly warped element will produce a warning message. Inc.J.L Table 4 SHELL41 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name FX FY FZ P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV Output Quantity Name ANGLE STAT ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I J K L SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 3 13 17 22 27 1 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 14 18 21 24 6 7 8 9 10 7 8 9 15 19 23 26 11 12 13 14 15 10 11 12 16 20 25 28 16 17 18 19 20 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item 1 NMISC NMISC 21 22 Corner Location 2 23 24 3 25 26 4 27 28 SHELL41 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • The four nodes defining the element should lie in an exact flat plane.

SHELL41 • • • • • • TK(I) must not be zero. The element must not taper down to a zero thickness at any corner. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. otherwise singularities may develop in the direction perpendicular to the plane. The triangular shape is required for large deflection analyses since a four-node element may warp during deflection. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. Stress stiffening will help stabilize the solution after the first substep if the membrane element is in a tension field.© SAS IP. but each flat element should not extend over more than a 15° arc. . Inc. SHELL41 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. 232 Release 14. Modeling hints: • • • An assembly of SHELL41 elements describing a flat plane should be exactly flat. 39)).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Edge stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution (p. Inc.0 . An assemblage of flat elements can produce an approximation to a curved surface. . 51) are met. All rights reserved. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results.

SOLID96. With the thermal degree of freedom steady-state or transient analyses (linear or nonlinear) may be done. Inc. Nonzero material properties must be defined. The enveloped (or enclosed) element types may be the SOLID5. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element is defined by 4 nodes. in general. See INFIN47 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. KEYOPT(2) can be used to keep an unsymmetric matrix from being made symmetric. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The element may be a 4-node quadrilateral or a 3-node triangle with a magnetic potential or temperature degree of freedom at each node. 233). Figure 1 INFIN47 Geometry ∞ D ¡ ∞ u v s t ∞ ∞ £ ¢ ringulr yption INFIN47 Input Data The geometry.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 39). . unsymmetric. The coefficient matrix of this boundary element is. ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as INFIN111. or SOLID98 magnetic elements or the SOLID70. 43). INFIN47 is used to model an open boundary of a 3-D unbounded field problem. 233 . and the material properties. 234). Inc.© SAS IP. SOLID90 or SOLID87 thermal solid elements. The matrix is made symmetric by averaging the off-diagonal terms to take advantage of a symmetric solution with a slight decrease in accuracy.INFIN47 3-D Infinite Boundary MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions INFIN47 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. With the magnetic degree of freedom the analysis may be linear or nonlinear static. Release 14. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. A summary of the element input is given in "INFIN47 Input Summary" (p. node locations. The element x-axis is parallel to the I-J side of the element. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p.

INFIN47 Assumptions and Restrictions • • The 4 nodes defining the element should lie as close as possible to a flat plane. L Degrees of Freedom MAG if KEYOPT(1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Real Constants None Material Properties MUZRO if KEYOPT(1) = 0. (has default value for MKS units or can be set with the EMUNIT command).© SAS IP. All rights reserved. however. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a moderate out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a somewhat warped shape. Inc.0 . 39)). Inc. J.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . triangular elements should be used (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. 234 Release 14. KXX if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Surface Loads None Body Loads None Element Printout None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Element degree(s) of freedom: 0 -Magnetic option 1 -Thermal option KEYOPT(2) Coefficient matrix: 0 -Make the coefficient matrix symmetric 1 -Coefficient matrix is used as generated (symmetric or unsymmetric. An excessively warped element will produce a warning message. . depending on the problem) INFIN47 Output Data The boundary element has no output of its own since it is used only to provide a semi-infinite boundary condition to a model consisting of other elements. K. In the case of warping errors.INFIN47 INFIN47 Input Summary Nodes I.

and SOLID98. the following restrictions apply: • • • • This element does not have magnetic field capability.0). KEYOPT(1) defaults to 1 (TEMP) instead of 0 and cannot be changed.INFIN47 • • • Shell element warping is described in detail in Warping Factor in Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. SOLID87. D. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. The element assumes that the degree of freedom (DOF) value at infinity is always zero (0. ANSYS Emag • • • • This element has only magnetic field capability. isotropic. • • • • • • • • • • • INFIN47 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. The MAG degree of freedom is not active. When used in a model with higher order elements SOLID90. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Acute or wide intersection angles should be avoided by "filling-in" the model with the other elements so that the line of boundary elements around the model is smooth and concave when viewed from the global coordinate system origin. The exterior semi-infinite domain is assumed to be homogeneous.© SAS IP.0 . 235 . KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 (default). Zero area elements are not allowed. J and K. The semi-infinite volume is assumed to be bound on five sides (four. That is. and does not have thermal capability. . and linear without containing any sources or sinks. K and L. The surface of boundary elements need not totally surround the model. The material property MUZRO is not allowed. the DOF value at infinity is not affected by TUNIF. Inc. If KEYOPT(2) = 1. the midside nodes of these elements must be removed at the interface with INFIN47 [EMID]. Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. and K and I if triangular). if triangular) defined from the global coordinate system origin through nodes I and J. The only active degree of freedom is MAG. ANSYS Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled. The boundary element should be as normal as possible to the radial surfaces. The only allowable material property is MUZERO.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The surface of boundary elements should be located away from the region of interest of the enclosed elements for better accuracy. if triangular) by the boundary element and by four semi-infinite radial surfaces (three. share the same nodes). J and K. or other load commands. the matrices are presumed to be unsymmetric. The boundary element must lie "against" an enclosed element (that is. and L and I (nodes I and J. The origin of the global coordinate system must be inside the model and as centrally located as possible. Inc. All rights reserved.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.236 Release 14. Inc. .0 .© SAS IP. . All rights reserved.

If a superelement load vector has a zero scale factor (or is not scaled at all).MATRIX50 Superelement (or Substructure) MP ME ST PR PRN <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions MATRIX50 Element Description MATRIX50 is a group of previously assembled ANSYS elements that is treated as a single element. 237). has no fixed geometrical identity and is conceptually shown in Figure 1 (p. However. . SE reads the superelement from Jobname. The load label is input as SELV. Up to 31 load vectors may be generated. The superelement can greatly decrease the cost of many analyses.BETD] or electrical permittivity [MP.SUB (defaults to File. Release 14. Inc. 237 . The load vector number is determined from the load step number associated with the superelement generation. An element load vector is generated along with the element at each load step of the superelement generation pass. The scale factor is input on the element surface load command [SFE]. the load key is the load vector number. The degrees of freedom are the master degrees of freedom specified during the generation pass.SUB) in the working directory. The SE command is used to define a superelement. Load vectors may be proportionately scaled in the use pass. Figure 1 MATRIX50 Schematic uD wD g hegree of preedom MATRIX50 Input Data The superelement. they are stored in a file and can be used in other analyses the same way any other ANSYS elements are used. The element name is MATRIX50 (the number 50 or the name MATRIX50 should be input for the variable ENAME on the ET command). KVAL determines whether the load vector is real or imaginary. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Any analysis using a superelement as one of its element types is called a superelement use pass (or run). this load vector is not included in the analysis. The superelement.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The material number [MAT] is only used when material dependent damping [MP. Any number of load vector-scale factor combinations may be used in the use pass. The real constant table number [REAL] is not used.PERX] is an input. Multiple load vectors may also be stored with the superelement matrices. Once the superelement matrices have been formed. may be included in any ANSYS model and used in any analysis type for which it is applicable. which is a mathematical matrix representation of an arbitrary structure. Inc. See MATRIX50 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. thereby allowing various loading options.0 . All rights reserved. the appropriate element type number [TYPE] must be entered. and the load value is the scale factor.© SAS IP. once generated.

BETD. PERX Surface Loads Surface load effects may be applied through a generated load vector and scale factors. Special Features Large rotation Radiation (if KEYOPT(1) = 1) KEYOPT(1) Element behavior: 0 -Normal substructure 1 -Special radiation substructure KEYOPT(3) Load vector update with large rotations (NLGEOM.ON): 0 -Load vector(s) rotate with the substructure as it rotates 238 Release 14. 238). . you can use KEYOPT(3) to specify whether the load vectors associated with this element type rotates with the element (as you would for a pressure load) or remains in the original (unrotated) direction (as you would for a non-follower force load). Use the SFE command to supply scale factors with LAB = SELV. such as for radiation.0 . the radiation matrix generator. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. and VAL1 = scale factor. 43).ON). LKEY = load vector number (31 maximum). Body Loads Body loads may be applied through a generated load vector and scale factors as described for surface loads. all load vectors (if multiple load vectors) are rotated or left unrotated. Inc. MATRIX50 Input Summary Nodes None input (supplied by element) Degrees of Freedom As determined from the included element types (a mixture of multi-field degrees of freedom is not allowed) Real Constants None Material Properties ALPD. You can use KEYOPT(4) to indicate that the superelement was generated with constraints (D) so that it cannot translate or rotate freely in the use pass as expected (although you can apply constraints in the use pass to the master degrees of freedom to prevent such motion. A summary of the element input is given in "MATRIX50 Input Summary" (p.© SAS IP.SUB for this case may be constructed directly by the user or may be generated by AUX12.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.MATRIX50 In a large rotation analysis (NLGEOM. .) The KEYOPT(1) option is for the special case where the superelement is to be used with a T4 nonlinearity. KVAL = real or imaginary. The File.

ON): 0 -Substructure was unconstrained in the generation pass 1 -Substructure was constrained in the generation pass KEYOPT(6) Nodal force output: 0 -Do not print nodal forces 1 -Print nodal forces MATRIX50 Output Data Displacements and forces may be printed for each (master) degree of freedom in a structural superelement in the "use" pass. In addition to the database and substructure files from the generation run. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 50). Similarly. The nodal forces may be output if KEYOPT(6) = 1. Pressure and thermal effects may be included in a superelement only through its load vectors. If a load vector containing acceleration effects is also applied in the use run. acceleration [ACEL] defined in the use run will be applied to the superelement.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Superelements of different field types may be mixed within the use run. The stress distribution within the superelement and the expanded nodal displacements can be obtained from a subsequent stress pass. Inc. File.0 . Inc.© SAS IP. The nonlinear portion of any element included in a superelement will be ignored and any bilinear element will maintain its initial status throughout the analysis. . MATRIX50 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • • A superelement may contain elements of any type except Lagrange multiplier-based elements (such as MPC184.DSUB must be saved from the superelement "use" pass and input to the expansion pass (if an expansion pass is desired). All rights reserved. PLANE182 with KEYOPT(6) = 1. if the superelement contains a damping matrix (as specified in the generation run) and α and β damping multipliers [ALPHA and BETA] are defined in the use run. If the superelement contains a mass matrix. Superelements may contain other superelements. • • Release 14. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. Energies are also available when requested. You should be careful to avoid duplicating acceleration and damping effects. The relative locations of the superelement attachment points in the nonsuperelement portion of the model (if any) should match the initial superelement geometry. 239 . See the D command for degree of freedom field groups. additional damping effects will be applied to the superelement. and CONTA171 with KEYOPT(2) = 3).MATRIX50 1 -Load vector(s) do not rotate and remain in their original direction KEYOPT(4) Constrained substructure with large rotations (NLGEOM. both accelerations (the ACEL command and the load vector) will be applied to the superelement.

PERX material property. . . • MATRIX50 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. The large rotation special feature is not applicable. See Substructuring Analysis in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for a discussion of the substructure matrix procedure. A 2-D superelement should only be used in 2-D analyses. ANSYS Professional • • • This element may be used as a radiation substructure only. ANSYS Structural • • KEYOPT(1) = 0 The PERX material property is not applicable.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. surface loads.0 . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.MATRIX50 • The dimensionality of the superelement corresponds to the maximum dimensionality of any element used in its generation. 240 Release 14. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.© SAS IP. The BETD material property. The large rotation special feature is not applicable. ANSYS Emag • • The BETD material property is not applicable. and 3-D superelements in 3-D analyses. and body loads are not applicable. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 1 instead of 0 and cannot be changed.

The element has nonlinear magnetic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. voltage forced magnetic fields (static.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PLANE53 is based on the magnetic vector potential formulation and is applicable to the following low-frequency magnetic field analyses: magnetostatics. The element is defined by 8 nodes and has up to 4 degrees of freedom per node: z component of the magnetic vector potential (AZ). eddy currents (AC time harmonic and transient analyses). and electromotive force (EMF). ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as PLANE233. time-integrated electric scalar potential (VOLT).0 . AC time harmonic and transient analyses). The label used with the CNVTOL command is CSG. PLANE53 models 2-D (planar and axisymmetric) magnetic fields.PLANE53 2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions PLANE53 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. Inc. Figure 1 PLANE53 Geometry v Q y @¡¢ x£lA @¡¢ ¢d£lA R x s w I t P s u uD vD y x w ri yption Release 14. Table 1 DOF and Force Labels Degree of Freedom Label AZ [1] VOLT CURR EMF 1. 241 . electric current (CURR). Label Description Magnetic Vector Potential Voltage Current Flow Electromotive Force Label CSGZ [2] AMPS VLTG CURT Force (reaction solution) Label Description Magnetic Current Segment Current Flow Voltage Drop Current Flow The label used with the CNVTOL command is A.© SAS IP. AC time harmonic and transient analyses). Degree of freedom and force labels for this element are shown in the following table. 2. All rights reserved. Inc. A similar 4 node element (without voltage forced and magnetic-circuit coupled capability) is PLANE13. and electromagneticcircuit coupled fields (static. See PLANE53 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .

0 . Lorentz and Maxwell forces may be made available for a subsequent structural analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. The nodal forces. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. 49). All rights reserved. MGXX and MGYY represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. 242 Release 14.) A Maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. node locations. Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. Nonlinear magnetic B-H properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details. With the D command. EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZRO. BFE]. In addition to MUZRO. . A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Air elements in which local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. The element input data includes 8 nodes and the magnetic material properties. . Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required. Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (VOLT or AZ) and VALUE corresponds to the value (time-integrated electric scalar potential or vector magnetic potential). depending upon the KEYOPT(1) value. Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. 76). Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZRO = 4 π x 10-7 henries/meter. The temperature (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacement body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. 56). orthotropic relative permeability is specified through the MURX and MURY material property labels. Source current density and voltage body loads may be applied to an area [BFA] or input as an element value [BFE]. In general. the Lab variable corresponds to the force (AMPS or CSGZ) and VALUE corresponds to the value (current or magnetic current segment). The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE53 Input Summary" (p. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. Permanent magnet polarization and orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions.© SAS IP. Inc. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. if any. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. Inc. 241). 243). Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX and MGYY.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. 241) using the SF and SFE commands. 43).PLANE53 PLANE53 Input Data The geometry. With the F command. unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands.

VLTG(K). spare. JSZ(K). if KEYOPT(1) = 0 -spare. P Degrees of Freedom AZ if KEYOPT(1) = 0 AZ. VLTG(J). T(K). PHASE(J). PHASE(I). if KEYOPT(1) = 2 -VLTG(I). PHASE(N). TURN. JSZ(L). M.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(J). PHASE(O). VD(K). 243 . face 3 (L-K). PHASE(N). All rights reserved. spare.© SAS IP. VD(O). EMF if KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4 Real Constants CARE. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). VD(L). JSZ(I). spare. MURX. VD(N). spare. spare. DIRZ.0 . CURR if KEYOPT(1) = 2 AZ. J. L. spare. VLTG(O). plus BH data table (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference) Surface Loads Maxwell Force flag -face 1 (J-I). JSZ(P). O. MGYY. VD(M). PHASE(P) Voltage Loading. PHASE(K).PLANE53 PLANE53 Input Summary Nodes I. T(M). T(L). VLTG(M). PHASE(L). CURR. N. T(P) Magnetic Virtual Displacement -VD(I). 245) for descriptions of the real constants. LENG. VOLT if KEYOPT(1) = 1 AZ. T(N). PHASE(I). YLOC See Table 2: PLANE53 Real Constants (p. Inc. VELOY. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. VLTG(L). MURY. RSVX. VLTG(N). PHASE(P) Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Release 14. JSZ(J). PHASE(O). PHASE(J). VD(P) Source Current Density. spare. JSZ(O). PHASE(M). spare. XLOC. PHASE(K). JSZ(N). PHASE(M). face 2 (K-J). spare. spare. JSZ(M). MGXX. T(O). FILL. Inc. spare. VD(J). spare. PHASE(L) spare. spare. VLTG(P). VELOX. OMEGAZ. K. Material Properties MUZERO. spare.

All rights reserved.PLANE53 KEYOPT(1) Element degrees of freedom: 0 -AZ degree of freedom: static domain. EMF degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled massive conductor KEYOPT(2) Element conventional velocity: 0 -Velocity effects ignored 1 -Conventional velocity formulation (not available if KEYOPT(1) = 2. CURR degrees of freedom: voltage-fed stranded coil 3 -AZ.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . VOLT degrees of freedom: current-fed massive conductor 2 -AZ. induced eddy current domain 1 -AZ. CURR. 3. Inc.© SAS IP. EMF degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled stranded coil 4 -AZ. CURR. or 4) KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point printout 2 -Nodal magnetic field printout KEYOPT(7) Store magnetic forces for coupling with elements: 0 -Midside node (higher-order) structural elements 244 Release 14. Inc. .0 .

the element approximation will differ from the profile of the conductor. . cycles/sec) about the Z-axis (global Cartesian).© SAS IP. Inc.0 . (required for planar models only). KEYOPT(1) = 2. 3 Coil length in Z-direction. KEYOPT(1) = 2. Release 14. default is 1. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. 4 Total number of coil turns (stranded coil only).Velocity effects of a conducting body * The ratio between the actual conductor area and the area of the coil or element geometry. required when KEYOPT(1) = 2. 4 Coil fill factor *. KEYOPT(1) = 2. at the pivot point Pivot point X-location (global Cartesian coordinate) Pivot point Y-location (global Cartesian coordinate) KEYOPT(2) = 1 (and KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1) . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 50). KEYOPT(1) = 2. 245 . 246). The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. All rights reserved. 3. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3 Velocity component in X-direction (global Cartesian) Velocity component in Y-direction (global Cartesian) Angular (rotational) velocity (Hz. Often. default is 1 meter.PLANE53 1 -Non-midside node structural elements Table 2 PLANE53 Real Constants No. 4 1 for current in positive z-axis. 246) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p.voltage forced or electromagnetic-circuit coupled analyses (coils or massive conductors) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CARE TURN LENG DIRZ FILL VELOX VELOY OMEGAZ XLOC YLOC Coil cross-sectional area. especially in multi-strand coils. Name Description KEYOPT(1) ≥ 2 . PLANE53 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 3: PLANE53 Element Output Definitions (p. Inc. -1 for current in negative z-axis. 3.

YC CENT:X. “Y” indicates that the item is always available.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.OUT. O. T(L). T(O). ESOL). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Y TEMP LOC MUX.I. In either the O or R columns. T(M). . N. T(N). and “-” indicates that the item is not available. L. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Inc. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Y H:SUM B:X. YC Temperatures T(I). valid for static analysis only Total current density Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 246 Release 14. Inc. T(P) Output location (X. magnetic flux density vectors point in opposite directions for planar (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and axisymmetric (KEYOPT(3) = 1) analyses.0 . All rights reserved. K.PLANE53 Figure 2 PLANE53 Magnetic Element Output v s y y u f D r ¢ x f¡D r¡ @or xilA @or rdilA t w i£ement ¤utput ¥¦§et¦¤ns sh¤wn ¨§e f¤§ ui y©R a H Because of different sign conventions for Cartesian and polar coordinate systems. Y B:SUM JSZ JTZ Element Number Nodes .© SAS IP. Y) Vector magnitude of B Source current density. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Global location XC. M. T(K). MUY H:X. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. . T(J). Y) Magnetic secant permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components (X. Table 3 PLANE53 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. J.

SUM) FMAG:X. Y) FMX(X. FVW(X. JT represents the effective current density (including nonconducting material represented by the FILL factor). TVW(Z)) represent time-average values. Inc. forces (FJB(X. SUM MRE TJB(Z) TMX(Z) TVW(Z) 1.© SAS IP. and only a single coil exists in the model. respectively. including eddy current effects. Inc.0 . FMX(X. JHEAT represents the effective Joule heat generation rate (including non-conducting material represented by the FILL factor). the X and Y directions correspond to the radial and axial directions. The macros POWERH. Inductance values (EIND) obtained for KEYOPT(1) = 2. Y) FVW(X. and TORQSUM can be used to retrieve this data. and velocity effects if calculated. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(4) = 0. For harmonic analysis. Y). Y). Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor. FMAGSUM. All rights reserved. These values are stored in both the "Real" and “Imaginary” data sets. there are no permanent magnets in the model. Y. . Y ERES EIND DMUXX. Y. Definition Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz force components Maxwell force components Virtual work force components Combined (FJB or FMX) force components Element resistance value (for stranded coils only) Element inductance value (for stranded coils only) Differential permeability Velocity components Magnetic Reynolds number Lorentz torque about global Cartesian +Z-axis Maxwell torque about global Cartesian +Z-axis Virtual work torque about global Cartesian +Z-axis O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). 247 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3. Joule losses (JHEAT). For KEYOPT(1)=2 and 3.PLANE53 Name JHEAT: FJB(X. DMUYY V:X. Y)). and torque (TJB(Z). TMX(Z). The element solution is at the centroid. or 4 are only valid under the following conditions: the problem is linear (constant permeability). Release 14.

Table 4 PLANE53 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Nodal Solution Names of Items Output H. .PLANE53 2. Output at each node. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 5: PLANE53 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. B. Inc. 248) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.© SAS IP. HSUM. Y) ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 248 Release 14. The following notation is used in Table 5: PLANE53 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 52) of this manual for more information. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.0 . . FJB. Inc. V.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. BSUM. VSUM O 1 R - 1. 248): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 3: PLANE53 Element Output Definitions (p. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. FMX. 246) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 5 PLANE53 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name JSZ MUX MUY FVWX FVWY FVWSUM JTZ ERES EIND DMUXX DMUYY VX VY MRE TJB(X Y) TMX(X.

. they act as stranded conductors.AMPS. rather than parabolically. and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. For the VOLT. the VOLT. refer to the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.JS) is only valid for the AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 0). 241). 249 . the element acts as a stranded conductor. Current density loading (BFE. note the following additional restrictions: – – – – Only MKS units are allowed. All CURR degrees of freedom in a coil region must be coupled (CP command). For velocity effects (KEYOPT(2) = 1)..4). as well as the description of the TINTP command in the Command Reference. its behavior depends on the applied load. Release 14. . For harmonic and transient (time-varying) analyses. The permeability and conductivity are isotropic and constant. All EMF degrees of freedom in a coil region must be coupled (CP command). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. specifying a resistivity. When SOLID97.PLANE53 Output Quantity Name TVW(X.JS load. Inc. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. and SOLID237. All rights reserved. • • • • • • Permanent magnets are not permitted in a harmonic analysis.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. For a BFE.. Inc. For magnetostatic analyses. A 2-D planar or axisymmetric skin-effect analysis (where eddy current formation is permitted in conducting regions with impressed current loading) is performed by setting KEYOPT(1) = 1. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. A face with a removed midside node implies that the potential varies linearly. PLANE53 (and PLANE13) are not like the 3-D elements SOLID97. on the TINTP command to specify the backward Euler method. Y) ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC E 18 PLANE53 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • The area of the element must be positive.. note the following restrictions: • Velocity effects are valid only for AZ or AZ-VOLT DOF options. along that face. the default value. – In this respect. the ANSYS product does not support the analysis of coupled velocity and circuit effects.0 . Reduced transient methods cannot be used. and coupling all VOLT degrees of freedom for elements in each of such regions. use THETA = 1. For voltage forced magnetic field (KEYOPT(1) = 2) and circuit coupled problems (KEYOPT(1) = 3. it acts as a solid conductor modeling eddy current effects. Without BFE. AZ option is not allowed. AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) use F.0. for a harmonic or transient analysis.JS loads. SOLID236 and SOLID237 do not have the VOLT degree of freedom. SOLID236. When this element does not have the VOLT degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 0). For more information. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes.© SAS IP. • • For circuit coupled transient analyses.

0. • • PLANE53 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. To be compatible. Inc. ANSYS Emag • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom.) If KEYOPT(1) ≥ 2 or KEYOPT(2) ≥ 1. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Solution accuracy may degrade if the element magnetic Reynolds number is much greater than 1. Inc. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. . (See the discussion of magnetic field analysis in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. unsymmetric matrices are produced. 250 Release 14. .0 . the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide).© SAS IP.PLANE53 • • Isotropic resistivity. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

A similar axisymmetric element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading is PLANE75. With this option the thermal parameters are interpreted as analogous fluid flow parameters. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE182). 251 . 49). Inc. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. See PLANE55 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. they default to HG(I). If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. If the model containing the temperature element is also to be analyzed structurally. A similar element with midside node capability is PLANE77. 56). The element can also compensate for mass transport heat flow from a constant velocity field. temperature. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. 251). Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p.© SAS IP. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. Figure 1 PLANE55 Geometry v Q u uD v R P @or xilA s I @or rdilA t s t ¡¢£ngu¤£¡ ypt¢¥n¦ PLANE55 Input Data The geometry. All rights reserved. The element is defined by four nodes and the orthotropic material properties. at each node. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. node locations. The element has four nodes with a single degree of freedom. 251). and all others are unspecified.PLANE55 2-D Thermal Solid MP ME <> PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE55 Element Description PLANE55 can be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element with a 2-D thermal conduction capability. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. An option exists that allows the element to model nonlinear steady-state fluid flow through a porous medium. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. The element is applicable to a 2-D.0 .

face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). 43). VY THK = Thickness (used only if KEYOPT(3) = 3) VX = Mass transport velocity in X (used only if KEYOPT(8) > 0) VY = Mass transport velocity in Y (used only if KEYOPT(8) > 0) Material Properties KXX. DENS. temperatures should be specified along the entire inlet boundary to assure a stable solution.PLANE55 A mass transport option is available with KEYOPT(8). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. MU (VISC and MU used only if KEYOPT (9) = 1. . Also. VX. For this option. Be careful when using this option with other physics. K. 252). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Temperature boundary conditions input with the D command are interpreted as pressure boundary conditions. VISC. The nonlinear porous flow option is selected with KEYOPT(9) = 1. Inc. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE55 Input Summary" (p. you should use specific heat (C) and density (DENS) material properties instead of enthalpy (ENTH). With this option the velocities VX and VY must be input as real constants (in the element coordinate system). HG(L) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) How to evaluate film coefficient: 252 Release 14. Radiation view factors will be based on a unit Z-depth (only). See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for a description of the properties C and MU. J. L Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants THK. especially radiation. All rights reserved. PLANE55 Input Summary Nodes I. 76). This element can also have a Z-depth specified by KEYOPT(3) and real constant THK.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and heat flow boundary conditions input with the F command are interpreted as mass flow rate (mass/time). HG(K). Inc. With mass transport. face 2 (K-J). Surface Loads Convection or Heat Flux (but not both) and Radiation (using Lab = RDSF) -face 1 (J-I). ENTH.0 . For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. C. . Properties DENS and VISC are used for the mass density and viscosity of the fluid. which are used in calculating the coefficients of permeability.© SAS IP. temperature is interpreted as pressure and the absolute permeabilities of the medium are input as material properties KXX and KYY. HG(J). KYY. face 3 (L-K). Do not use ENTH with KEYOPT(8) = 1 or 2). with reference to the Z terms ignored.

254) Release 14.TB| KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric 3 -Plane with Z-depth. KEYOPT(8) Mass transport effects: 0 -No mass transport effects 1 -Mass transport with VX and VY 2 -Same as 1 but also print mass transport heat flow KEYOPT(9) Nonlinear fluid flow option: 0 -Standard heat transfer element 1 -Nonlinear steady-state fluid flow analogy element (temperature degree of freedom interpreted as pressure) PLANE55 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE55 Element Output Definitions (p. (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. |TS . 253 . Inc. specified via real constant THK.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.© SAS IP. KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side. .PLANE55 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature. TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature. All rights reserved. TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

HG(J).© SAS IP. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 50) and of postprocessing data in Degenerated Shape Elements (p. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). Inc. Inc. . SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX Element Number Nodes . applied heat flux is positive into the element. K. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. HG(K). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. YC HGEN TG:X. the standard thermal output should be interpreted as the analogous fluid flow output. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.OUT. SUM TF:X.PLANE55 For an axisymmetric analysis the face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360° basis. All rights reserved. . HG(L) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 4 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 254 Release 14. Y. In either the O or R columns. 39). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Y. Table 1 PLANE55 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.I. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.0 . and “-” indicates that the item is not available. ESOL). If KEYOPT(9) = 1. J.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. . Table 2: PLANE55 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 254) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 PLANE55 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 PLANE55 Assumptions and Restrictions • • The element must not have a negative or a zero area.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. • Release 14. Definition Heat flow rate across face by mass transport O 2 R - Total pressure gradient and its X and Y components Mass flow rate per unit cross-sectional area Total fluid velocity and its X and Y components 3 3 3 - If a surface load is input If KEYOPT(8) = 2 If KEYOPT(9) = 1 Available only at centroid as a *GET item. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE55 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 255): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE55 Element Output Definitions (p. 251) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. 4.© SAS IP. Inc. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p.PLANE55 Name HEAT FLOW BY MASS TRANSPORT PRESSURE GRAD MASS FLUX FLUID VELOCITY 1. 39). 255) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.0 . 52) of this manual for more information. 3. 255 . 2. Inc. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. The element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. All rights reserved.

The element does not have the birth and death feature. Inc.PLANE55 • • The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements. KEYOPT(8) and KEYOPT(9) can only be set to 0 (default). See PLANE55 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details. When mass flow is activated (KEYOPT(8)=1 or 2). The VISC and MU material properties are not applicable. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. • • • PLANE55 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. unsymmetric matrices are produced. Inc. the element Peclet number should be less than 1: Pe = ρ*v*L*Cp/(2*k) <1. ANSYS Professional • • • • This element does not have the mass transport or fluid flow options. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. . If the thermal element is to be replaced by a PLANE182 structural element with surface stresses requested.0 . A free surface of the element (that is.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the thermal element should be oriented with face IJ or face KL as a free surface.0 Where L is an element length scale based on the flow direction and element geometry. If KEYOPT(8) > 0.© SAS IP. The VX and VY real constants are not applicable. All rights reserved. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. 256 Release 14.

y. Inc. with nine elastic constants required for its description. The shell element may have a linearly varying thickness. node locations. 257 . and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. the number of harmonic waves (MODE on the MODE command). two end thicknesses. The MODE or ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p.SHELL61 Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SHELL61 Element Description SHELL61 has four degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. Release 14. 260). The material may be orthotropic. . Various loading cases are described in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p.© SAS IP.0 . 77). The element coordinate system is shown in Figure 2 (p. a symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element is defined by two nodes. should be input on a full 360° basis. θ is in the tangential (hoop) direction. and z directions and a rotation about the nodal z-axis. The element loading may be input as any combination of harmonically varying temperatures and pressures. See SHELL61 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Extreme orientations of the conical shell element result in a cylindrical shell element or an annular disc element. 77). Harmonically varying nodal forces. 257). All rights reserved. if any. Figure 1 SHELL61 Geometry ¡R t Q ¢ £ x @ ilA @rdilA y ¡I s ¡P SHELL61 Input Data The geometry. The loading may be axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric. and the orthotropic material properties.

A summary of the element input is given in "SHELL61 Input Summary" (p.Added mass/unit area Material Properties EX. UY. Material properties EY. 258). and NUYZ) are required for this effect.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ALPX.) Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (top. they default to T1. If the element has a constant thickness. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. T2. 43). PRXZ (or NUXY. All rights reserved. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. in -Y direction) face 2 (I-J) (bottom. THSY. in +Y direction) Body Loads Temperatures -T1. and Z is circumferential. NUYZ. . Y is through-the-thickness. J Degrees of Freedom UX. UZ. THSZ). ROTZ Real Constants TK(I) . PRXY. Positive pressures act into the element. the material properties are always evaluated at the average element temperature. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. KEYOPT(1) is used for temperature loading with MODE greater than zero and temperature-dependent material properties. T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1.SHELL61 The element may have variable thickness. GXZ. PRXY. T4 Mode Number Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE) 258 Release 14. CTEZ or THSX. KEYOPT(3) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes.Shell thickness at node I TK(J) . NUXY. Inc. and PRYZ (or EY. If all other temperatures are unspecified. NUXZ). CTEY.0 . The pressures are applied at the surface of the element rather than at the centroidal plane so that some thickness effects can be considered. BETD. EZ. Inc.Shell thickness at node J (TK(J) defaults to TK(I)) ADMSUA . Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the four corner locations shown in Figure 1 (p. . Material properties may only be evaluated at a constant (nonharmonically varying) temperature. Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. SHELL61 Input Summary Nodes I. (X is meridional. If only T1 and T2 are input. DENS. ALPZ (or CTEX. only TK(I) is required.© SAS IP. T3. 49). EY. 257). If MODE equals zero. 257). Real constant ADMSUA is used to define an added mass per unit area. These include the increase or decrease in size of surface area the load is acting on and (in the case of a nonzero Poisson's ratio) an interaction effect causing the element to grow longer or shorter under equal pressures on both surfaces. PRYZ. The thickness is assumed to vary linearly between the nodes. ALPD. For any other input pattern. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

ISYM = 1 loading case. 259 . 3. 3/4 length. where N is the KEYOPT(6) value. at the end points and at N equally spaced interior points. mid-length (centroid). 7 or 9) SHELL61 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SHELL61 Element Output Definitions (p. The printout may be displayed at the centroid. Inc. In the displacement printout. For example. 5. We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command Release 14. 260). All rights reserved. 1/4 length. the UZ components are out-of-phase with the UX and UY components.© SAS IP. and at end J.0 . . Printout location number 1 is always at end I. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Stress components which are inherently zero are printed for clarity. use temperatures for: 0 -Use temperatures only for thermal bending (evaluate material properties at TREF) 1 -Use temperatures only for material property evaluation (thermal strains are not computed) KEYOPT(3) Extra displacement shapes: 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(4) Member force and moment output: 0 -No printout of member forces and moments 1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(6) Location of element solution output: 0 -Output solution at mid-length only N -Output solution at N equally spaced interior points and at end points (where N = 1. printout will be produced at end I.SHELL61 Loading Condition Symmetry condition (MODE) Special Features Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) If MODE is greater than zero. 260) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. For example. in the MODE = 1. UX and UY are the peak values at θ = 0° and UZ is the peak value at θ = 90°. if N = 3.

For more information about harmonic elements.0 . Inc. see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.© SAS IP.I. T4 Pressures P1 (top) at nodes I. YC TEMP PRES MODE ISYM Element Number Nodes . J Material number Distance between node I and node J Location where results are reported Temperatures T1. Table 1 SHELL61 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT LENGTH XC. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. T2. 50). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. 77) A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .J.OUT. All rights reserved. T3. In either the O or R columns. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.J Number of waves in loading Loading key: 1 = symmetric.SHELL61 when postprocessing the results. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. Figure 2 SHELL61 Stress Output w @opA r @widA t w @widA θ @or zA r @fotA r @opA ¡ w @fotA The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. ESOL). and “-” indicates that the item is not available. P2 (bottom) at nodes I. . -1 = antisymmetric Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y Y 260 Release 14.

Z). through-thickness. 261) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. MH) EPEL(M. meridional-hoop) at PK ANG locations. and XZ forces at KEYOPT(6) location(s) Out-of-plane element X. hoop. 261 . middle. H. All rights reserved. repeated for top.0 . repeated for top. 2. . middle. XZ) MFOR(X.© SAS IP. 52) in this manual for more information. meridional-hoop) at PK ANG locations. and bottom of shell Thermal strains (meridional. 260) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. and bottom of shell O Y Y 1 Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1. Blank if MODE = 0. MMOMZ PK ANG S(M. THK. hoop. hoop. Z.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Table 2: SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1) (p. MH) EPTH(M. These items are printed only if KEYOPT(4) = 1. Stresses (meridional. through-thickness. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The following notation is used in Table 2: SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1) (p. THK. and XZ moments at KEYOPT(6) location(s) Member forces and member moment for each node in the element coordinate system Angle where stresses have peak values: 0 and 90/MODE°. middle. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. H. Z. Inc. through-thickness. Y. Inc. meridional-hoop) at PK ANG locations. and bottom of shell Elastic strains (meridional.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J ILn sequence number for data at Intermediate Location n Table 2 SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1) Output Quantity Name SM STHK ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item Top LS LS 1 2 13 14 25 26 I IL1 J Release 14. Z. THK. XZ) M(X. 261): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SHELL61 Element Output Definitions (p. Z. repeated for top. MH) Definition In-plane element X.SHELL61 Name T(X. H.

.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.© SAS IP.0 .SHELL61 Output Quantity Name SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH Mid LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH Bot LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 21 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 I 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 IL1 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 J 27 28 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 262 Release 14. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

SHELL61 Output Quantity Name EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC I 10 11 12 1 2 3 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 31 35 IL1 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 J 34 35 36 7 8 9 12 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 36 Element Corner Location 1 TEMP LBFE 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 Table 3 SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 3) Output Quantity Name SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 J Top LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 25 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 37 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 Release 14. Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. . All rights reserved.© SAS IP. 263 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

. Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc. .SHELL61 Output Quantity Name EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 J LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC 2 3 4 Mid 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 Bot 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 - 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 - 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 - 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 7 8 9 Element 264 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. Inc. . All rights reserved.SHELL61 Output Quantity Name MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 J SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 43 47 19 20 21 22 23 24 - 25 26 27 28 29 30 - 31 32 33 34 35 36 - 12 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 48 Corner Location 1 TEMP LBFE 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 Table 4 SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 5) Output Quantity Name SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 J Top LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 Mid 17 18 19 29 30 31 41 42 43 53 54 55 65 66 67 77 78 79 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 Release 14.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 265 .

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.SHELL61 Output Quantity Name SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 J LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 55 20 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 Bot 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 - 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 25 26 27 28 29 30 - 44 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 31 32 33 34 35 36 - 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 37 38 39 40 41 42 - 68 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 43 44 45 46 47 48 - 80 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 7 8 9 12 49 50 51 52 53 54 56 Element 266 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.0 .© SAS IP. . All rights reserved. . Inc.

SHELL61 Output Quantity Name P2 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 J SMISC 59 - - - - - 60 Corner Location 1 TEMP LBFE 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 Table 5 SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 7) Output Quantity Name SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 IL7 J Top LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 17 18 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 Mid 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 41 42 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 65 66 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 77 78 89 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 89 90 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 101 102 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 Release 14. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 267 .

.© SAS IP. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Inc.SHELL61 Output Quantity Name EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 IL7 J LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 7 8 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 67 71 19 20 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 - 31 32 Bot 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 25 26 27 28 29 30 - 43 44 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 31 32 33 34 35 36 - 55 56 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 37 38 39 40 41 42 - 67 68 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 43 44 45 46 47 48 - 79 80 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 49 50 51 52 53 54 - 91 92 93 94 95 96 93 94 95 96 93 94 95 96 55 56 57 58 59 60 - 103 104 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 7 8 9 12 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 72 Element 268 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.0 .

© SAS IP. .SHELL61 Corner Location 1 TEMP LBFE 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 Table 6 SHELL61 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(6) = 9) Output Quantity Label SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 IL7 IL8 IL9 J Top LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 33 34 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 Mid 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 Bot 45 46 57 58 69 70 81 82 93 94 105 106 117 118 129 130 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 89 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 113 114 115 116 113 114 115 116 113 114 115 116 125 126 127 128 125 126 127 128 125 126 127 128 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 109 110 111 112 109 110 111 112 109 110 111 112 121 122 123 124 121 122 123 124 121 122 123 124 Release 14. All rights reserved.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Inc. 269 .

Inc. If the element has a constant thickness. Some thick shell effects have been included in the formulation of SHELL61 but it cannot be properly considered to be a thick shell element. • • 270 Release 14. TK(I) must not be zero. only TK(I) need be defined. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .© SAS IP. Inc. If these effects are important. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Both ends must have nonnegative X coordinate values and the element must not lie along the global Y-axis. All rights reserved. it is recommended to use PLANE25.SHELL61 Output Quantity Label SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 IL6 IL7 IL8 IL9 J LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 79 83 23 24 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 - 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 25 26 27 28 29 30 - 47 48 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 31 32 33 34 35 36 - 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 37 38 39 40 41 42 - 71 72 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 43 44 45 46 47 48 - 83 84 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 49 50 51 52 53 54 - 95 96 93 94 95 96 93 94 95 96 55 56 57 58 59 60 - 107 108 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 61 62 63 64 65 66 - 119 120 117 118 119 120 117 118 119 120 67 68 69 70 71 72 - 131 132 129 130 131 132 129 130 131 132 7 8 9 12 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 84 Element Corner Location 1 TEMP LBFE 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 SHELL61 Assumptions and Restrictions • The axisymmetric shell element must be defined in the global X-Y plane and must not have a zero length.0 . The element thickness is assumed to vary linearly from node I to node J.

0 . SHELL61 Product Restrictions There are no product restrictions for this element.0) loads without significant torsional stresses to generate the stress state used for stress stiffened modal analyses using this element. Release 14. Inc. Post analysis superposition of results is valid only with other linear elastic solutions. You can use only axisymmetric (MODE. The element should not be used with the large deflection option.SHELL61 • • • • • • The element assumes a linear elastic material. 271 . Inc. All rights reserved. Strain energy does not consider thermal effects. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command.© SAS IP. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

All rights reserved. . .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Inc.© SAS IP.0 .272 Release 14.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 273). swelling. 273 . Inc. O. and P. Other elements with magneto-structural capability are PLANE13. EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZRO. Figure 1 SOLID62 Geometry S T R y s ¤¥¦¥§¥¨ ¡¢ w P y v x x £ ©rh©rl § w yD x s u uDv t edge yption !"# ' $ Q s & t ufe goodinte stem I % #()0123 "45267 SOLID62 Input Data The geometry. The element has nonlinear magnetic harmonic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. AZ) in static analysis and a vector potential combined with a time-integrated scalar potential (VOLT) for harmonic and transient analysis. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZRO = 4 π Release 14.SOLID62 3-D Magneto-Structural Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions SOLID62 Element Description SOLID62 has the capability of modeling 3-D coupled magneto-structural fields. large deflection. and large strain capabilities. node locations. N. The structural formulation is similar to that in the SOLID45 element. creep. All rights reserved. A wedgeshaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p. The magnetic formulation uses a vector potential (AX. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The type of units (MKS or user defined) for magnetic field analysis is specified through the EMUNIT command. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. stress stiffening. A tetrahedral-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes M.© SAS IP. and nodes K and L. AY. The element has plasticity. Magneto-structural coupling is not available for harmonic analysis. See SOLID62 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. and SOLID98. . 273). SOLID5.0 .

Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX. CSGZ. UY. With the F command. FY. In addition to MUZRO. 274). MURY. and MGZZ represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. O. magnetic virtual displacement. fluence. Orthotropic resistivity is specified through the RSVX. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. UY. AX. temperature (structural). Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required). With the D command. Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements (LDREAD command). AY.0 . pressure and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. The vector components of the current density are with respect to the element coordinate system.SOLID62 x 10-7 henries/meter. SOLID62 Input Summary Nodes I. 43). the Lab variable corresponds to the force (FX. orthotropic relative permeability is available and is specified through the MURX. and MURZ material property labels. M. RSVY. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. L. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI (Magnetic Virtual Displacements) label (BF command). N.) In general. Permanent magnet polarization directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. UZ. MGYY. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID62 Input Summary" (p. Inc. and MGZZ. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. magnetic current segments. 49). Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. CSGX. and time-integrated electric scalar potential). AMPS) and VALUE corresponds to the value (force. The body loads. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. P Degrees of Freedom UX.© SAS IP. AY. and RSVZ material labels. AZ. K. unspecified nodal values of temperatures and fluence default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. magnetic vector potential. All rights reserved. FZ. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. and source current density may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value (BF and BFE commands. . 273) using the SF and SFE commands. The surface loads. MGXX. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads. CSGY. 56). Nonlinear magnetic properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. and current). UZ. J. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. VOLT Real Constants None 274 Release 14. MGYY. AX. AZ. VOLT) and VALUE corresponds to the value (displacement. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (UX. A Maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. . See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details.

MURZ. MGXX. THSZ). face 5 (L-I-M-P). VD(L). T(N). JSX(J). VD(P) Fluences -FL(I). JSX(M). JSY(J). . FL(L). face 3 (J-K-O-N). JSZ(P). EX. JSY(P). EY. T(L). FL(P) Source Current Density -JSX(I). face 5 (L-I-M-P). VD(O). FL(N). RSVX. PHASE(L). BETD Surface Loads Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PHASE(K). NUXZ). JSY(K). ALPX. (PRXY. ALPD. THSY. JSZ(L). MGYY. face 2 (I-J-N-M). PHASE(I). FL(O). 275 . JSY(L). JSZ(O). PHASE(M). RSVZ. All rights reserved. JSY(O). JSX(P).0 . JSX(L). JSY(I). T(J). CTEY.© SAS IP. PHASE(N). MGZZ plus BH data table (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference). JSX(K). ALPY. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. JSZ(I). JSZ(N). PRXZ or NUXY. FL(M). Inc. NUYZ. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). JSX(N). GXY. PHASE(J). face 2 (I-J-N-M). Inc. JSZ(M). VD(K). JSY (N). EZ. ALPZ (or CTEX. T(P) MVDI -VD(I). face 4 (K-L-P-O). FL(J). face 4 (K-L-P-O). GXZ. FL(K). GYZ.SOLID62 Material Properties MUZERO. PRYZ. JSZ(K). CTEZ or THSX. MURX. JSZ(J). face 3 (J-K-O-N). JSY(M). T(K). MURY. JSX(O). PHASE(O). T(O). VD(M). VD(N). PHASE(P) Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Creep Large deflection Large strain Plasticity Stress stiffening Swelling KEYOPT(1) Extra displacement shapes: 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point printout Release 14. VD(J). RSVY. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). T(M). DENS.

© SAS IP. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Inc. N.I. M. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. P Material number Definition O Y Y Y R Y Y Y 276 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. The coordinate systems for faces IJNM and KLPO are shown in Figure 1 (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.SOLID62 2 -Nodal magnetic field and stress printout KEYOPT(6) Extra surface output: 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Structural surface solution for face I-J-N-M also 2 -Structural surface solution for face I-J-N-M and face K-L-P-O (Surface solution available for linear materials only) 3 -Structural nonlinear solution at each integration point also 4 -Structural surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure SOLID62 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements and potentials included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID62 Structural Element Output Definitions (p. K.0 . 50). L. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. 273). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution (p. ESOL). J.OUT. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. . In either the O or R columns. 51) are met. 276) The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. . and “-” indicates that the item is not available. The surface stress outputs are in the surface coordinate systems and are available for any face (KEYOPT(6)). O. Table 1 SOLID62 Structural Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Element Number Nodes . The other surface coordinate systems follow similar orientations as indicated by the pressure face node description.

YZ. XY. Y. T(K). Inc. T(O). T(L). 3 EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. N. . XZ EPEL:1. P3 at J. 2. P4 at K. P5 at L. XY) S(1. YZ. XZ EPCR:EQV EPSW: NL:EPEQ NL:SRAT NL:SEPL NL:HPRES FACE AREA TEMP EPEL(X. Y. Z. P. P Input temperatures T(I). T(N). T(M). XY) PRESS S(X. FL(O). Y. XY. FL(K). Y. Z. Y. 2. O. FL(N). M. Inc.0 . FL(L). XZ EPTH:EQV EPPL:X. ZC PRES Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. XZ S:1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(P) Input fluences FL(I). XY. 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X. 277 . Z. Z.© SAS IP. XZ) Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Average plastic strain Equivalent plastic strain [4] Average creep strain Equivalent creep strain [4] Average swelling strain Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure Face label Face area Surface average temperature Surface elastic strains Surface pressure Surface stresses (X-axis parallel to line defined by first two nodes which define the face) Surface principal stresses Surface stress intensity Definition O Y Y Y R Y 3 Y TEMP FLUEN S:X. XY. YZ. L. P. P6 at M. FL(M). I. Y. N. All rights reserved. P2 at I. Z. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. XY. J. YZ. YC. 3) SINT Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Release 14. FL(J). YZ. N. O. XZ EPPL:EQV EPCR:X. K. I. FL(P) Stresses (X. 2. L.SOLID62 Name VOLU: XC. Y. Z. YZ. O. T(J). XY. Y. M. K.

Names of Items Output EPPL. Z. Y. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0. J. Z TEMP LOC MU(X. Definition Surface equivalent stress Nonlinear solution (if the element has a nonlinear material) Face printout (if KEYOPT(6) is 1. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3 SOLID62 Magnetic Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: CENT: X. Z H:SUM B:X. T(L). T(P) Output location (X. XZ). Y. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each node. Y. . 3. Solution Nodal Stress Solution 1. L. Z B:SUM JS:X. SRAT. 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Y. 2. Y.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(J). O. SEPL. O 2 R 2 Table 2 SOLID62 Miscellaneous Structural Element Output Description Nonlinear Integration Pt. 2.SOLID62 Name SEQV 1.© SAS IP. YZ. Z) Element Number Nodes . K. EPEL Output at each of eight integration points. 4. T(M). YC. Inc. . EPEL TEMP. Y. Y. YZ.5. Z) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Source current density. HPRES. EPCR. Y. XZ). Z) JHEAT: FJB(X. S(X. All rights reserved. T(N). T(O). 2. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. or 4) Available only at centroid as a *GET item. XY. S(X. ZC Input temperatures T(I). Y. EPEQ. SEQV. N. if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3 Output at each integration point. XY. Y. P Material number Volume Global location XC. EPSW O 1 2 3 R - Integration Point Stress Solution TEMP. SINT. Z) H:X. Z JT(X. SINT. valid for static analysis only Total current density components Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz magnetic force components Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 278 Release 14. T(K). M. Z. Inc.0 . SEQV.PRXY).I.

SOLID62 Name FMX(X. Names of Items Output LOC. The element solution is at the centroid. All rights reserved. HSUM. Inc. Table 5: SOLID62 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 279): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID62 Structural Element Output Definitions (p. Y. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each corner node. Inc. 276) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 5 SOLID62 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name JSX JSY JSZ JS(SUM) ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 1 2 3 4 Release 14. MUX.© SAS IP. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. BSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point. 279) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Definition Maxwell magnetic force components Virtual work force components Combined (FJB or FMX) force components O 1 1 R 1 1 The solution value is output only if calculated (based on input data).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2. and velocity effects if calculated. . The following notation is used in Table 5: SOLID62 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. HSUM. MUZ. B. 279 . Z) FVW(X. 52) in this manual for more information. Table 4 SOLID62 Miscellaneous Magnetic Element Output Description Integration Point Solution Nodal Magnetic Field Solution 1.0 . H. B. Z) Combined (FJB or FMX) force components 1. MUY. BSUM H. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. including eddy current effects. Y.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Structural coupling is also introduced by specifying a Maxwell surface on the "air" elements adjacent to the structure.A in a rotated coordinate system [RSYS] that orients one of the vector potential components normal to the material interface. .SOLID62 Output Quantity Name MUX MUY MUZ FVWX FVWY FVWZ JTX JTY JTZ JT(SUM) ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 13 14 15 FVW(SUM) NMISC SOLID62 Assumptions and Restrictions • The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side. For static analysis. The VOLT degree of freedom should be set to zero in nonconducting regions where it is not required. All rights reserved. 273) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The magneto-structural coupling is invoked only for static and transient analyses. The element sizes. The solution has been found to be incorrect when the normal component of the vector potential is significant at the interface between elements of different permeability. For models containing materials with different permeabilities. • Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution. Ramp load slowly and converge at intermediate time substeps. • • • • • • 280 Release 14. current loading should be applied as nodal loads (AMPS).0 .© SAS IP. the 3-D nodal-based vector potential formulation (either static or time-dependent) is not recommended. when degenerated. The element requires an iterative solution for magneto-structural coupling. the following restrictions apply: The VOLT degree of freedom is required in all regions with a specified nonzero resistivity. issue PLVECT. JT). For conducting regions (RSVX ≠ 0). The PCG solver does not support SOLID62 elements.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . or induced current density. The coupling is highly nonlinear if large deflection is involved. Inc. For transient analyses. should be small in order to minimize the stress gradients and field gradients. current density loading (JS) is not allowed. JS.A or PRVECT. Inc. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. Structural coupling is introduced automatically in current carrying conductors (either those with an applied current density. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. No coupling is introduced for harmonic analysis. the VOLT degree of freedom is not used. Applying MVDI does not introduce magneto-structural coupling. To obtain the normal component of the vector potential in postprocessing. No reduced transient analysis capability is available.

Inc. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. Release 14. 281 . the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide). To be compatible. Inc. • SOLID62 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .SOLID62 • • Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones.© SAS IP. .

282 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Inc.0 . All rights reserved. .© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

Up to three different rebar specifications may be defined. The element has one solid material and up to three rebar materials. plastic deformation.© SAS IP. The solid is capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. Figure 1 SOLID65 Geometry S w T P z v x x θ R y e Q φ y I ¢ ¥ yD¡ £Dv u ¢ ¤ ¡rism yption s ¦§¨ © ehedl @ e!!e dedA t SOLID65 Input Data The geometry. The element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. but not shear. Use the MAT command to input the concrete material properties. 283 . and geological materials (such as rock). include the material number (MAT).SOLID65 3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SOLID65 Element Description SOLID65 is used for the 3-D modeling of solids with or without reinforcing bars (rebar). In concrete applications. They are also capable of plastic deformation and creep. Inc. The element is defined by eight nodes and the isotropic material properties. The concrete element is similar to a 3-D structural solid but with the addition of special cracking and crushing capabilities. Other cases for which the element is also applicable would be reinforced composites (such as fiberglass). All rights reserved. and creep. See SOLID65 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. node locations. y. Inc.0 . the solid capability of the element may be used to model the concrete while the rebar capability is available for modeling reinforcement behavior.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Rebar specifications. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. which are input as real constants. the Release 14. The rebar are capable of tension and compression. . and z directions. 283). crushing. for example. The concrete is capable of cracking (in three orthogonal directions). The most important aspect of this element is the treatment of nonlinear material properties. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Typical shear transfer coefficients range from 0. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. it can be suppressed with KEYOPT(8) = 1. 284 Release 14. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for details. You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. KEYOPT(1) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes.© SAS IP. use NROPT. . such as the shear transfer coefficients.REFT is defined for the material number of the rebar. The program warns when each unreinforced element crushes at all integration points. The rebar orientations can be graphically verified with the /ESHAPE command.INCP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Similarly. PHI). it is used instead of either the global or element value.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 283). For any other input pattern.REFT is defined for the material number of the element.. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Inc. and the orientation angles (THETA. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified.0E-6. for convenience. the stiffness is zero normal to the crack face. This specification may be made for both the closed and open crack.BETD is defined for the material number of the element (assigned with the MAT command). 56). and compressive stresses are input in the data table. 49). Additional concrete material data. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. But if MP. The stiffness multiplier CSTIF is used across a cracked face or for a crushed element. 287)) The relaxation does not represent a revised stress-strain relationship for post-cracking behavior. 51)).0 representing a rough crack (no loss of shear transfer). see Table 1: SOLID65 Concrete Material Data (p. Inc.SOLID65 volume ratio (VR). The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID65 Input Summary" (p. The stress relaxation associated with KEYOPT(7) = 1 is used only to help accelerate convergence of the calculations when cracking is imminent. (A multiplier for the amount of tensile stress relaxation can be input as constant C9 in the data table. use the TREF command to supply the global value of reference temperature. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution (p. If this warning is unwanted. 43). it is summed with the value from the BETAD command. 287). If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects. Thus. the modulus normal to the crack face is set to zero. If MP. . Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. tensile stresses. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. it is used for the element instead of the value from the TREF command. and defaults to 1.0. a small amount of stiffness is added to the element for numerical stability. Use the BETAD command to specify the global value of damping. as described in Table 1: SOLID65 Concrete Material Data (p. When the element is cracked or crushed.0 . After the solution converges to the cracked state.0 representing a smooth crack (complete loss of shear transfer) and 1. All rights reserved. A rebar material number of zero or equal to the element material number removes that rebar capability. it is recommended to set KEYOPT(3) = 2 and apply the load in very small load increments. The orientation is defined by two angles (in degrees) from the element coordinate system.0 to 1. If solution convergence is a problem. they default to T(I). with 0. The volume ratio is defined as the rebar volume divided by the total element volume. 285). Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically..UNSYM. Positive pressures act into the element. If MP.

Inc. FL(K). MAT3. FL(L). face 4 (K-L-P-O). FL(O). Inc. T(O). T(J). T(M). or may be assigned on a per rebar basis. THETA1. K. J. T(N). VR3. PHI1. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). face 2 (I-J-N-M). ALPX (or CTEX or THSX).SOLID65 SOLID65 Input Summary Nodes I. FL(N). face 5 (L-I-M-P). THETA3. 285 .© SAS IP. FL(M). MAT2. ALPD Specify BETD only once for the element (use MAT command to assign material property set). P Degrees of Freedom UX. All rights reserved. L. ALPX (or CTEX or THSX).0 . VR2. T(L). Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). N. T(K). FL(P) Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Concrete Cracking Creep Crushing Elasticity Large deflection Large strain Plasticity Stress stiffening Swelling User-defined material KEYOPT(1) Extra displacement shapes: Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. UY. face 3 (J-K-O-N). CSTIF (where MATn is material number. THETA2. PRXY or NUXY. UZ Real Constants MAT1. M. VRn is volume ratio. REFT may be supplied once for the element. T(P) Fluences -FL(I). and THETAn and PHIn are orientation angles for up to 3 rebar materials) Material Properties EX. 283) for more details. PHI3. O. See the discussion in "SOLID65 Input Data" (p. FL(J). DENS (for concrete) EX. DENS (for each rebar). PHI2. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. VR1.

© SAS IP. and warning message (see KEYOPT(8)) 2 -Features of 1 and apply consistent Newton-Raphson load vector. 287) is entered in the data table with the TB commands. All rights reserved. Inc.0 . Data not input are assumed to be zero. . KEYOPT(5) Concrete linear solution output: 0 -Print concrete linear solution only at centroid 1 -Repeat solution at each integration point 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(6) Concrete nonlinear solution output: 0 -Print concrete nonlinear solution only at centroid 3 -Print solution also at each integration point KEYOPT(7) Stress relaxation after cracking: 0 -No tensile stress relaxation after cracking 1 -Include tensile stress relaxation after cracking to help convergence KEYOPT(8) Warning message for totally crushed unreinforced element: 0 -Print the warning 1 -Suppress the warning SOLID65 Concrete Information The data listed in Table 1: SOLID65 Concrete Material Data (p. except for defaults described below. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The constant table is started by using the TBcommand (with Lab = CONCR).SOLID65 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(3) Behavior of totally crushed unreinforced elements: 0 -Base 1 -Suppress mass and applied loads. Up to eight constants may be defined 286 Release 14. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Stiffness multiplier for cracked tensile condition. If any one of Constants 5-8 are input. Biaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state (constant 6). after each TBTEMP command. Inc. Release 14. Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state (constant 6). Ambient hydrostatic stress state for use with constants 7 and 8. 50). since cracking or crushing may occur at any integration point. there are no defaults and all 8 constants must be input. If cracking or crushing is possible. Up to six temperatures (NTEMP = 6 maximum on the TB command) may be defined with the TBTEMP commands. Rebar printout appears only for the rebar defined. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 287 . Uniaxial crushing stress (positive).© SAS IP. the latter constants default as discussed in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. 288) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. All rights reserved. respectively. Inc.SOLID65 with the TBDATA commands following a temperature definition on the TBTEMP command. Uniaxial tensile cracking stress. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.6). If constants 1-4 are input and constants 5-8 are omitted. Biaxial crushing stress (positive). are: Table 1 SOLID65 Concrete Material Data Constant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Meaning Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack. SOLID65 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: SOLID65 Element Output Definitions (p. The PLCRACK command can be used in POST1 to display the status of the integration points. The constants (C1-C9) entered on the TBDATA commands (6 per command). Nonlinear material printout appears only if nonlinear properties are specified. printout for the concrete is also at the integration points.0 . A value of -1 for constant 3 or 4 also removes the cracking or crushing capability. 288). Absence of the data table removes the cracking and crushing capability. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. used if KEYOPT(7) = 1 (defaults to 0. Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack. . The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.

M. In either the O or R columns. FL(O). FL(J).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(L). K. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T(P) Fluences FL(I). L. N. N. Inc. YZ. P2 at I. FL(P) Location where results are reported Stresses Principal stresses Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y TEMP FLUEN XC.I. FL(K). . P. K. O.© SAS IP. T(J). J. M. I. XY. 3 Y Y Y 1 1 Y Y 6 1 1 288 Release 14. Inc. ESOL).SOLID65 Figure 2 SOLID65 Stress Output grk ¢lne y w v £ s x θr φr @rerA ¡ u t The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. L. Z. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. YC. XZ S:1. J. O. I. P4 at K. FL(N). 2.0 . P6 at M. O. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. K. FL(M). ZC S:X. N. P3 at J. T(M). T(K).OUT. M. P. P Temperatures T(I). Table 2 SOLID65 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT NREINF VOLU: PRES Element number Nodes . P Material number Number of rebar Volume Pressures P1 at nodes J. FL(L). T(O). Y. All rights reserved. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. P5 at L. . T(N). L. O. N.

Z. Y.solid is cracked and the crack is open. Open . Y. Z.0 . All rights reserved. Inc. YZ. Z. 2. XY.SOLID65 Name S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X. YZ. XY. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Closed . Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [7] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strains [7] Average plastic strains Equivalent plastic strains [7] Average creep strains Equivalent creep strains [7] Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure THETA and PHI angle orientations of the normal to the crack plane Element status Rebar number Material number Volume ratio Angle of orientation in X-Y plane Angle of orientation out of X-Y plane Uniaxial elastic strain Uniaxial stress Average uniaxial elastic strain Average uniaxial plastic strain Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Average uniaxial creep strain Definition O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 R 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 5 5 5 5 Concrete solution item (output for each integration point (if KEYOPT(5) = 1) and the centroid) The element status table (Table 4: SOLID65 Element Status Table (p.solid is cracked but the crack is closed.solid is crushed. XY. Inc. 2. Z. XY. YZ. YZ. XZ EPEL:1. XZ EPTH:EQV EPPL:X.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. Release 14. XZ EPCR:EQV NL:EPEQ NL:SRAT NL:SEPL NL:HPRES THETCR. . 3 EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. XZ EPPL:EQV EPCR:X. 290)) uses the following terms: • • • Crushed . Y. PHICR STATUS IRF MAT VR THETA PHI EPEL S EPEL EPPL SEPL EPCR 1. 289 . Y.

. YZ. 7.0 . S(X. SEQV 1 O R - 1.PRXY). Table 3 SOLID65 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Nodal Stress Solution Names of Items Output TEMP. 4. Z.5. Rebar solution item repeats for each rebar Concrete nonlinear integration point solution (if KEYOPT(6) = 3 and the element has a nonlinear material) Rebar nonlinear integration point solution (if KEYOPT(6) = 3 and the rebar has a nonlinear material) Available only at centroid as a *GET item.© SAS IP. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0. 291) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 291): 290 Release 14. Neither .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.SOLID65 • 3. All rights reserved. Inc. 5. Output at each node. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 4 SOLID65 Element Status Table Status 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Status in Direction 1 Crushed Open Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Closed Neither Status in Direction 2 Crushed Neither Neither Open Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Open Open Closed Closed Closed Neither Status in Direction 3 Crushed Neither Neither Neither Open Open Neither Open Open Neither Closed Closed Neither Closed Closed Neither Table 5: SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 6. XZ). The following notation is used in Table 5: SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. . SINT. 52) in this manual for more information. Y.solid is neither crushed nor cracked. XY. Inc.

J.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc..P sequence number for data at nodes I.. Inc.P IP sequence number for Integration Point solution items Table 5 SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name EPEL SIG EPPL EPCR SEPL SRAT Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV FLUEN ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item Rebar 1 1 2 41 42 43 44 Rebar 2 3 4 45 46 47 48 Rebar 3 5 6 49 50 51 52 SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I J K L M N O P SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Output Quantity Name STATUS 8 11 24 1 2 3 4 5 109 7 12 15 6 7 8 9 10 110 10 16 19 11 12 13 14 15 111 9 20 23 16 17 18 19 20 112 14 25 27 21 22 23 24 25 113 13 18 28 26 27 28 29 30 114 17 22 29 31 32 33 34 35 115 21 26 30 36 37 38 39 40 116 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC Integration Point 1 53 2 60 3 67 4 74 5 81 6 88 7 95 8 102 Release 14... ..SOLID65 Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: SOLID65 Element Output Definitions (p. 288) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. and its subsidiaries and affiliates..0 . All rights reserved.J..© SAS IP.. 291 .

especially if significantly large rotation is involved. Also. . The following two options are not recommended if cracking or crushing nonlinearities are present: – – Stress-stiffening effects. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron elements. which have no shear stiffness.0. 283) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. Whenever the rebar capability of the element is used. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p. when cracking has occurred.0 . the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes.SOLID65 Output Quantity Name Dir 1 Dir 2 Dir 3 THETCR PHICR THETCR PHICR THETCR PHICR ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Integration Point 1 54 55 56 57 58 59 2 61 62 63 64 65 66 3 68 69 70 71 72 73 4 75 76 77 78 79 80 5 82 83 84 85 86 87 6 89 90 91 92 93 94 7 96 97 98 99 100 101 8 103 104 105 106 107 108 SOLID65 Assumptions and Restrictions • • Zero volume elements are not allowed. 39)). Also. This usually happens when excessive cracking strains are coupled to the orthogonal uncracked directions through Poisson's effect. 292 Release 14. Results may not converge or may be incorrect. at those integration points where crushing has occurred. the rebar are assumed to be "smeared" throughout the element. The lost shear resistance of cracked and/or crushed elements cannot be transferred to the rebar. Furthermore. • • • • • • SOLID65 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. Inc. All rights reserved. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the output plastic and creep strains are from the previous converged substep. care must be taken to apply the load slowly to prevent possible fictitious crushing of the concrete before proper load transfer can occur through a closed crack. The sum of the volume ratios for all rebar must not be greater than 1. All elements must have eight nodes. The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution.© SAS IP. A tetrahedron shape is also available. Large strain and large deflection. . the elastic strain output includes the cracking strain. When both cracking and crushing are used together.

The electrical material property. The thermal-electrical line element may be used in a steady-state or transient thermal analysis. The element is defined by two nodes. temperature and voltage. . The specific heat and density may be assigned any values for steady-state solutions. is the resistivity of the material.LINK68 Coupled Thermal-Electric Line MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions LINK68 Element Description LINK68 is a uniaxial element in 3-D space with the ability to conduct heat and electrical current between its nodes. the conducting bar element (LINK33) may be used. The thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are in the element longitudinal direction. and the coordinate system for this thermal-electrical line element are shown in Figure 1 (p. In an axisymmetric analysis the area should be input on a full 360° basis.© SAS IP. If no electrical effects are present. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element. node locations. although no transient electrical capacitance or inductance effects are included in the element. The resistance of the element is calculated from RSVX*length/AREA.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. The element has two degrees of freedom. The element is linear but requires an iterative solution to include the Joule heating effect in the thermal solution. the cross-sectional area. Joule heat generated by the current flow is also included in the heat balance. at each node. The resistivity. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. like any other material property. Release 14. RSVX. See LINK68 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. may be input as a function of temperature. Inc.0 . Figure 1 LINK68 Geometry t s x LINK68 Input Data The geometry. Inc. and the material properties. 293). 293 . If the model containing the thermal-electrical element is also to be analyzed structurally. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

VOLT Real Constants AREA . Inc. This rate is in addition to the Joule heat generated by the current flow. The word AMPS should be input for the Lab variable on the F command and the current into the node input for the value. Inc. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). RSVX Surface Loads None Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). HG(J) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPTS None LINK68 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures and voltages included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: LINK68 Element Output Definitions (p. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. 43).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A summary of the element input is given in "LINK68 Input Summary" (p.© SAS IP. LINK68 Input Summary Nodes I. 294). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: 294 Release 14. Element body loads may be input as heat generation rates at the nodes. C. 295) The heat flow and the current flow into the nodes may be printed with the OUTPR command. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. ENTH. 50). The Joule heat generated this substep is used to determine the temperature distribution calculated for the next substep.0 . . DENS. All rights reserved. .LINK68 The word VOLT should be input for the Lab variable on the D command and the voltage input for the value. J Degrees of Freedom TEMP. 49). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Cross-sectional area Material Properties KXX. The current being calculated via this element can be directly coupled into a 3-D magnetostatic analysis [BIOT]. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

© SAS IP. 295) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 LINK68 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name TG TF ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC E 1 2 Release 14. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.I. “Y” indicates that the item is always available.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Inc.0 . Table 1 LINK68 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. All rights reserved. J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. In either the O or R columns. Inc. 295 . Table 2: LINK68 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. The following notation is used in Table 2: LINK68 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. YC. ZC HGEN TG TF EF JS CUR JHEAT: 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Y al area) Electric field (voltage gradient) Current density (voltage flux) Current Joule heat generation per unit volume Y Y Y Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Element Number Nodes . 295) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 52) in this manual for more information. ESOL).LINK68 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. 295): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: LINK68 Element Output Definitions (p. HG(J) Thermal gradient at centroid Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Thermal flux at centroid (heat flow/cross-section. .

Current (input and output) should also be converted for consistent units. to get Joule heat in mechanical units. . The resistivity may be divided by a conversion factor. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. To be compatible. • LINK68 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. the current is ignored. The element must not have a zero length. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to adiabatic. There is no conversion required when consistent units are used. All rights reserved. Inc. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. The birth and death special feature is not allowed. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.LINK68 Output Quantity Name EF JS CUR ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC E 3 4 5 LINK68 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • • Heat and current are assumed to flow only in the element longitudinal direction. . ANSYS Emag 3-D • • • • • • This element has only electric field capability. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide). The only allowable material property is RSVX. The electrical and thermal solutions are coupled via an iterative procedure. The only active degree of freedom is VOLT. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and does not have thermal capability. nodes I and J may not be coincident.0 . such as 3. No conversion is included between electrical heat units and mechanical heat units. that is. Inc.415 Btu/Hr per Watt. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed.© SAS IP. No body loads are applicable. 296 Release 14. A free end of the element (that is. If a current is specified at the same node that a voltage is specified. The element may only be used in a steady-state electric analysis.

the thermal parameters are interpreted as analogous fluid flow parameters.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as SOLID185). See SOLID70 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.© SAS IP. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. An option exists that allows the element to model nonlinear steady-state fluid flow through a porous medium. The element also can compensate for mass transport heat flow from a constant velocity field. and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p. The element has eight nodes with a single degree of freedom. at each node.SOLID70 3-D Thermal Solid MP ME <> PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS Product Restrictions SOLID70 Element Description SOLID70 has a 3-D thermal conduction capability. node locations. If the model containing the conducting solid element is also to be analyzed structurally. 297 . . with mid-edge node capability. A prism-shaped element. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. For example.0 . 297). The element Release 14. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. a tetrahedral-shaped element. Figure 1 SOLID70 Geometry w S T w P s t I " v x Q u s R y s x t rism yption yD uDv ¤¥¦¥§¥¨ ¡¢ £ e©hedl §© # ! y$%&'( )0'12 SOLID70 Input Data The geometry. the temperature degree of freedom becomes equivalent to a pressure degree of freedom. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. See SOLID90 for a similar thermal element. The element is applicable to a 3-D. 297). temperature. Inc. The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties. All rights reserved. With this option.

HG(L). KZZ. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. VISC. Properties C and MU are used in calculating the coefficients of permeability as described in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. Inc. HG(P) 298 Release 14. SOLID70 Input Summary Nodes I. they default to HG(I). All rights reserved. N.0 . KYY.SOLID70 coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. For this option. A mass transport option is available with KEYOPT(8). 298). Also. MU (VISC and MU used only if KEYOPT(7) = 1. and KZZ. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. The nonlinear porous flow option is selected with KEYOPT(7) = 1. Surface Loads Convection or Heat Flux (but not both) and Radiation (using Lab = RDSF) -face 1 (J-I-L-K). and heat flow boundary conditions input with the F command are interpreted as mass flow rate (mass/time). Temperature boundary conditions input with the D command are interpreted as pressure boundary conditions. 49).© SAS IP. Inc. 43). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. With mass transport. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I).X direction of mass transport velocity VY . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. C. face 3 (J-K-O-N). HG(N). VY. 297). If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID70 Input Summary" (p. With this option the velocities VX. L. HG(M). Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. Do not use ENTH with KEYOPT(8) = 1). Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. and all others are unspecified.Y direction of mass transport velocity VZ . face 5 (L-I-M-P). M. temperature is interpreted as pressure and the absolute permeability of the medium are input as material properties KXX. . O. Properties DENS and VISC are used for the mass density and viscosity of the fluid. P Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants Mass transport effects (KEYOPT(8) = 1): VX . HG(O). face 2 (I-J-N-M). temperatures should be specified along the entire inlet boundary to assure a stable solution. 56). HG(J). KYY. face 4 (K-L-P-O). ENTH. K. J. DENS. you should use specific heat (C) and density (DENS) material properties instead of enthalpy (ENTH). HG(K).Z direction of mass transport velocity Material Properties KXX. and VZ must be input as real constants (in the element coordinate system).

VY. If KEYOPT(7) = 1. 300) Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature |TS-TB| KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system defined: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(7) Nonlinear fluid flow option: 0 -Standard heat transfer element 1 -Nonlinear steady-state fluid flow analogy element Note Temperature degree of freedom interpreted as pressure. the standard thermal output should be interpreted as the analogous fluid flow output. 299 .0 . (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. applied heat flux is positive into the element.SOLID70 Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(2) Evaluation of film coefficient: 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature. KEYOPT(8) Mass transport effects: 0 -No mass transport effects 1 -Mass transport with VX. All rights reserved. . VZ SOLID70 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID70 Element Output Definitions (p. Release 14. TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature.© SAS IP.

YC. SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX PRESSURE GRAD MASS FLUX FLUID VELOCITY Element Number Nodes .OUT. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Y. HG(K). HG(N). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. HG(L). ESOL). 50). and “-” indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG(O). M. K. ZC HGEN TG:X. L. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. O. and Z components Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 300 Release 14. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. N. J.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Z.I. . and Z components Mass flow rate per unit cross-sectional area Total fluid velocity and its X. Table 1 SOLID70 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. SUM TF:X. HG(J). Inc. Z. HG(M). Inc. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.© SAS IP.0 . All rights reserved. HG(P) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face Total pressure gradient and its X. In either the O or R columns. Y. Y.SOLID70 The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. Y. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I).

301 . 52) in this manual for more information. 301) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. A prism or tetrahedron shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface.0 . If KEYOPT(8) > 0. 301): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID70 Element Output Definitions (p. Table 2: SOLID70 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as for melting) within a coarse grid. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Output if a surface load is input Output if KEYOPT(7) = 1 Available only at centroid as a *GET item. the thermal element should be oriented such that face I-J-N-M and/or face K-L-P-O is a free surface. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic.SOLID70 1. The following notation is used in Table 2: SOLID70 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Inc. If the thermal element is to be replaced by a SOLID185 structural element with surface stresses requested. unsymmetric matrices are produced. 300) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 SOLID70 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC5 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC6 31 32 33 34 35 36 SOLID70 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • The element must not have a zero volume. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. Inc.© SAS IP. 3. Release 14. . A free surface of the element (that is. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. 39). All rights reserved. 297) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.

0 Where L is an element length scale based on the element geometry. . 302 Release 14. Inc. All rights reserved. KEYOPT(7) and KEYOPT(8) can only be set to 0 (default). . SOLID70 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Inc.SOLID70 • When mass flow is activated (KEYOPT(8)=1). The element does not have the birth and death feature.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. See SOLID70 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details.© SAS IP. ANSYS Professional • • • • This element does not have the mass transport or fluid flow options. and VZ real constants are not applicable. the element Peclet number should be less than 1: Pe = ρ*v*L*Cp/(2*k) <1. The VISC and MU material properties are not applicable. VY. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The VX.

For an axisymmetric analysis the heat generation rate should be input on a full 360° basis. Also. Inc. the thermal capacitance should be input on a full 360° basis. A temperature-dependent heat generation rate of the following polynomial form may be input: ɺɺɺ = I + P + Q e R + S eT where T is the absolute temperature from the previous substep. 303 . The element may be used in a transient thermal analysis to represent a body having thermal capacitance capability but negligible internal thermal resistance. If any of the constants A2 through A6 are nonzero.© SAS IP. that is. no significant temperature gradients within the body. Inc. In a steady-state solution the element acts only as a temperature-dependent heat source or sink. if KEYOPT(3) = 0 (that is. should be entered as real constants. KEYOPT(3) determines whether CON1 is interpreted as volume or thermal capacitance. A1 through A6. The thermal capacitance (CON1) may be input as a real constant or calculated (KEYOPT(3)) from the real constant volume (CON1) and either the DENS and C or ENTH material properties. when using the specific heat matrix). the thermal element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as MASS21) Figure 1 MASS71 Geometry s MASS71 Input Data The lumped thermal mass element is defined by one node (as shown in Figure 1 (p. Other elements having special thermal applications are the COMBIN14 and COMBIN40 elements. If the model containing the thermal mass element is also to be analyzed structurally. or 3-D steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0 . temperature. Release 14. may be used for thermally analogous situations. if temperatures are not absolute. 303)) and a thermal capacitance (Heat/Degree). All rights reserved. 2-D. the offset conversion [TOFFST] must be specified. which are normally used in structural models. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The heat generation is applied directly as a nodal load and is not first multiplied by the volume. at the node. When used with axisymmetric elements.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. KEYOPT(4) must be set to 1. The constants.MASS71 Thermal Mass MP ME ST PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions MASS71 Element Description MASS71 is a point element having one degree of freedom. The element also has a temperature-dependent heat generation rate capability. . Thus. The lumped thermal mass element is applicable to a 1-D. These elements. the heat generation rate must be adjusted to account for the volume. See MASS71 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.

.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the heat generation expression may be defined as a temperature-dependent material property (QRATE) with the MP commands. DENS. or QRATE if KEYOPT(3) = 1 Surface Loads None Body Loads None (heat generation rates may be defined as a function of temperature by using real constants A1. Inc.. . 304). MASS71 Input Summary Nodes I Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants CON1. . ENTH if KEYOPT(3) = 0. A2. 304) for a description of the real constants Material Properties QRATE. 1 Name CON1 Description Volume or thermal capacitance (see KEYOPT(3)) 304 Release 14. A3.0 .© SAS IP. A1. Inc. A5 A6 See Table 1: MASS71 Real Constants (p. time. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. and location. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. All rights reserved. 76) for more details. or by the QRATE material property definition. A4.) Special Features Birth and death Nonlinear if heat generation is defined as a function of temperature KEYOPT(3) Interpretation of real constant CON1: 0 -Interpret CON1 as volume (with either DENS and C or ENTH supplied as material properties) 1 -Interpret CON1 as thermal capacitance (DENS*C*volume) KEYOPT(4) Temperature dependent heat generation: 0 -No temperature-dependent heat generation (required if all real constants A2-A6 are zero) 1 -Include temperature-dependent heat generation (required if any real constants A2-A6 are nonzero) Table 1 MASS71 Real Constants No. A2. . QRATE can be input as numerical values or as tabular inputs evaluated as a function of temperature. C. 43).MASS71 Alternately. A summary of the element input is given in "MASS71 Input Summary" (p.

305 . See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. ESOL). YC. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The following notation is used in Table 3: MASS71 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. “Y” indicates that the item is always available.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. 52) in this manual for more information. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.OUT. ZC TEMP HEAT RATE 1. . Inc. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 305) The heat generation rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive into the node. 306): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: MASS71 Element Output Definitions (p. Element Number Node I Location where results are reported Element (node) temperature Heat generation rate into node Definition O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y 1 Y Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item. 306) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Table 2 MASS71 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODE XC. 50). In either the O or R columns.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 305) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Release 14.0 . Inc. 2 3 4 5 6 7 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Name Description Constant for temperature function Constant for temperature function Constant for temperature function Constant for temperature function Constant for temperature function Constant for temperature function MASS71 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: MASS71 Element Output Definitions (p. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.MASS71 No. Table 3: MASS71 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.

ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. The heat generation is calculated at the uniform temperature for the first substep. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 306 Release 14. MASS71 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. All rights reserved. Inc. . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.MASS71 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 MASS71 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name HEAT RATE TEMP ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC E 1 2 MASS71 Assumptions and Restrictions • • When using the element with a temperature-dependent heat generation rate in a steady-state solution.0 . an iterative solution is required. . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.

0 . The element is applicable to an axisymmetric geometry for steady-state or transient thermal analyses. The element is a generalization of the axisymmetric version of PLANE55 in that it allows nonaxisymmetric loading.© SAS IP. Various loading cases are described in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. If the model containing the element is also to be analyzed structurally. A similar thermal element with midside node capability is PLANE78. 307). See PLANE75 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. temperature. the element should be replaced by the equivalent structural element (such as PLANE25). 251). Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. at each node. the element behaves similarly to the axisymmetric case of PLANE55. node locations. The MODE and ISYM parameters describe the type of temperature distribution and are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. 77). and the coordinate system for this axisymmetric thermal solid element are shown in Figure 1 (p. If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1. Release 14.PLANE75 Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE75 Element Description PLANE75 is used as an axisymmetric ring element with a 3-D thermal conduction capability. . The element has four nodes with a single degree of freedom. Figure 1 PLANE75 Geometry v R Q u P D ¡ ¢ £ @ringulr yptionA ¤¥¦ §x¨§© ¤¥¦ ¦§d¨§© s I t re fw f eeme s sve PLANE75 Input Data The geometry. 77). All rights reserved. 307 . The data input is essentially the same as for PLANE55 and is described in "PLANE55 Input Data" (p. The element input data also includes the number of harmonic waves (MODE) and the symmetry condition (ISYM) on the MODE command.

face 2 (K-J). see Harmonic 308 Release 14. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input and all others are unspecified.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. DENS. . . J. face 2 (K-J). Harmonically varying heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. ENTH Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). For more information about harmonic elements. K. 307). HG(K). applied heat flux is positive into the element. face 3 (L-K). KZZ. they default to HG(I). 308). HG(J). Harmonically varying bulk temperatures or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. Inc.PLANE75 Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. 309) Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. face 3 (L-K). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. L Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. 49). KYY. All rights reserved. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE75 Input Summary" (p.© SAS IP. HG(L) Mode Number Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE) Loading Condition Symmetry condition (MODE) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPTS None PLANE75 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE75 Element Output Definitions (p. face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). 43). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). PLANE75 Input Summary Nodes I. C. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360° basis. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Inc.

HG(L) Number of waves in loading Thermal gradient components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Face label Face nodes Face area Average of the two end nodal temperatures evaluated at peak value. Y. Table 1 PLANE75 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.0 . Inc. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. K. Inc. Z TF:X. SUM. 309 . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.PLANE75 Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. SUM. Z FACE NODES AREA TAVG. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. HG(K). 2. 77). 3. In either the O or R columns.OUT. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 - Gradient and flux peak at THETA = 0 and THETA = 90 ÷ MODE degrees Output if a surface load is input Available only at centroid as a *GET item. All rights reserved. YC HGEN MODE TG:X. HG(J).I. 50). ESOL).© SAS IP. fluid bulk temperature evaluated at peak value Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 2 2 2 R Y Y Y Y 3 1 1 2 2 HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX 1. Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. TBULK Element number Nodes . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). J.

If the thermal element is to be replaced by the analogous structural element (PLANE25) with surface stresses requested. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE75 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. A free surface of the element (that is. 52) in this manual for more information. If MODE > 0. if no MODE = 0 substep exists. then evaluation is done at 0. Inc. . if applicable) is a free surface. 307) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.0 degrees. If MODE = 0. Temperature-dependent material properties (including the film coefficient) are assumed to be axisymmetric even if the temperature varies harmonically. 309) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 PLANE75 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 PLANE75 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • The element must not have a negative or a zero area. 310): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE75 Element Output Definitions (p. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p. The element must lie in the global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. • • • • • 310 Release 14. 39). All rights reserved.PLANE75 Table 2: PLANE75 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. properties are evaluated at temperatures calculated from the previous MODE = 0 substep. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic.0 . the thermal element should be oriented so that face I-J (and also face K-L. 310) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. properties are evaluated at the temperatures calculated in the previous substep (or at TUNIF if for the first substep). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.© SAS IP. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.

Release 14. Inc. 311 .© SAS IP.PLANE75 PLANE75 Product Restrictions There are no product restrictions for this element.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. . All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .

Inc. All rights reserved.312 Release 14.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .© SAS IP.

313 . The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. 49). 313). the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE183). If the model containing this element is also to be analyzed structurally. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. Release 14. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The element is defined by eight nodes and orthotropic material properties. temperature. A triangular-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node number for nodes K. All rights reserved. node locations. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. they default to HG(I). 4-node thermal element (PLANE55). and all others are unspecified. each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. 313). at each node. A similar axisymmetric thermal element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading is PLANE78. . The 8-node elements have compatible temperature shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. Figure 1 PLANE77 Geometry v Q y @¡¢ x£lA @¡¢ ¢d£lA R x s w I t P s u uD vD y x w ri yption PLANE77 Input Data The geometry. The 8-node thermal element is applicable to a 2-D. L and O. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified.© SAS IP. Inc. See PLANE77 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. The element has one degree of freedom. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions.PLANE77 2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid MP ME <> PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE77 Element Description PLANE77 is a higher order version of the 2-D. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. 56).0 .

76). All rights reserved. N. Be careful when using this option with other physics.© SAS IP. 43). Radiation view factors will be based on a unit Z-depth (only). HG(N). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. HG(P) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) Specific heat matrix: 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric 3 -Plane with Z-depth. M. HG(L). For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE77 Input Summary" (p. HG(J). PLANE77 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: 314 Release 14. KYY. L. ENTH Surface Loads Convection or Heat Flux (but not both) and Radiation (using Lab = RDSF) -face 1 (J-I).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. C. HG(O). . DENS. specified via real constant THK. 314). HG(K). P Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants THK THK = Thickness (used only if KEYOPT(3) = 3) Material Properties KXX. Inc. Inc. especially radiation. K. face 3 (L-K). HG(M). PLANE77 Input Summary Nodes I.0 . O. J. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). . face 2 (K-J). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.PLANE77 This element can also have a Z-depth specified by KEYOPT(3) and real constant THK.

Inc. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. HG(O).© SAS IP. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. K. YC HGEN TG:X. 315) The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.0 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. N. For an axisymmetric analysis the face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360° basis. HG(N). .OUT. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. HG(J). applied heat flux is positive into the element. Inc. M. 315 . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. L. HG(M).I. HG(L). O. 50). Y.PLANE77 • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE77 Element Output Definitions (p. Table 1 PLANE77 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. SUM TF:X. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. ESOL). In either the O or R columns. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Y. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. All rights reserved. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). HG(K). HG(P) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face nodes Face area Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 Release 14. SUM FACE NODES AREA HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG Element Number Nodes . J.

If the thermal element is to be replaced by a PLANE183 structural element with surface stresses requested. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE77 Item and Component Labels (p. • • 316 Release 14. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Definition Heat flux at each node of face O 1 R - Output only if a surface load is input Available only at centroid as a *GET item.© SAS IP. 316) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 52) in this manual for more information. the thermal element may be oriented such that face IJ and/or face KL is a free surface. A face with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. . Inc. A free surface of the element (that is. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. 2.PLANE77 Name HFLUX 1. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . 315) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 PLANE77 Item and Component Labels Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 PLANE77 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • The area of the element must be positive.0 . 316): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE77 Element Output Definitions (p. Table 2: PLANE77 Item and Component Labels (p. 313) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid. rather than parabolically. The 2-D element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. along that face. Inc.

PLANE77 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Inc. Release 14.© SAS IP. Inc. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 317 .PLANE77 • Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will require a fine mesh at the surface.

. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc.318 Release 14. .© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The data input is essentially the same as for PLANE77 and is described in "PLANE77 Input Data" (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element input data also includes the number of harmonic waves (MODE on the MODE command) and the symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command). The 8-node elements have compatible temperature shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. and the coordinate system for this axisymmetric thermal solid element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Harmonically varying heat generation rates may be input as element body Release 14. 313). The element has one degree of freedom. the temperature is assumed to be 0° along an entire diameter. temperature. Inc. Harmonically varying bulk temperatures or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. 319).© SAS IP. 49). 319). The MODE and ISYM parameters describe the type of temperature distribution and are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. the element behaves similarly to the axisymmetric case of PLANE77. If the model containing the element is also to be analyzed structurally. . node locations. The element is applicable to an axisymmetric geometry for steady-state or transient thermal analyses.0 . at each node. the element should be replaced by the equivalent structural element (such as PLANE83). Figure 1 PLANE78 Geometry Q R @ ¡ ¢x£¢¤A x s @ ¡ ¡¢d£¢¤A w I t P s v y u uDvDy x t w ringulr yption PLANE78 Input Data The geometry.PLANE78 Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE78 Element Description PLANE78 is used as an axisymmetric ring element with a 3-D thermal conduction capability. 77). All rights reserved. If MODE equals 1. Various loading cases are described in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. Inc. If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1. 319 . PLANE78 is a generalization of PLANE77 in that it allows nonaxisymmetric loading. 77). Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. See PLANE78 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.

0 . C. 320). K. 321) 320 Release 14. KYY. All rights reserved. PLANE78 Input Summary Nodes I. DENS. HG(M). Inc.© SAS IP. HG(L). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). P Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. HG(N). Inc. face 3 (L-K). ENTH Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). they default to HG(I). . . O. M. L. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. N. 43). A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE78 Input Summary" (p. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified. HG(K). HG(P) Mode Number Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE) Special Features Birth and death Loading Condition Symmetry condition (MODE) KEYOPT(1) Specific heat matrix: 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix PLANE78 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE78 Element Output Definitions (p. HG(J).PLANE78 loads at the nodes.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input and all others are unspecified. face 3 (L-K). J. HG(O). face 2 (K-J). KZZ. face 2 (K-J).

YC HGEN TG:X. SUM. HG(N). In either the O or R columns. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Y.PLANE78 Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Table 1 PLANE78 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT MODE VOLU: XC. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Y. ESOL).0 . HG(P) Thermal gradient components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Face label Face nodes Face area Film coefficient Average of the two end nodal temperatures evaluated at peak value. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. HG(O). fluid bulk temperature at peak value Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R Y Y Y Y Y 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Release 14. O. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. For more information about harmonic elements. M.I.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG(K). N. 321 . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Inc. TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX Element number Nodes . L. All rights reserved. HG(L). HG(J). SUM.OUT. HG(M). P Material number Number of waves in loading Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I).© SAS IP. 50). 77). see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. J. K. Z TF:X. . applied heat flux is positive into the element. Z FACE NODES AREA HFILM TAVG. The face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360° basis.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 322) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 3. 322): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE78 Element Output Definitions (p. A free surface of the element (that is.© SAS IP.0 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic.PLANE78 1. . • • • 322 Release 14. Inc. Temperature-dependent material properties (including the film coefficient) are assumed to be axisymmetric even if the temperature varies harmonically. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE78 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 2. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. Table 2: PLANE78 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. If the thermal element is to be replaced by the analogous structural element (PLANE83) with surface stresses requested. The element must lie in the global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p. rather than parabolically. Gradient and flux peak at THETA = 0 and THETA = 90 ÷ Mode degrees Output only if a surface load is input Available only at centroid as a *GET item. 321) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 PLANE78 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 PLANE78 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • The element must not have a negative or a zero area. the thermal element should be oriented so that face IJ (and also face KL. Inc. All rights reserved. 52) in this manual for more information. along that face. 319) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. . if applicable) is a free surface. A face with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

0 degrees. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 323 . If MODE > 0. then evaluation is done at 0.PLANE78 • • If MODE = 0. All rights reserved. PLANE78 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. . Inc. Inc.© SAS IP. properties are evaluated at the temperatures calculated in the previous substep (or at TUNIF if for the first substep). if no MODE = 0 substep exists.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. properties are evaluated at temperatures calculated from the previous MODE = 0 substep.

All rights reserved. Inc.0 . . .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.324 Release 14.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.

which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus". The fluid element is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x and y directions.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element input data includes four nodes and the isotropic material properties. 325). should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300. . 325 . Note The reduced method is the only acceptable method for modal analyses using the ANSYS fluid elements. EX.0 . See FLUID80 for a 3-D version of this element. Figure 1 FLUID79 Geometry @xilA @rdilA Q v u R P s t I FLUID79 Input Data The geometry.639 x 10-7 lb-sec/in2). All rights reserved. See FLUID79 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Inc.000 psi for water). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. such as in sloshing problems. may be included. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. The use of KEYOPT(2) for gravity springs is discussed Release 14. Inc. The element may be used in a structural analysis as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element. The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses (typical viscosity value for water is 1. Acceleration effects.FLUID79 2-D Contained Fluid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID79 Element Description FLUID79 is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. as well as temperature effects. node locations.

0 plane (elements must not have positive Y coordinates) KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric 326 Release 14. ALPX (or CTEX or THSX). 325). Inc. T(L) Special Features None KEYOPT(2) Location of gravity springs: 0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements 1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Y = 0. UY Real Constants None Material Properties EX. 43). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. DENS. 329). If all other temperatures are unspecified. K.FLUID79 in "FLUID80 Input Data" (p. Positive pressures act into the element. J. BETD Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). L Degrees of Freedom UX. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. face 3 (L-K). face 2 (K-J). 76). T(J). FLUID79 Input Summary Nodes I. For any other input pattern. All rights reserved. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. T(K). Inc. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p.0 . A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. . ALPD. 326). For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. . face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). VISC. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. they default to T(I). A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID79 Input Summary" (p.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Vertical acceleration (ACELY on the ACEL command) is needed for the gravity springs. 49). Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes.

Table 1 FLUID79 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. ESOL). T(K). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T(L) Average temperature Average pressure Available only at centroid as a *GET item. P4 at I. 50). 52) in this manual for more information. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. I. YC PRES TEMP TAVG PAVG 1. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Element Number Nodes . Inc. In either the O or R columns.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. K.FLUID79 FLUID79 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID79 Element Output Definitions (p. J. 328): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID79 Element Output Definitions (p. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. All rights reserved. K. P2 at K.I. 327) The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid.© SAS IP. 327 . Inc. L Temperatures T(I). 328) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Table 2: FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 327) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Release 14.0 . Nodal forces and reaction forces are on a full 360° basis for axisymmetric models. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. P3 at L. T(J). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. . J.

Elements should be rectangular whenever possible.0E-9) is associated with the shear and rotational strains to ensure static stability.0 .. 328 Release 14.. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.. .. . Inc. Inc.L sequence number for data at nodes I.J... The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.0. See FLUID80 for more assumptions and restrictions.J. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. Usually the Y-axis is oriented in the vertical direction with the top surface at Y = 0. 325) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. as results are known to be of lower quality for some cases using nonrectangular shapes.FLUID79 I.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A very small stiffness (EX x 1.. The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis for this element. The fluid element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p.© SAS IP.. Axisymmetric elements should always be rectangular. Radial motion should be constrained at the centerline.L Table 2 FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name PRES P1 P2 P3 P4 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item E I J K L SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 1 - 3 8 2 5 - 4 7 - 6 9 FLUID79 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • • • • The area of the element must be positive. All rights reserved. FLUID79 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

The element input data includes eight nodes and the isotropic material properties. See FLUID79 for a 2-D version of this element. should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. Inc. which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus". All rights reserved. as well as temperature effects. The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses.0 . . and z directions. 329 .000 psi for water). Note The reduced method is the only acceptable method for modal analyses using the ANSYS fluid elements. may be included.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. Inc.© SAS IP. Acceleration effects. A typical viscosity value for water is 1. See FLUID80 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. y. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Figure 1 FLUID80 Geometry S y T w v P s I t x Q u R FLUID80 Input Data The geometry. The fluid element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. EX. such as in sloshing problems.FLUID80 3-D Contained Fluid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID80 Element Description FLUID80 is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate.639 x 10-7 lb-sec/in2. 329). node locations.

P Degrees of Freedom UX. T(J).FLUID80 Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. L. N. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. DENS. This is performed by adding springs to each node.0 . Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. face 5 (L-I-M-P).© SAS IP. T(N).0 + (bottom pressure/bulk modulus)). these negative springs may cause erroneous results and "negative pivot" messages. J. face 2 (I-J-N-M). Inc. or if the degrees of freedom tangential to a curved surface are released. 49). . use of KEYOPT(2) = 1 is recommended. For any other input pattern. O. UY. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). and at the bottom. FLUID80 Input Summary Nodes I. artificially reduce the hydrostatic motion of the free surface. ALPD. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX. Gravity effects [ACEL] must be included if a free surface exists. The error for a tank with vertical walls. the positive and negative effects cancel out. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. while necessary to keep the free surface in place. T(M). which is normally very close to 1. VISC.0. For an interior node. These surface springs. ALPX (or CTEX or THSX). BETD Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). M. T(O). T(L). with the spring constants being positive on the top of the element. where the fluid must be contained to keep the fluid from leaking out. . face 4 (K-L-P-O). T(K).0/(1. A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID80 Input Summary" (p. face 3 (J-K-O-N). Inc. and negative on the bottom. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. All rights reserved. K. Positive pressures act into the element. Hydrodynamic results are not affected by this overstiffness. The element also includes special surface effects. expressed as a ratio of the computed answer over the correct answer is 1. 330). they default to T(I). 329). T(P) Special Features None KEYOPT(2) Location of gravity springs: 0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements 330 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In this case. the negative spring has no effect (as long as all degrees of freedom on the bottom are fixed). which may be thought of as gravity springs used to hold the surface in place. If the bottom consists of a flexible container. If all other temperatures are unspecified. 43). The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.

50). 331) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Release 14. O. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. ZC PRES TEMP TAVG PAVG 1. L. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. K. Inc.OUT. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. YC. K. T(K). N. P3 at J. Element Number Nodes . J. M. P.0 . P Temperatures T(I). T(J). O. 332) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Inc. P2 at I. J. In either the O or R columns. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. P. I. P6 at M. O.I. M. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. P4 at K. M. 331) The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. . P5 at L. Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Table 2: FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. All rights reserved. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. L. 52) in this manual for more information. N.0 plane (elements must not have positive Z coordinates) FLUID80 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID80 Element Output Definitions (p.© SAS IP. I. K. 331 . P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. ESOL). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 332): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID80 Element Output Definitions (p. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. T(M). N. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. T(L).FLUID80 1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Z = 0. L. O. N. T(P) Average temperature Average pressure Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. T(N). T(O).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Table 1 FLUID80 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.

. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly.0. In a reduced analysis.© SAS IP. Inc. the free surface must be input flat.P sequence number for data at nodes I. Other selections may produce large internal rotations.J. as results are known to be of lower quality for some cases using nonrectangular shapes. Inc. Elements should be rectangular (brick shaped) whenever possible... The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.FLUID80 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.0 . The large deflection option should not be used with this element.. one can expect one or more low frequency eigenvectors.. The amount of flow permitted is limited to that which will not cause gross distortions in the element. The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis for this element.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. should only be selected normal to one or more flat planes within the fluid. Gravity must be input if there is a free surface. All rights reserved.. For the case of a modal analysis with irregular meshes. The element gives valid nodal forces representing hydrostatic pressure and also valid • • • • 332 Release 14..J. 329) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes.. Other master degrees of freedom. When used for a static application. Structures are usually modeled with the Z-axis oriented in the vertical direction and the top surface at Z = 0.P Table 2 FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name PRES P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item E I J K L M N O P SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 1 - 3 6 19 - 2 7 10 - 5 11 14 - 4 15 18 - 9 20 22 8 13 23 12 17 24 16 21 25 FLUID80 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • Zero volume elements are not allowed. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. representing internal fluid motions. if any. with all nodes on these planes being included.. . without significantly affecting the vertical motion of the free surface. master degrees of freedom should be selected at all nodes on the free fluid surface in the direction normal to the free surface. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

0 . Inc. represent energy-free internal motions of the fluid. • • • Fluid element at a boundary should not be attached directly to structural elements but should have separate. Other nodal displacements. which may be large. . Only the lumped mass matrix is available. coincident nodes that are coupled only in the direction normal to the interface. FLUID80 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.FLUID80 vertical displacements at the free surface. Inc.© SAS IP. 333 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. Arbitrarily small numbers are included to give the element some shear and rotational stability. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.

0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc.334 Release 14. . . Inc.

and z directions. See FLUID81 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. All rights reserved. Acceleration effects. Figure 1 FLUID81 Geometry @xilA @rdilA Q v u P R s I t FLUID81 Input Data The geometry. Inc. . The element is a generalization of the axisymmetric version of FLUID79. Note The reduced method is the only acceptable method for modal analyses using the ANSYS fluid elements. and the isotropic material properties. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Inc. The element input data includes four nodes. The element is used in a structural analysis as an axisymmetric ring element.0 . the symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command). 335). Various loading cases are described in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. as well as temperature effects. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. the 2-D fluid element. in that the loading need not be axisymmetric. the number of harmonic waves (MODE on the MODE command). Release 14.FLUID81 Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID81 Element Description FLUID81 is a modification of the axisymmetric structural solid element (PLANE25). such as in sloshing problems. may be included. y. It is defined by four nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. 335 . The element is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. 77). node locations.

FLUID81 If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1. if any. J. Harmonically varying nodal forces. even for a modal analysis. UY. BETD Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). face 2 (K-J). Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Vertical acceleration (ACELY on the ACEL command) is needed for the gravity springs regardless of the value of MODE. The use of KEYOPT(2) for gravity springs is discussed in "FLUID80 Input Data" (p. 336). 77). Inc. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. T(K).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . 335). EX. VISC. L Degrees of Freedom UX. the element behaves similar to the axisymmetric case of FLUID79. face 3 (L-K). 49). T(J). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. K. The MODE and ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. All rights reserved. ALPX (or CTEX or THSX). Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. Density (DENS) must be input as a positive number. If all other temperatures are unspecified. 43).© SAS IP. . ALPD. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX." should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300. they default to T(I). FLUID81 Input Summary Nodes I. The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses. should be input on a full 360° basis. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. A typical viscosity value for water is 1. 329). . Positive pressures act into the element. T(L) Mode Number Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE) Loading Condition Symmetry condition (MODE) Special Features None KEYOPT(2) Location of gravity springs: 336 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.639 x 10-7 lb-sec/in2. For any other input pattern. DENS. A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID81 Input Summary" (p. which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus.000 psi for water).

All rights reserved. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. 77). 337) The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. For more information about harmonic elements.0 . UX and UY are the peak values at θ = 0° and UZ is the peak value at θ = 90°. For example. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Inc. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. Inc. We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the results. In the displacement printout. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. In either the O or R columns. 337 .I. J.OUT. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. in the MODE = 1. YC Element Number Nodes .0 plane (element must not have positive Y coordinates) FLUID81 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions (p. K. The following notation is used in Table 1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions (p. Printout for combined loading cases may be obtained from the POST1 routine. Table 1 FLUID81 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT ISYM MODE VOLU: XC.© SAS IP. ESOL). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. L Material number Loading Key Number of waves in loading Volume Location where results are reported Definition O Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y R Y Y Y 1 Y Y 2 Release 14. ISYM = 1 loading case. 50). . 337): The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.FLUID81 0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements 1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Y = 0. the UZ component is out-of-phase with the UX and UY components. Nodal forces and reaction forces are on a full 360° basis. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

If ISYM is: 1 ..J.I.. P4 at I. T(K).. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. 52) in this manual for more information.. T(L) Average temperature Average pressure O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Table 2: FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.J. P3 at L.. 337) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.. Definition Pressures P1 at nodes J.Antisymmetric loading 2. 338): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID81 Element Output Definitions (p. Inc.L sequence number for data at nodes I.L Temperatures T(I). 335) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. Inc. . An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. The fluid element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p.0 . T(J). ..K.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 338 Release 14. All rights reserved. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.J. 338) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. P2 at K.L Table 2 FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name PRES P1 P2 P3 P4 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item E I J K L SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 1 - 3 8 2 5 - 4 7 - 6 9 FLUID81 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • The area of the element must be positive.Symmetric loading -1 .© SAS IP.FLUID81 Name PRES TEMP TAVG PAVG 1.

A lumped mass matrix may be obtained for this element with the LUMPM command.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Elements should be rectangular since results are known to be of lower quality for nonrectangular shapes. Release 14. 339 . FLUID81 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. are evaluated at the reference temperature [TREF]. See FLUID80 for more assumptions and restrictions.© SAS IP. . if any. Temperature-dependent material properties. All rights reserved. Inc.FLUID81 • • • • • • • The Y-axis should be oriented in the vertical direction and the top surface is usually at Y = 0. The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis for this element.0 .

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. .0 .340 Release 14. Inc. .

Various loading cases are described in Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. See PLANE83 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element has three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x.0 . four-node element (PLANE25). Figure 1 PLANE83 Geometry Q R y x @ ¡ ¢x£¢¤A s ¥ w P s v y u uDvDy x @ ¡ ¡¢d£¢¤A t I i¦eme§¨ ©©§¨e sys¨em sh©w§ f© iI a H t w ringulr yption PLANE83 Input Data The geometry. shear. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. node locations. or torsion. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. 341). and z directions. y. axial. MODE and ISYM are used to describe the harmonic loading condition. 77). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The 8-node elements have compatible displacement shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. .) may be input. these directions correspond to the radial.PLANE83 Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Structural Solid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions PLANE83 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as SOLID273 (KEYOPT(6) = 0). respectively. Z-direction material properties (EZ. Examples of such loading are bending. etc. The loading need not be axisymmetric. Inc.) Release 14. ALPZ.© SAS IP. For unrotated nodal coordinates. 341 . (See Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p. This element is a higher order version of the 2-D. 56). It provides more accurate results for mixed (quadrilateral-triangular) automatic meshes and can tolerate irregular shapes without as much loss of accuracy. PLANE83 is used for 2-D modeling of axisymmetric structures with nonaxisymmetric loading. 77) for more details. and tangential directions. All rights reserved. Inc.

© SAS IP. ALPY. If all other temperatures are unspecified. CTEY. Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. T(M). J. they default to T(I). T(J). . K. O. If all corner node temperatures are specified. 43). N. DENS. GXZ. ALPZ (or CTEX. Inc. For any other input temperature pattern. If MODE equals zero. EY. face 3 (L-K). PRXZ (or NUXY. All rights reserved. T(P) Mode Number Number of harmonic waves around the circumference (MODE) Loading Condition Symmetry condition (MODE) Special Features Birth and death Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Element coordinate system: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 342 Release 14. and (6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution (p. 341). T(N). BETD Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). 51)). Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. GYZ. L. T(K). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX. . UY. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p.0 . PRXY. T(O). ALPX. EZ. each midside node temperature defaults to the average temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. CTEZ or THSX. T(L). The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. 342). M.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The KEYOPT(3) parameter is used for temperature loading with MODE greater than zero and temperaturedependent material properties. PRYZ.PLANE83 Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. the material properties are always evaluated at the average element temperature. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). THSZ). THSY. PLANE83 Input Summary Nodes I. Positive pressures act into the element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ALPD. (5). Material properties may only be evaluated at a constant (nonharmonically varying) temperature. A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE83 Input Summary" (p. NUYZ. face 2 (K-J). 49). P Degrees of Freedom UX. NUXZ). GXY. Inc. KEYOPT(4).

The same occurs for the reaction forces (FX. In the displacement printout. All rights reserved. 344). 77). We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the results. 343 . etc. 344) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. use temperatures for: 0 -Use temperatures only for thermal bending (evaluate material properties at TREF) 1 -Use temperatures only for material property evaluation (thermal strains are not computed) KEYOPT(4) Extra stress output: 0 -Basic element solution (not extra output) 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal stress solution KEYOPT(5) Combined stress output: 0 -No combined stress solution 1 -Combined stress solution at centroid and nodes KEYOPT(6) Extra surface output (surface solution is valid only for isotropic materials): 0 -Basic element solution (no extra output) 1 -Surface solution for face I-J also 2 -Surface solution for both faces I-J and K-L also PLANE83 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE83 Element Output Definitions (p. Inc. the UZ component is out-of-phase with the UX and UY components.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ISYM = 1 loading case. . in the MODE = 1.PLANE83 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(3) If MODE is greater than zero. For example. For more information about harmonic elements. Inc.).0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. FY. UX and UY are the peak values at θ = 0° and UZ is the peak value at θ = 90°. Release 14. see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads (p.

T(J). T(N). 50). The sign convention on the surface shears is such that for a rectangular element that is lined up parallel to the axes with node J in the positive Y direction from node I. .I. T(K).© SAS IP.0 . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. P3 at L.PLANE83 The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. L Material number Loading key: 1 = symmetric. K.J. axial. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.K. hoop) at PK ANG locations Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 344 Release 14. Inc. Z Element Number Corner nodes . T(O). Y. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. Stress components which are inherently zero for a load case are printed for clarity. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. ESOL). T(P) Direct stresses (radial. All rights reserved. -1 = antisymmetric Number of waves in loading Volume Pressures P1 at nodes J.L Temperatures T(I). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.I. P4 at I. T(L). the shear stresses on surfaces I-J and K-L are analogous to the centroidal SYZ in both definition and sign. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. In either the O or R columns. Figure 2 PLANE83 Stress Output Q R @or xilA x s @or rdilA I w t P v y u ¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.OUT. J. Table 1 PLANE83 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT ISYM MODE VOLU: PRES TEMP S:X. Inc. P2 at K. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(M).

PER. Y. 345 . XY EPTH:EQV PK ANG XC. 2. SH) S(PAR. Table 2: PLANE83 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. hoop. 344) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Release 14. radial-hoop) at PK ANG locations Principal stresses at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). Stress intensity at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. XZ S:1. axial-hoop. 4. shear) at PK ANG locations and where extreme occurs (EXTR) Surface stresses (parallel. Equivalent stress at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). 346): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE83 Element Output Definitions (p. Z. Y. Inc. Elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Angle where stresses have peak values: 0 and 90/MODE°. The following notation is used in Table 2: PLANE83 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. only one location is given. These items are output only if KEYOPT(5) = 1.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . 3. YC FACE TEMP EPEL(PAR. if MODE = 0.0 . hoop. 346) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. SH) Y Y Y Y 2 2 2 Y Y Y Y Y 3 2 2 2 2 2 1. PER. YZ. 52) in this manual for more information. only one location is given.PRXY). See Creating an Element Table in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. XY EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. Location where results are reported Face label Surface average temperature Surface strains (parallel. perpendicular. These items are printed only if KEYOPT(6) is greater than zero. All rights reserved. Z.PLANE83 Name S:XY. perpendicular. Z. if MODE = 0. shear) at PK ANG locations and where extreme occurs (EXTR) O Y 1 R Y 1 S:INT 1 1 S:EQV 1 1 EPEL:X. 3 Definition Shear stresses (radial-axial. Inc. 2. Z. Blank if MODE = 0. if MODE = 0. only one location is given. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.J.K.L Table 2 PLANE83 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item I J K L SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 2 7 THETA = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 4 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3 6 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 5 8 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 THETA = 90/MODE EXTR Values The NMISC items (1 thru 60) in the above table represent the combined stress solution. . . 341) and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. Inc.© SAS IP.L sequence number for data at nodes I. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. PLANE83 Assumptions and Restrictions • • The area of the element must be positive. The element must be defined in the global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 1 (p.J. See Surface Solution for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command. KEYOPT(5) = 1.K. their values are zero at THETA = 90/MODE and at EXTR. All rights reserved. If MODE = 0.PLANE83 I.0 . 346 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

The element should not be used with the large deflection option. The element assumes a linear elastic material. The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures. All rights reserved. 51) are met.0) loads without significant torsional stresses to generate the stress state used for stress stiffened modal analyses using this element. You can use only axisymmetric (MODE. rather than parabolically. at least two elements through the thickness should be used. along that face. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.PLANE83 • A face with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. PLANE83 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Post-analysis superposition of results is valid only with other linear elastic solutions. . Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 347 .0 . Inc. • • • • • • Modeling hints: • • If shear effects are important in a shell-like structure. Release 14.

Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.348 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc. .0 .

49). . Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. they default to HG(I). The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. 349 . 349). All rights reserved. node locations. 349). temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.SOLID87 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid MP ME <> PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS Product Restrictions SOLID87 Element Description SOLID87 is well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. Release 14. at each node. 56). For phase change problems. See SOLID87 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. If the model containing this element is also to be analyzed structurally. Inc. The element is applicable to a 3-D.© SAS IP. The element has one degree of freedom. Figure 1 SOLID87 Geometry v R s I P w t y x Q u SOLID87 Input Data The geometry. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. use KEYOPT(1) = 1 (diagonalized specific heat matrix). Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified. For convection regions with strong thermal gradients. use KEYOPT(5) = 1 (consistent convection matrix). Inc. SOLID90. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. the element should be replaced by the equivalent structural element (such as SOLID187). each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. is also available. A 20-node thermal solid element. and all others are unspecified. steady-state or transient thermal analysis.

R Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.SOLID87 A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID87 Input Summary" (p. face 2 (I-J-L). HG(K). KYY. face 3 (J-K-L). 43). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. N. HG(R) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) Specific heat matrix: 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix KEYOPT(5) Surface convection matrix: 0 -Diagonalized convection matrix 1 -Consistent convection matrix SOLID87 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID87 Element Output Definitions (p. HG(O). M. HG(N). J. O. 350). . P. HG(M). face 4 (K-I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). All rights reserved.0 . See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: 350 Release 14. HG(J). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. HG(Q). applied heat flux is positive into the element. Inc. 50). SOLID87 Input Summary Nodes I. DENS. Q. L. HG(P). The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. . HG(L). KZZ. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. ENTH Surface Loads Convection or Heat Flux (but not both) and Radiation (using Lab = RDSF) -face 1 (J-I-K). C.© SAS IP. K. Inc. 351).

Z. HG(P). HG(O).I. HG(Q).© SAS IP. K. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. 352): Release 14. ESOL). All rights reserved. Z. Table 2: SOLID87 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 52) of this manual for more information. ZC HGEN TG:X. Table 1 SOLID87 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. L. See Creating an Element Table in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. “Y” indicates that the item is always available.OUT. YC. HG(J). SUM FACE NODES AREA HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX 1. SUM TF:X. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. M. N. Q. HG(R) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Convection face label Convection face corner nodes Convection face area Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Output if a surface load is input Available only at centroid as a *GET item. HG(L). Inc. 2. Y. HG(K). The following notation is used in Table 2: SOLID87 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.0 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.SOLID87 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. P. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . 352) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Inc. Element Number Nodes . Y. HG(M).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. O. J. 351 . HG(N). R Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). In either the O or R columns.

352 Release 14. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. . 349) or may have node L below the IJK plane.e.. Inc.0 . An edge with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. All rights reserved. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements.© SAS IP. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. A free surface of the element (i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. rather than parabolically. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. SOLID87 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. along that edge. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .SOLID87 Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID87 Element Output Definitions (p. 351) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 SOLID87 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 SOLID87 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • The element must not have a zero volume. Inc.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. 353). Figure 1 SOLID90 Geometry S w ¡ s ¢ P v T f Q R y x e u t I ¥D¦D¤D§D¨DD©D D ! DD £ £etrhedrl ¤ption ¥D¦D¤D§D¨DD©D ! £ §yrmid ¤ption ¤D§D© ¥ ¨ ¦ D ! DD £ §rism ¤ption SOLID90 Input Data The geometry. node locations. the element should be replaced by the equivalent structural element (such as SOLID186).0 . The 20-node elements have compatible temperature shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. Inc. . 353). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. If the model containing this element is also to be analyzed structurally.SOLID90 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid MP ME <> PR PRN DS <> <> <> <> <> PP VT EME MFS Product Restrictions SOLID90 Element Description SOLID90 is a higher order version of the 3-D eight node thermal element (SOLID70). steady-state or transient thermal analysis. The 20-node thermal element is applicable to a 3-D. Inc. The element has 20 nodes with a single degree of freedom. 353 . P. at each node. and W node numbers. The element is defined by 20 node points and the material properties. See SOLID90 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. A tetrahedralshaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p. temperature. and O. L. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K. and S. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. A and B.© SAS IP.

SOLID90 Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. face 5 (L-I-M-P). R. face 3 (J-K-O-N). Z. T. Inc. All rights reserved. HG(L). J. HG(K). HG(V). For phase change problems. use KEYOPT(1) = 1 (diagonalized specific heat matrix). they default to HG(I). W. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. HG(P). KYY. B Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. V. face 2 (I-J-N-M). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. A. O. Q. 354). SOLID90 Input Summary Nodes I. HG(Q). HG(Z). each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. HG(J). K. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. S. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID90 Input Summary" (p. HG(B) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) Specific heat matrix: 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix 354 Release 14. . HG(R). C. HG(A). M. P. Y.© SAS IP. 353). HG(U). . HG(W). 49). Inc. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. HG(T). 56). HG(O). L. KZZ. 43). If all corner node heat generation rates are specified. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. DENS. HG(M). X. N. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. HG(N). HG(X). The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). HG(S). U. HG(Y). face 4 (K-L-P-O). ENTH Surface Loads Convection or Heat Flux (but not both) and Radiation (using Lab = RDSF) -face 1 (J-I-L-K). and all others are unspecified. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p.

Table 1 SOLID90 Element Output Definitions Label EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. Z. SUM TF:X. K.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. HG(J). HG(Z). J..OUT. 355 . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. Z. HG(P). HG(K). . Y. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. HG(O). HG(A).SOLID90 SOLID90 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID90 Element Output Definitions (p. ZC HGEN TG:X. HG(L). P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I)..I. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. HG(B) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Corner nodes on this face Face area Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 Release 14. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. HG(N). 355) Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. applied heat flux is positive into the element. L.© SAS IP. . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. HG(M). All rights reserved. ESOL). Inc. HG(Q). In either the O or R columns. YC. Inc.. N. SUM FACE NODES AREA HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG Element Number Nodes . M.0 . O. 50).

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The following notation is used in Table 2: SOLID90 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 2. the thermal element should be oriented such that face IJNM and/or face KLPO is a free surface. The condensed face of a prism-shaped element should not be defined as a convection face. 356) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. All rights reserved. See Creating an Element Table in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. .© SAS IP. 355) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 2 SOLID90 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 1 2 3 4 5 6 FC2 7 8 9 10 11 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC5 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC6 31 32 33 34 35 36 SOLID90 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • The element must not have a zero volume.SOLID90 Label TBAVG HFLXAVG Definition Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux O R 1 1 1. Inc. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. Output only if a surface load is input Available only at centroid as a *GET item. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. A free surface of the element (i. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements. 353) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.e. Table 2: SOLID90 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.. If the thermal element is to be replaced by a SOLID186 structural element with surface stresses requested. 52) of this manual for more information. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. 356 Release 14. . 356): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID90 Element Output Definitions (p.0 .

If you use these faces for those situations. when degenerated.0 . See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. rather than parabolically. Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution. • • • SOLID90 Product Restrictions ANSYS Professional • No Birth and Death.QUASI option. should be small in order to minimize the field gradients. An edge with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. along that edge. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones.© SAS IP.SOLID90 • • • • Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. remove the midside nodes first. Release 14. 357 . For transient solutions using the THOPT. The element sizes. All rights reserved. A temperature solution is not available for them. the program removes the midside nodes from any face with a convection load. . Do not use the midside nodes on these faces in constraint equations or with contact.

Inc. . All rights reserved.© SAS IP.358 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .

you can also use CIRCU94 as a general circuit element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. node definition.CIRCU94 Piezoelectric Circuit MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions CIRCU94 Element Description CIRCU94 is a circuit element for use in piezoelectric-circuit analyses. The element may interface with the following piezoelectric elements: PLANE13. It is associated with the CURR degree of freedom (which represents electric charge for this element). coupled-field 20-node brick SOLID227. All rights reserved. KEYOPT(1) = 1001. The passive node is not connected to the electric circuit. Real constants 15 (Graphical offset. Active nodes I and J and a passive node K define the independent voltage source.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element has two or three nodes to define the circuit component and one or two degrees of freedom to model the circuit response. inductor. Inc. CIRCU94 Input Data The geometry. and degree of freedom options are shown in Figure 1 (p. . GOFFST) and 16 (Element identification number. KEYOPT(1) = 1001.© SAS IP. 360) . Release 14. 360). KEYOPT(1) = 7 coupled-field quadrilateral solid SOLID5. KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 3 coupled-field tetrahedron PLANE223. Active nodes I and J define the resistor. A summary of the element input options is given in "CIRCU94 Input Summary" (p.0 . coupled-field 8-node quadrilateral SOLID226. KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 3 coupled-field brick SOLID98. They are connected to the electric circuit. KEYOPT(1) = 1001. ID) are created for all components. capacitor and independent current source. Real constant input is dependent on the element circuit option used. See CIRCU94 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 359 . coupled-field 10-node tetrahedron CIRCU94 is applicable to full harmonic and transient analyses. For these types of analyses. KEYOPT(1) settings and the corresponding real constants define the circuit components. Inc.

see Figure 2 (p. See Table 1: CIRCU94 Real Constants (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. CURR (charge) (see Figure 1 (p. but AUTOTS can be used as a mechanism for ramping the time step to its final value. Inc. 360)) Real Constants Dependent on KEYOPT(1) and KEYOPT(2) settings. Inc. The time-step size for a transient analysis is controlled by the DELTIM or NSUBST commands. pulse. All rights reserved. K Degrees of Freedom VOLT. CIRCU94 Input Summary Nodes I. J. . See Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for more information. 362) for details. sinusoidal. Electric charge reactions must all be positive or negative. CIRCU94 is only compatible with elements having a VOLT DOF and an electric charge reaction solution. exponential. KEYOPT(6) sets the electric charge reaction sign. The CIRCU94 element does not respond to automatic time stepping (AUTOTS command).0 . . 360 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. or piecewise linear load functions as defined by KEYOPT(2).© SAS IP.CIRCU94 Figure 1 CIRCU94 Circuit Options esistor s ndutor s gpitor s t ¡iy@IA a H hyp a yv t ¡iy@IA a I hyp a yv t ¡iy@IA a P hyp a yv ndependent gurrent oure s ndependent oltge oure s + Equ t ¡iy@IA a Q hyp a yv t ¡iy@IA a R hyp a yv @ D¢AD g @¡A The independent current and voltage sources (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4) may be excited by constant load (transient) or constant amplitude load (harmonic). 362).

PLANE223.CIRCU94 Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads See KEYOPT(2) Special Features This element works with the large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities of PLANE13. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 361 . SOLID226. Inc. SOLID98. Inc.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. SOLID5. and SOLID227. . KEYOPT(1) Circuit component type: 0 -Resistor 1 -Inductor 2 -Capacitor 3 -Independent Current Source 4 -Independent Voltage Source KEYOPT(2) Body loads (only used for KEYOPT(1) = 3 and 4): 0 -Constant load (transient) or constant amplitude load (harmonic) 1 -Sinusoidal load 2 -Pulse load 3 -Exponential load 4 -Piecewise Linear load KEYOPT(6) Electric charge reaction sign: 0 -Negative Release 14.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . Independent Voltage Source (V) 4 For KEYOPT(2) = 0: R1 = Amplitude (AMPL) R2 = Phase angle (PHAS) For KEYOPT(2) > 0. Note For all above Circuit options. Inc. see Figure 2. the GOFFST and ID real constants (numbers 15 and 16) are created by the Circuit Builder automatically: Figure 2 Load Functions and Corresponding Real Constants for Independent Current and Voltage Sources @IA ypp vod @PA e @QA pi @RA h ih ypp ewv e @SA rh @TA ih a oltge or gurrent yffset a oltge or gurrent emplitude a prequeny in rz a hely ime a hse hely a ixponentil hey ptor h ime @A inusoidl lodD uiy@PA a I 362 Release 14. .CIRCU94 1 -Positive Table 1 CIRCU94 Real Constants Circuit Component and Graphics Label Resistor (R) Inductor (L) Capacitor (C) Independent Current Source (I) KEYOPT(1) 0 1 2 3 Real Constants R1 = Resistance (RES) R1 = Inductance (IND) R2 = Initial inductor current (ILO) R1 = Capacitance (CAP) R2 = Initial Capacitor Voltage (VCO) For KEYOPT(2) = 0: R1 = Amplitude (AMPL) R2 = Phase angle (PHAS) For KEYOPT(2) > 0. All rights reserved. see Figure 2. Inc.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.0 . Table 2: CIRCU94 Element Output Definitions (p. 364) summarizes the element output data.© SAS IP.CIRCU94 vod r h p i @IA v @PA r @QA h @RA @SA p @TA @UA i a vow oltge or gurrent a righ oltge or gurrent a hely ime a ise ime a pll ime a ulse idth a eriod ime @A ulse lodD uiy@PA a P ¡¢£¤ '()0 12 '(H0 1V '(Y0 `(b '(f0 `(E '(s0 `tb '(w0 `tE '(x0 ( ¥¦§¨ ¥#$ ¥%$ © xp¢¨¦£ ¢£¤ ¥© ! " qvz{ | } jk~ z qv{ | } k k jk~ z qv{ } jk~ qv{ } k k jk~ qvzz{ } jk~ qvz{ } k k jk~ jk q{ kkk k q{ } 3 245 146789B 4C EFCCBG7 3 VW9X 146789B 4C EFCCBG7 3 (WcB bB68d `WeB 3 (WcB `WeBqE4Gc78G7 3 t866 bB68d `WeB 3 t866 `WeBqE4Gc78G7 3 BCW4 Bf8F67c 74 `(b H '`tbq`(b0 1V 12 ¥#& ¥%& || CIRCU94 Output Data The element output for this element is dependent on the circuit option selected. 363 . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Release 14.

ESOL). Inc. All rights reserved. .J Inductance Initial current Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power absorption For KEYOPT(1) = 2: Capacitor Element Number Nodes-I. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.J Real or imaginary component of applied current Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power (loss if positive. output if negative) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Definition For KEYOPT(1) = 0: Resistor Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y O R 364 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .© SAS IP. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Table 2 CIRCU94 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES RES VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES IND IL0 VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES CAP VC0 VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES CURRENT SOURCE VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER Element Number Nodes-I. In either the O or R columns. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.CIRCU94 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.J Capacitance Initial voltage Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power absorption For KEYOPT(1) = 3: Independent Current Source Element Number Nodes-I.J Resistance Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power loss For KEYOPT(1) = 1: Inductor Element Number Nodes-I. Inc.OUT.0 . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.

Only MKS units are allowed (EMUNIT command). Inc.© SAS IP.OFF). Inc. 364) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 CIRCU94 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER SOURCE (real) SOURCE (imaginary) ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 CIRCU94 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • CIRCU94 is applicable only to full harmonic and transient analyses.0 . For example. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. 365) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. output if negative) Definition For KEYOPT(1) = 4: Independent Voltage Source Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y O R Table 3: CIRCU94 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. For more information. 52) in this manual for more information.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The following notation is used in Table 3: CIRCU94 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. it is not compatible with CIRCU124 or CIRCU125.J.CIRCU94 Name EL NODES VOLTAGE SOURCE VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER Element Number Nodes-I. the elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. Release 14. see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. 365 . To be compatible.K Real or imaginary component of applied voltage Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Power (loss if positive. Only the sparse solver is available for problems using the independent voltage source circuit option. 365): Name output quantity as defined in Table 2: CIRCU94 Element Output Definitions (p. You cannot use CIRCU94 in a static analysis or in a transient analysis with time integration effects turned off (TIMINT. All rights reserved.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .0 . Inc.CIRCU94 CIRCU94 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc. 366 Release 14. .

The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and MGZZ represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. node locations. orthotropic relative permeability is available and is specified through the MURX. In addition to MUZRO. See SOLID96 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 367). MGYY. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZRO = 4π x 10-7 henries/meter. Inc. A tetrahedral-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes M. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. and P. and MGZZ. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. and MURZ material options. and nodes K and L. A wedgeshaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p.0 . and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. MGYY. Release 14. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command. 367 . Inc. or general (GSP)) are available [MAGOPT] for modeling magnetic fields in a static analysis. Figure 1 SOLID96 Geometry S T R y s ¤¥¦¥§¥¨ ¡¢ w P v x £ ©rh©rl § w yD x s u t edge yption # $ ! uDv Q s t I " y%&m'( )0'12 SOLID96 Input Data The geometry. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. . EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZRO. N. MURY. 367). MGXX. O.SOLID96 3-D Magnetic Scalar Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions SOLID96 Element Description SOLID96 has the capability of modeling 3-D magnetic fields. difference (DSP). Scalar potential formulations (reduced (RSP).

MGXX. Inc.0 . The various types of magnetic scalar potential solution options are defined with the MAGOPT command. All rights reserved. face 2 (I-J-N-M). or through electromagnetic coupling. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. N. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. . See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. MURZ. face 6 (M-N-O-P) 368 Release 14. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. the Lab variable corresponds to the force (FLUX) and VALUE corresponds to the value (magnetic flux).) A maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces.SOLID96 Permanent magnet polarization directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. J. Current for the magnetic scalar potential options are defined with the SOURC36 element. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Inc. 43). the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (MAG) and VALUE corresponds to the value (magnetic scalar potential). Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. the command macro RACE. O. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. With the D command. 56). 367) using the SF and SFE commands. Maxwell forces may be made available for a subsequent structural analysis with companion elements (LDREAD command). The temperature (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacement body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF and BFE]. MURY. face 4 (K-L-P-O). Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. MURX. K. P Degrees of Freedom MAG Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO. 49). M. MGYY. In general. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands.© SAS IP. Nonlinear magnetic B-H properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. face 5 (L-I-M-P). L. unspecified nodal values of temperature default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. . SOLID96 Input Summary Nodes I. MGZZ plus BH data table (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference) Surface Loads Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K). 368). face 3 (J-K-O-N).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. With the F command. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID96 Input Summary" (p.

ESOL). T(O). T(N). 369 . 50). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. VD(N). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. VD(K). VD(M). VD(P) EF -EFX.I. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Inc. Table 1 SOLID96 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: Element Number Nodes . 369) The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Inc. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT.0 . T(P) MVDI -VD(I). “Y” indicates that the item is always available.SOLID96 Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). T(K). M. T(L). VD(L). EFY. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. In either the O or R columns. P Material number Volume Definition O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Release 14. O. VD(J). 371).© SAS IP. All rights reserved. . L. N. T(J). Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point printout 2 -Nodal magnetic field printout SOLID96 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal potentials included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID96 Element Output Definitions (p. J. K. See "SOLID96 Assumptions and Restrictions" (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T (M). VD(O). EFZ.

Inc. The solution value is printed only if calculated (based upon input data). 371): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: SOLID96 Element Output Definitions (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. MUY. YC. . 369) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command 370 Release 14. 2. Y. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. MUZ H:X. Z) Virtual work force components (X. B. HSUM. B. The element solution is at the centroid.SOLID96 Name XC. 52) in this manual for more information. Names of Items Output LOC. BSUM H. HSUM. . T(P) Output location (X.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. MUZ. T(N). ZC TEMP LOC MUX. Table 2 SOLID96 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Solution Nodal Magnetic Field Solution 1. Y. T(O). 2. Z H:SUM B:X. Z) O Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R 2 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Combined (FJB or Combined force components FMX) force components 1. MUY. The following notation is used in Table 3: SOLID96 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. T(L). Z B:SUM FMX FVW Definition Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I). 371) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.0 . Y. T(K). Z) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Maxwell magnetic force components (X. H. T(M). Inc. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each corner node. T(J). Y. MUX. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. All rights reserved. Y.© SAS IP. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3: SOLID96 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. BSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point.

Inc. and general scalar potential options do not have this restriction.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. Inc. The electric field body load is not used during solution and is applicable only to POST1 charged particle tracing. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. • • • • • SOLID96 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.SOLID96 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 SOLID96 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name MUX MUY MUZ FVWX FVWY FVWZ FVWSUM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SOLID96 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • The element requires an iterative solution if nonlinear material properties are defined. The reduced scalar. should be small in order to minimize the field gradients. The difference magnetic scalar potential option is restricted to singly-connected permeable regions. 371 . The element sizes. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution.0 . The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones. SOLID96. you may see incorrect results when the formulation is applied using SOLID5. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. or infinite elements. when degenerated. . avoid using a closed domain and use an open domain. In an MSP analysis. the source elements must be placed so that the resulting Hs field fulfills boundary conditions for the total field. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. If you use a closed domain. 367) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ANSYS Emag Release 14. or SOLID98 elements and the boundary conditions are not satisfied by the Hs field load calculated by the BiotSavart procedure based on SOURC36 current source primitive input. or for any postprocessing operations. so that as µ ¡ ∞ in these regions. the resulting field H ¡ 0. When using SOLID96 with SOURC36 elements. closed with natural flux parallel boundary conditions on the MAG degree of freedom.

. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.SOLID96 • The birth and death special feature is not allowed.© SAS IP.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 372 Release 14.

AZ). and electromagnetic-circuit coupled fields (static. SOLID62 (but without voltage forced and magnetic-circuit coupled capability). AY. AC time harmonic and transient analyses). . The solenoidal formulation is applicable to sources that are eddy current free (such as stranded coils).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The classical formulation requires you to specify current density for current source loading. CSGZ tial [2] Voltage Current Flow Electromotive Force AMPS VLTG CURT The label used with the CNVTOL command is A. Formulations SOLID97 has two formulation options: classical and solenoidal. voltage forced magnetic fields (static. 2. Degree of freedom and force labels for this element are shown in the following table. SOLID236. 373 . The solenoidal formulation automatically satisfies the solenoidal condition by directly solving for current (density) using a coupled current conduction and electromagnetic field solution.CSGX. AC time harmonic and transient analyses). Table 1 DOF and Force Labels Degree of Freedom Label AX. the time-integrated electric potential (VOLT . The element has nonlinear magnetic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. The element is defined by eight nodes. and has up to five degrees of freedom per node out of six defined DOFs. the electric current (CURR). and is applicable to the following low-frequency magnetic field analyses: magnetostatics. otherwise an erroneous solution might develop. Elements with similar capability are PLANE53. that is. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Label Description Label Force (reaction solution) Label Description Magnetic Current Segment Current Flow Voltage Drop Current Flow Magnetic Vector Poten. SOLID97 is based on the magnetic vector potential formulation with the Coulomb gauge. Release 14. and the electromotive force (EMF). AY. You must ensure that solenoidal conditions (div J = 0) are satisfied. Inc. eddy currents (AC time harmonic and transient analyses).SOLID97 3-D Magnetic Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions SOLID97 Element Description SOLID97 models 3-D magnetic fields. the magnetic vector potential (AX. AZ [1] VOLT CURR EMF 1. Inc.solenoidal formulation).classical formulation) or the electric potential (VOLT . CSGY. and SOLID237. See SOLID97 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for details about this element.0 . The label used with the CNVTOL command is CSG.

and RSVZ material property labels. 374). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and TRANS126 elements allowing circuit coupling.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A wedgeshaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p. and MGZZ represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. N.0 . . MGYY. and Transient) in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for information on applying these formulations to different physics regions of a model. 374). see 3-D Circuit Coupled Solid Source Conductor in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide Figure 1 SOLID97 Geometry S T R y s ¤¥¦¥§¥¨ ¡¢ w P v x £ ©rh©rl § w yD x s u t edge yption # $ ! uDv Q s t I " y%&m'( )0'12 SOLID97 Input Data The geometry. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. O. For more information. A tetrahedral-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes M. CIRCU125. Orthotropic resistivity is specified through RSVX. and P. node locations. .© SAS IP. MURY. The linear unsymmetric solenoidal formulation is applicable to harmonic analysis. RSVY. The SOLID97 solenoidal option is compatible with CIRCU124. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZRO = 4π x 10-7 henries/meter. Inc. All rights reserved. EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZRO. depending on the physics requirements of the model. In addition to MUZRO. orthotropic relative permeability is available and is specified through the MURX. See 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses (Static. MGXX. Inc. and nodes K and L. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the 374 Release 14. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command. and MURZ material options.SOLID97 Note Both formulations may be used simultaneously. Harmonic. The nonlinear symmetric solenoidal formulation is applicable to static and transient analyses.

and MGZZ. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. ZLOC Global Cartesian coordinate point locations of the rotating body in the X. Inc. and z components of a unit vector (in the element coordinate system) representing the direction of current. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX. Defaults to 1. MGYY. 375 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. FILL Coil fill factor. VOLU Modeled coil volume. 374) using the SF and SFE commands. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body Release 14. required for stranded coil only. Inc. the Lab variable corresponds to the force (CSG or Amps) and VALUE corresponds to the value (magnetic current segment or current). Permanent magnet polarization directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. cycles/sec) about the Global Cartesian system X. Y. YLOC. . VELOZ Velocity components in the Global Cartesian Coordinate system X. TURN Total number of coil turns. VELOY.SOLID97 components. Required for a stranded coil only. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (A_ and VOLT) and VALUE corresponds to the value (vector magnetic potential or the time-integrated electric potential (classical formulation) or the electric potential (solenoidal formulation). Defaults to 1. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability.© SAS IP. Required for stranded coil only. ZLOC). located at the pivot point location (XLOC. required for stranded coil only. 49). Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required. When velocity effects of a conducting body (KEYOPT(2) = 1) are considered. XLOC. the following real constants apply: VELOX.0 . All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Nonlinear magnetic B-H properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Reference. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. 56). DIRZ x. Defaults to 1. OMEGAY. OMEGAX. the following real constants apply for coils or massive conductors: CARE Coil cross-sectional area. and Z-axes respectively.) A Maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. When SOLID97 is used for voltage forced or magnetic-circuit coupled analyses. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. OMEGAZ Angular (rotational) velocity (Hz. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. DIRY. With the F command. required for stranded coil only. CSYM Coil symmetry factor: CSYM*VOLU = total volume of the coil. The electric potential may or may not be time integrated depending on the KEYOPT(1) selection. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. DIRX. and Z direction respectively. With the D command. Y. and Z directions respectively. YLOC. y. Y. Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p.

(blank). face 6 (M-N-O-P) 376 Release 14. Inc. VELOX. See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details. . and KEYOPT(2) = 0: CARE. VELOZ. (blank). 382) for solenoidal restriction). VELOY. face 4 (K-L-P-O). unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. (blank). Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. P Degrees of Freedom See KEYOPT(1) Real Constants None if KEYOPT(1) = 0 and KEYOPT(2) = 0. YLOC. Material Properties MUZERO. SOLID97 Input Summary Nodes I. Joule heating may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. FILL For KEYOPT(1) = 4 and KEYOPT(2) = 0: CARE . Inc. Lorentz and Maxwell forces may be made available for a subsequent structural analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. Source current density (classical formulation) and voltage body loads may be applied to an area or volume [BFA or BFV] or input as an element value [BFE]. K. 43). OMEGAX. 376). VOLU. DIRX. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. OMEGAY OMEGAZ. TURN. All rights reserved. MURX. RSVY. (blank). For KEYOPT(1) = 2. MGZZ plus BH data table (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference) Surface Loads Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K). The temperature (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacement body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF and BFE]. face 2 (I-J-N-M). RSVZ.SOLID97 for which forces are required. MGXX. O. . L. J.© SAS IP. or 6. 5.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 378) for a description of the real constants. 3. ZLOC See Table 2: SOLID97 Real Constants (p. N. MURZ. The vector components of the current density are with respect to the element coordinate system (see "SOLID97 Assumptions and Restrictions" (p. MGYY. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID97 Input Summary" (p. In general. CSYM.Coil cross-sectional area For KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1 and KEYOPT(2) = 1: (blank). XLOC. DIRY. face 5 (L-I-M-P). (blank). M. (blank). face 3 (J-K-O-N). RSVX. MURY. (blank). DIRZ.

AY. VLTG(O). AZ. JSY(I). AZ. JSY(K). All rights reserved. AY. VD(J). PHASE(N). PHASE(J). CURR. source domain 1 -AX. VD(P) Source Current Density. VD(M). AY. T(L). JSZ(P). AY. if KEYOPT(1) = 0 (See "SOLID97 Assumptions and Restrictions" (p. T(N). VD(K). VD(N). T(P) MVDI -VD(I). EFY. JSZ(L). JSX(J). VLTG(L). JSY(N). JSX(O). PHASE(N). PHASE(L). JSX(P). JSZ(K). JSZ(I). VD(L). CURR degrees of freedom: voltage-fed stranded coil 3 -AX. JSY(J). PHASE(M). PHASE(I). See "SOLID97 Assumptions and Restrictions" (p. PHASE(P) EF -EFX. PHASE(O). VLTG(K). VD(O). PHASE(K). JSY(L).0 . VOLT degrees of freedom: eddy current domain. Inc. VLTG(P). AY. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. JSX(M). JSX(N). face 3 (J-K-O-N). Inc. T(M). JSZ(N). CURR degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled massive conductor Solenoidal Formulation 5 -AX. PHASE(J). VOLT degrees of freedom: nonlinear symmetric solenoidal formulation applicable to static and transient analyses Release 14. JSX(L). PHASE(O). T(J). AZ. face 2 (I-J-N-M). AY. T(K). face 5 (L-I-M-P). JSZ(J).SOLID97 Magnetic-Circuit Interface Flags. AZ. face 4 (K-L-P-O). JSY(O). T(O). EMF degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled stranded coil 4 -AX. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). VOLT. VLTG(N). PHASE(I).© SAS IP. PHASE(P) Voltage Loading. if KEYOPT(1) = 2 -VLTG(I). Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death KEYOPT(1) Element degrees of freedom and formulation selection: Classical Formulation 0 -AX. 382) for solenoidal restriction) -JSX(I). 377 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. JSX(K). EFZ. velocity effect domain 2 -AX. . PHASE(L). JSZ(O). AZ. VLTG(M). JSY(M). VLTG(J). JSZ(M). if KEYOPT(1) = 4: face 1 (J-I-L-K). PHASE(M). JSY(P). PHASE(K). AZ degrees of freedom: static domain. 382).

14 Name CARE TURN VOLU DIRX DIRY DIRZ CSYM FILL (blank) VELOX. 6 and KEYOPT(2) = 0 378 Release 14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. For KEYOPT(1) = 5 and 6.© SAS IP. VELOZ OMEGAX. KEYOPT(2) Element conventional velocity: 0 -Velocity effects ignored 1 -Conventional velocity formulation (not available if KEYOPT(1) = 2. OMEGAZ Coil cross-sectional area Total number of coil turns Modeled coil volume Directional cosine for X component of the current Directional cosine for Y component of the current Directional cosine for Z component of the current Coil symmetry factor Coil fill factor * KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1 and KEYOPT(2) = 1 Unused for these settings Velocity specification in the x. y. 13.. 3. and z directions Angular velocity about the X. Y. or 4) KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point printout 2 -Nodal magnetic field printout Table 2 SOLID97 Real Constants No. the VOLT degree of freedom is time integrated (classical formulation).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the VOLT degree of freedom is not time integrated (solenoidal formulation).0 . AZ. 8 9. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 10. 5. 3. and Z axes Description KEYOPT(1) = 2. AY. .. OMEGAY. All rights reserved..SOLID97 6 -AX. Inc. . VELOY. VOLT degrees of freedom: linear unsymmetric solenoidal formulation applicable to harmonic analyses Note For KEYOPT(1) = 1 and 4. . 11 12.

OUT. YC. K. T(J).I. Z B:SUM JS:X. Inc. 15. Y. Inc. YLOC. valid for static analysis only Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 Release 14. 17 Name XLOC. the element approximation will differ from that of the conductor. T(M). y. T(P) Output location (X.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Y. SOLID97 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal potentials included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 3: SOLID97 Element Output Definitions (p. T(N). MUZ H:X. All rights reserved. ZC TEMP LOC MUX. T(L). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. J. Often. MUY. N. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. especially in multi-strand coils. Z H:SUM B:X. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. . and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Z) Magnetic secant permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Source current density components in the global Cartesian coordinate system. T(O). Z Element Number Nodes . M. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. ZLOC Description Pivot point location (x. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. 16. L.SOLID97 No. O. T(K). In either the O or R columns. z) * The ratio between the actual conductor area and the area of the coil or element geometry. ESOL). P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Input temperatures T(I). Y.0 . Table 3 SOLID97 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. Y. 379 . 379) The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. 50).© SAS IP.

JT represents the effective current density (including nonconducting material represented by the FILL factor). Y. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. . JHEAT reprsents the effective Joule heat generation rate (including non-conducting material represented by the FILL factor).0 . Element resistance value (for stranded coils only) Element inductance value (for stranded coils only) Differential permeability Velocity components Vector magnitude of V Magnetic Reynolds number 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). Y. FMX(X. Z) JHEAT: FJB(X. and velocity effects if calculated. . Y. Z) Definition Total current density components in the global Cartesian coordinate system. 3. Inc. Z V:SUM MRE 1.© SAS IP. 2. MUZ. there are no permanent magnets in the model. Y. Inc. Z). B. DMUZZ V:X. The element solution is at the centroid. Z). Joule losses (JHEAT) and forces (FJB(X. or 4 are only valid under the following conditions: the problem is linear (constant permeability). Y.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. MUY. Table 4 SOLID97 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Solution Names of Items Output LOC. Y. Inductance values (EIND) obtained for KEYOPT(1) = 2. Z) FVW(X. BSUM O 1 R - 380 Release 14. HSUM. Z)) represent time-average values. For KEYOPT(1)=2 and 3. Y. H. including eddy current effects. Z) FMX(X.SOLID97 Name JT(X. Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz magnetic force components Maxwell magnetic force components Virtual work force components O 1 1 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 Combined (FJB or Combined (FJB or FMX) force components FMX) force components ERES EIND DMUXX. FVW(X. and only a single coil exists in the model. The macros POWERH and FMAGSUM can be used to retrieve this data. MUX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For harmonic analysis. These values are stored in both the "Real" and “Imaginary” data sets. Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor. All rights reserved. Y. DMUYY.

Names of Items Output H. 379) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 5 SOLID97 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name JSX JSY JSZ JSSUM MUX MUY MUZ FVWX FVWY FVWZ FVWSUM JTX JTY JTZ JTSUM ERES EIND DMUXX DMUYY ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Release 14. Inc. 2.© SAS IP.0 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. if (KEYOPT(5) = 1) Output at each corner node. 52) in this manual for more information. 381 . . if (KEYOPT(5) = 2) Table 5: SOLID97 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. HSUM. All rights reserved. BSUM O 2 R - Output at each integration point.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.SOLID97 Description Nodal Magnetic Field Solution 1. 381): Name output quantity as defined in Table 3: SOLID97 Element Output Definitions (p. The following notation is used in Table 5: SOLID97 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 381) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. B.

To obtain the normal component of the vector potential in postprocessing. The continuity equation must be satisfied for a proper electromagnetic analysis as explained in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. JS.0 . apply the solenoidal formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 5 or 6). You cannot use this element in a nonlinear harmonic analysis.A in a rotated coordinate system [RSYS] that orients one of the vector potential components normal to the material interface. 5. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. If this condition is not satisfied SOLID97 can produce erroneous solutions without warning. . Refer to Source Current Density (JS) in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for information on how to obtain solenoidal currents when the source current density is not constant. must be solenoidal (that is. current loading should be applied as nodal loads (AMPS) using the solenoidal formulation. issue PLVECT. The solution has been found to be inaccurate when the normal component of the vector potential is significant at the interface between elements of different permeability. 374) or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.A or PRVECT. see 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis and 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses (Static. and Transient) in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. Harmonic.SOLID97 Output Quantity Name DMUZZ VX VY VZ MRE ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 20 21 22 23 28 SOLID97 Assumptions and Restrictions • • The element requires an iterative solution if nonlinear material properties are defined. Current density loading (BFE. or 6) use F. Current density loading (JS) is allowed (classical formulation).© SAS IP. or for any postprocessing operations. the 3-D nodal-based vector potential formulation (either static or time-dependent) is not recommended. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. Permanent magnets are not permitted in a harmonic analysis. VOLT option (KEYOPT(1) = 1. Inc. AZ. For more information. The VOLT degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 1) is required in all non-source regions with a specified nonzero resistivity. When this element does not have the VOLT degree of freedom. You should verify that this condition is satisfied when prescribing the source current density load. but • • • • • • • • • 382 Release 14. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. for a harmonic or transient analysis. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. For source conducting regions (RSVX ≠ 0).JS) is only valid for the AX. AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 0). . For models containing materials with different permeabilities. AY.AMPS. To have ANSYS compute the current density for voltage or circuit coupled problems. All rights reserved. This allows eddy currents to be computed.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. For the AX. ∇ · JS = 0). Solenoidal loading is recommended.. it acts as a stranded conductor. The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side. For this reason the source current density. AY.

(See the discussion of magnetic fields in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. The permeability and conductivity are isotropic and constant. Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution. The element sizes.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. AZ. 383 . 3. execute a harmonic analysis at a very low frequency and retrieve the "real" results for the solution. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. For (KEYOPT(1) = 2 or 3). For more information. unsymmetric matrices are produced. • • • SOLID97 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.© SAS IP. For (KEYOPT(1) = 4). or 6) or (KEYOPT(2) ≥ 1). Solution accuracy may degrade if the element magnetic Reynolds number is much greater than 1. note the following restrictions: – – – – – Velocity effects are valid only for the AX. DIRZ) for a stranded coil.0. and all EMF degrees of freedom in a coil region must be coupled. For velocity effects (KEYOPT(2) = 1). To be compatible. the default value. Velocity effects are available only in a linear analysis.4). the cross sectional area of the stranded coil should not change. should be small in order to minimize the field gradients. • • The ANSYS product does not support the analysis of coupled velocity and circuit effects. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones. ANSYS Emag • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. Release 14. Inc. use THETA = 1.0 . note the following additional restrictions: – – – – – • Only MKS units are allowed. Velocity effects cannot be included in a static analysis. all CURR degrees of freedom in a coil region must be coupled (CP command).) • • • If (KEYOPT(1) = 2. . AY. as well as the description of the TINTP command in the Command Reference.4.0. For circuit coupled transient analyses. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide). all CURR degrees of freedom on the input face and output face of a massive conductor must be coupled. refer to the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. VOLT DOF option. when degenerated. Isotropic resistivity. The element coordinate system is used for specifying the current direction vector (DIRX. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. The solenoidal formulations do not model eddy current effects. For voltage forced magnetic field (KEYOPT(1) = 2) and circuit coupled problems (KEYOPT(1) = 3. The electric field body load is not used during solution and is applicable only to POST1 charged particle tracing. To simulate a static analysis. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. DIRY. Also. on the TINTP command to specify the backward Euler method. Node coupling of the VOLT DOF may be required at symmetry planes and locations where the current is applied.SOLID97 solenoidal loading is recommended.

© SAS IP.384 Release 14. .0 . All rights reserved. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

UY.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. SOLID98 has large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities. SOLID98 is a 10-node tetrahedral version of the 8-node SOLID5 element. thermal. electric.0 . heat flow. TEMP. AMPS. Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT(1) value). ANSYS recommends using a current-technology element such as SOLID227. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (UX. The 3-D magnetic. FZ. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. FY.SOLID98 Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SOLID98 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. FLUX) and VALUE corresponds to the value (force. With the D command. and structural field capability is similar to that described for SOLID5. 385 . Nonlinear magnetic B-H. Inc. The element is defined by ten nodes with up to six degrees of freedom at each node (see KEYOPT(1)). MAG) and VALUE corresponds to the value (displacements. When used in structural and piezoelectric analyses. Inc. The element input data is essentially the same as for SOLID5 except that there are 10 nodes instead of 8. . The element has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). With the F command. current or charge. piezoelectric. HEAT. VOLT. piezoelectric. the Lab variable corresponds to the force (FX. node locations. magnetic flux). See SOLID98 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. scalar magnetic potential). All rights reserved. Figure 1 SOLID98 Geometry v R s I P w t y x Q u SOLID98 Input Data The geometry. and anisotropic elastic properties are entered with the TB command as described in "Material Models" in the Material Release 14. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. voltage. UZ. 385).

385) using the SF and SFE commands. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. temperature. UY. TEMP. VOLT. ALPD. Positive pressures act into the element. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. convection or heat flux (but not both). ALPZ (or CTEX. BFE] are ignored. UY. KXX. 386). (PRXY. THSZ). CTEY. THSY. NUYZ. applied body force temperatures [BF. If the temperature degree of freedom is present. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. KYY. PRYZ. K. O. The body loads. In general. the calculated temperatures override any input nodal temperatures. 386 Release 14. BETD. SOLID98 Input Summary Nodes I. CTEZ or THSX. J. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Pressure. NUXZ). GXY. When the temperature degree of freedom is active (KEYOPT(1) = 0. C. EZ. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. UZ.) A Maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. KZZ. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. 1 or 8). MAG if KEYOPT(1) = 1 UX. GYZ. heat generation rate and magnetic virtual displacement may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF and BFE].0 . Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) is applied in subsequent iterations as heat generation rate loading.© SAS IP. UZ. unspecified nodal values of temperatures and heat generation rate default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. UY. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required.SOLID98 Reference. P. See the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for details. GXZ. N. L. radiation. ALPY. All rights reserved. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. . ALPX. VOLT. and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. Inc. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. DENS. Q. VOLT if KEYOPT(1) = 3 TEMP if KEYOPT(1) = 8 VOLT if KEYOPT(1) = 9 MAG if KEYOPT(1) = 10 Real Constants None Material Properties EX. PRXZ or NUXY. . M. UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 2 UX. A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID98 Input Summary" (p. EY. R Degrees of Freedom UX. These forces are not applied in solution as structural loads. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. 49). 43). MAG if KEYOPT(1) = 0 TEMP.

T(M). face 3 (J-K-L). PERY. plus BH. VD(N). VD(K). UZ 3 -UX.0 . HG(O). HG(L). face 4 (K-I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). VOLT. Inc. VD(Q). MGYY. Special Features Adaptive descent Birth and death Large deflection Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) Degree of freedom selection: 0 -UX. face 2 (I-J-L). Inc. T(R) Heat Generations -HG(I). HG(M). HG(Q). VOLT. Radiation (using Lab = RDSF). VOLT 8 -TEMP 9 -VOLT 10 -MAG KEYOPT(3) Specific heat matrix: 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix Release 14. VD(R) EF -EFX. PERZ. MURZ. VD(L). T(J). 387 . T(Q). and PIEZ data tables (see "Material Models" in the Material Reference) Surface Loads Pressure. VD(J). MAG 1 -TEMP. T(K). MGXX. VD(P). MURX. UZ. UY. Convection or Heat Flux (but not both). and Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-K). RSVX. T(N).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. RSVZ. UZ. HG(K). HG(R) MVDI -VD(I). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. MGZZ. . HG(J). UY. MURY. VD(M). ANEL. EFY. VD(O). RSVY. EFZ. HG(P). MAG 2 -UX. T(P). HG(N). UY. MUZERO. All rights reserved. See "SOLID98 Assumptions and Restrictions" (p. T(L).© SAS IP. 392). TEMP. T(O).SOLID98 ENTH. PERX.

389) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ESOL). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.OUT. . and magnetic flux at the nodes can be printed with the OUTPR command. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. 50). All rights reserved.0 . Figure 2 SOLID98 Element Output v DfD etF ¡ ¡Df¡D etF y w DfD etF x t The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.© SAS IP. current. . heat flow. 388). Inc. The component output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.SOLID98 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 2 -Nodal stress or magnetic field printout SOLID98 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID98 Element Output Definitions (p. The reaction forces. s u 388 Release 14.

P2 at I. T(P). T(R) Heat generations HG(I). L. XY. Y. HG(M). HG(O). Y. Z) Maxwell magnetic force components (X. XY. Y. HG(R) Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [4] Thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Output location (X. P3 at J. ZC PRES TEMP(INPUT) HGEN(INPUT) S:X. L. K. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. Y.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. XZ EPEL:1. Z. Y. HG(K). Y. T(J). Z) Virtual work force components (X. YZ. 389 . Table 1 SOLID98 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. YZ. T(O). T(L). T(M). Z) Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Combined (FJB or Combined (FJB or FMX) force components FMX) force components EF:X. XZ S:1. Y. Inc. XZ EPTH:EQV LOC MUX. HG(N). T(N). 2. L Temperatures T(I). HG(J). HG(P). MUZ H:X. Z H:SUM B:X. .© SAS IP. YC. Z B:SUM FJB FMX FVW Element Number Corner nodes . HG(L). T(Q). I. Inc. MUY. Y. Y. I. K. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. P4 at K.I. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. All rights reserved. Z. 2. K. J. 3 S:INT S:EQV EPEL:X. 3 EPEL:EQV EPTH:X. T(K). Y. HG(Q). Z) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Lorentz magnetic force components (X.SOLID98 In either the O or R columns. XY. Z. Z Electric field components 1 1 Release 14.0 . YZ. J. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

2. 3) O 1 R - 390 Release 14. XZ). Y. S(X. 3). The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. EPEL(1. Z. Table 2 SOLID98 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Nodal Stress Solution Names of Items Output LOC. 2. YZ. 4. YZ. Y. XZ). Z JSSUM JHEAT: D:X. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and electromechanical coupled (UM) energies Thermal gradient components Vector magnitude of TG Thermal flux components Vector magnitude of TF (Heat flow rate/unit crosssection area) Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. . EPEL(X. Y. SEQV. Z TG:SUM TF:X. Y. All rights reserved. XY. The element solution is at the centroid. Inc. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Z TF:SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG Definition Vector magnitude of EF Source current density components Vector magnitude of JS Joule heat generation per unit volume Electric flux density components Vector magnitude of D Elastic (UE). 3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Y. M) TG:X.© SAS IP. . 2. SINT.PRXY). Y. The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). dielectric (UD). Z D:SUM U(E. Z. Output only if a surface load is input.0 . XY. D.SOLID98 Name EF:SUM JS:X. Inc. S(1.

Inc. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p.L sequence number for data at nodes I. 52) in this manual for more information.. All rights reserved. Names of Items Output H. .J. 391) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. The following notation is used in Table 3: SOLID98 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.J... 391 . B. 391): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: SOLID98 Element Output Definitions (p. 389) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 and structural DOF Output at each vertex node. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 and magnetic DOF Table 3: SOLID98 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. HSUM. BSUM O 2 R - Output at each vertex node.SOLID98 Description Nodal Magnetic Field Solution 1...L FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n Table 3 SOLID98 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name P1 P2 P3 P4 MUX MUY MUZ FVWX FVWY FVWZ FVWSUM UE UD UM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item E I J K L SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 17 18 2 4 11 - 1 5 7 - 3 8 10 - 6 9 12 - Release 14.. 2.. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP..

This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. The reduced scalar and general scalar potential options do not have this restriction. temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For more information.SOLID98 Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FC1 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC2 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC3 31 32 33 34 35 36 FC4 37 38 39 40 41 42 SOLID98 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • The element requires an iterative solution for field coupling (displacement. Inc. Large-deflection capabilities available for KEYOPT(1) = 2 and 3 are not available for KEYOPT(1) = 0. electric. avoid using a closed domain and use an open domain. Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. • • • • • • • • 392 Release 14. To be compatible. rather than parabolically. Temperatures and heat generation rates.ESAV files that were created by ANSYS Multiphysics. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) for more information about the use of midside nodes. All rights reserved. in the Modeling and Meshing Guide An edge with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly. The element must not have a zero volume. the resulting field H ¡ 0. along that edge. you may see incorrect results when the formulation is applied using SOLID5. but not piezoelectric) When using SOLID98 with SOURC36 elements. If you used the MAG degree of freedom.DB and Jobname.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The electric field body load is not used during solution and is applicable only to POST1 charged particle tracing. 385) or may have node L below the IJK plane. or SOLID98 elements and the boundary conditions are not satisfied by the Hs field load calculated by the BiotSavart procedure based on SOURC36 current source primitive input. Stress stiffening is available for KEYOPT(1) = 0. magnetic. you cannot restart a job in ANSYS Mechanical using Jobname. the source elements must be placed so that the resulting Hs field fulfills boundary conditions for the total field. closed with natural flux parallel boundary conditions on the MAG degree of freedom. 2. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom.© SAS IP. or infinite elements. Inc. . In an MSP analysis. see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. if internally calculated. include any user defined heat generation rates. and 3. SOLID96. If you use a closed domain. . so that as µ ¡ ∞ in these regions. the elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p.0 . The difference scalar magnetic potential option is restricted to singly-connected permeable regions.

KEYOPT(3) is not applicable. Release 14. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KEYOPT(1) settings of 0. The MAG degree of freedom is not active. 3 and 8 are not allowed. The only active degrees of freedom are MAG and VOLT. If KEYOPT(1) = 0 (default) or 1.© SAS IP. or piezoelectric capability. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. KEYOPT(1) cannot be set to 10. ANSYS Emag • • • • • • • This element has only magnetic and electric field capability. MG__. The only applicable body loads are temperatures (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacements. the MAG degree of freedom is inactive.0 . The element does not have stress stiffening or birth and death features. The only allowable material properties are the magnetic and electric properties (MUZRO through PERZ. . the TEMP degree of freedom is inactive. 393 .SOLID98 SOLID98 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. All rights reserved. Inc. plus the BH data table). The magnetic material properties (MUZERO. MUR_. the following restrictions apply: • • • • • This element does not have magnetic capability. 2. The Maxwell force flags and magnetic virtual displacements body loads are not applicable. and the BH data table) are not allowed. If KEYOPT(1) = 1. and does not have structural. The only applicable surface loads are Maxwell force flags. ANSYS Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled. thermal.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

.0 . . All rights reserved. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.394 Release 14. Inc.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

thermal.© SAS IP. 395). Release 14. and the coordinate system for the element are shown in Figure 1 (p. For information about enclosed elements and analysis types. For best results. Inc. edges connecting the inner and outer surfaces of the infinite element should be radial from the center of the model. 396).all. See INFIN110 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. see Table 1: INFIN110 Analyses (p. KEYOPT(2) specifies whether a 4-node or 8-node element is used. 76). The layer models the effect of far-field decay in magnetic. KEYOPT(1) specifies the degree of freedom to be used. Only one layer of INFIN110 elements should be used between the finite element model and the exterior (infinite) surface. This is usually done by selecting the nodes at the outer surface and issuing the SF.0 . but the face opposite of the finite element model (the exterior face) must be flagged as an infinite surface.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Figure 1 INFIN110 Geometry v sxpsxIIH @uiy@PA a IA s w t u x v si homin s @or exilA t y @or dilA ¡ sxpsxIIH @uiy@PA a HA R Q y u pi homin INFIN110 Input Data The geometry. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. A single layer of elements is used to represent an exterior sub-domain of semi-infinite extent. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The nodes may be input starting at any corner node. Inc.INFIN110 2-D Infinite Solid MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions INFIN110 Element Description INFIN110 models an open boundary of a 2-D unbounded field problem. electrostatic. node locations. . INFIN110 may be used for planar and axisymmetric analyses. 43).INF command. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. 397). or electric current conduction analyses. 395 . The other faces have no meaning. A summary of the element input is given in "INFIN110 Input Summary" (p.

See Table 1: INFIN110 Analyses (p. M.© SAS IP. L (if KEYOPT(2) = 0) I.0 . face 3 (L-K). N. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Element degrees of freedom. O. P (if KEYOPT(2) = 1) Degrees of Freedom Set by KEYOPT(1). 397). K. K. J. L.INFIN110 INFIN110 Input Summary Nodes I. KEYOPT(2) Element definition: 0 -4-node quadrilateral 1 -8-node quadrilateral KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(6) Electric charge reaction sign: 0 -Positive 1 -Negative 396 Release 14. . See Table 1: INFIN110 Analyses (p. Surface Loads Infinite Surface Flags -face 1 (J-I). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. face 2 (K-J). Inc. Real Constants None Material Properties See Table 2: INFIN110 Material Properties (p. 397). J. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. 397).

398) Release 14. MPDATA and EMUNIT commands. RSVY KXX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. Table 1 INFIN110 Analyses Analysis Category Magnetic KEYOPT(1) 0 DOF Label AZ Reaction Solution Magnetic Current Segment (F label = CSG) Electrostatic 1 VOLT Electric Charge (F label = CHRG) Thermal 2 TEMP Heat Flow (F label = HEAT) Electric Current Conduction 3 VOLT Electric Current (F label = AMPS) PLANE35 PLANE55 PLANE77 PLANE230 Transient Steadystate Harmonic Transient INFIN110 material properties are shown in the following table. Inc. KYY. .0 . RSVX.INFIN110 Analysis categories are shown in the following table.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. RSVY. C RSVX. PERY. Inc. PERY INFIN110 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 3: Element Output Definitions (p. LSST. LSST. PLANE121 Enclosed Elements PLANE13 PLANE53 Analysis Type Static Harmonic Transient Static Harmonic Steadystate Table 2 INFIN110 Material Properties Analysis Category Magnetic Electrostatic Thermal Electric Current Conduction KEYOPT(1) 0 1 2 3 Material Properties MUZERO PERX. DENS. PERX. KEYOPT(1) specifies the element degree of freedom. Material properties are defined with the MP. Nonzero material properties must be defined. 397 .

KYY 1. Table 3 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES Element Number Nodes . L (KEYOPT(2) = 0) Nodes . . K. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 398 Release 14. .0 . 2. 3. J. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. L. Y Y Y 1 2 3 Y Y 4 1 2 3 If KEYOPT(1) = 0 If KEYOPT(1) = 1 If KEYOPT(1) = 2 Available only at centroid as a *GET item.I. 50).INFIN110 Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. N. ESOL). In either the O or R columns.© SAS IP. J. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. 398). All rights reserved. YC MUZERO PERX.I. K. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. 398): The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Inc. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.OUT. 4. Inc. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Figure 2 INFIN110 Element Output v u y ¥ ilement output diretions @ ¡ x£¤A s @ ¡ ¡¢£¤A t The following notation is used in Table 3: Element Output Definitions (p. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. P (KEYOPT(2) = 1) Material number Volume Location where results are reported Magnetic permeability of free space Electric relative permittivity (element coordinates) Thermal conductivity (element coordinates) Definition O Y Y R Y Y MAT VOLU: XC. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. PERY KXX. O. M.

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Only one layer of infinite elements can be used on the exterior boundary of the finite element model. The element cannot degenerate to a triangle. Inc. Ideally. 395)) of the element must be flagged using the INF option on the SF family of commands. Inc. the length OJ should equal JK.© SAS IP.INFIN110 Table 4: INFIN110 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. or other load commands. 399): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 3: Element Output Definitions (p. The infinite elements are not included in solution result displays but may be viewed in element displays [EPLOT].0 . That is. The pole is chosen arbitrarily. • • • Release 14. KL or KOL in Figure 1 (p. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more about poles. . only 5 nodes are included in the solution. The exterior surface (for example. 399 . the enclosed surface should be convex and the infinite domain must be represented by one layer of infinite elements without overlap or gap.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. There can be multiple poles for a problem. the DOF value at infinity is not affected by TUNIF. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. and OI should equal IL. That is. For best results.0). and may or may not coincide with the origin of the coordinate system. The point "O" is the "pole" of mapping for the infinite element. 398) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 4 INFIN110 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name MUZERO PERX PERY KXX KYY ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 1 2 INFIN110 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • The area of the quadrilateral infinite element must be nonzero. the poles should be placed at the centers of disturbances (loads). The lines JK and IL of the infinite element IJKL (in Figure 2 (p. The following notation is used in Table 4: INFIN110 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. for theoretical reasons (see the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference). The element assumes that the degree of freedom (DOF) value at infinity is always zero (0. Although this element can have 8 nodes (KEYOPT(2) = 1). 52) in this manual for more information. 399) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. D. 398)) should either be parallel or divergent from each other.

and LSST are not allowed. see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 2 (TEMP) instead of 0 and cannot be changed. All rights reserved. and does not have thermal capability.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and electric current conduction capability. PERX. PLANE77. PLANE53. The AZ and VOLT degrees of freedom are not active. PERY. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. PERX. The only allowable material properties are MUZERO. Inc. For more information. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.0 . To be compatible. RSVY. ANSYS Mechanical These restrictions apply unless the Emag option is enabled. RSVX. These consideration are covered in detail in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. . elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. Inc. PERY. KEYOPT(6) sets the electric charge reaction sign. electrostatic. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. PLANE121. . Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. The only active degrees of freedom are AZ and VOLT. The material properties MUZERO. RSVX. KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 or 1. electrostatic. • • INFIN110 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. and LSST.© SAS IP.INFIN110 • There are considerations in the application of INFIN110 that will lead to optimal performance in the analysis of your model. or electric current conduction capability. and PLANE230 use the higher-order setting for INFIN110 (KEYOPT(2) = 1). 400 Release 14. When used in a model with the higher-order elements PLANE35. • • • This element does not have magnetic. ANSYS Emag • • • This element has only magnetic. RSVY.

see Table 1: INFIN111 Analyses (p. Inc. node locations. electrostatic. and the coordinate system for the element are shown in Figure 1 (p. KEYOPT(2) specifies whether a 8-node or 20node element is used.INF command.all. The layer models the effect of far-field decay in magnetic. 402). Figure 1 INFIN111 Geometry r T S f w R v s I t s u P uDvD t x e Q @rism optionA eDf yDD y w x INFIN111 Input Data The geometry. or electric current conduction analyses. 402). . thermal. A single layer of elements is used to represent an exterior sub-domain of semi-infinite extent. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. This is usually done by selecting the nodes at the outer surface and issuing the SF. For best results. Release 14. The nodes may be input starting at any corner node.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. KEYOPT(1) specifies the degree(s) of freedom to be used. For information about enclosed elements and analysis types. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The other faces have no meaning.INFIN111 3-D Infinite Solid MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions INFIN111 Element Description INFIN111 models an open boundary of a 3-D unbounded field problem. 401). Inc. but the face opposite of the finite element model (the exterior face) must be flagged as an infinite surface. Only one layer of INFIN111 elements should be used between the finite element model and the exterior (infinite) surface. See INFIN111 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. 401 . edges connecting the inner and outer surfaces of the infinite element should be radial from the center of the model. A summary of the element input is given in "INFIN111 Input Summary" (p.0 . 43).

403). L. 402). . See Table 1: INFIN111 Analyses (p. KEYOPT(2) Element definition: 0 -8-node brick 1 -20-node brick KEYOPT(6) Electric charge reaction sign: 0 -Negative 1 -Positive Analysis categories are shown in the following table. face 3 (J-K-O-N). N. Y. Z. O. M. K. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. face 5 (L-I-M-P). face 4 (K-L-P-O). . Inc. N. O. U. S. M. Q. KEYOPT(1) specifies the element degree of freedom. J. A. P (if KEYOPT(2) = 0) I. P. J. K. L. Surface Loads Infinite Surface Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K).0 . W. Table 1 INFIN111 Analyses Analysis Category Magnetic KEYOPT(1) 0 DOF Label MAG Reaction Solution Magnetic Flux Enclosed Elements SOLID5 SOLID96 Analysis Type Static 402 Release 14. V.INFIN111 INFIN111 Input Summary Nodes I. face 2 (I-J-N-M).© SAS IP. R. Real Constants None Material Properties See Table 2: INFIN111 Material Properties (p. All rights reserved. T. Inc. 402). B (if KEYOPT(2) = 1) Degrees of Freedom Set by KEYOPT(1). See Table 1: INFIN111 Analyses (p. X. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Element degree of freedom.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

PERY. KZZ. PERZ Material Properties INFIN111 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal potentials included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 3: INFIN111 Element Output Definitions (p. All rights reserved. RSVX. . LSST.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.INFIN111 Analysis Category KEYOPT(1) DOF Label Reaction Solution (F label = FLUX) Magnetic 1 AX. PERY. Material properties are defined with the MP.© SAS IP.0 . Inc. 403 . Nonzero material properties must be defined. AZ Magnetic Current Segments (F label = CSG) Electrostatic 2 VOLT Electric Charge (F label = CHRG) Thermal 3 TEMP Heat Flow (F label = HEAT) Electric Current Conduction 4 VOLT Electric Current (F label = AMPS) SOLID70 SOLID87 SOLID90 SOLID231 SOLID232 Harmonic Transient INFIN111 material properties are shown in the following table. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. RSVZ KXX. RSVZ. PERZ. AY. RSVY. C RSVX. LSST. DENS. RSVY. Transient Steadystate SOLID122 SOLID123 Enclosed Elements SOLID98 SOLID62 SOLID97 Static Harmonic Transient Static Harmonic Steadystate Analysis Type Table 2 INFIN111 Material Properties Analysis Category Magnetic Magnetic Electrostatic Thermal Electric Current Conduction KEYOPT(1) 0 1 2 3 4 MUZERO MUZERO PERX. MPDATA and EMUNIT commands. 404) Release 14. Inc. KYY. PERX.

M. N. Table 4: INFIN111 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. O. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. P (if KEYOPT(2) = 0). W. P. Inc. L. M. A. U. Z. K. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. R. S. ZC MUZERO PERX.OUT. 2. T. 52) in this manual for more information. PERY. In either the O or R columns. Table 3 INFIN111 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES Element Number Nodes . Nodes I. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. The following notation is used in Table 4: INFIN111 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 404) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command 404 Release 14. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. KYY. Q. KZZ 1. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. X. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 405): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 3: INFIN111 Element Output Definitions (p.0 . Y Y Y 1 2 3 Y Y 4 1 2 3 If KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1 If KEYOPT(1) = 2 If KEYOPT(1) = 3 Available only at centroid as a *GET item. J. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.INFIN111 The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. ESOL). PERZ KXX. Inc. K. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. .© SAS IP. Y. 405) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 3. . N. J. YC.I. V.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. L. O. All rights reserved. 50). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. B (if KEYOPT(2) = 1) Material number Volume Location where results are reported Magnetic permeability of free space Electric relative permittivity Thermal conductivity Definition O Y Y R Y Y MAT VOLU: XC. 4.

AX. These consideration are covered in detail in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. . RSVZ. SOLID122. use the higher-order setting for INFIN111 (KEYOPT(2) = 1). • • INFIN111 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Inc. AZ. SOLID123. electrostatic. PERX. When used in a model with the higher-order elements SOLID87. AY. 405 . This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. SOLID98. Inc. KEYOPT(6) sets the electric charge reaction sign.0 . The material properties MUZERO. and SOLID232.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.INFIN111 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 4 INFIN111 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name MUZERO PERX PERY PERZ KXX KYY KZZ ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 INFIN111 Assumptions and Restrictions • • Assumptions and restrictions listed for INFIN110 elements also apply to INFIN111 elements (see INFIN110 Assumptions and Restrictions). • • • This element does not have magnetic. Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. or electric current conduction capability. PERY. RSVX.© SAS IP. ANSYS Mechanical These restrictions apply unless the Emag option is enabled. To be compatible. see Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. and VOLT degrees of freedom are not active. SOLID90. ANSYS Emag Release 14. For more information. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 3 (TEMP) instead of 0 and cannot be changed. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. PERZ. The MAG. SOLID231. RSVY. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and LSST are not allowed. There are considerations in the application of INFIN111 that will lead to optimal performance in the analysis of your model.

. . KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0. PERX. and LSST. Inc. Inc. PERZ. electrostatic.INFIN111 • • • This element has only magnetic. and electric current conduction capability. TEMP is not allowed as a degree of freedom. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The only allowable material properties are MUZERO. RSVY. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PERY. and does not have thermal capability. RSVZ. RSVX. 406 Release 14. 1 or 2.© SAS IP.0 .

Figure 1 INTER115 Geometry v z y s x u uDv s t t INTER115 Input Data The geometry. See INTER115 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. SOLID96. All rights reserved. SOLID98. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and coupled field analysis. A summary of the element input is given in "INTER115 Input Summary" (p. MAG Real Constants None Release 14. nonlinear. J. L Degrees of Freedom AX. All of these are 3-D magnetic elements which are used to perform linear. 407). 407 . AY. AZ and MAG.INTER115 3-D Magnetic Interface MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions INTER115 Element Description INTER115 is used to couple magnetic vector and scalar potentials in the same analysis. static and dynamic analyses. 407).0 .© SAS IP. The element has four degrees of freedom per node: AX. The element xaxis is oriented along the length of the element from node I toward node J. It is a 4-node interface element. capable of collapsing to a 3-node interface element. that is defined on the interface between vector and scalar potential finite element regions. 43). node locations. The element is defined by four nodes and no material property is required. AZ. INTER115 Input Summary Nodes I. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in the Figure 1 (p. It can be used with scalar elements SOLID5. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Inc. The element does not have a thickness. K. AY. and vector element SOLID97.

The 4 nodes defining the element should lie as close as possible to a flat plane. spherical. Having the primitive boundary located at the vector/scalar interface boundary can lead to solution inaccuracies.INTER115 Material Properties None Surface Loads None Special Features None KEYOPTS None INTER115 Output Data The interface element has no output of its own since it is used only to couple vector and scalar potential finite element regions. and toroidal boundaries from which the normal component can be set to zero. All rights reserved. Inc. a moderate out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a somewhat warped shape. An excessively warped element will produce a warning message. a closed loop conductor is multiply-connected. however. or for any postprocessing operations. . In the vector potential region. The air "hole" inside the conductor cannot contain a vector/scalar interface. It is recommended that the interface between vector/scalar domains occur within a single homogenous material (for example. however. air). In this case. this region should be free from high permeability materials (that is. In the case of warping errors. an element edge may exist at a free-surface. if a multiply-connected conductor exits. cylindrical.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. • • • • • • • • • • 408 Release 14. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. The normal component of the vector potential at the vector/scalar interface. For accurate solutions. Node rotation [NROTAT] can be easily achieved for Cartesian. enclose the entire conductor and "hole" region with vector potential elements. it is recommended that a small cushion of air surround the primitive before interfacing to a vector potential domain. INTER115 Assumptions and Restrictions • The element should not be located at the interface of an air-iron boundary. By setting A x n = 0 at the interface. The INTER115 element cannot lie on a free-surface. . The scalar potential region of a problem using an INTER115 boundary is limited to the Reduced Scalar Potential (RSP) formulation [MAGOPT. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Zero area elements are not allowed. then encase the entire region with a scalar domain. When using a scalar source primitive (SOURC36). where the INTER115 element is located. Inc.0]. the Coulomb gauge condition is satisfied and the vector potential solution is assured to be unique. iron). For example. Such a placement will lead to inaccurate coupling across the vector/scalar potential interface leading to a loss of accuracy in the solution. should be set to zero. triangular elements should be used (see Degenerated Shape Elements (p.© SAS IP. 39). 39)). A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p.0 . it may not be "cut" by a vector/scalar interface. Shell element warping is described in detail in Warping Factor in Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. This occurs most often if the elements are not numbered properly.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.INTER115 • • All units used in INTER115 must be expressed in the MKS system. INTER115 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. All rights reserved. Release 14. Inc.© SAS IP. . 409 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution.0 .

410 Release 14. .0 . All rights reserved. .© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Inc.

Figure 1 FLUID116 Geometry v @optionlA t u @optionlA s s FLUID116 Input Data The geometry. The material properties can be input as numerical values or as tabular inputs evaluated as a function of pressure. The fluid mass density ρ (Mass/Length3) is input as property DENS or computed following the ideal gas law if the real constant Rgas is present. you need to activate the appropriate pressure or temperature degrees of freedom. two additional nodes if convection is desired. See FLUID116 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 411 . The element is defined by two primary nodes. temperature.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In both cases. 415)). temperature and/or pressure. The length L of the element is determined from the two primary node locations. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. and the coordinate system for this thermal-flow pipe element are shown in Figure 1 (p. 3. Inc. If the model containing the thermal-flow element is also to be analyzed structurally. Convection may be accounted for either with additional nodes and convection areas or with surface elements SURF151 and SURF152.0 . If temperature or pressure. the convection film coefficient hf Release 14. . The thermal-flow element may be used in a steady-state or transient thermal analysis.FLUID116 Coupled Thermal-Fluid Pipe MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID116 Element Description FLUID116 is a 3-D element with the ability to conduct heat and transmit fluid between its two primary nodes. using initial values [IC]).e. the element should be replaced by an equivalent (or null) structural element. Heat flow is due to the conduction within the fluid and the mass transport of the fluid.. velocity. If KEYOPT(2) = 2. and the material properties. Inc. The element may have two different types of degrees of freedom. several real constants (see Table 1: FLUID116 Element Real Constants (p. node locations. time. or 4. 411). and location. Tabular material properties are calculated before the first iteration (i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the film coefficient may be related to the fluid flow rate.

not just the end one. The table is also explained in detail in Table 2: FLUID116 Empirical Data Table (Optional) (p. Both rotational speed and the slip factor can vary with time and location. such as for annular flow. 417). For correct results. The coefficient of friction (input as property MU) is the starting value of the Moody friction factor (f ). either both real constants 7 and 8 should have the same table name reference. For networks where the usage of KEYOPT(2) is not obvious and the detailed temperature distribution is important. and all other input should be on a full 360° basis. Inc. or real constant 10 should be unspecified. input the word HEAT (or FLOW) for the Lab variable and input the flow rate for the value.FLUID116 (Heat/Length2*Time*Deg) is input by the options defined by KEYOPT(4). convection surfaces using FLUID116 velocities and other information are stored and can be used by SURF151 or SURF152 and optionally the user programmable feature USRSURF116 in order to determine film coefficients and bulk temperatures as a function of velocities and other parameters. If tabular real constants are used. use KEYOPT(2) = 4. use KEYOPT(2) = 3 and if it is at node J. When using the rotational speed and slip factor real constants (real constants 7-10 in Table 1: FLUID116 Element Real Constants (p. 412 Release 14. either both real constants 9 and 10 should have the same table name reference. If specifying table inputs. ..FLOW). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The effect of KEYOPT(2) = 3 and 4 could be alternatively achieved by adjusting the convection areas (Real Constants 7 and 8) but it is not as convenient. The fluid viscosity µ is input as property VISC. All rights reserved. The input tables are explained in detail in Table 2: FLUID116 Empirical Data Table (Optional) (p. 417). The word PRES (or TEMP) should be input for the Lab variable on the D command and the pressure (or temperature) value input for the value. Fluid weight effects are activated by specifying a nonzero acceleration and/or rotation vector [ACEL and/or OMEGA]. at any node. If temperature is the only degree of freedom. 415)). If such an inlet or outlet is at node I. the friction factor is recomputed each substep from the table (using linear interpolation where necessary). you can specify either numerical values or table inputs.. The friction factor for the first iteration is always assumed to be MU. the convection areas. The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). the table names from different elements must all be the same and a table name cannot be used along with any numerical real constant from a different element. KEYOPT(2) = 3 and 4 are variations of KEYOPT(2) = 2 used to avoid an artificial reduction of the change in temperature in the last element next to an inlet or outlet with no specified temperature. The specific heat cp (Heat/Mass*Deg or Heat*Length/Force*Time2*Deg) is input as property C. use KEYOPT(2) = 2 with a relatively fine mesh (small elements). Also. if using table inputs for rotational speed. All elements of a run of pipe should use the same KEYOPT. you can input a known flow rate in units of mass/time via an SFE. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. if using table inputs for slip factor. %tabname%). Similarly.FCON).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The smooth-pipe empirical correlations are a function of Reynolds number (Re) and depend on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (Re>2500).. Inc. the flow area. If KEYOPT(2) = 1. enclose the table name in % signs (for example.HFLUX command (rather than F. If a nodal heat (or fluid) flow rate is defined with the F command. If a friction table is supplied (TB. or real constant 8 should be unspecified.© SAS IP. (KEYOPT(1) = 1). 49). Element body loads may be input as heat generation rates at the nodes. The thermal conductivity kxx (Heat/Length*time*Deg) acts in the element longitudinal direction and is input as property KXX.0 . . then any node in a FLUID116 network must refer to a single table name. In an axisymmetric analysis. See Steady-State Thermal Analysis in the Thermal Analysis Guide for more information on using table inputs.

J..FLUID116 KEYOPT(8) is used for inputting flow losses (see Table 1: FLUID116 Element Real Constants (p. VISC.This equivalent length may be input directly or calculated from an input constant K. HF Surface Loads You can specify imposed mass flow via an SFE.0 . 3 -PRES degrees of freedom only.. Valid only when KEYOPT(1) = 1. All rights reserved. Inc.HFLUX command. TEMP if KEYOPT(1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT(1) = 1 PRES if KEYOPT(1) = 2 or 3 Real Constants See Table 1: FLUID116 Element Real Constants (p. etc. Inc. joints. Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). 413 . more FLUID116 elements can be added if the actual geometry of the connection needs to be modeled.. the hydraulic diameter D. DENS. (HSFLD241 or HSFLD242). . HG(J) Special Features Nonlinear KEYOPT(1) Pressure and temperature degrees of freedom: 0 -PRES and TEMP degrees of freedom 1 -TEMP degrees of freedom only 2 -PRES degrees of freedom only. 43). 415)). FLUID116 Input Summary Nodes I. elbows. For FLUID116 elements that are directly or indirectly connected to hydrostatic fluid element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. A single FLUID116 element connecting the pressure nodes of two different hydrostatic fluid elements is sufficient to model the flow. C. may be represented by a fictitious (equivalent) length of pipe La. J or I.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A summary of the element input is given in "FLUID116 Input Summary" (p. 415) Material Properties KXX. and the friction factor f. This option is only valid when FLUID116 is directly or indirectly connected to HSFLD241 or HSFLD242. L (see KEYOPT(2)) Degrees of Freedom PRES. Momentum losses in pipes due to bends. Release 14.© SAS IP. you must set KEYOPT(1) = 3 to convert the fluid element mass flow rate to volume change (for compatibility with the hydrostatic fluid elements). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. However. valves. This option is not valid when FLUID116 is connected to HSFLD241 or HSFLD242. K. 413). MU. FLUID116 elements can be used to model fluid flow between hydrostatic fluid elements.

convection area only at node J KEYOPT(4) (used only if KEYOPT(2) = 2. 2. convection area shared between nodes I and J 3 -4 nodes and convection surface logic included with this element.(TK + TL)/2 KEYOPT(6) (used only if KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) Fluid conductance coefficient definition: 0 -Use conductance formula 1 -Use real constant C 414 Release 14. or 4) Film coefficient (hf) definition 0 -Use MP.HFLM for hf as a function of temperature and Reynold's number 4 -Use TB. All rights reserved. convection area only at node I 4 -4 nodes and convection surface logic included with this element.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 3.HFLM for Nu as a function of temperature and Reynold's number (hf = Kxx*Nu/diam) 5 -Use call to User116Hf KEYOPT(5) (used only if KEYOPT(4) = 0. Inc. 4.HF 1 -Use real constants 9 thru 12 (see Table 1: FLUID116 Element Real Constants (p. Inc. 415)) 2 -Use TB.0 . 3.HFLM for hf as a function of temperature and average velocity 3 -Use TB.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . or 5) Evaluation of film coefficient: 0 -Average fluid temperature (TI + TJ)/2 1 -Average wall temperature (TK +TL)/2 2 -Average film temperature (TI + TJ + TK + TL)/4 3 -Differential temperature (TI + TJ)/2 . .FLUID116 KEYOPT(2) (used only if KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1) 0 -2 nodes and no convection surface or convection information 1 -2 nodes and convection information passed to SURF151/SURF152 2 -4 nodes and convection surface logic included with this element.

1 2 3 Name D A Nc Hydraulic diameter. This scheme has high accuracy and does not produce oscillations near bends. This scheme has higher order accuracy but it can lead to oscillations near bends. This scheme has lower order accuracy than the other schemes. Flow cross-sectional area. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. not currently used Definition Units Length Length2 4-6 Release 14.MU 2 -Use TB.0 . . 415 . All rights reserved.FCON as a function of temperature and Reynold's number 4 -Use call to User116Cond KEYOPT(7) (used only if KEYOPT(6) = 0) Friction factor calculation: 0 -Use smooth pipe empirical correlations 1 -Use MP.FCON as a function of temperature and average velocity 3 -Use TB. If greater than 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. 1 -Central difference linear shape function.FCON with friction factor being a function of temperature and average velocity 3 -Use TB. Inc. 2 -Upwind difference exponential shape function. real constants and element output are on a per channel basis. Inc.FCON with friction factor being a function of temperature and Reynold's number KEYOPT(8) (used only if KEYOPT(6) = 0) Flow losses specified by input: 0 -Use real constant La as the additional length 1 -Use real constant K as loss coefficient KEYOPT(9) Discretization scheme: 0 -Upwind difference linear shape function (default). Table 1 FLUID116 Element Real Constants (Given in the order required for input in the real constant table) No. Number of flow channels (defaults to 1).FLUID116 2 -Use TB.

N2. etc. N2 = 0. Inc. N3 = 0.) Hence.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. angular velocity associated with node I. defaults to πDL if KEYOPT(2) = 4 If KEYOPT(2) = 1. convection area between nodes I and K. Defaults to value at node I. Defaults to πDL/2 if KEYOPT(2) = 2. N4 13 14 Pp =g Cr ∆p ∆p = pressure drop If KEYOPT(6) = 1. If KEYOPT(2) = 1. .4 (heating). defaults to πDL if KEYOPT(2) = 3 where: L = element length If KEYOPT(2) = 1. slip factor at node J.8. . or 4) Nu = N1 + N2 Re N3 PrN4 where: Re = Reynolds number (WD/ µA) Pr = Prandtl number (Cpµ/KXX) Cp = specific heat For example.© SAS IP. (Used if KEYOPT(4) = 1 and KEYOPT(2) = 2. or 4. slip factor at node I. 3. additional Length of pipe to account for flow losses (for example. valves. angular velocity associated with node J.FLUID116 (Given in the order required for input in the real constant table) No. 7 Name (An)I Definition If KEYOPT(2) = 1. Defaults to value at node I. If KEYOPT(2) = 2. orifices. or 4.0 . Hence. N3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Pump pressure. conductance coefficient is used to calcu= late flow. If KEYOPT(2) = 2. Inc. and KEYOPT(8) = 0. where: ρ = DENS F = friction coefficient = e Pρ h G@p@v + v AA 416 Release 14. 3. Defaults to πDL/2 if KEYOPT(2) = 2. and N4 = 0. Used to compute conductance coefficient C where: Force / Length2 Units Length2 8 (An)J Length2 9 10 9-12 SLIPFAI SLIPFAJ N1. All rights reserved. 3.023. convection area between nodes J and L. La r If KEYOPT(6) = 0.0. the Dittus-Boelter correlation for full-developed turbulent flow in smooth pipes may be input with N1 = 0.

this real constant is the loss coefficient K. The curves are initialized by using the TB command. Default = 1. The TBPT data are: X Y Velocity (Length/Time) Corresponding friction factor value (Dimensionless) The velocity may be replaced with the Reynold's number. Inc. with F = 8. Up to 20 temperature-dependent curves (NTEMP = 20 maximum on the TB command) may be defined in this manner. Default 0. Table 2 FLUID116 Empirical Data Table (Optional) Constant Meaning Film Coefficient The film coefficient table is initialized with the TB.0 Qv = VDFCverFπVISC(VELOC)2L = viscous heating for element. where Tabs is the absolute temperature and p = average pressure. Fluid Conductance/Friction Factor The fluid conductance/friction factor is initialized with the TB. The TBPT data are: X Y Velocity (Length/Time) Film Coefficient (Heat/(time*area*temp) The velocity may be replaced with the Reynold's number. and the friction factor may be replaced with the fluid conductance. depending on KEYOPT(4). The data in Table 2: FLUID116 Empirical Data Table (Optional) (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Length2 / Deg * Time2 g=e Pρ h G@pv Units + uhA 20 21 VDF Cver Note Real constants 7 through 12 and 20 and 21 are used only if KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1 and real constants 13 through 19 are used only if KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2. 15-18 19 Rgas not currently used Gas constant in ideal gas law (ρ = p/(RgasTabs)). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. use ρ as specified by the DENS material property.0 Units conversion factor for viscous damping. followed by TBPT commands for up to 100 points. . Y) entered on the TBPT command (two per command). Inc. 417) is entered in the data table with the TB commands. depending on KEYOPT(6) and KEYOPT(7). The constants (X. 417 . and the film coefficient may be replaced with the Nusselt number. The temperature for the first curve is input with the TBTEMP command. All rights reserved. If zero.HFLM command.0 .0 for laminar and 0. Hence. FLUID116 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Release 14. Name K Definition If KEYOPT(6) = 0 and KEYOPT(8) = 1. Viscous damping multiplier.FCON command.FLUID116 (Given in the order required for input in the real constant table) No.21420 for turbulent flow.© SAS IP.

A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. YC. “Y” indicates that the item is always available.0 . The following notation is used in Table 3: FLUID116 Element Output Definitions (p. In an axisymmetric analysis these flow rates and all other output are on a full 360° basis. L Material number Location where results are reported Average velocity Reynolds number Flow rate from node I to node J Heat flow rate from node I to node J due to conduction Heat flow rate at node I due to mass transport Convection areas at nodes I and J Film coefficient Nusselt number Prandtl number Heat flow rates from nodes I to K and from nodes J to L due to convection Heat generation due to direct input and viscous damping Temperature Pump pressure Friction factor Pressure If KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1 Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 R Y Y Y 4 Y Y Y 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 418 Release 14.I. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.OUT. J) HFILM NUS PR HT CONV RATES (I. J. Element Number Nodes . 418) The fluid flow rate is expressed in units of Mass/Time and is positive from node I to node J. Table 3 FLUID116 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT XC. J) HGVD TEMP PUMP PR FRICTION PRES 1. . ESOL). In either the O or R columns. 418): The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. The fluid flow rate and the heat flow rate at the nodes may be printed with the OUTPR command.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.FLUID116 • Additional element output as shown in Table 3: FLUID116 Element Output Definitions (p. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Inc. . 50). K. All rights reserved. ZC VELOC RE FLOW RATE HT COND RATE HT TRANSP RATE CONV AREAS (I. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.© SAS IP.

© SAS IP. . Table 4: FLUID116 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.K. 3. Inc.FLUID116 2. or 4 Available only at centroid as a *GET item.0 .L sequence number for data at nodes I. If KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2 If KEYOPT(2) = 2. 52) in this manual for more information.L Table 4 FLUID116 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name VELOC RE FLOW RATE HEAT COND RATE HEAT TRANSP RATE CONV AREA HFILM NUS PR HEAT CONV RATE HGVD TEMP PUMP PR FRICTION PRES ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 19 20 I 6 11 13 15 21 J 7 12 14 16 22 K 17 L 18 - FLUID116 Assumptions and Restrictions • The element must not have a zero length.J. 419) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Release 14. 3.J. 419): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 3: FLUID116 Element Output Definitions (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.K. 418) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. Inc. so nodes I and J must not be coincident. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. 4. The following notation is used in Table 4: FLUID116 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 419 .

pressure at the outlet. flow is usually specified at the inlet. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. D must always be nonzero..all. which could be an average of the specified inlet and outlet pressures (i. IC. If temperatures are degrees of freedom. Tightening the convergence requires you to estimate a suitable tolerance. the solution may converge too soon (i. A defaults to πD2/4.. Be sure to check your results carefully.0 and is assumed to remain constant for the element. If the flow is specified at a node also having a specified pressure. • The PRES degree of freedom (KEYOPT (1) = 0.1e-30 ). For problems involving pressure specification on inlets and outlets. Inc. the element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution.flow. To force more iterations. 2) is not available with the ANSYS Professional product. You can use both options together.0 . you can tighten the convergence criteria (i.. In general. ANSYS Professional These restrictions apply when using this element with the ANSYS Professional product. respectively. ANSYS recommends using a nonzero initial condition. HF must be nonzero for the four node element. . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.pres.e. CNVTOL.e. All rights reserved.. Inc. 420 Release 14. or you can specify a nonzero initial condition on pressure. however.FLUID116 • • • • • • • • • • Nodes K and L may be located anywhere in space. the PRES degree of freedom has converged but FLOW has not due to a loose convergence criterion). If pressure is a degree of freedom. the flow constraint is ignored.pavg). Compressibility and flow inertia effects of the fluid are not included in the element formulation. MU and DENS must be nonzero if a flow solution is desired and KEYOPT(6) is not zero. the resulting unsymmetric matrix requires twice as much memory storage for the solution as other ANSYS elements. • • • FLUID116 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. See the CNVTOL command for convergence control.e. even coincident with I and J.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. More substeps are required for convergence as the flow approaches zero. .

© SAS IP. Release 14. The AX DOF also represents the Ez component of the electric field E at the nodes. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Physically the AX DOF mean the projection of the electric field E on edges and faces.0 . You can use it to compute dispersion characteristics of highfrequency transmission lines. All rights reserved. Inc. HF118 applies only to modal analyses.HF118 2-D High-Frequency Quadrilateral Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EH <> PP <> <> <> Product Restrictions HF118 Element Description HF118 is a high-frequency element which models 2-D electromagnetic fields and waves governed by the full set of Maxwell's equations in linear media. Inc. The first order quadrilateral and triangular elements have one AX DOF on each edge and at each corner node. It is based on a full-wave formulation of Maxwell's equations in terms of the time-harmonic electric field E (exponent jωt dependence assumed).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. respectively. The total number of DOFs is 8 for a first order quadrilateral element {1 (4 edges) + 1 (4 corner nodes)} and 6 for a first order triangular element {1 (3 edges) + 1 (3 corner nodes)}. Figure 1 HF118 Geometry v Q y R x P s s w I t w t uD vD y u x @ringulr yptionA A first order or second order element option is available using KEYOPT(1). including cutoff frequencies and propagating constants for multiple modes. See HighFrequency Electromagnetic Field Simulation in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on Maxwell's equations and full-wave formulations. 421 . It is a mixed node-scalar edge-vector element.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. MURY. relative permeability and permittivity tensors (in the element coordinate system if any). Use the TB. four AX DOFs on the face for the tangential component of the electric field E. The total number of DOFs is 14 for a second order triangular element {2 (3 edges) + 2 (1 face) + 1 (6 nodes)}.0 . and one AX DOF at each corner and midside node.MUR and TBDATA commands to specify the 422 Release 14. To specify a diagonal relative permeability tensor use the MURX. that is. and the coordinate system for the element. .854 x 10-12 F/m (see the EMUNIT command). Figure 3 HF118 Second Order Element ¡ ¡ HF118 Input Data Figure 1 (p.HF118 Figure 2 HF118 First Order Element t t s s The second order quadrilateral element has two AX DOFs on each edge. node locations. The element supports two geometric shapes: a quadrilateral shape with a degeneracy to a triangular shape. and MURZ labels on the MP command. HF118 requires two sets of material constants. The second order triangular element has two AX DOFs on each edge. 421) shows the geometries. two AX DOFs on the face for the tangential component of the electric field E. The total number of DOFs is 20 for a second order quadrilateral element {2 (4 edges) + 4 (1 face) + 1 (8 nodes)}. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and one AX DOF at each corner and midside node. where the free-space permeability MUZRO = 4π x 10-7 H/m and the free-space permittivity EPZERO = 8.© SAS IP. The only unit system supported for high-frequency analysis is the MKS unit. All rights reserved. Inc.

use the DL command. EPZRO. MURZ. MURY. K. In most cases. PERZ. DOFs on the face are also constrained. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the AX value is zero. The Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom AX and the Value1 corresponds to the AX value. PERY.0 . use the D command. Similarly. MUR.1 -First order element 2 -Second order element KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: Release 14. which corresponds to a perfect electric conductor or "Electric Wall" (tangential component of = 0) condition. 423 . 423) summarizes the element input. MURX.HF118 terms of an anisotropic permeability matrix. To define constraints on lines. AX is not the x component in the global Cartesian coordinate system. If you leave the nodes on a surface unspecified. If both end nodes and the mid-node on an element edge are constrained. and PERZ labels on the MP command. M. All rights reserved. O. To specify a diagonal relative permittivity tensor use the PERX. P Degrees of Freedom AX Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO. Element Input (p. L. J. the Lab variable corresponds to the only degree of freedom AX and the VALUE corresponds to the AX value. PERY. DOFs on the edge are also constrained. Inc. Upon initiation of the solution calculations (SOLVE). With the D command. To define nodal constraints on geometric nodes. the solid model DOF constraints transfer automatically to the finite element model. "HF118 Input Summary" (p. DPER Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Element polynomial order selection: 0.© SAS IP. Inc. the boundary assumes a "Magnetic Wall" condition (tangential component of = 0). N.DPER and TBDATA commands to specify the terms of an anisotropic permittivity matrix. 43) in the Element Reference provides a general description of element input. PERX. HF118 Input Summary Nodes I. Use the TB. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. if all edges on an element face are constrained.

See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.. Inc. YC. PERZ Element Number Nodes . HF118 Output Data The solution output associated with this element is in two forms: • • Degrees of freedom (AX) included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: HF118 Element Output Definitions (p. use the MXPAND command to expand the mode shapes. Use the Method argument to choose the Block Lanczos solver. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.OUT. . Select an upper end frequency as well. To visualize the electric and magnetic field modes. . 424) The element output direction is parallel to the element coordinate system (if any).0 . Table 1 HF118 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU XC. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Solution Output (p. MURZ PERX.HF118 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Centroid point printout 2 -Nodal field printout HF118 Solution Considerations For modal analysis.. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. PERY.. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 50) in the Element Reference provides a general description of solution output. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. ESOL). MURY. . All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ZC LOC MURX. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. J.I. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Inc. choose a frequency shift point just below the anticipated eigenfrequency of interest (via the MODOPT command). B Material number Volume Location where results are reported Output location Relative permeability Relative permittivity Definition O Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 - 424 Release 14. In either the O or R columns.© SAS IP.

0 . Z EF:SUM H:X. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each corner node. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 425) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 2. MUY. Inc. MUX. PY. MUZ. HSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each centroid point.© SAS IP. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. PERX. Y. The following notation is used in Table 3: HF120 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. E. Magnitude of E Magnetic field intensity H Magnitude of H Joule heat generation per unit volume (time-average value) Pointing vector (time-average value) Real part of propagating constant Imaginary part of propagating constant Poynting flow through cross-section Definition Electric field intensity E O 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y Y Y The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). Z H:SUM JHEAT PX. 439) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 HF118 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name PX PY ETABLE Command Input Item NMISC NMISC I 1 2 Release 14. 52) in this manual for more information. The element solution is at the centroid.HF118 Name EF:X. Y. All rights reserved. 2. PERY.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3: HF118 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. PZ ALPHA BETA PF 1. ESUM. Available only at centroid as a *GET command item. HSUM E. Table 2 HF118 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Centroid Point Solution Nodal Electric and Magnetic Field Solutions 1. H. PERZ. Names of Items Output LOC. 441): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: HF120 Element Output Definitions (p. . H. Inc. 425 . ESUM.

. Inc. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. PERZ) must be input as relative values. The element must not have a zero volume. Distributed ANSYS is only available for the first order element. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information on the use of midside nodes. PERX. Midside nodes must not be removed from this element. HF118 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. MURZ.0 .© SAS IP. MURY. PERY. Inc. The required material properties (MURX. The second order element is not available for the solution of propagating constant with fixed frequency.HF118 Output Quantity Name PZ ALPHA BETA PF ETABLE Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 3 4 5 6 HF118 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • HF118 is only applicable to modal analyses.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 426 Release 14.

427 . It is defined by up to 10 geometric nodes with AX DOF on element edges and faces. respectively. Figure 2 HF119 First Order Element r s t Release 14.© SAS IP.HF119 3-D High-Frequency Tetrahedral Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EH <> PP <> <> <> Product Restrictions HF119 Element Description HF119 is a high-frequency tetrahedral element which models 3-D electromagnetic fields and waves governed by the full set of Maxwell's equations in linear media. Figure 1 HF119 Geometry v R s I P w t y x Q u A first order or second order element option is available using KEYOPT(1). . Inc. HF119 applies to the full-harmonic and modal analysis types. has similar full-wave capability. The first order element has one AX DOF on each edge for a total of 6 DOFs. See HF119 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on Maxwell's equations and full-wave formulations. but not to the transient analysis type. It is based on a full-wave formulation of Maxwell's equations in terms of the time-harmonic electric field E (exponent jωt dependence assumed). All rights reserved. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The physical meaning of the AX DOF in this element is a projection of the electric field E on edges and faces. HF120. A companion brick element.

KEYOPT(4) = 0 activates the normal full-wave formulation.HF119 The second order element has two AX DOFs on each edge and face for a total of 20 DOFs {2(6 edges) + 2(4 faces)}. Inc. You can specify an optional diagonal resistivity tensor (inverse of the conductivity tensor) using the RSVX. node locations.MUR and TBDATA commands to specify the terms of an anisotropic permeability matrix.CNDE or TB. AX is not the x component in the global Cartesian coordinate system. that is. If both end nodes and the mid-node on an element edge are constrained. the AX value is zero. For an isotropic lossy material. and RSVZ labels on the MP command. HF119 requires two sets of material constants. Similarly. PERY. To calculate a specific absorption rate (SAR). 427) shows the geometries. where the free-space permeability MUZRO = 4π x 10-7 H/m and the free-space permittivity EPZERO = 8. which is only required in the regions of a domain receiving a reflected wave from an imposed soft source magnetic field excitation (BF.LSST) or magnetic loss tangent (MP. Use the TB.0 . and the coordinate system for the element. The only unit system supported for high-frequency analysis is the MKS unit.LSSM). Use the TB. respectively. All rights reserved. you can define the lossy characteristics of the material by either the electric loss tangent (MP. and MURZ labels on the MP command.DPER and TBDATA commands to specify the terms of an anisotropic permittivity matrix. which absorbs the field at the open boundary or at the port of a waveguide.CNDM. To specify a diagonal relative permeability tensor use the MURX.. KEYOPT(4) provides options for the element formulation. DOFs on the edge are also constrained. Inc. Figure 3 HF119 Second Order Element r s t HF119 Input Data Figure 1 (p. KEYOPT(4) = 2 activates the scattering formulation. RSVY. . which solves for the total field.© SAS IP. use the D command.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. DOFs on 428 Release 14. To define nodal constraints on geometric nodes. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.H option). and PERZ labels on the MP command. With the D command. . if all edges on an element face are constrained. To specify a diagonal relative permittivity tensor use the PERX. which corresponds to a perfect electric conductor (PEC) or "Electric Wall" (tangential component of = 0) condition. MURY. you must input a mass density using the DENS label on the MP command. KEYOPT(4) = 1 activates the perfectly matched layers (PML) formulation. the Lab variable corresponds to the only degree of freedom AX and the VALUE corresponds to the AX value. In most cases. relative permeability and permittivity tensors (in the element coordinate system if any).854 x 10-12 F/m (see the EMUNIT command). To specify the terms of an anisotropic electric current conductivity tensor or anisotropic magnetic current conductivity tensor use TBDATA and TB.

49) describes element loads. 427) using the SF and SFE commands or on the solid model using the SFA command. LSST. If you leave the nodes on a surface unspecified. MURZ. MURX. Inc. and BFV commands. Upon initiation of the solution calculations (SOLVE). DPER. RSVY. P. N. MUR. and may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements (See the discussion of the LDREAD command). PERY. face 3 (J-K-L). The Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom AX and the Value1 corresponds to the AX value. You can input the temperature (for material property evaluation only) body loads based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF and BFE].0 . Q. You can apply current density. the boundary assumes a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) or "Magnetic Wall" condition (tangential component of = 0). Nodal Loading (p. You can specify an exterior waveguide port. surface impedance boundary conditions. In general. face 2 (I-J-L). . face 2 (I-J-L). R Degrees of Freedom AX Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO. unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF and TUNIF commands. face 4 (K-I-L) Infinite Boundary Surface Flags -face 1 (J-I-K). MURY. use the DL and DA commands. LSSM. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. O. CNDE. PERZ. M. You should use the Maxwell surface flag to determine an equivalent source surface for near and far field calculations performed in POST1. face 3 (J-K-L). RSVX. 429 . To specify an interior waveguide port. RSVZ. infinite boundary surface flags. K. EPZRO. Inc. face 4 (K-I-L) Release 14. magnetic field. The DOFs based on volume are not constrained. You can use the infinite boundary surface flag for a radiating open boundary in lieu of PML elements. J. and electric field body loads to the finite element model using the BF and BFE commands or to the solid model using the BFK. BFA. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. and Maxwell surface flags on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. respectively. the solid model loads and boundary conditions transfer automatically to the finite element model. HF119 Input Summary Nodes I. To define constraints on lines and areas. face 4 (K-I-L) Impedance Surface Loads -face 1 (J-I-K). BFL. DENS Surface Loads Waveguide Port Surface Loads -face 1 (J-I-K). L. use the BF and BFA commands. face 3 (J-K-L).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.HF119 the face are also constrained. face 2 (I-J-L). PERX. CNDM. Element heat loss (JHEAT) represents the time-average Joule heat generation rate (W/m3).

. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.HF119 Maxwell Surface Flags for Equivalent Source Surface -face 1 (J-I-K). Magnetic Field. EF. face 2 (I-J-L). and Waveguide Port -JS. H. issue the ANTYPE command. choose a frequency shift point just below the anticipated eigenfrequency of interest (via the MODOPT command). face 4 (K-I-L) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). The measurable field quantities can be computed as the real step with a cosine time change and the imaginary set with a sine time change.. 1 -First order element 2 -Second order element KEYOPT(4) Used for element type selection: 0 -Normal element 1 -Perfectly matched layers (PML) element 2 -Scattering region element behind a soft source magnetic field excitation KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Centroid point printout 2 -Nodal field printout HF119 Solution Considerations To choose the modal or full harmonic analysis type. .. All rights reserved. Inc. Select an upper end frequency as well. In a harmonic analysis. . face 3 (J-K-L). You can choose a solver via the EQSLV command (the ICCG or sparse solvers are recommended).. For modal analysis. Inc. the ANSYS program performs a complex solution and computes two sets of results data: real and imaginary. The measurable power terms and Joule losses are computed as rms (time-average) values and are stored with the real data set.0 . Electric Field. T(J). Use the Method argument to 430 Release 14. PORT Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Used for element polynomial order selection: 0. T(R) Current Density.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. You can set the frequency of the time change via the HARFRQ command.

I.© SAS IP. . Y. Y.. 50) in the Element Reference provides a general description of solution output. 431) The element output direction is parallel to the element coordinate system (if any). "HF119 Input Summary" (p. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. T(R) Output location Relative permeability Relative permittivity Conductivity Electric field intensity E Magnitude of E Magnetic field intensity H Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Release 14. YC. . use the MXPAND command to expand the mode shapes. ESOL). J. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.. . Element Input (p.. All rights reserved. Z EF:SUM H:X. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. In either the O or R columns. PERY. MURZ PERX. Z Element Number Nodes . T(J).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Inc. Solution Output (p.0 . To visualize the electric and magnetic field modes. B Material number Volume Location where results are reported Input temperatures T(I). 429) summarizes the element input.OUT.. ZC TEMP LOC MURX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. PERZ CNDX.. CNDZ EF:X. Table 1 HF119 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU XC. Table 1: HF119 Element Output Definitions (p. MURY. 43) of the Element Reference gives a general description of element input.See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HF119 Output Data The solution output associated with this element is in two forms: • • Degrees of freedom (AX) included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: HF119 Element Output Definitions (p. 431 .. CNDY. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.HF119 choose the Block Lanczos solver (the default). 431) uses the following notation: The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.

Y. PERY. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 432 Release 14. 2. ESUM. ESUM. PZ PSCT PINC VLOSS SFLOSS ENERGY FACE1 HFLXAVG1 FACE2 HFLXAVG2 FACE3 HFLXAVG3 ETINCR ETINCI ETOUTR ETOUTI ETDOT SAR RADPAVG1 RADPAVG2 RADPAVG3 1. The element solution is at the centroid. 3. Table 2 HF119 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Centroid Point Solution Nodal Electric and Magnetic Field Solutions 1.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. . HSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each centroid point.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PERX. Inc. H. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. E. H. PERZ.0 . MUY. Names of Items Output LOC. HSUM E. Z JC:SUM JHEAT PX. PY. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. MUZ.HF119 Name H:SUM JC:X. The solution value is output only if calculated. MUX. . Magnitude of H Current density JC Magnitude of JC Joule heat generation per unit volume (time-average value) Pointing vector (time-average value) Reflected or transmitted power (time-average value) Input power (time-average value) Volumetric Joule losses (time-average value) Surface Joule losses (time-average value) Stored energy (time-average value) 1st element face number containing heat flux Heat flux across FACE1 caused by surface losses 2nd element face number containing heat flux Heat flux across FACE2 caused by surface losses 3rd element face number containing heat flux Heat flux across FACE3 caused by surface loses Real part of tangential incident electric field Imaginary part of tangential incident electric field Real part of tangential outgoing electric field Imaginary part of tangential outgoing electric field Dot product of waveguide eigen tangential electric field Specific absorption rate Radiation pressure across FACE1 with surface losses Radiation pressure across FACE2 with surface losses Radiation pressure across FACE3 with surface losses Definition O 1 1 1 1 R Y Y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data).

© SAS IP. . 433): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: HF119 Element Output Definitions (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. The following notation is used in Table 3: HF119 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.HF119 2. Inc. 52) in this manual for more information. Output at each corner node. 433) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3: HF119 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Inc. 433 . 431) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 HF119 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name RADPAVG1 RADPAVG2 RADPAVG3 PX PY PZ PSCT PINC ENERGY VLOSS SFLOSS FACE1 HFLXAVG1 FACE2 HFLXAVG2 FACE3 HFLXAVG3 ETINCR ETINCI ETOUTR ETOUTI ETDOT SAR ETABLE Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Release 14.0 .

The required material properties (MURX.HF119 HF119 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • The element must not have a zero volume. Inc. 434 Release 14. PERZ) must be input as relative values. Distributed ANSYS is only available for the first order element. MURZ. MURY. HF119 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. You cannot use the element in a transient analysis. Inc. . Midside nodes must not be removed from this element. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. 427) or may have the plane IJKL and MNOP interchanged.0 . or for any postprocessing operations. PERX. The element may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. PERY. All rights reserved. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. .

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 14. Inc.HF120 3-D High-Frequency Brick Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EH <> PP <> <> <> Product Restrictions HF120 Element Description HF120 is a high-frequency brick element which models 3-D electromagnetic fields and waves governed by the full set of Maxwell's equations in linear media. The first order element has one AX DOF on each edge. The first order hexahedral element has a total of 12 AX DOFs. .© SAS IP. All rights reserved. It is defined by up to 20 geometric nodes with AX DOF on element edges and faces and inside the volume. The pyramid-shaped element is only available as a first order element. HF120 applies to the full-harmonic and modal analysis types.0 . Figure 1 HF120 Geometry S w ¡ s ¢ P v T f Q R y x e u t I ¥D¦D¤D£D§DD¨D© ! £yrmid ¤ption © ¤D£D¨ ¥ ¦ D § D D ! £rism ¤ption A first order or second order element option is available for the hexahedral and prism-shaped elements using KEYOPT(1). See HF120 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on Maxwell's equations and full-wave formulations. It is based on a full-wave formulation of Maxwell's equations in terms of the time-harmonic electric field E (exponent jωt dependence assumed). A companion tetrahedral element. as well as normal components to the element faces. but not to the transient analysis type. has similar full-wave capability. The physical meaning of the AX DOF in this element is a projection of the electric field E on edges and faces. 435 . respectively. Inc. HF119.

For an isotropic lossy material. and six AX DOFs inside the volume for a total of 54 DOFs {2(12 edges) + 4(6 faces) + 6 (1 volume)}. Use the TB. which is only required in the regions of a domain receiving a reflected wave from an imposed soft source magnetic field excitation (BF. MURY. To specify the terms of an anisotropic electric current conductivity tensor or anisotropic magnetic current conductivity tensor use TBDATA and TB. You can specify an optional diagonal resistivity tensor (inverse of the conductivity tensor) using the RSVX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the coordinate system for the element.© SAS IP. To specify a diagonal relative permeability tensor use the MURX. you must input a mass density using the DENS label on the MP command.LSSM).HF120 Figure 2 HF120 First Order Hexahedral Element r t s The second order hexahedral element has two AX DOFs on each edge. Use the TB. .LSST) or magnetic loss tangent (MP.DPER and TBDATA commands to specify the terms of an anisotropic permittivity matrix. To calculate a specific absorption rate (SAR). KEYOPT(4) = 1 activates the perfectly matched layers (PML) formulation. HF120 requires two sets of material constants.CNDM. the Lab variable corresponds to the only degree of freedom AX and the VALUE corresponds to the AX value. With the D command. four AX DOFs on each face. To specify a diagonal relative permittivity tensor use the PERX. which solves for the total field.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The element supports three geometric shapes: a hexahedral (brick) shape defined by twenty geometric nodes with degeneracies to prism and pyramid shapes. . relative permeability and permittivity tensors (in the element coordinate system if any). use the D command. RSVY. KEYOPT(4) = 0 activates the normal full-wave formulation.. node locations. that is. the AX value is 436 Release 14. which absorbs the field at the open boundary or at the port of a waveguide. Inc. and RSVZ labels on the MP command. KEYOPT(4) = 2 activates the scattering formulation.H option). HF120 Input Data Figure 1 (p. and MURZ labels on the MP command. KEYOPT(4) provides options for the element formulation. The first order prism and pyramid elements have a total of 9 AX and 8 AX DOFs. Inc.0 . All rights reserved.854 x 10-12 F/m (see the EMUNIT command). 435) shows the geometries. The only unit system supported for high-frequency analysis is the MKS unit.CNDE or TB. The second order prism element has a total of 42 DOFs {2(9 edges) + 4(5 faces) + 4(1 volume)}. PERY. respectively. and PERZ labels on the MP command. respectively. To define nodal constraints on geometric nodes. In most cases. you can define the lossy characteristics of the material by either the electric loss tangent (MP.MUR and TBDATA commands to specify the terms of an anisotropic permeability matrix. AX is not the x component in the global Cartesian coordinate system. where the free-space permeability MUZRO = 4π x 10-7 H/m and the free-space permittivity EPZERO = 8.

LSST. Q. You can specify an exterior waveguide port. DPER. if all edges on an element face are constrained. You should use the Maxwell surface flag to determine an equivalent source surface for near and far field calculations performed in POST1. MUR. L. magnetic field. Element heat loss (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements. All rights reserved. PERY. P.) Upon initiation of the solution calculations (SOLVE). The DOFs based on volume are not constrained. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Release 14. and BFV commands. Z. face 5 (L-I-M-P). U. BFL. CNDM. To define surface loads on areas of the model. (See the description of the LDREAD command. unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF and TUNIF commands. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Y. which corresponds to a perfect electric conductor (PEC) or "Electric Wall" (tangential component of = 0) condition. the boundary assumes a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) or "Magnetic Wall" condition (tangential component of H¯ = 0). HF120 Input Summary Nodes I. You can input the temperature (for material property evaluation only) body loads based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value (BF and BFE commands). face 4 (K-L-P-O). use the SFA command. RSVY. You can use the infinite boundary surface flag for a radiating open boundary in lieu of PML elements. To specify an interior waveguide port. face 2 (I-J-N-M). Inc. T. DOFs on the edge are also constrained. You can apply current density. J. Inc. PERZ. B Degrees of Freedom AX Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO. BFA. use the DL and DA commands. use the BF and BFA commands. If both end nodes and the mid-node on an element edge are constrained. 49) describes element loads. 435) using the SF and SFE commands or on the solid model using the SFA command. X. Similarly. EPZRO. To define constraints on lines and areas. infinite boundary surface flags. O. N. the solid model loads and boundary conditions transfer automatically to the finite element model.© SAS IP. . PERX. R.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and electric field body loads to the finite element model using the BF and BFE commands or to the solid model using the BFK. RSVX. Nodal Loading (p. MURZ. surface impedance boundary conditions. RSVZ. A. 437 . DOFs on the face are also constrained.HF120 zero. face 3 (J-K-O-N). If you leave the nodes on a surface unspecified. W. S. MURX. K. MURY.0 . respectively. V. and Maxwell surface flags on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. M. LSSM. In general. CNDE. The Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom AX and the Value1 corresponds to the AX value. DENS Surface Loads Waveguide Port Surface Loads -face 1 (J-I-L-K).

and Waveguide Port -JS. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Maxwell Surface Flags for Equivalent Source Surface -face 1 (J-I-K). Electric Field. face 5 (L-I-M-P). All rights reserved. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Infinite Boundary Surface Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K). The pyramidshaped element is only available as a first order element. face 4 (K-L-P-O). . face 3 (J-K-O-N).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. face 5 (L-I-M-P).. 1 -First order element 2 -Second order element Note This option is only available for the hexahedral and prism-shaped elements. face 3 (J-K-O-N). H.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Magnetic Field. T(J). face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 2 (I-J-L). Inc. face 3 (J-K-L). PORT Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Element polynomial order selection: 0. . . KEYOPT(4) Element description options: 0 -Normal element 1 -Perfectly matched layers (PML) element 2 -Scattering region element behind a soft source magnetic field excitation KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Centroid point printout 438 Release 14..HF120 Impedance Surface Loads -face 1 (J-I-L-K).. T(B) Current Density.0 . EF. face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 4 (K-I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). face 4 (K-L-P-O).

Inc.HF120 2 -Nodal field printout HF120 Solution Considerations To choose the modal or full harmonic analysis type.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The measurable field quantities can be computed as the real step with a cosine time change and the imaginary set with a sine time change. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Select an upper end frequency as well. Inc. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.© SAS IP. . 439) The element output direction is parallel to the element coordinate system (if any). See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 439) uses the following notation: The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. 50) in the Element Reference provides a general description of solution output. B Material number Definition O Y Y Y R Y Y Y Release 14. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. For modal analysis. 437) summarizes the element input. You can choose a solver via the EQSLV command (the ICCG or sparse solvers are recommended). use the MXPAND command to expand the mode shapes. issue the ANTYPE command. 43) in the Element Reference provides a general description of element input. .OUT. In either the O or R columns..0 . Use the Method argument to choose the Block Lanczos solver (the default). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Element Input (p. You can set the frequency of the time change via the HARFRQ command. J. "HF120 Input Summary" (p. The measurable power terms and Joule losses are computed as rms (time-average) values and are stored with the real data set. Table 1: HF120 Element Output Definitions (p. HF120 Output Data The solution output associated with this element is in two forms: • • Degrees of freedom (AX) included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: HF120 Element Output Definitions (p. the ANSYS program performs a complex solution and computes two sets of results data: real and imaginary. ESOL). In a harmonic analysis.. 439 . Solution Output (p.I.. choose a frequency shift point just below the anticipated eigenfrequency of interest (via the MODOPT command). Table 1 HF120 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Element Number Nodes . To visualize the electric and magnetic field modes. All rights reserved. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.

PZ PSCT PINC VLOSS SFLOSS ENERGY FACE1 HFLXAVG1 FACE2 HFLXAVG2 FACE3 HFLXAVG3 ETINCR ETINCI ETOUTR ETOUTI ETDOT SAR RADPAVG1 RADPAVG2 RADPAVG3 Volume Location where results are reported Input temperatures T(I). T(J). Z JC:SUM JHEAT PX. Z EF:SUM H:X. MURY. CNDZ EF:X. T(B) Output location Relative permeability Relative permittivity Conductivity Electric field intensity E Magnitude of E Magnetic field intensity H Magnitude of H Current density JC Magnitude of JC Joule heat generation per unit volume (time-average value) Pointing vector (time-average value) Reflected or transmitted power (time-average value) Input power (time-average value) Volumetric Joule losses (time-average value) Surface Joule losses (time-average value) Stored energy (time-average value) 1st element face number containing heat flux Heat flux across FACE1 caused by surface losses 2nd element face number containing heat flux Heat flux across FACE2 caused by surface losses 3rd element face number containing heat flux Heat flux across FACE3 caused by surface losses Real part of tangential incident electric field Imaginary part of tangential incident electric field Real part of tangential outgoing electric field Imaginary part of tangential outgoing electric field Dot product of waveguide eigen tangential electric field Specific absorption rate Radiation pressure across FACE1 with surface losses Radiation pressure across FACE2 with surface losses Radiation pressure across FACE3 with surface losses Definition O Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 440 Release 14. CNDY. Inc.0 .HF120 Name VOLU XC. PERY.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. Y. .© SAS IP.. Z H:SUM JC:X. All rights reserved. YC. Inc. ZC TEMP LOC MURX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. MURZ PERX.. PY. Y. Y. . . PERZ CNDX.

HSUM E. 441): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: HF120 Element Output Definitions (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. HSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each corner node. MUX. Inc. MUY. H. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3: HF120 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 2. 439) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 HF120 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name RADPAVG1 RADPAVG2 RADPAVG3 PX PY PZ PSCT PINC ENERGY VLOSS SFLOSS FACE1 ETABLE Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Release 14. 2. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. The following notation is used in Table 3: HF120 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.0 . MUZ. PERZ. ESUM. ESUM. Names of Items Output LOC. 441 . 441) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. .HF120 1. The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). The element solution is at the centroid. 52) in this manual for more information.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Table 2 HF120 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Centroid Point Solution Nodal Electric and Magnetic Field Solutions 1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PERX. The solution is output only if calculated. 3. Inc. E. PERY. H.

Distributed ANSYS is only available for the first order element. PERZ) must be input as relative values. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information on the use of midside nodes. MURZ. MURY. or for any postprocessing operations.HF120 Output Quantity Name HFLXAVG1 FACE2 HFLXAVG2 FACE3 HFLXAVG3 ETINCR ETINCI ETOUTR ETOUTI ETDOT SAR ETABLE Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 HF120 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • The element must not have a zero volume. The element may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. 442 Release 14. 435) or may have the plane IJKL and MNOP interchanged. PERX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . All rights reserved. The required material properties (MURX. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. You cannot use the element in a transient analysis. Inc.© SAS IP. Midside nodes must not be removed from this element. . PERY.0 . HF120 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

voltage. . The 8-node elements have compatible voltage shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. Nodal loads are defined with the D (Lab= VOLT) and F (Lab= CHRG) commands. charge-based electric element. The element has one degree of freedom. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. at each node. 443).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.PLANE121 2-D 8-Node Electrostatic Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions PLANE121 Element Description PLANE121 is a 2-D. node locations. if any. 443). 443 . and it is applicable to 2-D electrostatic and time-harmonic quasistatic electric field analyses. Various printout options are also available. each midside node charge density defaults to the average charge density of its adjacent corner nodes. Charge densities may be input as element body loads at the nodes. 49). L and O. they default to CHRGD(I).0 . Release 14. This element is based on the electric scalar potential formulation. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. The nodal forces. 8-node. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. A triangular-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node number for nodes K. See PLANE121 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Surface charge densities may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Figure 1 (p. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. 56). All rights reserved. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. If the node I charge density CHRGD(I) is input. If all corner node charge densities are specified. and all others are unspecified. Inc. The element is defined by eight nodes and orthotropic material properties. Figure 1 PLANE121 Geometry v Q y @¡¢ x£lA @¡¢ ¢d£lA R x s w I t P s u uD vD y x w ri yption PLANE121 Input Data The geometry.

BFE]. CHRGD(P) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric 3 -Plane with thickness input. T(N). . RSVX. RSVY Surface Loads Surface charge densities -CHRGS face 1 (J-I). T(M). CHRGD(K). L. In general. CHRGD(N). P Degrees of Freedom VOLT Real Constants THK . All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 444). A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE121 Input Summary" (p. PERY. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. 43). Inc. CHRGD(O). CHRGD(J). T(J). T(O).0 . 76).Thickness (used only if KEYOPT(3) = 3) Material Properties PERX. LSST. CHRGD(M).© SAS IP. T(L). specified via real constant THK. unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. N. .PLANE121 The temperature (for material property evaluation only) body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF. face 2 (K-J). Inc. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). face 3 (L-K). J. CHRGD(L). O. K. T(P) Volume charge densities -CHRGD(I). KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system defined: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 444 Release 14. T(K). PLANE121 Input Summary Nodes I. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. M.

.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.© SAS IP. 446) Several items are illustrated in Figure 2 (p. Inc. All rights reserved. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Figure 2 PLANE121 Output v s y y u i D h ¢ x i¡D h¡ @or xilA @or rdilA t w i£ement ¤utput ¥¦§et¦¤ns sh¤wn ¨§e f¤§ ui y©R a H The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. 445 .0 . Release 14. 50).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. 445). ESOL).PLANE121 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal fields printout KEYOPT(6) Electric charge reaction sign: 0 -Positive 1 -Negative PLANE121 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: PLANE121 Element Output Definitions (p.

Y CHRGD 1. For a time-harmonic analysis. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. 5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. N. Y D:SUM JS:X. For a time-harmonic analysis.0 . Y EF:SUM D:X. 446 Release 14. M. These values are stored in both the real and imaginary data sets. calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) includes conduction heating and dielectric heating due to the loss tangent. Y. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 6. Inc. 2. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. T(M). T(N). All rights reserved. T(J). Y. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. PERY EF:X. O. SUM JT:X.© SAS IP. L. . Element Number Nodes . . T(L). T(O). The element solution is at the centroid. SUM JHEAT: SENE: FMAG:X. YC TEMP LOC PERX. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I). 3. JT represents the element conduction current density. Inc. 4. The element displacement current density (JD) can be derived from JS and JT as JD = JS-JT. Calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. Table 1 PLANE121 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.PLANE121 In either the O or R columns. K. Y) Electric relative permittivity Electric field components Vector magnitude of EF Electric flux density components Vector magnitude of D Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [3] Conduction current density components and magnitude [3] Joule heat generation rate per unit volume [4] [5] [6] Stored electric energy [6] Electrostatic force [7] Applied charge density Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). T(P) Output location (X. Joule losses (JHEAT) and stored energy (SENE) represent time-average values. JS represents the sum of element conduction and displacement current densities. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. J. For a time-harmonic analysis. T(K).I.

PLANE121 7.© SAS IP. 446) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 PLANE121 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name CHRGD PERX PERY JTX JTY JTSUM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 4 5 6 PLANE121 Assumptions and Restrictions • The area of the element must be positive.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 447): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: PLANE121 Element Output Definitions (p. Inc. EFSUM. PERZ. 447) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Inc. 2. DSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point. 447 . PERY. DSUM EF. Names of Items Output LOC. PERX. .0 . EF. D. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Note For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(4) = 0. Release 14. the X and Y directions correspond to the radial and axial directions. Table 3: PLANE121 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each node. The following notation is used in Table 3: PLANE121 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. D. All rights reserved. Table 2 PLANE121 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Solution Nodal Solution 1. 52) in this manual for more information. respectively. EFSUM. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Use the EMFT macro to calculate the force distribution over the body. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. See the discussion on Electrostatic Forces in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KEYOPT(6) sets the electric charge reaction sign. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. This element is only compatible with elements having a VOLT DOF and an electric charge reaction solution. . . • PLANE121 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. rather than parabolically.© SAS IP. 445). Inc. ANSYS Emag • The birth and death special feature is not allowed.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Electric charge reactions must all be positive or negative. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. See Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for more information. A face with a removed midside node implies that the potential varies linearly. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.0 . Inc. 448 Release 14. along that face.PLANE121 • • • The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in Figure 2 (p.

charge-based electric element. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. at each node. All rights reserved.SOLID122 3-D 20-Node Electrostatic Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions SOLID122 Element Description SOLID122 is a 3-D. This element is applicable to 3-D electrostatic and time-harmonic quasistatic electric field analyses. SOLID122 elements have compatible voltage shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. and W node numbers. Figure 1 SOLID122 Geometry S w ¡ s ¢ P v T f Q R y x e u t I ¥D¦D¤D§D¨DD©D D ! DD £ £etrhedrl ¤ption ¥D¦D¤D§D¨DD©D ! £ §yrmid ¤ption ¤D§D© ¥ ¨ ¦ D ! DD £ §rism ¤ption SOLID122 Input Data The geometry. and S. Various printout options are also available. 20-node. 449 . and O.0 . L. P. A pyramid-shaped element and a tetrahedral-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K. . A and B. The element is defined by 20 node points and the material properties. Inc. Release 14. voltage. See SOLID122 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 449).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. 449). Inc. node locations. It can tolerate irregular shapes without much loss of accuracy. The element has one degree of freedom.

L. All rights reserved. U. CHRGD(Z).. If all corner node charge densities are specified. 49). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. R. S. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). CHRGD(J).SOLID122 Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. each midside node charge density defaults to the average charge density of its adjacent corner nodes. RSVZ Surface Loads Surface charge densities -CHRGS face 1 (J-I-L-K).. they default to CHRGD(I). and all others are unspecified. face 4 (K-L-P-O).. BFE]. If the node I charge densities CHRGD(I) is input. M. T. Inc. Inc. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. N. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference. face 5 (L-I-M-P). . CHRGD(B) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system defined: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side 450 Release 14. J. LSST. P. face 2 (I-J-N-M). B Degrees of Freedom VOLT Real Constants None Material Properties PERX. T(Z). . T(B) Volume charge densities -CHRGD(I). A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID122 Input Summary" (p. PERZ.. Q. 450). X. RSVY. PERY..© SAS IP.. T(A). The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. Z. V. T(J).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Charge density may be input as element body loads at the nodes. . RSVX. O. 449). A. unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. K. 43). Y. W. . 56). Nodal loads are defined with the D (Lab= VOLT) and F (Lab= CHRG) commands. SOLID122 Input Summary Nodes I. In general. The temperature (for material property evaluation only) body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF. face 3 (J-K-O-N). CHRGD(A).0 . Surface charge densities may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p.

ZC TEMP LOC PERX. 50).0 . 451) The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Inc. L. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. . “Y” indicates that the item is always available. PERY. PERZ Element Number Nodes . 451 . YC. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. T(J).. J. Table 1 SOLID122 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. N. Y. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. All rights reserved. O.OUT. In either the O or R columns. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. T(A). Inc.. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. K. M.I. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. T(B) Output location (X. T(Z). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.© SAS IP. Z) Electric relative permittivity Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y 1 1 Release 14.SOLID122 KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal fields printout KEYOPT(6) Electric charge reaction sign: 0 -Positive 1 -Negative SOLID122 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal potentials included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID122 Element Output Definitions (p. ESOL).

4. JT represents the element conduction current density. Z EF:SUM D:X. Z D:SUM JS:X. See the discussion on Electrostatic Forces in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. The element solution is at the centroid. calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) includes conduction heating and dielectric heating due to the loss tangent. Table 2 SOLID122 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Solution Nodal Solution 1. 52) in this manual for more information.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. SUM JT:X. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Names of Items Output LOC. 3. DSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point. Z. For a time-harmonic analysis. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each corner node. Z CHRGD 1. The following notation is used in Table 3: SOLID122 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Inc. For a time-harmonic analysis. Y. EF. 6. These values are stored in both the real and imaginary data sets. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Use the EMFT macro to calculate the force distribution over the body. The element displacement current density (JD) can be derived from JS and JT as JD=JS-JT. PERZ. Inc. SUM JHEAT: SENE: FMAG:X. Y. EFSUM. Joule losses (JHEAT) and stored energy (SENE) represent time-average values. PERX. . 2. 2. D.0 . JS can be used as a source current density for a subsequent magnetostatic analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. 453): 452 Release 14. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3: SOLID122 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.© SAS IP. Calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. PERY. All rights reserved. Definition Electric field components Vector magnitude of EF Electric flux density components Vector magnitude of D Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [3] Conduction current density components and magnitude [3] Joule heat generation rate per unit volume [4] [6] [5] Stored electric energy [5] Electrostatic force [7] Applied charge density O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). D. Y. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. DSUM EF. 5.SOLID122 Name EF:X. EFSUM. JS represents the sum of element conduction and displacement current densities. Y. Y. 453) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. For a time-harmonic analysis. Z. 7. .

All rights reserved. This element is only compatible with elements having a VOLT DOF and an electric charge reaction solution. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. should be small in order to minimize the field gradients. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. rather than parabolically. when degenerated.SOLID122 Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID122 Element Output Definitions (p. Electric charge reactions must all be positive or negative. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p. An edge with a removed midside node implies that the potential varies linearly. See Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for more information. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones. Inc. along that edge. KEYOPT(6) sets the electric charge reaction sign. or for any postprocessing operations. Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution. 449) or in an opposite fashion.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. 453 . . The element sizes. 451) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 SOLID122 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name CHRGD EFX EFY EFZ PERX PERY PERZ JTX JTY JTZ JTSUM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 SOLID122 Assumptions and Restrictions • The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side.© SAS IP. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information on the use of midside nodes. • • • • Release 14.0 .

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. .0 . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 454 Release 14. .SOLID122 SOLID122 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Inc. ANSYS Emag • The Birth and death special feature is not allowed.

If all corner node charge densities are specified. All rights reserved. This element is applicable to 3-D electrostatic and time-harmonic quasistatic electric field analyses. .0 . The temperature (for material property evaluation only) body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. and all others are unspecified. The element has one degree of freedom. Charge densities may be input as element body loads at the nodes. 56). node locations. 10-node. In general. It is well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. voltage. Inc. See SOLID123 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Nodal loads are defined with the D (Lab = VOLT) and F (Lab = CHRG) commands. 455 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. charge-based electric element. Inc. Release 14. they default to CHRGD(I). Various printout options are also available. unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. Surface charge densities may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. 49). Figure 1 SOLID123 Geometry v R s I P w t y x Q u SOLID123 Input Data The geometry. each midside node charge density defaults to the average charge density of its adjacent corner nodes. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. 455).SOLID123 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions SOLID123 Element Description SOLID123 is a 3-D. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems (p. BFE]. 455). If the node I charge density CHRGD(I) is input. at each node. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties in the Material Reference.

T(K). R Degrees of Freedom VOLT Real Constants None Material Properties PERX. T(M). PERZ. LSST. RSVZ Surface Loads Surface charge densities -CHRGS face 1 (J-I-K). Inc. P. N.© SAS IP.SOLID123 A summary of the element input is given in "SOLID123 Input Summary" (p. T(Q). RSVX. face 4 (K-I-L) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). J. T(L).0 . L. CHRGD(R) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(4) Element coordinate system defined: 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) Extra element output: 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal fields printout KEYOPT(6) Electric charge reaction sign: 0 -Positive 456 Release 14. CHRGD(L). SOLID123 Input Summary Nodes I. All rights reserved. CHRGD(J). PERY. CHRGD(M). K. CHRGD(P). Inc. CHRGD(N). face 2 (I-J-L). M. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Q. . 43). CHRGD(K). T(P). O. face 3 (J-K-L). A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. T(R) Volume charge densities -CHRGD(I). RSVY. T(J). 456). CHRGD(O). . T(O).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. T(N). CHRGD(Q).

457 . K. PERZ EF:X. Z. M. L. 457) The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Y. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.SOLID123 1 -Negative SOLID123 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal potentials included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SOLID123 Element Output Definitions (p. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.I. All rights reserved. Y. YC. SUM JT:X. T(L). and “-” indicates that the item is not available. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 50) in the Element Reference. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. T(K). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. Z) Electric relative permittivity Electric field components (X. In either the O or R columns. Z EF:SUM D:X. Table 1 SOLID123 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. SUM JHEAT: SENE: Element Number Nodes . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Y. ZC TEMP LOC PERX.© SAS IP. T(R) Output location (X. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I).OUT. ESOL). PERY. J. Y. N. Y. T(J). Z) Vector magnitude of EF Electric flux density components Vector magnitude of D Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [3] Conduction current density components and magnitude [3] Joule heat generation rate per unit volume [4] [6] [5] Stored electric energy [5] Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Inc. Z. O. T(O). T(Q). T(N). T(P).0 . T(M). Z D:SUM JS:X. Y.

3. D. The following notation is used in Table 3: SOLID123 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. PERX. 7. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Output at each corner node. JS can be used as a source current density for a subsequent magnetostatic analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. 457) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command 458 Release 14. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. D. These values are stored in both the real and imaginary data sets. The element displacement current density (JD) can be derived from JS and JT as JD=JS-JT. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 6. DSUM O 1 2 R - Output at each integration point. Joule losses (JHEAT) and stored energy (SENE) represent time-average values. 5. The element solution is at the centroid. Use the EMFT macro to calculate the force distribution over the body. 4. All rights reserved. Table 2 SOLID123 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Solution Nodal Solution 1. For a time-harmonic analysis. PERY. 52) in this manual for more information. EF. JT represents the element conduction current density. Inc. Calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements [LDREAD].© SAS IP. . Inc. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Table 3: SOLID123 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. For a time-harmonic analysis. 2. calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) includes conduction heating and dielectric heating due to the loss tangent. See the discussion on Electrostatic Forces in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. Electrostatic force [7] Applied charge density Definition O R 1 Y The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data). 459) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. JS represents the sum of element conduction and displacement current densities. 459): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SOLID123 Element Output Definitions (p.SOLID123 Name FMAG:X.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Z CHRGD 1. DSUM EF. EFSUM. For a time-harmonic analysis. EFSUM. Names of Items Output LOC. Y. 2. .0 . PERZ.

0 . • • • SOLID123 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Electric charge reactions must all be positive or negative. Inc. The solenoidal current density is required for a solution. rather than parabolically. KEYOPT(6) sets the electric charge reaction sign. 455) or in an opposite fashion. . See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information on the use of midside nodes. This element is only compatible with elements having a VOLT DOF and an electric charge reaction solution. Release 14.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Elements may be numbered either as shown in Figure 1 (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. or for any postprocessing operations. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. An edge with a removed midside node implies that the potential varies linearly. All rights reserved.SOLID123 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 SOLID123 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name CHRGD EFX EFY EFZ PERX PERY PERZ JTX JTY JTZ JTSUM ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 SOLID123 Assumptions and Restrictions • The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side. 459 . the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. along that edge. See Element Compatibility in the Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide for more information. Inc. ANSYS Emag 3-D • The birth and death special feature is not allowed.

All rights reserved.460 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.© SAS IP. .0 . Inc. .

node definition. 463)). Real constant input is dependent on the element circuit option used. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 463). or 7 (see Figure 3 (p. the element may interface with PLANE53 and SOLID97 using coupled circuit source options KEYOPT(1) = 5.© SAS IP. 463) (coupled circuit source options). All rights reserved.CIRCU124 Electric Circuit MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions CIRCU124 Element Description CIRCU124 is a general circuit element applicable to circuit simulation. CIRCU124 is applicable to static. and passive nodes are those used internally by the element and not connected to the circuit. CIRCU124 Input Data The geometry. and are not required input for analysis purposes. Inc.0 . and transient analyses. SOLID236. Real constants numbers 15 and 16 are created by the GUI Circuit Builder (see the Modeling and Meshing Guide). Figure 2 (p. 461 . Inc. and coupled sources are defined by KEYOPT(1) settings and its corresponding real constants. The element has up to 6 nodes to define the circuit component and up to three degrees of freedom per node to model the circuit response. and SOLID237 through the VOLT degree of freedom. The element is characterized by up to three degrees of freedom: • • • VOLT (voltage) CURR (current) EMF (potential drop) Release 14. The element is defined by active and passive circuit nodes. A summary of the element input options is given in "CIRCU124 Input Summary" (p. and degree of freedom options are shown in Figure 1 (p. 462) (circuit source options). 462) (circuit components). For the coupled circuit source options. the passive nodes are actual nodes of a source conductor modeled in the electromagnetic field domain. The element may also interface with electromagnetic finite elements to simulate coupled electromagnetic-circuit field interaction. and Figure 3 (p. sources. For electromagnetic-circuit field coupling.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Active nodes are those connected to an overall electric circuit. Element circuit components. 6. harmonic. CIRCU124 can be directly coupled to the electromagnetic or stranded coil analysis options of PLANE233. .

0 .© SAS IP.CIRCU124 Figure 1 CIRCU124 Circuit Element Options esistor ndutor gpitor wutul ndutor w s s s s ¡ t uiy@IA a H hyp a yv t uiy@IA a I hyp a yv t uiy@IA a P hyp a yv t ¡£¤¥¦§¨© V ¥ ¥¢§ ¢ Figure 2 CIRCU124 Circuit Source Options !"#" !" $ (0$1g"T)( $'(00"! %&''" $ (&')" 2 %&''" $T)( $'(00"! %&''" $ (&')" F %&''" $ (&')" Y 2 Y x 23456789B C Q D5E C 5F7 F 23456789B C 9U X 23456789B C W D5E C 5F7 D5E C 5F7 8GGFGXBG % SS 82GxB !"#" !" $ (0$1g"T)( $'(00"! (0$1g" (&')" %&''" $T)( $'(00"! (0$1g" (&')" F (0$1g" (&')" F Y ± Y 2 ± Y 2 ± 2 Y x 23456789B C R D5E C 5F7 8GBG % SS 82B X 23456789B C 99 X 23456789B C 9` D5E C 5F7 8GGFGXB % SS 82B D5E C 5F7 8GGFGXBG % SS 82GxB 462 Release 14. . Inc. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . Inc.

sinusoidal. For problems using the CIRCU124 element. The time-step size for a transient analysis is controlled by the DELTIM or NSUBST commands. or piecewise linear load functions as defined by KEYOPT(2). see Figure 4 (p. the sparse direct solver is chosen by default. Inc. . M. For coupled electromagneticcircuit problems.0 . CIRCU124 Input Summary Nodes I. Inc. J. L.CIRCU124 Figure 3 CIRCU124 Coupled Circuit Source Options trnded goilD PEh or QEh ¡ iuD emfu ¢ uiy@IA a S hyp a yv @sDtAD g @uAD iwp @uA wssive gondutorD PEh £ ± pie homin iuD emfu ± ¤ wssive gondutorD QEh ¥¦§ ¨© £ iu iv pie homin ¤ uiy@IA a T hyp a yv @sDtAD g @uAD iwp @uA uiy@IA a U hyp a yv @sDtDuDvAD g @uDvA indites ommon node Independent voltage and current sources (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4) may be excited by AC/DC. but AUTOTS can be used as a mechanism for ramping the time step to its final value. The CIRCU124 element does not respond to automatic time stepping (AUTOTS command). 466). K. CURR. or EMF. All rights reserved. exponential. or loads associated with those degrees of freedom. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. pulse.© SAS IP. 463 . N Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. automatic time stepping may be used if controls are placed on degrees of freedom other than VOLT.

© SAS IP. CURR. Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads See KEYOPT(2) Special Features Magnetic field coupling KEYOPT(1) Circuit component type: 0 -Resistor 1 -Inductor 2 -Capacitor 3 -Independent Current Source 4 -Independent Voltage Source 5 -Stranded Coil Current Source 6 -2-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source 7 -3-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source 8 -Mutual Inductor 9 -Voltage-Controlled Current Source 10 -Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source 11 -Current-Controlled Voltage Source 12 -Current-Controlled Current Source KEYOPT(2) Body loads available if KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4: 464 Release 14. All rights reserved. 465) for details.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Inc. EMF (see Figure 1 (p. 462)) Real Constants Dependent on KEYOPT(1) and KEYOPT(2) settings.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.CIRCU124 Degrees of Freedom VOLT. Inc. See Table 1: CIRCU124 Real Constants (p. .

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 465 . Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (E) Current-Controlled Voltage Source (H) Stranded Coil Current Source (N) 2-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source (M) 10 11 5 [1] 6 [1] R1 = Voltage Gain (AV) R1 = Transresistance (RT) R1 = Symmetry Factor (SCAL) R1 = Symmetry Factor (SCAL) Independent Current Source (I) 3 Release 14. Voltage-Controlled Current Source (G) Current-Controlled Current Source (F) Independent Voltage Source (V) 9 12 4 R1 = Transconductance (GT) R1 = Current Gain (AI) For KEYOPT(2) = 0: R1 = Amplitude (AMPL) R2 = Phase angle (PHAS) For KEYOPT(2) > 0: see Figure 4.© SAS IP. . Inc. All rights reserved.0 .CIRCU124 0 -DC or AC Harmonic load 1 -Sinusoidal load 2 -Pulse load 3 -Exponential load 4 -Piecewise Linear load Table 1 CIRCU124 Real Constants Circuit Option and Graphics Label Resistor (R) Inductor (L) Capacitor (C) Mutual Inductor (K) KEYOPT(1) 0 1 2 8 Real Constants R1 = Resistance (RES) R1 = Inductance (IND) R2 = Initial inductor current (ILO) R1 = Capacitance (CAP) R2 = Initial Capacitor Voltage (VCO) R1 = Primary Inductance (IND1) R2 = Secondary Inductance (IND2) R3 = Coupling Coefficient (K) For KEYOPT(2) = 0: R1 = Amplitude (AMPL) R2 = Phase angle (PHAS) For KEYOPT(2) > 0: see Figure 4.

. Note For all above Circuit options. Inc. the GOFFST and ID real constants (numbers 15 and 16) are created by the Circuit Builder automatically: Figure 4 Load Functions and Corresponding Real Constants for Independent Current and Voltage Sources vod ih ypp ewv h e @IA ypp @PA e @QA pi @RA h @SA rh @TA ih a oltge or gurrent yffset a oltge or gurrent emplitude a prequeny in rz a hely ime a hse hely a ixponentil hey ptor ime @A inusoidl lodD uiy@PA a I ¡¢£ ¦ ¤¥ ¤ ¦% ¦ ¦0 23 ¤ " ¤¥ $ ¦% ' ¦ ) ¦0 1 ¦ U 23 ¡w ¤¡¢© ¡ ©! ¥§# ¤¡¢© ¡ ©! %©¢& ¦§¨© §(© ¦§¨© 0¢ ¦§¨© 2 (© §£# 2©§¡£ ¦§¨© 2 (© ¡¢£4 53672¦" " 466 Release 14.© SAS IP.CIRCU124 Circuit Option and Graphics Label 3-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source (P) 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .0 . Inc. All rights reserved. KEYOPT(1) 7 [1] Real Constants R1 = Symmetry Factor (SCAL) Applies only to a FEA domain modeled with PLANE53 or SOLID97 elements.

OUT.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.I.0 . Table 2: CIRCU124 Element Output Definitions (p. 467) summarizes the element output data. . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Table 2 CIRCU124 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES Element Number Nodes . Inc. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. J Definition For KEYOPT(1) = 0: Resistor Y Y Y Y O R Release 14. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Inc. All rights reserved.CIRCU124 vod ¡I¢ £ ¡¢ r ¡¢ ¡ ¡R¢ ¡ g r pg ¡S¢ ¡T¢ ¡U¢ ime ¡ ¤ £¥w ¥¦§¨g© ¥r urr©§ ¤ rgh ¥¦§¨g© ¥r urr©§ ¤ ¡s© ©¦¨y © ¤ ¡s© ©E¥s§¨§ ¤ ¨¦¦ ©¦¨y © ¤ ¨¦¦ ©E¥s§¨§ ¤ ©r¥!" !©f¨u¦§s §¥ ¡ C E¡¢ £ h ph @A ixponentil lodD uiy@PA a Q 1234 '5 12F4 G5 #$%& 12`4 'b 12c4 Gb d 'wG '5wG5 'bwGb 'wG d d 12334 'e 123F4 Ge '()0 1&4 q(0X0s(t0 H(90%W H$%&w x q'1F4 6 c 6 '()078$(9B f 6 G$HB%V0 $W XYWW09B %B B()078$(9B f 6 '()078$(9B 3 6 G$HB%V0 $W XYWW09B %B B()078$(9B 3 6 '()078$(9B F 6 G$HB%V0 $W XYWW09B %B B()078$(9B F CIRCU124 Output Data The element output for this element is dependent on the circuit option selected.© SAS IP. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In either the O or R columns. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 467 .

I. . output if negative) For KEYOPT(1) = 5: Stranded Coil Current Source Element Number Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Definition O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 468 Release 14. J. . All rights reserved.I. J Real or imaginary component of applied current Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power (loss if positive.I. K Real or imaginary component of applied voltage Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Power (loss if positive.I. output if negative) For KEYOPT(1) = 4: Independent Voltage Source Element Number Nodes . J Inductance Initial current Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power absorption For KEYOPT(1) = 2: Capacitor Element Number Nodes . J Capacitance Initial voltage Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power absorption For KEYOPT(1) = 3: Independent Current Source Element Number Nodes .CIRCU124 Name RES VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES IND IL0 VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES CAP VC0 VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES CURRENT SOURCE VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES VOLTAGE SOURCE VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL Resistance Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power loss For KEYOPT(1) = 1: Inductor Element Number Nodes . Inc.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.

I. K. All rights reserved. Inc. J.I. 469 . K Scaling factor defining voltage symmetry in 2D or 3-D analyses Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Power loss or absorption Element Number Nodes . L Primary inductance Secondary inductance Mutual inductance Voltage drop between node I and node J Current in I-J branch Voltage drop between node K and node L Current in K-L branch Power absorption For KEYOPT(1) = 9: Voltage Controlled Current Source Element Number Nodes . K.© SAS IP. J. Inc. L Scaling factor defining voltage symmetry in 2D or 3-D analyses Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K and L Voltage drop between node K and node L Power loss or absorption For KEYOPT(1) = 8: 3-D Mutual Inductor (Transformer) Element Number Nodes .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.I. J. J. J.I.CIRCU124 Name NODES SCAL VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES SCAL VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER EL NODES SCAL VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT POWER EL NODES IND1 IND2 INDM VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT CONTROL CURR POWER EL NODES GT Nodes . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. K.0 . L Transconductance Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y For KEYOPT(1) = 6: 2-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source For KEYOPT(1) = 7: 3-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source Release 14. . K Scaling factor defining voltage symmetry in 2D or 3-D analyses Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Power loss or absorption Element Number Nodes .I.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. output if negative) For KEYOPT(1) = 12: Current Controlled Current Source Element Number Nodes .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. output if negative) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Table 3: CIRCU124 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 467) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command 470 Release 14.I. output if negative) For KEYOPT(1) = 10: Voltage Controlled Voltage Source Element Number Nodes . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. M. The following notation is used in Table 3: CIRCU124 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. M. K. L. 471) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. K. . 52) in this manual for more information.0 . N Transresistance Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Voltage drop between node L and node M Current at node N Power (loss if positive.I. J. output if negative) For KEYOPT(1) = 11: Current Controlled Voltage Source Element Number Nodes .CIRCU124 Name VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT POWER EL NODES AV VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT POWER EL NODES GT VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT CONTROL CURR POWER EL NODES AI VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT CONTROL CURR POWER Definition Voltage drop between node I and node J Current in I-J branch Voltage drop between node K and node L Power (loss if positive. M Voltage gain Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Voltage drop between node L and node M Power (loss if positive. Inc. L. J. .© SAS IP. 471): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: CIRCU124 Element Output Definitions (p.I. K. Inc. L. N Current gain Voltage drop between node I and node J Current at node K Voltage drop between node L and node M Current at node N Power (loss if positive. J. All rights reserved.

© SAS IP. or SOLID227. 471 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. capacitor.CIRCU124 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 CIRCU124 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name VOLTAGE CURRENT CONTROL VOLT CONTROL CURR POWER SOURCE (real) SOURCE (imaginary) ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 CIRCU124 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • For static analyses. 6 or 7 should not be used with PLANE233. a capacitor circuit element is treated as an open-circuit and an inductor circuit element is treated as a short-circuit. These elements can be coupled to CIRCU124 components directly through the VOLT degree of freedom. SOLID236. To be compatible.0 . KEYOPT(1) = 5. The resistor. • CIRCU124 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Even if you choose a different solver. and mutual inductor circuit options produce symmetric coefficient matrices while the remaining options produce unsymmetric matrices. . the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide). Inc. Release 14. independent current source. Only MKS units are allowed (EMUNIT command). The sparse solver is the default for problems using the CIRCU124 element. Inc. ANSYS will switch to the sparse solver when CIRCU124 elements are present. inductor.

472 Release 14. Inc. .0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. Inc. .

and degree of freedom options are shown in Figure 1 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 473). The element may interface with the electric circuit element CIRCU124. closed. CIRCU125 Input Data The geometry. and COMBIN39.0 . 474).© SAS IP. and open states. Real constant input is dependent on the diode option used. The element is characterized by one degree of freedom. node definition. Figure 1 CIRCU125 Element Options gommon hiode s ener hiode s t uiy @IA a H t uiy @IA a I The I-U characteristics of the diodes are approximated by the piecewise linear functions shown in Figure 2 (p. VOLT (voltage). Real constants numbers 1 and 2 are created by the GUI Circuit Builder (see the Modeling and Meshing Guide). and with the electromechanical transducer element TRANS126.CIRCU125 Diode MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> EM <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions CIRCU125 Element Description CIRCU125 is a diode element normally used in electric circuit analysis. The element may also interface with electromagnetic and mechanical finite elements to simulate fully coupled electromechanical analyses at the lumped parameter level. A summary of the element input options is given in "CIRCU125 Input Summary" (p. with the mechanical elements MASS21. Inc. 473 . The diode characteristic can be ideal or lossy depending on the values of the real constants. Inc. COMBIN14. The element has 2 nodes to define the circuit component and one degree of freedom per node to model the circuit response. Release 14. 474). The diode element is defined by the KEYOPT(1) setting and its corresponding real constants. and are not required input for analysis purposes. CIRCU125 is applicable to static analyses and transient analyses with restart. All rights reserved. . The characteristic of a Zener diode consists of three segments corresponding to the Zener. The characteristic of a common (non-Zener) diode consists of line segments corresponding to the closed and open states.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

Inc.0 . (blank) For KEYOPT(1) = 1: GOFFST. RESB. (blank). RESZ. Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None 474 Release 14. All rights reserved.CIRCU125 Figure 2 CIRCU125 I-U Characteristics ¤£ ¢¡ ¡u ip ¡u ¤£ ¢¡ i¨ if vp yveqi © if ©¨ ©yeqi @A gommon hiode i @A ¥¦¥r hio§¥ vegend vp E porwrd voltge v E ener voltge ip E lope is forwrd resistne if E lope is loking resistne i E lope is ener resistne CIRCU125 Input Summary Nodes I. RESF. . J Degrees of Freedom VOLT Real Constants Dependent on KEYOPT(1) settings. Inc. RESB. 475). VLTF. ID. ID. VLTF.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . RESF. VLTZ See Table 1: CIRCU125 Real Constants (p. (blank). (blank). For KEYOPT(1) = 0: GOFFST.

Inc.0E-6 if you need to change the convergence criteria.VOLT.001. Release 14. .e.CIRCU125 Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Select diode options: 0 -Common Diode 1 -Zener Diode If you are using the Circuit Builder to construct your model. 475 . devices with extremely small dimensions) in MKSA units.0 .0e-12 Volt) Zener Diode (Z) (KEYOPT(1) = 2) . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. then: CIRCU125 Solution Considerations CIRCU125 is a highly nonlinear element.. Use CNVTOL..0e-12 Ohm) Forward voltage (if not entered.© SAS IP. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. To obtain convergence. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0e+12 Ohm) (blank) Zener resistance (if not entered. defaults to 1. defaults to 1.0e0 Volt) Blocking resistance (if not entered.0e+12 Ohm) Zener voltage (if not entered.1.use real constants 1 through 6 as above. instead of using the default values.2. you may have to define convergence criteria. Table 1 CIRCU125 Real Constants Real Constant No. Note The real constant default values may not be appropriate to analyze micro devices (i. defaults to 1. All rights reserved.0. defaults to 0. defaults to 1. 8 7 8 Name Description Common Diode (D) (KEYOPT(1) = 0) GOFFST ID -RESF VLTF RESB -RESZ VLTZ Graphical offset Element identification number (blank) Forward resistance (if not entered. the real constants GOFFST and ID are provided automatically.

. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. Inc.I. .I.Forward. open 2 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ESOL). blocked 2. Table 2 CIRCU125 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES REST VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER STAT DYNRES AMPGEN EL NODES REST VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER STAT DYNRES AMPGEN 1. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Reverse. 476) summarizes the element output data. Zener Diode Status Values 476 Release 14. J Tangent Resistance Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power loss Diode status Dynamic resistance at operating point Norton equivalent current generator For KEYOPT(1) = 1: Zener Diode Element Number Nodes . Table 2: CIRCU125 Element Output Definitions (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. In either the O or R columns.CIRCU125 CIRCU125 Output Data The element output for this element is dependent on the circuit option selected. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.0 . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. J Tangent resistance Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Power loss Diode status Dynamic resistance at operating point Norton equivalent current generator Y Y Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Definition For KEYOPT(1) = 0: Common Diode Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y O R Common Diode Status Values 1 . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Element Number Nodes .OUT.

0 . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the element will replace it with its absolute value. breakdown Table 3: CIRCU125 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. If the Forward Voltage is entered as a negative number. The element issues an error message if applied in harmonic analysis.© SAS IP. Only MKS units are allowed (EMUNIT command). All resistance must be positive.Zener. 52) in this manual for more information. the element will negate the value that is entered. This element does not work with the CIRCU94 piezoelectric element. open 2 . the Zener diode will be replaced with a common diode. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. The following notation is used in Table 3: CIRCU125 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. Any negative resistance value is replaced by its absolute value. 477) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 477 . Inc. 476) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 CIRCU125 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name VOLTAGE CURRENT POWER blank blank DYNRES AMPGEN STAT ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 CIRCU125 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • If either the Zener voltage or Zener resistance is blank or very small. If the Zener Voltage is entered as a positive number.CIRCU125 1 . . 477): Name output quantity as defined in Table 2: CIRCU125 Element Output Definitions (p.Reverse.Forward. blocked 3 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. • • Release 14. and a warning will be issued.

. Inc.0 .© SAS IP.CIRCU125 • This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. • CIRCU125 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. 478 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . To be compatible. Inc. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide). This element cannot be used in a distributed solution.

All rights reserved. Up to three characterizations (in X. The element is suitable for simulating the electromechanical response of micro-electromechanical devices (MEMS) such as electrostatic comb drives. Y. or z direction and electric potential (VOLT). while also allowing for energy storage. 479). 479 . The capacitance versus stroke represents a "reduced-order" characterization of the device suitable for simulation in this transducer element. The TRANS126 element represents the capacitive response of the device to motion in one direction. capacitive transducers. SOLID122. node locations. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Inc. The characteristics of the element are derived from electrostatic field simulations of the electromechanical device using the electrostatic elements PLANE121. The element has up to two degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. as well as the CMATRIX macro. Nodes I and J define the element.0 . or Z) can be made from sets of electrostatic simulations to create three independent transducer elements to characterize a full translational response of the device. The element fully couples the electromechanical domains and represents a reduced-order model suitable for use in structural finite element analysis as well as electromechanical circuit simulation.© SAS IP. and SOLID123. The element may lie along any Release 14. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and RF switches for example. Inc. Running a series of electrostatic simulations and extracting capacitance (CMATRIX command) as a function of stroke (or deflection) provides the necessary input for this element. The nodes need not be coincident. Figure 1 TRANS126 Geometry δ a qe C u E u¡ qe y z t t δbH s t y qe qe qe x s t s x s x TRANS126 Input Data The geometry. y. See TRANS126 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.TRANS126 Electromechanical Transducer MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions TRANS126 Element Description TRANS126 represents a transducer element that converts energy from an electrostatic domain into a structural domain (and vice versa).

Use KEYOPT(3) to select from two different methods of input. All rights reserved. The minimum required is 5 data point sets. 479)). 487) illustrates valid and invalid orientations of the element for a UX-VOLT degree of freedom set. . A curve is fit to the discrete data sets represented by the equation shown in Figure 2 (p. For KEYOPT(3) = 1. Orient the element such that a positive movement of node J relative to node I produces a positive displacement (see Figure 1 (p. GAP and GAPMIN default to near-zero if not defined. stroke for the transducer element. the real constant data (R7-R46) represent discrete pairs of capacitance and stroke data. The curve highlights the capacitive force (which is compressive and acts to close the gap).© SAS IP. 481) illustrates the force vs. stroke data as shown in Figure 2 (p. etc. Orientation of the element with respect to nodal displacements (node J relative to node I) is critical. stroke data for the element is entered through the real constant table. Figure 4 (p. and the contact force (which restrains the motion once the gap reaches 480 Release 14. The capacitance vs. Figure 2 TRANS126 Capacitance Relationship qewsx ¦ ¥g ¤ £ ¢¡ p g qe ! P Q a " C I C P C Q C R troke @or hefletionA @uA §¨©¨¨ vsF ©s¨ The initial gap distance GAP (R3) represents the initial distance between conducting walls of the electromechanical device (that is. 480). the element behaves like a contact element with a normal stiffness KN represented by real constant R5. Use as many terms as are required to represent the curve. beams of a comb drive. Inc. the real constant data (R7-R11) represent the coefficients of an equation (see Figure 2 (p. 480)). Figure 3 (p. plates of a parallel capacitor. Use the degree of freedom option (KEYOPT(2)) to select the appropriate structural displacement degree of freedom (corresponding to the element's I-J direction) and electric potential. . The initial gap value should fall within the range of the capacitance vs. Up to 20 pairs of data may be input.0 .TRANS126 one of the three global Cartesian axes as shown in Figure 1 (p. If the gap closes to GAPMIN. 479).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.). Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The minimum gap distance GAPMIN (R4) represents the physical location where the gap is closed. For KEYOPT(3) = 0. 480). or it may exist in any arbitrary coordinate system as long as the nodes are rotated into the arbitrary coordinate system in such a manner that one of the axes lies along the element's I-J direction.

All rights reserved. Prescribing the nodal voltages and setting KEYOPT(4) = 1 produces a symmetric matrix which can yield more efficient solution run times. followed by a small-signal (AC voltage) harmonic analysis. Figure 3 TRANS126 Force Relationship qewsx e r o p ¤¥p¥¦i§iv¨ ©¦¨s ux @d¢fultA t ¡k¢ g¡nt£t f¡ £¢ The element supports nodal voltage and displacements (D) as well as nodal current and force (F). KN defaults to a stiffness represented by the slope from the capacitive force at GAPMIN to the origin as shown in Figure 3 (p. Use KEYOPT(6) = 1 to select the augmented stiffness method if you encounter Release 14. Inc.© SAS IP. The element supports static. 481). transient.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Prestress effects must be applied for both modal and harmonic analysis (for example. prestressed harmonic. The element is nonlinear for static and transient analysis and requires an iterative solution to converge. This typically occurs at small gap distances near GAPMIN. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Use IC to input an initial starting value of voltage or displacement for a transient analysis. The transducer element by nature has both stable and unstable solutions. Inc. or an initial guess for a static analysis. The KEYOPT(4) = 1 option is valid for any analysis except a transient analysis.TRANS126 GAPMIN). . convergence problems can occur near unstable solutions. 481 . or a prestress static analysis with an applied DC voltage followed by a modal analysis). If the system stiffness is negative. and prestressed modal analysis.0 . The element supports tension only. a prestress static analysis with an applied DC voltage. The element produces an unsymmetric matrix unless you prescribe both nodal voltages.

C1.© SAS IP. The next table summarizes the element input. then: GOFFST. Inc. After convergence is reached.0 .TRANS126 convergence problems. CAP1. 483) for details. Element Input (p. the electrostatic stiffness is automatically reestablished for postprocessing and subsequent analyses. OR UZ-VOLT Real Constants If KEYOPT(3) = 0. KN. C0. C2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. UY-VOLT. the electrostatic stiffness is set to zero to guarantee a positive system stiffness. GAP20. GAP.1 -UX-VOLT 2 -UY-VOLT 3 -UZ-VOLT KEYOPT(3) Capacitance-Gap option: 0 -Use capacitance-gap curve input coefficients: C0. (Blank). C3. C2. . . GAP1. J Degrees of Freedom UX-VOLT. C4 If KEYOPT(3) = 1.. TRANS126 Input Summary Nodes I. (Blank). EID. . Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear Prestress KEYOPT(2) Select DOF set: 0. GAPMIN. then: GOFFST. GAPMIN. CAP20 See Table 1: TRANS126 Real Constants (p. GAP. EID. 43) gives a general description of element input. C1. Inc. In this method. CAP2. KN. and C4 482 Release 14. GAP2. All rights reserved. C3..

as shown in the table below. From number 7 on. 483 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. CAP20 KEYOPT(4) DC voltage drop option: 0 -DC voltage drop is unknown (produces unsymmetric matrix) 1 -DC voltage drop is fully constrained (produces symmetric matrix) KEYOPT(6) Stiffness method: 0 -Full stiffness method (default) 1 -Augmented stiffness method The first six real constants for this element are the same.© SAS IP. CAP2 .. Inc... whether you set KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1. GAP2. Capacitance (Cap) vs... CAP1. GAP20.. 46 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 GAP1 CAP1 GAP2.. CAP2. the real constants differ between the two settings. Table 1 TRANS126 Real Constants Number Basic Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 GOFFST EID GAP GAPMIN KN (blank) Graphical offset ID number Initial gap Minimal gap Gap Normal Stiffness unused Name Description For KEYOPT(3) = 0. . . CAP20 Equation constant C0 Equation constant C1 Equation constant C2 Equation constant C3 Equation constant C4 Gap 1 Capacitance 1 Gap2 and Capacitance 2 through Gap 20 and Capacitance 20 For KEYOPT(3) = 1 (Capacitance-gap curve data) Release 14.. GAP20. Inc. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .0 .TRANS126 1 -Use capacitance versus gap data points: GAP1. gap (x) function: Cap = C0/x + C1 + C2*x + C3*x**2 + C4*x**3 7 8 9 10 11 7 8 9.

J Electrostatic Force Electrostatic stiffness (dEFORCE/dU) Motion conductance (dCap/dU) (RELVEL) Time rate of change of Voltage (dVOLT/dt) Relative displacement node I to node J Relative velocity node I to node J Voltage drop between node I and node J Current Capacitance Mechanical power. ESOL). and “-” indicates that the item is not available. In either the O or R columns. (voltage drop x current) Electrostatic energy stored in capacitor Actual gap.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. dI/dV Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 484 Release 14. UJ . the same value will be stored in both columns. 50) in the Element Reference.I. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. 484). If the variable is not complex. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. Inc. dF/dV Coupled system stiffness.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (force x velocity) Electrical power. Table 2 TRANS126 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES EFORCE ESTIFF CONDUCT DVDT RELDISP RELVEL VOLTAGE CURRENT CAP MECHPOWER ELECPOWER CENERGY GAP KUU KUV KVU KVV Element number Nodes . . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Inc. dI/dU Coupled system stiffness.OUT.TRANS126 TRANS126 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is shown in Table 2: TRANS126 Element Output Definitions (p. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. If this element is used in a harmonic analysis. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. dF/dU Coupled system stiffness.UI + GAP (nominal) (real constant input) Coupled system stiffness. The first column will be titled real component and the second column will be titled imaginary component. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.0 . See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. . all variables will be stored in two-column arrays as complex variables.

VOLTI CURRR. dI/dVRATE Real and imaginary components of displacement Real and imaginary components of electrostatic force Real and imaginary components of voltage drop Real and imaginary components of current O Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 The item is only available for prestress harmonic analysis. Inc.0 . 485) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 TRANS126 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name MECHPOWER ELECPOWER CENERGY GAP RELVEL EFORCE VOLTAGE DVDT CURRENT CAP ESTIFF UCT KUU ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Release 14. 52) in this manual for more information.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. dF/dVRATE Coupled system damping. The following notation is used in Table 3: TRANS126 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.TRANS126 Name DUU DUV DVU DVV DISPR. dI/dVEL Coupled system damping. dF/dVEL Coupled system damping. See Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 485): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 3: TRANS126 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. All rights reserved. DISPI FORCR. 485) lists output available through ETABLE using the Sequence Number method. Definition Coupled system damping. CURRI 1. 485 . Table 3: TRANS126 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . FORCI VOLTR. Inc.

0 . That is.TRANS126 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Output Quantity Name KUV KVU KVV DUU DUV DVU DVV DISPR DISPI FORCR FORCI VOLTR VOLTI CURRR CURRI TRANS126 Assumptions and Restrictions • The transducer element must be aligned such that the element I-J direction points along the active structural degree of freedom in the nodal coordinate system. • • • • • • 486 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. if the nodes are offset from a line perpendicular to the element axis. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. a positive movement in the nodal coordinate system of node J relative to node I should act to open the gap (Stroke = GAP + Uj Ui). Unreasonable high stiffness (KN) values should be avoided. The rate of convergence decreases as the stiffness increases.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. moment equilibrium may not be satisfied. Inc. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide). . Inc. Nodes I and J may be coincident since the orientation is defined by the relative motion of node J to node I. 487) illustrates valid and invalid orientations of the element for a UX-VOLT degree of freedom set. All rights reserved. A minimum of two load steps must be used to obtain valid electrostatic force calculations. Figure 4 (p. Harmonic and modal analyses are valid only for small-signal analyses after a static prestress calculation. To be compatible. . In addition. No moment effects due to noncoincident nodes are included. The element may not be deactivated with EKILL.© SAS IP.

0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. and ANSYS PrepPost products. ANSYS ED.TRANS126 Figure 4 TRANS126 Valid/Invalid Orientations lid orienttions for Dyv hyp setX y y s t s x t x snvlid orienttions for Dyv hyp setX y y t s x t s x TRANS126 Product Restrictions The TRANS126 element is only available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. 487 .© SAS IP.

.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. . Inc.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.488 Release 14.0 .

It simulates the absorbing effects of a fluid domain that extends to infinity beyond the boundary of FLUID29 finite element domain. See FLUID129 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. All rights reserved. select the nodes on the circular boundary. The element is characterized by a pair of symmetric stiffness and damping matrices. 490)). and modal analyses. node locations. Inc. select the type associated with the FLUID129 and then issue the ESURF command. . FLUID129 realizes a second-order absorbing boundary condition so that an outgoing pressure wave reaching the boundary of the model is "absorbed" with minimal reflections back into the fluid domain. Release 14. FLUID129 may be used in transient. The element can be used to model the boundary of 2-D (planar or axisymmetric) fluid regions and as such. it has two nodes with one pressure degree of freedom per node. Typical applications include structural acoustics. noise control.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 489 . 489). The element must be circular with radius RAD and center located at or near the center of the structure. Inc. you should mesh the interior fluid domain that is bounded by a circular boundary with FLUID29 elements. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. Figure 1 FLUID129 Geometry s t y xD r @xoD yoA FLUID129 Input Data The geometry. etc. the material properties and the real constants (defined in "FLUID129 Input Summary" (p. The latter will automatically add the FLUID129 elements on the boundary of the finite domain. underwater acoustics.FLUID129 2-D Infinite Acoustic MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID129 Element Description FLUID129 has been developed as a companion element to FLUID29. It is intended to be used as an envelope to a model made of FLUID29 finite elements. harmonic. it is a line element. J). The radius RAD should be supplied through the real constants.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In a typical meshing procedure. The element is defined by two nodes (I.0 .

. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.Radius X0 . 50). Y value Material Properties SONC . Inc. .© SAS IP. J Degrees of Freedom PRES Real Constants RAD . 491) A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. X value Y0 . Inc. 490 Release 14. All rights reserved.Center of enclosing circle. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.FLUID129 FLUID129 Input Summary Nodes I.OUT. ESOL). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Center of enclosing circle.velocity of sound Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(3) Element behavior: 0 -Planar 1 -Axisymmetric FLUID129 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID129 Element Output Definitions (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .

491 . 491) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 FLUID129 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name SONC ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC E 1 FLUID129 Assumptions and Restrictions • • FLUID129 must lie on a boundary circular in shape and should completely enclose the domain meshed with FLUID29 elements. and f is the • Release 14. Table 1 FLUID129 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT LINE: XC. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. . If the coordinates (X0. All rights reserved. the center will be assumed to be at the origin.2*lambda from the boundary of any structure that may be submerged in the fluid. Table 2: FLUID129 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Element Number Nodes . YC SONC 1. Y0) of the center of the circle are not supplied through the real constant input. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID129 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 491): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID129 Element Output Definitions (p. c is the speed of sound (SONC) in the fluid. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.© SAS IP. The radius RAD of the circular boundary of the finite domain should be specified as a real constant.FLUID129 In either the O or R columns. 52) in this manual for more information. and “-” indicates that the item is not available.I. where lambda = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure waves. The center of the circle should be as close to the center of the model as possible. J Material number Length Location where results are reported Speed of sound Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item. It is recommended that the enclosing circular boundary is placed at a distance of at least 0. 491) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Inc.0 . Inc.

FLUID129 dominant frequency of the pressure wave.© SAS IP. . . should be at least (D/2) + 0. Inc. For example. Inc. 492 Release 14. FLUID129 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.2*lambda. RAD. in the case of a submerged circular cylindrical shell of diameter D.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. • • FLUID129 uses an extra DOF. This DOF is solely for ANSYS' internal use. although it may appear in DOF listings or in program messages. The only applicable modal analysis method is the Damped method. All rights reserved. that is not available to the user.0 . the radius of the enclosing boundary. labeled XTR1.

It is intended to be used as an envelope to a model made of FLUID30 finite elements. harmonic. FLUID130 may be used in transient. It simulates the absorbing effects of a fluid domain that extends to infinity beyond the boundary of the finite element domain that is made of FLUID30 elements. See FLUID130 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Release 14. Figure 1 FLUID130 Geometry v s u eh t ¢£ ¤ y xD r z @xoD yoD zoA ¡ FLUID130 Input Data The geometry. 494). 493 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Typical applications include structural acoustics. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. FLUID130 realizes a second-order absorbing boundary condition so that an outgoing pressure wave reaching the boundary of the model is "absorbed" with minimal reflections back into the fluid domain. it has four nodes with one pressure degrees of freedom per node. The radius RAD should be supplied through the real constants. etc. The element must be at the spherical boundary of an acoustic fluid domain.0 . K. with radius RAD and center located at or near the center of the structure. node locations. it is a plane surface element. meshed using FLUID30 elements.© SAS IP. underwater acoustics. 493). J. The element can be used to model the boundary of 3-D fluid regions and as such. Inc.FLUID130 3-D Infinite Acoustic MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID130 Element Description FLUID130 has been developed as a companion element to FLUID30. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers. The element is defined by four nodes (I. . All rights reserved. Inc. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. the material property SONC (speed of sound) and the real constants shown in "FLUID130 Input Summary" (p. and modal analyses. noise control. L).

Center of enclosing circle. Y value Z0 . Inc. select the type associated with the FLUID130 and then issue the ESURF command.Center of enclosing circle.0 . . FLUID130 Input Summary Nodes I. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. L Degrees of Freedom PRES Real Constants RAD . All rights reserved. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.OUT. The latter will automatically add the FLUID130 elements on the boundary of the finite domain. 50). J. X value Y0 . . Z value Material Properties SONC Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPTS None FLUID130 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID130 Element Output Definitions (p.Radius X0 . 495) A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p.FLUID130 The element is characterized by a symmetric stiffness and a damping matrix.© SAS IP.Center of enclosing circle. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. select the nodes on the spherical boundary. ESOL). In a typical meshing procedure the user should mesh the interior fluid domain that is bounded by a spherical boundary with FLUID30 elements. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. K. 494 Release 14. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.

the center will be assumed to be at the origin of the global coordinate system. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . It is recommended that the enclosing spherical boundary is placed at a distance of at least 0. J. YC SONC 1. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. 495) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 FLUID130 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name SONC ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC E 1 FLUID130 Assumptions and Restrictions • • FLUID130 must lie on a boundary spherical in shape and should completely enclose the domain meshed with FLUID30 elements. If the coordinates (X0. The center of the sphere should be as close to the center of the model as possible. where lambda = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure waves.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. c is the speed of sound (SONC) in the fluid and f is the • Release 14. Inc. 52) in this manual for more information. 495) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Y0. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. . K. Table 2: FLUID130 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. The radius RAD of the spherical boundary of the finite domain should be specified as a real constant. 495 . 495): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID130 Element Output Definitions (p. Table 1 FLUID130 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA: XC. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID130 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. All rights reserved. Inc.2*lambda from the boundary of any structure that may be submerged in the fluid. Z0) of the center of the sphere are not supplied through the real constant input.FLUID130 In either the O or R columns. L Material number AREA Location where results are reported Speed of sound Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Available only at centroid as a *GET item.I.© SAS IP. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Element Number Nodes .

RAD.0 . FLUID130 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Inc.FLUID130 dominant frequency of the pressure wave. although they may appear in DOF listings or in program messages. labeled XTR1 and XTR2. All rights reserved. For example. that are not available to the user. 496 Release 14.2*lambda. in the case of a submerged spherical shell of diameter D. the radius of the enclosing boundary. should be at least (D/2) + 0. • • FLUID130 uses extra DOFs.© SAS IP. . . Inc. These DOFs are solely for ANSYS' internal use.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The only applicable modal analysis method is the Damped method. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

The cross-sectional properties are input using the SECTYPE. such as SHELL181 or SHELL281. and coordinates systems for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. The conducting shell element is applicable to a 3-D. All rights reserved. rather it is determined for all layers with KEYOPT(3). These properties are the thickness. Figure 1 SHELL131 Geometry uDv z o z op P v T y y o x t Q I fottom t x o s S u s t ¦ringulr y¥i¤n R s ¦¦y e¡i ¢ ¦i§ ¦i¨ x¤de ¤¥i¤n e¡i £ ¦i¢ ¦©y¦ xo = element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied. Inc. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See SHELL131 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Tapered thicknesses may be input using the SECFUNCTION command. the ShellTool Release 14. Inc. If the model containing the conducting shell element is to be analyzed structurally. a material angle for each layer. and the material properties..SHELL and SECDATA commands. SHELL131 generates temperatures that can be passed to structural shell elements in order to model thermal bending. material number. one thickness per layer. use an equivalent structural shell element instead. 497 .© SAS IP. 497).SHELL131 4-Node Thermal Shell MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SHELL131 Element Description SHELL131 is a 3-D layered shell element having in-plane and through-thickness thermal conduction capability. only one layer is needed with a linear temperature variation through the thickness. The element has four nodes with up to 32 temperature degrees of freedom at each node. and orientation of each layer. The number of integration points from the SECDATA command is not used. In the GUI. node locations.0 . steady-state or transient thermal analysis. x = element x-axis if ESYS is supplied. If the material is uniform and the analysis has no transient effects. The element is defined by four nodes.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. SHELL131 Input Data The geometry.

TE3.If KEYOPT(6) = 1 (the paint option) is set. and all others are unspecified. TE3. One heat generation value is applied to the entire layer. = = = = 0 0 or 1: TBOT. 497). J. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Real constants are not used for this element. Inc. the quadratic variation in temperature through each layer (KEYOPT(3) = 0) is used for transient analysis or for strongly temperature dependent materials. TE6. All rights reserved. . Nodal values are averaged over the entire element. Layers may be used to model the physical changes of properties through the thickness or the effect of a through-thickness transient in greater detail. L Degrees of Freedom Quadratic: If KEYOPT(3) If KEYOPT(4) If KEYOPT(4) If KEYOPT(4) Etc. When this option is used. If KEYOPT(4) is 0 or blank. allowing the element to be directly attached to an underlying solid to avoid the use of constraint equations. the direction of the element z-axis and the presence of the SECOFFSET command have no effect on the solution. 43). Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads on a per layer basis. TE5. TE2.BOT should be input. TBOT is replaced with TEMP. To ensure that the program can do this redefinition. A summary of the element input is given in "SHELL131 Input Summary" (p. 498). TE4. the user is required to define the section information before the element is defined. Generally. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation (using the RDSF surface load label) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. 49). As this is a thermal shell element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KEYOPT(4) duplicates the number of layers input on the SECDATA commands.The element z-axis should be defined with the same care as for a structural shell element. TTOP 2: TBOT. the program will query each element during definition in PREP7 as to which section information is being used.© SAS IP. and the linear variation in temperature through each layer (KEYOPT(3) = 1) is used for steady state analysis with materials that are either not temperature dependent or weakly temperature dependent. TE2. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p. If the first layer heat generation rate HG(1) is input. Because shell edge convection and flux loads are input on a perunit-length basis. and then reassign the element to a different type. More element types are created as needed. SHELL131 Input Summary Nodes I. surface loads cannot be applied to face 1. Radiation is not available on the edges. You can also generate film coefficients and bulk temperatures using the surface effect element SURF152. SURF152 can also be used with FLUID116. However. K. per-unit-area quantities must be multiplied by the total shell thickness. The result can be seen using ETLIST and ELIST after all elements are defined. they default to HG(1). If KEYOPT(6) (also referred to as the paint option) is used. TE4. SECOFFSET. TE2. TTOP 498 Release 14. TTOP 3: TBOT. . Inc.SHELL131 provides a convenient way to define section data for this element (see Shell Analysis and Cross Sections in the Structural Analysis Guide).0 . .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. to get correct plots when using the /ESHAPE command: .

All rights reserved. Face 6 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -Face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. TE12. TE14. TE28. TE4. TE19. TE22.SHELL131 If KEYOPT(4) = 15: TBOT.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. TE31. TE5. TE2. TE20. ENTH Surface Loads Convections -Face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. TE7. +z side) Face 3 (J-I). TE23. TE17. TE25. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. (TS+TB)/2 Release 14. TE17. TE9. TE15. TTOP If KEYOPT(4) = 3: TBOT. HG(3). TE27. TE30. TE8.0 . TE2. TE29. TE3. TE30. If KEYOPT(4) = 31: TBOT. TE12. TE10. C. KYY. TE28. .. TE3. Face 6 (I-L) Radiation -Face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. TE27. TE6. TE2. TTOP If KEYOPT(4) = 2: TBOT. TE11. . TE18. Face 4 (K-J). +z side) Face 3 (J-I). TE24. TE18. TE20. Inc. TE26. Face 4 (K-J). TE11. . TE13. TE4. TE22. TTOP Linear: If KEYOPT(3) = 1 If KEYOPT(4) = 0 or 1: TBOT. DENS. TE6. TE7. TE5. KZZ. TE24. TTOP Constant: If KEYOPT(3) = 2: TEMP (one layer only) Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. -z side) Face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. . TE23. Face 5 (L-K). Inc. . TE26. TE2.© SAS IP. TE15. TE16. TE25. HG(KEYOPT(4)) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(2) Film coefficient evaluation (if any): 0 -Evaluate at an average film temperature. TE16. +z side) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(1). TE9. -z side) Face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. TE13. TE29. TE21. Face 5 (L-K). 499 . TE14. -z side) Face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. TTOP Etc. TE10. HG(2). TE3. TE21. TE8. TE19.

KEYOPT(6) Application: 0 -Thermal shell application 1 -Paint application SHELL131 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output shown in Table 1: SHELL131 Element Output Definitions (p. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. Inc. TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. Inc. such as for SHELL181 (with multiple layers). TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature. such as for SHELL181 (with only one layer) or SHELL281 (with only one layer). the corner nodes of each SHELL131 element must have identical temperature degrees of freedom. only TEMP can be used. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Maximum number of layers allowed depends on KEYOPT(3) setting (see above). such as SHELL41. If the structural shell element uses more than two temperatures through the thickness.TEMP command. If the structural shell element uses two temperatures through the thickness. In this case.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. a two-layer SHELL181 element using the same material and thickness for both layers can get its temperatures from a SHELL131 element using either two layers with KEYOPT(3) = 1 (linear variation) or one layer with KEYOPT(3) = 0 500 Release 14. If the structural shell element uses only one temperature through the thickness. only TBOT and TTOP are used and any internal temperatures such as TE2 are ignored. all temperatures are transferred over. The number of temperature points at a node generated in the thermal shell must match the number of temperature points at a node needed by the structural shell. |TS-TB| KEYOPT(3) Temperature variation through layer: 0 -Quadratic temperature variation through-layer (maximum number of layers = 15) 1 -Linear temperature variation through-layer (maximum number of layers = 31) 2 -No temperature variation through-layer (number of layers = 1) KEYOPT(4) Number of layers (input a value to match SECDATA commands. or leave blank to default).SHELL131 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. . For example.0 . 501) Output temperatures may be read by structural shell elements using the LDREAD.

and “-” indicates that the item is not available.OUT. . In either the O or R columns.TEMP. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HTOP.POWER and /ESHAPE.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Z TF:X. HE2. Heat flows are labeled HBOT. . K. HG(3). Z FACE AREA NODES HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HEAT RATE/AREA HEAT FLUX Element Number Nodes . J. Inc.© SAS IP.0 . similar to the temperature labels. 50). Heat flowing out of the element is considered to be positive. All rights reserved. ESOL). . Table 1 SHELL131 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC. To see the temperature distribution through the thickness for this element as well as all other thermal elements. Temperatures passed from this element to the stress analysis via LDREAD.TEMP can be viewed using BFELIST. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Gradient and flux information is provided at the midthickness of each layer. Y. . . . Thermal gradient components at midlayer Thermal flux components at midlayer Face label Face area (same as element area) Face nodes (same as element nodes) Face film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of the face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Release 14. use /GRAPHICS. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Inc. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. .1 followed by PLNSOL. as opposed to the usual BFLIST. HG(2). ZC HGEN TG:X. YC. L Element material number (from MAT command) Area of element Location where results are reported Heat generations: HG(1).I. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. Y. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. 501 .SHELL131 (quadratic variation).

52) of this manual for more information.© SAS IP. 39). use constraint equations (CE family of commands) with or without double nodes to connect the two sides. The cut boundary interpolation command (CBDOF) does not work with this element. then the results for the element may be unreliable. study the area using the /ESHAPE command. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p. 502): Name output quantity as defined in Table 1: SHELL131 Element Output Definitions (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. If this is a concern. If a surface load is input. No check is made to ensure either that the number of layers between adjacent elements match or that the effective location of a degree of freedom (for example. All rights reserved. . Zero thickness layers are not allowed. . This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. If the highest and lowest values for this ratio differ by a large factor (for example. The following notation is used in Table 2: SHELL131 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Command Input (p. TE7 from a 10 layer element) between elements sharing the same node is the same to a tolerance. There should not be a large variation in the ratio of through-thickness conductivity (KZZ) to layer thickness for all layers within the element. For cases where the layering intentionally changes. When using thermal contact. 1e5). Inc.0 . 231) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.SHELL131 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Table 4: SHELL41 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 501) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Table 2 SHELL131 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG THICKNESS Face 1 Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 6 -Face 2 Top 7 8 9 10 11 12 -------37 ------38 I J Corners ------39 ------40 K L SHELL131 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • Zero area elements are not allowed. Inc. the TEMP degree of freedom must be present (KEYOPT(3) = 2 or KEYOPT(6) = 1). such as at a joint or at the runout of a tapered layer. • 502 Release 14. Available only at the centroid as a *GET item.

All rights reserved. internally issues DDELE. however.SHELL131 • The program removes all imposed degrees of freedom and nodal loads (i. Inc. the D and F loads will automatically be deleted and reapplied to the new DOF list. need to check other loads and verify if they need to be deleted and reapplied.e. 503 . . TBOT. etc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. If your model contained SHELL131 elements with D and F loads. SHELL131 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. or ETDELE commands to an element type that does not use these degrees of freedom.all.all.all commands) when elements that use TTOP. Inc. ANSYS ED • Section definitions are not allowed if more than one material is referenced.. as degrees of freedom: – – are defined or redefined using the ET or KEYOPT commands. are changed (or deleted) using the ET.© SAS IP. You do.all and FDELE. and you deleted these elements via ETDELE. ETCHG. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 14.

. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. .504 Release 14.© SAS IP. Inc. All rights reserved.0 .

x = element x-axis if ESYS is supplied. See SHELL132 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Inc. The number of integration points from the SECDATA Release 14. one thickness per layer. and the material properties.0 . a material angle for each layer.L. node locations. Tapered thicknesses may be input using the SECFUNCTION command. SHELL132 generates temperatures that can be passed to structural shell elements in order to model thermal bending.© SAS IP. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and coordinates systems for this element are shown in Figure 1 (p. material number. use an equivalent structural shell element instead. such as SHELL281. The element is defined by four/eight nodes. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. If the model containing the conducting shell element is to be analyzed structurally. These properties are the thickness. Inc.SHELL and SECDATA commands.. 505). and orientation of each layer. If the material is uniform and the analysis has no transient effects. SHELL132 Input Data The geometry. 505 .O z z 2 8 L 4 P 6 5 Z I 1 Y X 3 1 M 6 J 2 O 5 I 7 K 3 N 4 P N J y y ¡ M Triangular Option x x s y vei P iR iQ xode votion vei I iP fy xo = element x-axis if ESYS is not supplied. only one layer is needed with a linear temperature variation through the thickness. The cross-sectional properties are input using the SECTYPE.SHELL132 8-Node Thermal Shell MP ME <> PR PRN <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions SHELL132 Element Description SHELL132 is a 3-D layered shell element having in-plane and through-thickness thermal conduction capability. The element has eight nodes with up to 32 temperature degrees of freedom at each node. The conducting shell element is applicable to a 3-D. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Figure 1 SHELL132 Geometry K.

505). N. 49). TE6. TTOP 2: TBOT. Element loads are described in Nodal Loading (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Nodal values are averaged over the entire element. You can also generate film coefficients and bulk temperatures using the surface effect element SURF152. TE4. L. However. TE2. As this is a thermal shell element. Inc.If KEYOPT(6) = 1 (the paint option) is set. Inc. TBOT is replaced with TEMP. .SHELL132 command is not used. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation (using the RDSF surface load label) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 1 (p. allowing the element to be directly attached to an underlying solid to avoid the use of constraint equations. . 43). Generally. and all others are unspecified. To ensure that the program can do this redefinition. to get correct plots when using the /ESHAPE command: . J. the ShellTool provides a convenient way to define section data for this element (see Shell Analysis and Cross Sections in the Structural Analysis Guide). rather it is determined for all layers with KEYOPT(3). The result can be seen using ETLIST and ELIST after all elements are defined. TE4.The element z-axis should be defined with the same care as for a structural shell element. One heat generation value is applied to the entire layer. surface loads cannot be applied to face 1.© SAS IP. SURF152 can also be used with FLUID116. All rights reserved. Radiation is not available on the edges. and then reassign the element to a different type. the direction of the element z-axis and the presence of the SECOFFSET command have no effect on the solution. the quadratic variation in temperature through each layer (KEYOPT(3) = 0) is used for transient analysis or for strongly temperature dependent materials. If KEYOPT(6) (also referred to as the paint option) is used. they default to HG(1). Real constants are not used for this element. TE3. Because shell edge convection and flux loads are input on a perunit-length basis. TTOP 506 Release 14. and the linear variation in temperature through each layer (KEYOPT(3) = 1) is used for steady state analysis with materials that are either not temperature dependent or weakly temperature dependent. 506). K. More element types are created as needed. SECOFFSET. M.0 . P Degrees of Freedom Quadratic: If If If If KEYOPT(3) KEYOPT(4) KEYOPT(4) KEYOPT(4) = = = = 0 0 or 1: TBOT. TE5. If KEYOPT(4) is 0 or blank. O. . TE2. When this option is used. KEYOPT(4) duplicates the number of layers input on the SECDATA commands. TTOP 3: TBOT. A summary of the element input is given in "SHELL132 Input Summary" (p. A general description of element input is given in Element Input (p. Layers may be used to model the physical changes of properties through the thickness or the effect of a thru-thickness transient in greater detail. If the first layer heat generation rate HG(1) is input. per-unit-area quantities must be multiplied by the total shell thickness. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. SHELL132 Input Summary Nodes I.BOT should be input. In the GUI. the user is required to define the section information before the element is defined. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads on a per layer basis. the program will query each element during definition in PREP7 as to which section information is being used. TE3. TE2.

KYY. TE13. TE28. TE18. C. +z side) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(1). TE14. KZZ. TE25. TE20. TE15. TE11. TE27. HG(KEYOPT(4)) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(2) Film coefficient evaluation (if any): 0 -Evaluate at an average film temperature. TE5. +z side) Face 3 (J-I). HG(2). TE2. (TS+TB)/2 Release 14. TE2. TE17. Face 4 (K-J). TE18. TE12. TE25. TE7. If KEYOPT(4) = 31: TBOT. TE6. -z side) Face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. TE2. TE16. TE29. TE30. TE2. TTOP If KEYOPT(4) = 3: TBOT. TE15. TE21. TE14. TE13. -z side) Face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. TE22. TE9. HG(3). TE7. TE9.. Face 5 (L-K). TE26.0 . TE10. Inc.. TE23. TE26. All rights reserved. TE31. TE16. -z side) Face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. TE8. +z side) Face 3 (J-I). . TE3. TE28. TE24. TE20. TTOP If KEYOPT(4) = 2: TBOT. TE29. TE24. TE17. TE21. Face 6 (I-L) Radiation -Face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. 507 .SHELL132 Etc. TE8. Inc. TE19. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Face 4 (K-J).. TE23.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. TE3. TE6. TE11. Face 6 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -Face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. ENTH Surface Loads Convections -Face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. TE5.© SAS IP. TTOP Constant: If KEYOPT(3) = 2: TEMP (one layer only) Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. . DENS. If KEYOPT(4) = 15: TBOT. Face 5 (L-K). TE4. TE10. TE4. TE3. TE19. TE22. TTOP Etc. TE27. TE12. TE30. TTOP Linear: If KEYOPT(3) = 1 If KEYOPT(4) = 0 or 1: TBOT.

Maximum number of layers allowed depends on KEYOPT(3) setting (see above). HE2. |TS-TB| KEYOPT(3) Temperature variation through layer: 0 -Quadratic temperature variation through layer (maximum number of layers = 15) 1 -Linear temperature variation through layer (maximum number of layers = 31) 2 -No temperature variation through layer (number of layers = 1) KEYOPT(4) Number of layers (input a value to match SECDATA commands. as opposed to the usual BFLIST. or leave blank to default). Heat flowing out of the element is considered to be positive. Gradient and flux information is provided at the midthickness of each layer.TEMP can be viewed using BFELIST. For example. TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.0 . . . and any internal temperatures such as TE2 are ignored. A general 508 Release 14. In this case. KEYOPT(6) Application: 0 -Thermal shell application 1 -Paint application SHELL132 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: SHELL132 Element Output Definitions (p. . All rights reserved. If the structural shell element uses more than two temperatures through the thickness. Heat flows are labeled HBOT. similar to the temperature labels. a two layer shell element using the same material and thickness for both layers can get its temperatures from a SHELL132 element using either two layers with KEYOPT(3) = 1 (linear variation) or one layer with KEYOPT(3) = 0 (quadratic variation).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 509). only TBOT and TTOP are used. . Inc. Temperatures passed from this element to the stress analysis via LDREAD.© SAS IP. Also. Inc. the number of temperature points at a node generated in the thermal shell must match the number of temperature points at a node needed by the structural shell. all temperatures are transferred over. . HTOP. If the structural shell element uses two temperatures through the thickness.SHELL132 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. Output nodal temperatures may be read by structural shell elements (such as SHELL281) using the LDREAD.TEMP capability. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the corner nodes of each SHELL132 element must have identical temperature degrees of freedom.

HG(2). 2. 50). ZC HGEN TG:X. J. Element Number Nodes . “Y” indicates that the item is always available.I.1 followed by PLNSOLL. Thermal gradient components at midlayer Thermal flux components at midlayer Face label Face area (same as element area) Face nodes (same as element nodes) Face film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of the face Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - If a surface load is input.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Z TF:X. HG(3). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Inc. Y. In either the O or R columns.SHELL132 description of solution output is given in Solution Output (p. Z FACE AREA NODES HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HEAT RATE/AREA HEAT FLUX 1. Release 14. . ESOL).0 . Y.TEMP. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Table 1 SHELL132 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC. .OUT. use /GRAPHICS. . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.© SAS IP. . Inc.POWER and /ESHAPE. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. Available only at the centroid as a *GET item. To see the temperature distribution thru the thickness for this element as well as all other thermal elements. All rights reserved. YC. L Element material number (from MAT command) Area of element Location where results are reported Heat generations: HG(1). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. K. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 509 .

If the highest and lowest values for this ratio differ by a large factor (for example. and O node numbers as described in Degenerated Shape Elements (p. Inc. use constraint equations (CE family of commands) with or without double nodes to connect the two sides. The cut boundary interpolation command (CBDOF) does not work with this element.0 . then the results for the element may be unreliable. No check is made to ensure either that the number of layers between adjacent elements match or that the effective location of a degree of freedom (for example. • • 510 Release 14. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K. 510): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: SHELL132 Element Output Definitions (p. There should not be a large variation in the ratio of through-thickness conductivity (KZZ) to layer thickness for all layers within the element. When using thermal contact. L. Midside nodes may not be dropped. 39). Zero thickness layers are not allowed.SHELL132 Table 4: SHELL41 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. All rights reserved. For cases where the layering intentionally changes. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. 52) of this manual for more information. 509) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Table 2 SHELL132 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Output Quantity Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG THICKNESS Face 1 Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 6 -Face 2 Top 7 8 9 10 11 12 -------37 ------38 I J Corners ------39 ------40 K L SHELL132 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • Zero area elements are not allowed. If this is a concern. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 231) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . .© SAS IP. the TEMP degree of freedom must be present (KEYOPT(3) = 2 or KEYOPT(6) = 1). such as at a joint or at the runout of a tapered layer. The following notation is used in Table 2: SHELL132 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Command Input (p. This element may not be used with THOPT. study the area using the /ESHAPE command. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. Inc. 1e5). TE7 from a 10 layer element) between elements sharing the same node is the same to a tolerance.QUASI if convection or radiation surfaces are present.

TBOT.all commands) when elements that use TTOP. ETCHG. etc. ANSYS Professional • The birth and death special feature is not allowed. need to check other loads and verify if they need to be deleted and reapplied. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. internally issues DDELE. or ETDELE commands to an element type that does not use these degrees of freedom. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. and you deleted these elements via ETDELE. ANSYS ED • Section definitions are not allowed if more than one material is referenced. . are changed (or deleted) using the ET. 511 .all. the D and F loads will automatically be deleted and reapplied to the new DOF list.e..Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.all and FDELE. If your model contained SHELL132 elements with D and F loads. All rights reserved. SHELL132 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. however. Release 14. Inc. as degrees of freedom: – – are defined or redefined using the ET or KEYOPT commands. The program removes all imposed degrees of freedom and nodal loads (i.SHELL132 • • This element may not be used with the /EFACET command for PowerGraphics displays. Inc.0 .all. You do.© SAS IP.

© SAS IP. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.512 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .

UX. it can also model thin-film fluid behavior in macrostructures. As such. and Alpha and Beta damping parameters for use with the ALPHAD and BETAD commands. FLUID136 is particularly applicable to modeling squeezefilm effects in microstructures. In addition. However. and any viscous heating is neglected. UZ).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the element is applicable to a static or transient analysis. it is limited to structures with lateral dimensions much greater than the gap size. FLUID136 can be used to model three different flow regimes: continuum theory. All rights reserved. the fluid element normal vector is automatically computed. Inc. The velocity normal to the element surface is specified as a body force. FLUID136 Input Data The element is defined by four corner nodes with an option to include mid-side nodes (KEYOPT(2) = 1). If solid elements are used for the structural domain. The element should be oriented such that the element normal is pointing toward the fluid domain. As a fluid-structure element (PRES. 513 .FLUID136 3-D Squeeze Film Fluid Element MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID136 Element Description FLUID136 models viscous fluid flow behavior in small gaps between fixed surfaces and structures moving perpendicular to the fixed surfaces. FLUID136 can determine the fluid response from the eigenmodes of the structure using the Modal Projection Method.© SAS IP. See FLUID136 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. Release 14. The Modal Projection Method can also be used to extract frequency-dependent damping ratios for use with the MDAMP and DMPRAT commands. A transient analysis is used to determine the fluid stiffening and damping effects for non-harmonic loadings. and transient analyses. Inc. the element can be used to determine the stiffening and damping effects that a fluid exerts on a moving structure by applying a known normal velocity. If the velocity of the moving surface is not known. A harmonic analysis is used to determine the fluid stiffening and damping effects for high operating frequencies where fluid stiffening effects are not negligible. the fluid element normal vector can be flipped using ENSYM. harmonic. . As a fluid-only element (PRES dof ). In this mode.0 . the element can be combined with solid structural elements in a coupled-field solution where pressure effects are computed from the structure's motion. A static analysis is used to determine the damping effects for low operating frequencies where fluid stiffening effects are negligible. Compressibility options are available when considering large displacements and/or large pressure changes. FLUID136 is applicable to static. high Knudsen number. and high Knudsen number with accommodation factors. If necessary. The element behavior is based on the Reynolds squeeze film theory and the theory of rarefied gases. the pressure change must be small relative to the ambient pressure. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. UY. Contact options are also available when the structural degrees of freedom are active in order to model opening and closing contact conditions.

UY. When displacement DOFs are active both fluidic and mechanical contact pressures can be generated.0 . . Typical accommodation factors for silicon are between 0. Materials. the operating or absolute pressure. particularly those fabricated from silicon. UX. UZ degrees of freedom (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2) and a nonlinear Reynolds equation (KEYOPT(4) = 1). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.01. the dynamic viscosity is adjusted to account for the slip flow boundary. This assumption is valid for most metals.90. and the gap. If the Knudsen number is greater than 0. 514 Release 14. Inc. the Knudsen number should be less than 0. KEYOPT (3) sets the element degrees of freedom. Inc. cause specular reflection.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Kn = (MFP*PREF) / (Pabs*GAP) if Pabs > minpabs Kn = (MFP*PREF) / (minpabs*GAP) if Pabs < minpabs where: Pabs = PAMB + PRES minpabs = minimum absolute pressure determined by real constant MINPABSF For continuum theory to be valid (KEYOPT(1) = 0). The Knudsen number can be calculated from the mean free fluid path at a reference pressure. Kn = (MFP*PREF) / (PAMB*GAP) For PRES. Squeeze film models assume diffuse reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface (accommodation factor = 1). All rights reserved.© SAS IP. . but is less accurate for micromachined surfaces.FLUID136 Figure 1 FLUID136 Geometry uiy@PA a H v s s t t u uD v s uiy@PA a I v y x u uD vD y x w t w s t KEYOPT (1) specifies the flow regime. such as silicon. See Flow Regime Considerations in the Fluids Analysis Guide for a complete discussion of flow regimes and calculation of the Knudsen number.01 (KEYOPT(1) = 1 or 2). The type of reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface is specified using accommodation factors. Setting KEYOPT (3) to 1 or 2 activates the displacement degrees of freedom. FLUID136 can only be used for static and transient analyses when the displacement DOFs are activated. For a PRES degree of freedom (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and a linearized Reynolds equation (KEYOPT(4) = 0 or 2).80 and 0.

0 . If KEYOPT(6) = 1 or 2. the element is ignored from a fluid pressure standpoint when the fluid gap goes below a specified minimum fluid gap (fluid_mingap). N. and transient analyses. Material Properties VISC . mechanical contact pressure is applied to a structure if the fluid height goes below a specified minimum mechanical gap (mech_mingap). Inc.dynamic viscosity Surface Loads None Body Loads FLUE (velocity) (For KEYOPT(3) = 0 only) Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Continuous flow options 0 -Continuum theory 1 -High Knudsen numbers (greater than 0. If FLUID136 is used in conjunction with the Modal Projection Method. K. the fluid velocity normal to the surface may be specified using nodal or element loading with the FLUE body load label on the BF or BFE commands. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. P (KEYOPT(2) = 1) Degrees of Freedom See KEYOPT(3) Real Constants See Table 1: FLUID136 Real Constants (p.FLUID136 If KEYOPT(5) = 2. L.© SAS IP. Inc. 515 . M. FLUID136 Input Summary Nodes I.) Release 14.01) 2 -High Knudsen numbers and accommodation factors KEYOPT(2) Element geometry 0 -Four node element 1 -Eight node element (not available if KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2) KEYOPT(3) Degrees of Freedom 0 -PRES (Valid for static. J. For the fluid-only option (PRES dof ). the fluid velocities are obtained from the modal displacements and applied using the DMPEXT command. harmonic. J. L (KEYOPT(2) = 0) I.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 517). . K. All rights reserved. O.

Inc. See real constants PENP and SPRES. 1 -Reset it to fluid_mingap.0 . 516 Release 14. Specify a stiffness parameter (real constant STIFFP). UY. Produces a symmetric matrix. UZ . UX. 2 -Ignore this element from a fluid pressure standpoint. . Produces an unsymmetric matrix. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. Convergence issues may be experienced if the fluid gap approaches zero. fluid pressure is applied on the structure. 2 -PRES. . (large displacement and small pressure changes) 1 -Compressible nonlinear Reynolds equation. Valid for static and transient analyses only.FLUID136 1 -PRES. For KEYOPT(5) = 1 or 2. UX. (large displacement and large pressure changes) 2 -Incompressible linearized Reynolds equation. (large displacement and small pressure changes) For more information on the linearized Reynolds equation. UY. and UZ (KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2). 0 -Compressible linearized Reynolds equation. However. KEYOPT(4) Compressibility. a fluid pressure can be specified. UZ . All rights reserved. mechanical contact may be included by KEYOPT(6) or TARGE170 and CONTA174 elements. If the element gap is above fluid_mingap. This element is considered dead from a fluids standpoint. Inc. Damping is input by real constant DAMPP and it defaults to zero. This element is considered mechanically dead. KEYOPT(5) If the element gap goes below fluid_mingap: 0 -Trap it as an error. If PRES is the only degree of freedom (KEYOPT(3) = 0). UY. UX. the compressible linearized Reynold equation is used (KEYOPT(4) = 0). The following are valid when degrees of freedom are PRES. KEYOPT(6) If the element gap goes below mech_mingap: 0 -Do not apply mechanical contact pressure on the structure. Valid for static and transient analyses only.explicit treatment of cross-coupling terms.implicit treatment of cross-coupling terms. refer to Flow Between Flat Surfaces in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. for postprocessing. 1 -Apply mechanical contact pressure on the structure using the penalty method.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.

. . surrounding) pressure Accommodation factor for top moving surface. Damping is input by real constant DAMPP and it defaults to zero. Inc. 517 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 GAP blank blank PAMB ACF1 ACF2 PREF MFP GAPX GAPY GAPZ MMGF FMGF PENP SPRES STIFFP DAMPP MPTF Name — — Ambient (i. Inc.e.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Specify an initial stiffness (real constant STIFFP) and a penetration tolerance (real constant MPTF). Reference pressure for the mean free fluid path Mean free fluid path at reference pressure PREF Gap vector global Cartesian component X Gap vector global Cartesian component Y Gap vector global Cartesian component Z mech_mingapf (minimum mechanical gap as a fraction of GAP) fluid_mingapf (minimum fluid gap as a fraction of GAP) Penalty parameter for fluid dead element (KEYOPT(5) = 2) Specified pressure for fluid dead element (KEYOPT(5) = 2) Stiffness parameter for mechanical contact (KEYOPT(6) = 1 or 2) Damping parameter for mechanical contact (KEYOPT(6) = 1 or 2) mech_pen_tolf (KEYOPT(6) = 2) (mechanical penetration tolerance as a fraction of mech_mingap) minpabsf (minimum absolute pressure as a fraction of Pamb) Description Element gap separation 19 MINPABSF For continuum theory (KEYOPT(1) = 1).FLUID136 2 -Apply mechanical contact pressure on the structure using the augmented Lagrangian method. Table 1 FLUID136 Real Constants No. The fluid environment is defined by the following set of real constants.© SAS IP. Release 14. GAP and PAMB must be specified.0 . Accommodation factor for bottom fixed surface. All rights reserved.

PREF and MFP are used to adjust the dynamic viscosity. MFP. GAP is assumed to be constant. PAMB. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. GAPY. PAMB.FLUID136 For high Knudsen numbers (KEYOPT(1) = 1). PREF. Inc. For the fluid-only option (PRES dof ) and large deflections. GAP. PREF. ACF1 and ACF2 are assumed to be 1. Real constants GAPX. . Figure 2 Moving Structure with Thin Film of FLUID136 Elements derlyi g s¡lid pv shIQT eleme ts n do g z x Real constants FMGF and MMGF determine the minimum fluid gap (fluid_mingap) and minimum mechanical gap (mech_mingap) as shown below: Figure 3 Minimum Fluid and Minimum Mechanical Gaps ¥¨hv¨¢©£ w©v£¦§ uf¨ §p f¢u£¤¥£¦§p ¥¨h¥£¦§p £¨¤ uf¨ '(q' > H '(q' < H 4G EE@F > P 4G EE@F < P qeB'(q' !"#$%& a '(q' )0123)45678 9 @ACDEE@F EE@F 518 Release 14. and ACF2 must be specified. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and GAPZ are the unit vector components of the normal gap vector g in the global Cartesian system (see figure below). For small deflections.0 . All rights reserved.© SAS IP. ACF1. GAP can be updated using SETFGAP. Different accommodation factors may be specified for each surface. GAP. and MFP must be specified. For high Knudsen numbers with accommodation factors (KEYOPT(1) = 2). .

520). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.FLUID136 Real constant MPTF determines the mechanical penetration tolerance as shown below: Figure 4 Mechanical Penetration mehmingp mehpentol wehnil penetrtion ¡¢£¤ ¦¥Bp f p > H ¡¢£¤¥¡¦¤§¨©a f p < H p Figure 5 Fluid Penetration ud !" # $ud%&'" Real constant MINPABSFA determines the minimum absolute pressure as shown below. . The minimum absolute pressure is used in the definition of Knudson number.0 . Inc. 49@A 56sx4ef7 ()012s3 6sx4ef7 )8 6sx4ef7 > C )8 6sx4ef7 < C Stiffness is input by real constant STIFFP and it is typically large. 520) A general description of solution output is given in Table 2: FLUID136 Element Output Definitions (p. 519 . Inc. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Damping is input by real constant DAMPP and it is typically zero.© SAS IP. FLUID136 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 2: FLUID136 Element Output Definitions (p. All rights reserved. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Release 14.

Y. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.FLUID136 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE.0 . J. K. Y. All rights reserved.I. In either the O or R columns. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. 0 = dead) Fluid penetration Mechanical alive or dead (1 = alive. Z) FLUIDDEAD FLUIDPEN MECHDEAD MECHPEN STIFF CONTPRES KN Definition Pressure change with regard to ambient temperature Mid-surface fluid velocity Element Number Nodes . Y. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 521): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 2: FLUID136 Element Output Definitions (p. Z) DISPC(X. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. 521) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. L Material number Area Velocity (normal to surface) Components of unit surface normal n Components of mechanical velocity at centroid Components of displacement at centroid Fluid pressure at centroid Components of gap vector g Fluid alive or dead (1 = alive. . Y. Z) PRESC GAPDIR(X. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 52) in this manual for more information. Table 2 FLUID136 Element Output Definitions Name PRES PG (X. 520) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command 520 Release 14. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.© SAS IP. ESOL). Z) EL NODES MAT AREA: FLUE SNORMAL(YX. The following notation is used in Table 3: FLUID136 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.OUT. . Z)Y VELC(X. Y. 0 = dead) Mechanical penetration at centroid Element stiffness Contact pressure at centroid Knudsen number Y Y Y Y Y Y O R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Contact pressure is computed as an element centroidal quantity: CONTPRES= STIFFP*mech_penetration + DAMPP*mech_velocity Table 3: FLUID136 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.

FLUID136 E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 3 FLUID136 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name Effective viscosity GAP AREA SNORMALX SNORMALY SNORMALZ VELCX VELCX VELCX DISPCX DISPCY DISPCZ PRESC (Zero if KEYOPT(5) = 2) GAPDIRCX GAPDIRCY GAPDIRCZ FLUIDDEAD (0 if KEYOPT(5) = 2) (1 if KEYOPT(5) ≠ 2) FLUIDPEN (0 if KEYOPT(5) ≠ 2) MECHDEAD (0 if KEYOPT(6) = 0) NMISC 19 NMISC 18 NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 14 15 16 17 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Inc. Inc.© SAS IP. 521 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . All rights reserved.

© SAS IP. • FLUID136 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. 522 Release 14.0 . Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See Squeeze Film Theory in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on the governing equations.FLUID136 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item (1 if KEYOPT(6) ≠ 0) MECHPEN (0 if KEYOPT(6) = 0) STIFF (0 if KEYOPT(6) = 0) CONTPRES (0 if KEYOPT(6) = 0) KN NMISC 23 NMISC 22 NMISC 21 NMISC 20 E Output Quantity Name FLUID136 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • Knudsen numbers larger than 880 are not supported. The fluid gap is small compared to the lateral width of the underlying structure. The element assumes isothermal viscous flow. . . All the fluid properties are at a constant temperature (TUNIF) within a load step. The gas flow is assumed to be isothermal. even if you specify material properties with temperature dependencies (using MP). This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. FLUID138 assumes isothermal flow at low Reynolds numbers. holes) in microstructures moving perpendicular to fixed surfaces.. The channel length must be small relative to the acoustic wave length. this element is more accurate for channels of rectangular cross section. Figure 1 FLUID138 Geometry t uiy@QA a H hswI uiy@QA a I hswP ¡ hswI KEYOPT(1) specifies the flow regime. In contrast to FLUID116. harmonic. and considers fringe effects at the inlet and outlet. See FLUID138 . and the pressure change must be small relative to the ambient pressure. the operating pressure.© SAS IP. allows modeling of evacuated systems. FLUID138 can be used to model two different flow regimes: continuum theory and high Knudsen number. The J node is located at the opposite face of the structure through the channel depth.e. As with FLUID136. The Knudsen number can be calculated from the mean free fluid path at a reference pressure. The I node is located at the center of the cross-section of the hole region on the same plane as the nodes used to model the squeeze film fluid region (FLUID136 elements). Inc. Kn = (MFP*PREF) / (PAMB*DIM) Release 14.0 . allows channel dimensions to be small compared to the mean free path. FLUID138 can be used in conjunction with FLUID136 elements to determine the stiffening and damping effects that the fluid exerts on the moving perforated microstructure. These effects can considerably increase the damping force in the case of short channel length.3-D Viscous Fluid Link Element in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. . FLUID138 Input Data The element is defined by two nodes.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the lateral dimensions.FLUID138 3-D Viscous Fluid Link Element MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID138 Element Description FLUID138 models the viscous fluid flow behavior through short channels (i. 523 . and transient analyses. FLUID138 is applicable to static. FLUID138 accounts for gas rarefaction effects and fringe effects due to the short channel length. Inc.

DIM1. (blank).0 . PAMB. For high Knudsen numbers (KEYOPT(1) = 1). . DIM is the radius. DIM1.FLUID138 For rectangular channels. MFP Material Properties VISC . The fluid environment is defined by a set of real constants: For rectangular channels.01. Inc. PAMB. For continuum theory (KEYOPT(1) = 1). For circular channels. DIM1 specifies the radius of the channel and DIM2 is not used. and PAMB must be specified. . DIM2 (if rectangular channel).e. PREF and MFP are used to adjust the dynamic viscosity. All rights reserved. If the Knudsen number is greater than 0.. DIM1 and DIM2 specify the lateral dimensions of the channel. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.01 (KEYOPT(1) = 1 or 2).dynamic viscosity Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Continuous flow options 0 -Continuum theory 1 -High Knudsen numbers 524 Release 14. PREF. PREF and MFP must be specified. surrounding) pressure. PAMB specifies the ambient (i. FLUID138 Input Summary Nodes I. FLUID138 does not support any loadings. DIM2 (if rectangular channel). the dynamic viscosity is adjusted to account for the slip flow boundary.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (blank). For circular channels. and MFP specifies the mean free fluid path at reference pressure PREF.© SAS IP. (blank). PREF specifies the reference pressure for the mean free fluid path. Inc. the Knudsen number should be less than 0. For continuum theory to be valid (KEYOPT(1) = 0). DIM2. J Degrees of Freedom PRES Real Constants DIM1. and the pressure degree of freedom for node J must be set to the surrounding ambient pressure. To preserve the pressure drop through the hole. the PRES degree of freedom for the nodes of the FLUID136 elements at the periphery of the hole must be coupled to the PRES degree of freedom for node I of the FLUID138 element representing the hole. DIM is the smallest lateral dimension.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 520). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID129 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.0 . 491): Release 14. In either the O or R columns.OUT. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.I. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 525 . Inc. P2 at node J Flow rate Average velocity Definition Pressure change with regard to ambient pressure Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y O R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Table 2: FLUID138 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. J) FLOW VELOCITY Element Number Nodes . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. Table 1 FLUID138 Element Output Definitions Name PRES EL NODES MAT VOL FLUE LENGTH AREA PRES (I. J Material number Volume Fluences Channel Length Area P1 at node I. “Y” indicates that the item is always available. 52) in this manual for more information. 491) A general description of solution output is given in Table 2: FLUID136 Element Output Definitions (p. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 526) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. ESOL).FLUID138 KEYOPT(3) Cross section definition 0 -Circular cross section 1 -Rectangular cross section FLUID138 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID129 Element Output Definitions (p.© SAS IP.

FLUID138 Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID129 Element Output Definitions (p. The element assumes isothermal viscous flow.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. even if you specify material properties with temperature dependencies (using MP). The pressure change must be small compared to ambient pressure. See Squeeze Film Theory in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on the governing equations. Inc.0 . 491) Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 FLUID138 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name Effective viscosity Effective length Fluid resistance Cross sectional area ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 FLUID138 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • Knudsen numbers larger than 880 are not supported. FLUID138 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . 526 Release 14. All the fluid properties are at a constant temperature (TUNIF) within a load step. The gas flow is assumed to be isothermal. . Inc. All rights reserved.© SAS IP.

The viscous flow between surfaces is represented by a series connection of mass-damper elements whereby each node corresponds to a local fluid layer. Release 14. Either wall may be constrained from moving. The element can be used in conjunction with other elements to model complete structural-fluid damping interaction. or stand-alone to add damping effects in a lumped sense to a structure. or both walls may move with respect to one another.FLUID139 3-D Slide Film Fluid Element MP ME <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS Product Restrictions FLUID139 Element Description FLUID139 is a uniaxial element which models the fluid behavior between a sliding surface and a fixed wall. Inc. Couette flow assumptions is used. At higher frequencies where inertial effects become important. FLUID139 Input Data The element is defined by two nodes. Inc.© SAS IP.0 . First and second order slip flow models can be activated for systems which operate at high Knudsen numbers. See FLUID139 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. For low frequency applications. Stokes flow theory is used. The element has applications for modeling the fluid damping effects in microsystems such as comb drive fingers. etc. The I node is connected to the first "wall" and the J (or I+32) node is attached to the second "wall". 527 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. The element is applicable to large deflection cases where the surface area exposed to a fixed wall changes with displacement (such as in comb fingers). large horizontally moving plates in seismic devices. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .

The 32-node option (KEYOPT(2) = 1) is necessary for Stokes flow models where only a small fluid layer at the wall is accelerated due to fluid inertia. then DADU is the width of the overlap surface.01..© SAS IP. DADU is the first derivative of AREA with respect to displacement. . PREF is the reference pressure for which the mean free path of the fluid is defined.FLUID139 Figure 1 FLUID139 Geometry uiy@PAaH nd uiy@QAaH pirst wll u eond wll xode s s t xode t uiy@PAaI nd uiy@QAaH pirst wll eond wll u sCI sCP sCQ sCPW sCQH sCQI sCQP s xode s xode t sCQP a t uiy@PAaI nd uiy@QAaI pirst wll u s sCI sCP sCQ sCPW sCQH sCQI eond wll vm sCQP xode s xode t The 2-node option (KEYOPT(2) = 0) is recommended for systems which operate at frequencies below the cut-off frequency. surrounding) pressure. The intermediate node numbers (2-31) must be defined. PAMB is the ambient (i. then continuous flow boundary conditions are valid. If the surface area is constant. but their location may be arbitrary. then first order slip flow boundary conditions are valid.. AREA is the surface area. If the Knudsen number is greater than 0. The geometric location of node I and J is not important as their separation distance is computed from the real constant gap separation GAP. For the 32 node option (KEYOPT(2) = 1). and the 32nd node is node J.e. FLUID139 can be used to model continuous flow or slip flow boundary conditions. Gap is the local gap separation (i.e. If the Knudsen number is less than 0. Inc. All rights reserved. That is. . but not near 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The fluid environment is defined by the real constants. If the 528 Release 14. the first node is node I.0 . width of fluid domain). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. MFP is the mean free path of the fluid at PREF.01. Inc. DADU is the change in the overlap area with respect to the surface displacement.

UZ (Depending on KEYOPT(1)) Real Constants GAP. (blank). Inc.density VISC . A combination of FLUID139 and structural elements allows a simultaneous fluid-structure domain simulation. See Flow Regime Considerations in the Fluids Analysis Guide for a complete discussion of flow regimes and calculation of the Knudsen number. Inc. node 32 (KEYOPT(2) = 1) Degrees of Freedom UX.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. PAMB.FLUID139 Knudsen number is near 1. KEYOPT(3) = 1 specifies first order slip flow boundary conditions.0 .1 -x-direction (UX DOF) 2 -y-direction (UY DOF) 3 -z-direction (UZ DOF) KEYOPT(2) Flow model 0 -2-node element (Couette flow) 1 -32-node element (Stokes flow) Release 14. J (KEYOPT(2) = 0) I. then extended slip flow boundary conditions are valid. 529 .© SAS IP. FLUID139 Input Summary Nodes I. . KEYOPT(3) is used to specify fluid blow boundary conditions.dynamic viscosity Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features None KEYOPT(1) Operating Directions 0. DADU. (blank) PREF. J. MFP Material Properties DENS . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. KEYOPT(3) = 0 specifies continuous flow. All rights reserved. FLUID139 can be loaded by nodal displacements at the interface nodes using the D command or by nodal forces using the F command. KEYOPT(3) = 2 specifies extended slip flow boundary conditions. UY. AREA.

“Y” indicates that the item is always available. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 520).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.I. J) Element Number Nodes . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 491) A general description of solution output is given in Table 2: FLUID136 Element Output Definitions (p.0 . ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. P2 at node J Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Table 2: FLUID138 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 491): Name output quantity as defined in the Table 1: FLUID129 Element Output Definitions (p. . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. . Inc. 52) in this manual for more information. 491) 530 Release 14.© SAS IP. J Material number Volume Gap separation Area P1 at node I. Table 1 FLUID139 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOL GAP AREA PRES (I. and “-” indicates that the item is not available. 526) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. In either the O or R columns. Inc. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The following notation is used in Table 2: FLUID129 Item and Sequence Numbers (p.FLUID139 KEYOPT(3) Continuous flow options 0 -Continuum theory 1 -First order slip flow 2 -Extended slip flow theory FLUID139 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 1: FLUID129 Element Output Definitions (p. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE. All rights reserved.

Inc. See Slide Film Theory in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on the governing equations.© SAS IP.0 . FLUID139 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. This element cannot be used in a distributed solution. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .FLUID139 Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Table 2 FLUID139 Item and Sequence Numbers Output Quantity Name Effective viscosity GAP AREA ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 FLUID139 Assumptions and Restrictions The element assumes isothermal viscous flow. Release 14. All rights reserved. even if you specify material properties with temperature dependencies (using MP). Inc. All the fluid properties are at a constant temperature (TUNIF) within a load step. 531 .

Inc.532 Release 14.0 . .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Inc. .

are calculated if you invoke an optional turbulence model. as opposed to elements that model a network of one-dimensional regions hooked together (such as FLUID116). You can solve the system of equations in a constant angular velocity rotating coordinate system. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle. The degrees of freedom are velocities. ANSYS recommends using the ANSYS CFXFlo product instead. Use this FLOTRAN CFD element to solve for flow and temperature distributions within a region.velocity VZ normal to the plane. . and temperature. if required.or pressure-dependent properties. you can calculate an optional swirl . The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions of up to six species. Inc. while only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid region. The number of global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably. Figure 1 FLUID141 Geometry v Q u uD v R P @or xilA s I @or rdilA t s t ¡¢£ngu¤£¡ ypt¢¥n¦ Release 14. For the FLOTRAN CFD elements. the velocities are obtained from the conservation of momentum principle. pressure. combined with the update of any temperature. You can also use FLUID141 in a fluid-solid interaction analysis. is obtained from the law of conservation of energy. constitutes a global iteration. the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. Inc. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy are solved in the fluid region.0 . For axisymmetric models. Two turbulence quantities. All rights reserved.FLUID141 2-D Fluid-Thermal MP <> <> <> <> <> <> FL <> <> <> PP <> <> <> Product Restrictions FLUID141 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. You can use FLUID141 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve fluid and/or non-fluid regions. You also can specify swirl at the inlet or a boundary (moving wall). See FLUID141 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. depending on the size and stability of the problem. that is. The sequential solution of all the governing equations. (The temperature.) A segregated sequential solver algorithm is used. 533 . the matrix system derived from the finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved separately.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. Six turbulence models are available. shown in Table 1: FLUID141 Real Constants (p. It is an artificially imposed. .SOLU. or a permeability (C). and it must be in a single phase. axisymmetric. Real constants. 534 Release 14. are required only if a distributed resistance ("FLUID141 Distributed Resistance" (p. and may be either Cartesian. 535)). In addition. unrecoverable loss associated with geometry not explicitly modeled.T command. as shown below for the X direction. The coordinate system is selected according to the value of KEYOPT(3). a wall roughness ("FLUID141 Wall Roughness" (p. FLUID141 Fluid Elements If the material number [MAT] of a FLUID141 element is 1. FLUID141 Distributed Resistance A distributed resistance provides a convenient way to approximate the effect of porous media (such as a filter) or other such flow domain features without actually modeling the geometry of those features.FLUID141 FLUID141 Input Data Figure 1 (p. a fan model ("FLUID141 Fan Model" (p. Nodal Loading (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The total pressure gradient is the sum of these three terms. See Sequentially Coupled Physics Analysis in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on the use of the fluid-solid interaction flag. 534)). or an ALE formulation is to be included. or SFL) and the FSIN surface load label. Inc. The resistance to flow. . KEYOPT(1) activates multiple species transport. and the coordinate system for this element. You can activate turbulence modeling with the FLDATA1. See Turbulence in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference and Turbulence Models in the Fluids Analysis Guide for more information on the models. the density may vary with pressure (per the ideal gas law) if the fluid is specified to be air or a gas. The Fluids Analysis Guide includes a discussion of which ANSYS commands are unavailable or inappropriate for FLUID141. The properties can be a function of temperature through relationships specified by the FLDATA7. node locations. a friction factor (f ). The Standard k-ε Model and the Zero Equation Turbulence Model are available along with four extensions of the Standard k-ε Model. 537). which allows you to track the transport of up to six different fluids (species) in the main fluid. All rights reserved.are defined with a series of FLDATA commands. You can analyze only one fluid.TURB. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are relevant (and necessary) only if the problem is thermal in nature.PROT command or through a property database (the file floprp. thermal conductivity and specific heat . Inc.ans). you can apply a fluid-solid interaction flag using the SF family of commands (SF. SFA. modeled as a distributed resistance. viscosity. SFE.0 . KEYOPT(4) allows you to use displacement DOFs to specify motion of boundaries when using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Its properties . 535)). or polar. it is assumed to be a fluid element. 49) describes element loads. may be due to one or a combination of these factors: a localized head loss (K).density. You must also apply the same interface number to the solid interface where load transfer takes place. For a fluid-solid interaction analysis. Any fluid element with a distributed resistance will have a real constant set number [REAL] greater than 1 assigned to it. The element is defined by three nodes (triangle) or four nodes (quadrilateral) and by isotropic material properties. 533) shows the geometry.

(real constant TYPE = 4). as shown below for the X direction. is documented in the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features. ∂ = I+ P ∂ f ¡ ¢ + P Q ¢ V is the fluid velocity and C1. called UserVisLaw. ANSYS provides a user-definable subroutine to compute viscosity.0 . see Flow Boundary Conditions in the Fluids Analysis Guide. three coefficients are input. .FLUID141 ∂ = − ρ x ∂ resis tn e where: ρ = is the density (mass/length3) µ = is the viscosity (mass/(length*time)) RE = is the local value of the Reynolds Number (calculated by the program): RE = (ρ V Dh) / µ f = is a friction coefficient (calculated by the program): f = a RE-b C = is the FLOTRAN permeability (1/length2). FLOTRAN permeability is the inverse of the intrinsic or physical permeability. If large gradients exist in the velocity field within a distributed resistance region. For a one-directional fan model. The pressure rise associated with a fan model is given by the pressure gradient times the flow length through the elements with the fan model real constants. For information on applying roughness values. a Bingham model. Viscosity of the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference and Using User-Programmable Subroutines in the Fluids Analysis Guide describe these models and how to use them. + ρ + µ x h FLUID141 Fan Model The fan model provides a convenient way to approximate the effect of a fan or pump in the flow domain. The pressure gradient can be treated as a quadratic function of velocity. In addition. See also the Fluids Analysis Guide. For an arbitrary direction fan model (real constant TYPE = 5). The subroutine. Only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid elements. FLUID141 Non-Fluid Elements If the material number [MAT] of the element is greater than 1. C2. FLUID141 Wall Roughness The FLOTRAN default condition is smooth walls. and C3 are the coefficients specified as real constants. It is an artificially imposed momentum source that provides momentum source terms associated with a fan or a pump not explicitly modeled. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Currently. All rights reserved. 535 . Non-Newtonian viscosity models also are available for this element. You can define up to 100 different non- Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. you should deactivate the turbulence model by setting ENKE to 0 and ENDS to 1. it is assumed to be a non-fluid element.© SAS IP.0 in this region. ANSYS provides a Power Law model. the three coefficients are the components of the actual coefficients along a coordinate direction. and a Carreau model. Inc.

VY. To specify density. Surface Loads HFLUX. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and thermal conductivity for the non-fluid elements. L Degrees of Freedom VX. with the restriction that the spatial variation is always with respect to the global coordinate system. PRES. Note that element real constants have no meaning for non-fluid FLUID141 elements. Inc. J. 537) Material Properties Non-fluid: KXX. FORC Special Features Nonlinear KEYOPT(1) Number of species: 0 -Species transport is not activated. KYY. DENS Fluid: Density. use the MP command. C. 536) summarizes the element input. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. FSIN Body Loads HGEN. RDSF. thermal conductivity. ENKE. specific heat. viscosity. 43) gives a general description of element input. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements (p. 76).0 .© SAS IP. Element Input (p. Orthotropic variation also is permitted. TEMP.FLUID141 fluid materials. and you specify it via the MP or MPDATA commands.6 -Number of species transport equations to be solved. RAD. All rights reserved. 2 . VZ. "FLUID141 Input Summary" (p. CONV. FLUID141 Input Summary Nodes I. specific heat (use FLDATA commands) or MPTEMP and MPDATA. K. Inc. Temperature variation of the non-fluid properties is permitted. ENDS Real Constants See Table 1: FLUID141 Real Constants (p. . KEYOPT(3) Element coordinate system: 0 -Cartesian coordinates (default) 1 -Axisymmetric about Y-axis 2 -Axisymmetric about X-axis 3 -Polar Coordinates 536 Release 14.

Vector component of C3 in X direction 1. 5 .FLUID141 KEYOPT(4) Support mesh displacement DOFs: 0 -Do not include displacement DOFs. 2 .Vector component of C2 in X direction 1.Not Used 1. 2 .Hydraulic diameter in X direction 4 . 2 .Fan orientation: 1 = X. 2 = Y.Hydraulic diameter 3 .Constant term 5 . Type of distributed resistance or fan model: 1 = Distributed resistance: isotropic 2 = Distributed resistance: one-directional 3 = Distributed resistance: direction-dependent 4 = Fan model: aligned with a coordinate axis 5 = Fan model: arbitrary direction 2 (Blank) DIR (Blank) 3 K Kx C1 C1x 4 C Cx C2 C2x 5 Dh Dhx C3 C3x 6 a ax (Blank) 7 b bx (Blank) 8 (Blank) FLDIR 1.Vector component of C1 in X direction 1. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Linear coefficient 5 .Flow direction: 1 = X.Coefficient a in X direction 4. 2 . 3 .Exponent of Reynolds number. 1 -Include displacement DOFs (UX and UY). 2 = Y. 1 Name TYPE Definition and Type no.© SAS IP.Head loss in X direction 4 .Permeability in X direction 4 .Exponent b in X direction 4. Table 1 FLUID141 Real Constants No.Coefficient of Reynolds number. 3 = Z 5 . . Inc.0 . 5 .Not Used 1 . All rights reserved.Not Used 1. 3 = Z 1/L 1/L M/L2t2 M/L2t2 1/L2 1/L2 M/L3t M/L3t L L M/L4 M/L4 Units Release 14.Dimensionless head loss / length 3 . 537 . used in friction factor calculations 3 .Permeability 3 . 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Quadratic coefficient 5 . 2 .Not Used 2 .Not used 4 . used in friction factor calculations 3 .

Inc.Not Used 3 . . Ky (Blank) C1y 9 (Blank) Cy (Blank) C2y 10 (Blank) Dhy (Blank) C3y 11 (Blank) ay (Blank) 12 (Blank) by (Blank) 13 (Blank) Kz (Blank) C1z 14 (Blank) Cz (Blank) C2z 15 (Blank) Dhz (Blank) C3z 16 (Blank) az (Blank) 17 (Blank) bz (Blank) 18 BDTOL Name 4 .FLUID141 No.Vector component of C1 in Z (swirl) direction 1.Not Used 5 . 5 .Vector component of C2 in Y direction 1. 5 .0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2 . 3 . 2 .Not Used 1. 2 . Inc.Not Used 3 .Exponent of Reynolds number in Z (swirl) direction 4.Not Used 3 .Hydraulic diameter in Y direction 4 .Not Used 3 .Not Used Element birth/death tolerance Definition and Type no. 2 .Not Used 3 . 5 .Not Used 3 .Hydraulic diameter in Z (swirl) direction 4 .Vector component of C3 in Y direction 1.Not Used 5 .Head loss in Y direction Units 1/L M/L2t2 1/L2 M/L3t L M/L4 1/L M/L2t2 1/L2 M/L3t L M/L4 L 538 Release 14.© SAS IP. All rights reserved.Permeability in Z (swirl) direction 4 . .Not Used 5 .Coefficient of Reynolds number in Z (swirl) direction 4.Vector component of C3 in Z (swirl) direction 1.Vector component of C2 in Z (swirl) direction 1.Head loss in Z (swirl) direction 4 .Not Used 1. 2 .Not Used 3 .Vector component of C1 in Y direction 1. 2 . 2 .Not Used 1.Not Used 3 . 2 .Not Used 3 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Not Used 5 .Coefficient of Reynolds number in Y direction 4. 2 .Not Used 5 .Not Used 5 . 5 .Exponent of Reynolds number in Y direction 4.Permeability in Y direction 4 .

Table 2: FLUID141 Element Output Definitions (p. shear stress. The Jobname.RDF) shows how well the current solution satisfies the implied matrix equations for each DOF. Some quantities are not output if the relevant options are not activated. along with vectors denoting the normal direction from the surface (Normal Vector) and the direction of the velocity immediately adjacent to the wall (Tangent Vector). turbulence quantities. 19 20 21 Ks CKs Name MMFAC Definition and Type no.OUTP command. ESOL]. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Additional intermediate properties and derived quantities supplement the degrees of freedom. temperature.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.0 . The file also records the convergence monitoring parameters calculated at every global iteration. This file contains periodic tabulations of the maximum. You control the storage of derived properties such as effective viscosity by issuing the FLDATA5. 539) describes quantities that are output on a nodal basis.indicates that the item is not available. An optional residual file (Jobname.© SAS IP. pressure. and a . 539 . Average pressure. if a temperature field has been obtained and upon restart the energy equation is no longer to be solved. Inc. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Y-plus values and wall heat fluxes are stored. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 that specifies the degree of nonuniformity of the surface. For example. minimum. Units L - FLUID141 Output Data The solution output associated with the element takes the form of nodal quantities. Table 2 FLUID141 Element Output Definitions Name UX Definition Displacement in the X direction (Cartesian coordinates). the relevant DOF quantities are always stored. the temperatures are stored anyway. Inc.RSW) contains information associated with the boundary faces of wall elements.5 and 1. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. and average values of the velocities. Once an option is used. A Y in the R column indicates that the item is always available. and properties.PFL file also tabulates the mass flow at all the inlets and outlets and the heat transfer information at all the boundaries. The Jobname. temperature. A wall results file (Jobname. All rights reserved.FLUID141 No. Displacement in the radial direction (Axisymmetric about Y) R 10 Release 14.PFL file provides additional output. Displacement along axis of symmetry (Axisymmetric about X). Mesh morphing multiplier Local uniform wall roughness An empirical dimensionless factor between 0. .

If a species is given a user-defined name [MSSPEC]. Velocity in the tangential direction (Polar coordinates). Inc. where N = 1 to 6. Displacement along the axis of symmetry (Axisymmetric about Y) Velocity in the X direction (Cartesian coordinates).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. (Not relevant unless species defined. 2. Velocity in the radial direction (Axisymmetric about X).) R 10 VX: Y VY: Y VZ: PRES: ENKE: ENDS: TEMP: DENS: VISC: COND: SPHT: EVIS: ECON: CMUV: TTOT: HFLU: HFLM: RDFL: STRM: MACH: PTOT: PCOE: YPLU: TAUW: SP0N: LMDN: EMDN: 8 Y 2 2 1 8 8 8 8 8 2 2 7 1 1 1 Y 6 Y 3 3 3 4 3 2 1. (Not relevant unless species defined.0 .FLUID141 Name UY Definition Displacement in the Y direction (Cartesian coordinates). Displacement along radial direction (Axisymmetric about X). .) Effective mass diffusion coefficient for species N. Velocity in the radial direction (Polar coordinates). 540 Release 14. Available if turbulence is on. Velocity along axis of symmetry (Axisymmetric about X). Laminar mass diffusion coefficient for species N.© SAS IP. use that name instead of SP0N. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . where N = 1 to 6. where N = 1 to 6 (FLOTRAN). Velocity along the axis of symmetry (Axisymmetric about Y) Velocity in the swirl direction (Axisymmetric problems) Relative Pressure Turbulent kinetic energy Turbulence dissipation rate Temperature Nodal fluid density Nodal fluid viscosity Nodal fluid thermal conductivity Nodal fluid specific heat Effective viscosity (includes effects of turbulence) Effective thermal conductivity (includes the effects of turbulence) Turbulent viscosity coefficient Stagnation (Total) Temperature (Only relevant to compressible analyses) Heat Flux at external surface nodes (per unit area) Heat Transfer (film) coefficient at external surface nodes Radiation Heat Flux Stream Function (2-D) Mach Number (must be requested if incompressible) Stagnation (Total) Pressure Pressure Coefficient Y+ a turbulent law of the wall parameter Shear Stress at the wall Mass fraction of species N. Velocity in the radial direction (Axisymmetric about Y) Velocity in the Y direction (Cartesian coordinates). Available if thermal is on. Inc. All rights reserved.

Highly turbulent cases may benefit from preconditioning (the initialization of the flow field with a laminar analysis). The FLOTRAN element must be in counterclockwise order for a 2-D FSI analysis (for Figure 1 (p. The problem domain and the finite element mesh may not change during an analysis. I. The Fluids Analysis Guide documents these command usage restrictions. You cannot use FLUID141 with any other ANSYS elements. FLUID141 Assumptions and Restrictions • • • • • • • • • • • The element must not have a negative or a zero area. J.0 . you will need to recreate the mesh to reverse it. Inc. The fluid is a single phase fluid. J. When triangles are formed by duplicating the third node. K. Available if species defined. 544). Release 14. 8. Available if swirl is turned on. 533). the column for the density (DENS) label within the Jobname. I. 6. 7. J. • • The following assumptions have been made in the formulation: • • • The nodal coordinate system and the global coordinate system must remain the same. 5. convergence is difficult to achieve and requires the use of stability and relaxation parameters. If the larger gradients occur in regions with the coarsest mesh. All rights reserved. Available if compressible. when nodes are connected only to solid nodes. stores the product of the solid material's density and its specific heat. rerun the problems with adjusted meshes. Available if compressible and thermal. The element must lie in the X-Y plane. In some cases. You must determine if use of the turbulence and/or compressible option is warranted. L order) and it must be in positive volume order for a 3-D FSI analysis (for Figure 1 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. You must define the connectivity of an element with the nodes in counterclockwise order. . Not all ANSYS commands are relevant to the use of FLUID141. Inc. Surface-to-surface radiation (RDSF) is not supported for compressible flow thermal analysis and R-θ and R-θ-Z coordinate systems. N. Must be requested. L. K. 541 . If the element order is not proper.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. M. and K. FLOTRAN CFD analyses are highly nonlinear.© SAS IP. For solid material elements in FLOTRAN.FLUID141 3.RFL results file. 10. Available if KEYOPT(4) = 1. Available if property is variable. Only linear elements are supported. 9. The turbulence option requires a fine mesh near the walls and a fine mesh is recommended near any regions where shock waves occur. the FLOTRAN element will ignore the duplicate node and treat nodes I. O order). 4. particularly if a coarse finite element mesh is being used.

0 . Free surfaces are not permitted. . viscous dissipation. and related commands in the Command Reference. In the incompressible option. The incompressible energy equation is a thermal transport equation. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. This is the case regardless of whether the incompressible or compressible algorithm is invoked. Inc.© SAS IP. In the compressible adiabatic case. The equation of state of gases is the ideal gas law. see MP. For more information. Load case operations are not permitted with the FLOTRAN elements. Inc. • • • • • FLUID141 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. work done on the fluid by pressure forces.FLUID141 • Non-fluid thermal conductivities can vary with temperature. MPDATA. the stagnation (total) temperature is assumed constant and the static temperature is calculated from it by subtracting a kinetic energy term. Orthotropic variation of non-fluid thermal conductivity also is supported. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 542 Release 14. All rights reserved. The ideal gas law is not valid at Mach numbers above 5. and kinetic energy terms are neglected in the energy equation.

The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy are solved in the fluid region. are calculated if you invoke an optional turbulence model. is obtained from the law of conservation of energy. The degrees of freedom are velocities. that is. while only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid region. constitutes a global iteration. Use this FLOTRAN CFD element to solve for flow and temperature distributions within a region. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. See FLUID142 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element. 543 . combined with the update of any temperature. Release 14. the velocities are obtained from the conservation of momentum principle. You can use FLUID142 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve fluid and/or non-fluid regions. For the FLOTRAN CFD elements.or pressure-dependent properties. if required. pressure. as opposed to elements that model a network of one-dimensional regions hooked together (such as FLUID116). Two turbulence quantities. ANSYS recommends using the ANSYS CFXFlo product instead.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. and temperature. You can solve the system of equations in a constant angular velocity rotating coordinate system. depending on the size and stability of the problem. . (The temperature. The number of global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably.FLUID142 3-D Fluid-Thermal MP <> <> <> <> <> <> FL <> <> <> PP <> <> <> Product Restrictions FLUID142 Element Description Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis. the matrix system derived from the finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved separately. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together. Inc.) A segregated sequential solver algorithm is used. Inc. All rights reserved. The sequential solution of all the governing equations. You can also use FLUID142 in a fluid-solid interaction analysis. and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions of up to six species.0 .

Inc. 49) describes element loads.density. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are relevant (and necessary) only if the problem is thermal in nature. See Sequentially Coupled Physics Analysis in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on the use of the fluid-solid interaction flag. The Fluids Analysis Guide includes a discussion of which ANSYS commands are unavailable or inappropriate for FLUID142. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 544 Release 14. and P. and nodes K and L. The properties can be a function of temperature through relationships specified by the FLDATA7.FLUID142 Figure 1 FLUID142 Geometry S T R y s ¤¥¦¥§¥¨ ¡¢ w P v x Q u £ ©rh©rl § w yD x uDv s t edge yption # $ ! s t I " y%&m'( )0'12 FLUID142 Input Data Figure 1 (p. . Inc. . 544). FLUID142 Fluid Elements If the material number [MAT] of a FLUID142 element is 1. SFA. thermal conductivity and specific heat .with a series of FLDATA commands. SFE. selected according to the value of KEYOPT(3). In addition.PROT command or through a property database (the file floprp.© SAS IP. For a fluid-solid interaction analysis. or SFL) and the FSIN surface load label. may be either Cartesian or cylindrical. A wedgeshaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in Figure 1 (p. Only one fluid can be analyzed. You define its properties . A tetrahedral-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes M. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. you can apply a fluid-solid interaction flag using the SF family of commands (SF. it is assumed to be a fluid element. All rights reserved. viscosity.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The coordinate system. Nodal Loading (p. O. the density may vary with pressure (per the ideal gas law) if the fluid is specified to be air or a gas. N. 544) shows the geometry. You must also apply the same interface number to the solid interface where load transfer takes place. and the coordinate system for this element. node locations. and it must be in a single phase.ans).0 .

546)). 545)). All rights reserved. or a permeability (C). Viscosity in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference and Using User-Programmable Subroutines in the Fluids Analysis Guide describes these models and how to use them. The total pressure gradient is the sum of these three terms. . called UserVisLaw. Inc. + ρ + µ x h Release 14. as shown below for the X direction. may be due to one or a combination of these factors: a localized head loss (K).SOLU. modeled as a distributed resistance.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If large velocity gradients exist in the velocity field within a distributed resistance region. It is an artificially imposed. a wall roughness ("FLUID142 Wall Roughness" (p.T command. FLOTRAN permeability is the inverse of the intrinsic or physical permeability. KEYOPT(1) activates multiple species transport. FLUID142 Distributed Resistance A distributed resistance is a convenient way to approximate the effect of porous media (such as a filter) or other such flow domain features without actually modeling the geometry of those features.0 . ∂ = − ρ x ∂ resis tn e where: ρ = is the density (mass/length3) µ = is the viscosity (mass/(length*time)) RE = is the local value of the Reynolds Number (calculated by the program): RE = (ρ V Dh) / µ f = is a friction coefficient (calculated by the program): f = a RE-b C = is the FLOTRAN permeability (1/length2). The resistance to flow. Currently. KEYOPT(4) allows you to use displacement DOFs to specify motion of boundaries when using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. The ANSYS program also offers non-Newtonian viscosity models for this element. ANSYS provides a user-defined subroutine for computing viscosity. unrecoverable loss associated with geometry not explicitly modeled. Any fluid element with a distributed resistance will have a real constant set number greater than 1. Power Law. a fan model ("FLUID142 Fan Model" (p.FLUID142 Six turbulence models are available. See Turbulence in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference and Turbulence Models in the Fluids Analysis Guide for more information on the models. 547). Bingham.TURB. The Standard k-ε Model and the Zero Equation Turbulence Model are available along with four extensions of the Standard k-ε Model. which allows you to track the transport of up to six different fluids (species) in the main fluid. or an ALE formulation is to be included. deactivate the turbulence model by setting the ENKE DOF to 0 and the ENDS DOF to 1 in this region. The Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features describes how to use the user-defined subroutine. You can activate turbulence modeling with the FLDATA1. Inc. 545 . and Carreau models are available. shown in Table 1: FLUID142 Real Constants (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Real constants. 546)). In addition.© SAS IP. a friction factor (f ). are required only if a distributed resistance ("FLUID142 Distributed Resistance" (p.

see Flow Boundary Conditions in the Fluids Analysis Guide. See also the Fluids Analysis Guide.FLUID142 FLUID142 Fan Model The fan model provides a convenient way to approximate the effect of a fan or pump in the flow domain. ENKE. It is an artificially imposed pressure source that provides momentum source terms associated with a fan or a pump not explicitly modeled. and thermal conductivity for the non-fluid elements.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. TEMP. Orthotropic variation also is allowed. P Degrees of Freedom VX. O. The pressure gradient can be treated as a quadratic function of velocity. RAD. thermal conductivity. Note that element real constants have no meaning for non-fluid FLUID142 elements. C2. To specify density. L. "FLUID142 Input Summary" (p. KYY. You can define up to 100 different nonfluid materials.0 . RDSF. N. M. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . issue the MP command. KZZ. FLUID142 Wall Roughness The FLOTRAN default condition is smooth walls. FLUID142 Non-Fluid Elements If the material number [MAT] of the element is greater than 1. Temperature variation of the non-fluid properties is permitted. DENS Fluid: Density. as shown below for the X direction: ∂ = I+ P ∂ fn x + P Q x V is the fluid velocity and C1. Only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid elements.© SAS IP. Element Input (p. Inc. and you specify it using MP or MPDATA. All rights reserved. the three coefficients are the components of the actual coefficients along a coordinate direction. The pressure rise associated with a fan model is given by the pressure gradient times the flow length through the elements with the fan model real constants. with the restriction that the spatial variation is always with respect to the global coordinate system. 546) summarizes the element input. specific heat. PRES. K. 43) gives a general description of element input. and C3 are the coefficients specified as real constants. FLUID142 Input Summary Nodes I. it is assumed to be a non-fluid element. ENDS Real Constants See Table 1: FLUID142 Real Constants (p. For an arbitrary direction fan model (real constant TYPE = 5). viscosity. FSIN 546 Release 14. For information on applying roughness values. specific heat (use FLDATA commands) Surface Loads HFLU. VY. Inc. . J. C. CONV. 547) Material Properties Non-fluid: KXX. VZ.

and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Dimensionless head loss / length 3 . 2 .FLUID142 Body Loads HGEN.Permeability in X direction 1/L 1/L M/L2t2 M/L2t2 1/L2 1/L2 Units Release 14. 547 . 3 . 2 .0 . UY. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. 1 Name TYPE Definition Type of distributed resistance or fan model: 1 = Distributed resistance: isotropic 2 = Distributed resistance: one-directional 3 = Distributed resistance: direction-dependent 4 = Fan model: aligned with a coordinate axis 5 = Fan model: arbitrary direction 2 (Blank) DIR (Blank) 3 K Kx C1 C1x 4 C Cx 1.Head loss in X direction 4 . KEYOPT(3) Element coordinate system: 0 -Cartesian coordinates (default) 3 -Cylindrical coordinates KEYOPT(4) Support mesh displacement DOFs: 0 -Do not include displacement DOFs.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Vector component of C1 in X direction 1. . 2 = Y. Inc. and UZ). 2 . Table 1 FLUID142 Real Constants No.Fan orientation: 1 = X. FORC Special Features Nonlinear KEYOPT(1) Number of species: 0 -Species transport is not activated. 2.Not Used 1.Constant term 5 . 3 = Z 5 . 1 -Include displacement DOFs (UX. Inc.Permeability 3 .Not used 4 .6 -Number of species transport equations to be solved.

2 .Not Used 5 .Not Used 5 .Vector component of C3 in X direction 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Not Used 3 . 5 .Permeability in Y direction 4 . 2 . 5 . used in friction factor calculations 3 .© SAS IP.Not Used 1 .Not Used 2 .Not Used Units M/L3t M/L3t L L M/L4 M/L4 1/L M/L2t2 1/L2 M/L3t L M/L4 1/L M/L2t2 - 548 Release 14. Inc. used in friction factor calculations 3 . .Head loss in Z (swirl) direction 4 .Hydraulic diameter in Y direction 4 .Vector component of C2 in Y direction 1.Vector component of C2 in X direction 1.Exponent of Reynolds number.Coefficient a in X direction 4.Quadratic coefficient 5 .Not Used 3 . 2 .Not Used 3 . 2 .Not Used 1. 5 . All rights reserved.Vector component of C3 in Y direction 1.FLUID142 No. C2 C2x 5 Dh Dhx C3 C3x 6 a ax (Blank) 7 b bx (Blank) 8 (Blank) FLDIR Ky (Blank) C1y 9 (Blank) Cy (Blank) C2y 10 (Blank) Dhy (Blank) C3y 11 (Blank) ay (Blank) 12 (Blank) by (Blank) 13 (Blank) Kz (Blank) C1z 14 (Blank) Name Definition 4 . 3 = Z 3 .Hydraulic diameter in X direction 4 .Flow direction: 1 = X. 2 . 5 .Not Used 5 .Not Used 3 .Not Used 5 .Exponent b in X direction 4.Exponent of Reynolds number in Y direction 4.Not Used 1. . 2 = Y. 2 . 2 . 2 .Vector component of C1 in Y direction 1.Coefficient of Reynolds number in Y direction 4.Coefficient of Reynolds number.0 .Linear coefficient 5 . Inc.Vector component of C1 in Z (swirl) direction 1.Hydraulic diameter 3 .Not Used 3 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2 .Head loss in Y direction 4 .Not Used 1.

pressure.OUTP command.Not Used 3 . Definition 3 .0 . shear stress.RSW) contains information associated with the boundary faces of wall elements.Not Used 1. temperature. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2 . the relevant DOF quantities are always stored. Inc.FLUID142 No. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 2 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 5 . Cz (Blank) C2z 15 (Blank) Dhz (Blank) C3z 16 (Blank) az (Blank) 17 (Blank) bz (Blank) 18 19 20 21 BDTOL MMFAC Ks CKs Name 4 . and properties.Coefficient of Reynolds number in Z (swirl) direction 4. You control the storage of derived properties such as effective viscosity by issuing the FLDATA5. . Average pressure.Not Used 3 . Inc.Not Used 3 . A wall results file (Jobname. This file contains periodic tabulations of the maximum. temperature. The Jobname.Vector component of C3 in Z (swirl) direction 1. Table 1: FLUID142 Real Constants (p. 2 . Some quantities are not output if the relevant options are not activated.© SAS IP. Additional intermediate properties and derived quantities supplement the degrees of freedom. 547) describes quantities that are output on a nodal basis. 549 . Release 14. 5 . if a temperature field has been obtained and upon restart the energy equation is no longer to be solved. and average values of the velocities.PFL file provides additional output.Not Used 5 . For example. Y-plus values and wall heat fluxes are stored.Exponent of Reynolds number in Z (swirl) direction 4. the temperatures are stored anyway.Hydraulic diameter in Z (swirl) direction 4 . The Jobname. minimum. along with vectors denoting the normal direction from the surface (Normal Vector) and the direction of the velocity immediately adjacent to the wall (Tangent Vector). turbulence quantities.Not Used 5 . All rights reserved.5 and 1. Once an option is used.Vector component of C2 in Z (swirl) direction 1.Not Used Element birth/death tolerance Mesh morphing multiplier Local uniform wall roughness An empirical dimensionless factor between 0.Permeability in Z (swirl) direction Units 1/L2 M/L3t L M/L4 L L - FLUID142 Output Data The solution output associated with the element takes the form of nodal quantities.PFL file also tabulates the mass flow at all the inlets and outlets and the heat transfer information at all the boundaries.0 that specifies the degree of nonuniformity of the surface. The file also records the convergence monitoring parameters calculated at every global iteration.

0 . . ESOL].Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Velocity in the radial direction (Cylindrical coordinates) Velocity in the Y direction (Cartesian coordinates). and a . Table 2 FLUID142 Element Output Definitions Name UX UY UZ VX: VY: VZ: PRES: ENKE: ENDS: TEMP: DENS: VISC: COND: SPHT: EVIS: ECON: CMUV: TTOT: HFLU: HFLM: MACH: PTOT: PCOE: YPLU: TAUW: Definition Displacement in the X direction (Cartesian coordinates) Displacement in the Y direction (Cartesian coordinates) Displacement in the Z direction (Cartesian coordinates) Velocity in the X direction (Cartesian coordinates). and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.© SAS IP. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. A Y in the R column indicates that the item is always available. Inc.indicates that the item is not available.RDF) shows how well the current solution satisfies the implied matrix equations for each DOF. . Inc. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Velocity in the axial direction (Cylindrical coordinates) Relative Pressure Turbulent kinetic energy Turbulence dissipation rate Temperature Nodal fluid density Nodal fluid viscosity Nodal fluid thermal conductivity Nodal fluid specific heat Effective viscosity (includes effects of turbulence) Effective thermal conductivity (includes the effects of turbulence) Turbulent viscosity coefficient Stagnation (Total) Temperature (Only relevant to compressible analyses) Heat Flux at external surfaces nodes (per unit area) Heat Transfer (film) coefficient at external surface nodes Mach Number (must be requested if incompressible) Stagnation (Total) Pressure Pressure Coefficient Y+ a turbulent law of the wall parameter Shear Stress at the wall R 9 9 9 Y Y Y Y 2 2 1 8 8 8 8 8 2 2 7 1 1 6 Y 3 3 3 550 Release 14. All rights reserved. Velocity in the tangential direction (Cylindrical coordinates) Velocity in the Z direction (Cartesian coordinates).FLUID142 An optional residual file (Jobname.

RFL results file actually stores the product of the solid material's density and its specific heat. You must determine if use of the turbulence and/or compressible option is warranted. You cannot use FLUID142 with any other ANSYS elements. All rights reserved. the FLOTRAN element will ignore the duplicate nodes and base the geometry on nodes I. K. 9. 7. rerun the problems with adjusted meshes. If the larger gradients occur in regions with the coarsest mesh. when nodes are connected only to solid nodes. 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 6. where N = 1 to 6. Only linear elements are supported. 551 . Inc. . use that name instead of SP0N. Available if property is variable. Available if thermal is on. In some cases. Not all ANSYS commands are relevant to the use of FLUID142. and M. especially turbulent. where N = 1 to 6 (FLOTRAN). Inc. 4. 8. The turbulence option requires a fine mesh near the walls and a fine mesh is recommended near any regions where shock waves occur. Available if compressible. For a flow analysis.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Available if turbulence is on. Available if KEYOPT(4) = 1.FLUID142 Name SP0N: LMDN: EMDN: Definition Mass fraction of species N. J. convergence is difficult to achieve and requires the use of stability and relaxation parameters. (Only relevant if species defined. the column for density (DENS) in the Jobname. you should not use pyramid elements near the walls because it may lead to inaccuracies in the solution. 2. FLUID142 Assumptions and Restrictions • • The element must not have a negative or a zero volume. You must define the connectivity of an element such that the normal defined by the right hand rule associated with the first four nodes (hexahedral elements) or three nodes (tetrahedral elements) must point into the element. If a species is given a user-defined name [MSSPEC]. FLOTRAN CFD analyses are highly nonlinear. (Only relevant if species defined. When a tetrahedron is formed by specifying duplicate nodes. Available if species defined. 5. Highly turbulent cases may benefit from preconditioning (the initialization of the flow field with a laminar analysis).) R 4 3 2 1. • • • • • • • • • Release 14. particularly if a coarse finite element mesh is being used.) Effective mass diffusion coefficient for species N.© SAS IP. For solid material elements in FLOTRAN. See the Fluids Analysis Guide for a description of the command restrictions. where N = 1 to 6.0 . Must be requested. Laminar mass diffusion coefficient for species N. Available if compressible and thermal.

I. L. All rights reserved. In the incompressible option. see the descriptions of MP. MPDATA. the stagnation (total) temperature is assumed constant and the static temperature is calculated from it by subtracting a kinetic energy term. Load case operations are not permitted with the FLOTRAN elements. 544). The fluid is a single phase fluid. J. 533).0 . Orthotropic variation of non-fluid thermal conductivity also is supported. Inc. and related commands. you will need to recreate the mesh to reverse it. If the element order is not proper. The equation of state of gases is the ideal gas law. Inc. viscous dissipation. 552 Release 14. I. K.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The following assumptions have been made in the formulation: • • • • The nodal coordinate system and the global coordinate system must remain the same. O order). N. The incompressible energy equation is a thermal transport equation. For more information. Free surfaces are not permitted. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. K. In the compressible adiabatic case. The problem domain and the finite element mesh may not change during an analysis. M. and kinetic energy terms are neglected in the energy equation. This is the case regardless of whether the incompressible or compressible algorithm is invoked. The FLOTRAN element must be in counterclockwise order for a 2-D FSI analysis (for Figure 1 (p. • • • • • FLUID142 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. L order) and it must be in positive volume order for a 3-D FSI analysis (for Figure 1 (p. The ideal gas law is not valid at Mach numbers above 5. Non-fluid thermal conductivities can vary with temperature. J. .© SAS IP. work done on the fluid by pressure forces.FLUID142 • • Surface-to-surface radiation (RDSF) is not supported for compressible flow thermal analysis and R-θ and R-θ-Z coordinate systems. .

optionally. Geometrical nonlinearities caused by stress stiffening or initial prestress are considered as well as multiple conductor systems. and INFIN111) and structural elements which are compatible with electrostatic elements. See ROM144 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.ROM144 Reduced Order Electrostatic-Structural MP <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME <> Product Restrictions ROM144 Element Description ROM144 represents a 2-D or 3-D reduced order model of a coupled electrostatic-structural system. torsional systems with angles less than ten degree or flexible bending of cantilevers or membranes obey those restrictions (pressure sensors. Inc.© SAS IP. Only nine of the 10 modal degrees of freedom and five of the 10 voltage degrees of freedom are actually used. Inc. 553 . Figure 1 ROM144 Schematic qi qj qk ql qm qn qo qp qq s t u v d e f g h ii jj kk ll w Release 14. 10 master nodes relating nodal forces to nodal displacements (UX).0 . For instance. RF filter). ten voltage degrees of freedom relating electrical current and potential (VOLT) and. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. SOLID122. SOLID123. The element fully couples the electromechanical domains and represents a reduced order model suitable for use in finite element analysis as well as electromechanical circuit simulations. Y or Z referred to the global Cartesian axes. The element has ten modal degrees of freedom relating modal forces and modal displacements (EMF). The element is derived from a series of uncoupled structural and electrostatic domain simulations using the electrostatic elements (such as PLANE121. The ROM144 element represents a complicated flexible structure whose nodes move mainly in one direction either X. cantilever for AF microscopy. and RF switches. The element is suitable for simulating the electromechanical response of micro-electromechanical devices (MEMS) such as clamped beams.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. micromirror actuators.

Q. Blank.db and the reduced solution file (. P. and should be used when defining the solution convergence criteria (CNVTOL command). Blank. K. P. U. and is not required input for analysis purposes. II. . VOLT. A reduced order model file filename. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. S. O. T. H. ROM144 Input Summary Nodes 20 nodes if KEYOPT(1) = 0: I. V.pcs must be available in the working directory. D. L. J. Blank. The &q