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RESEARCH AND STUDIES ON ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS FOR

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABORATORIES OF THE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS BRASOV


UNIVERSITY LECTURER EC.DR.ING. IOAN CALDARE TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY OF BRASOV

Abstract: Starting from the basic ideas of the conception and design of buildings with low energy consumption, using non-conventional energy, research and studies refer mainly to: Capture and use the soil heat in heat pump installations: 2 reversible heat pumps for each of the 12 scientific research laboratories. Were studied three variants of geothermal collectors: surface geothermal horizontal collector (h = 1.5 m), small depth vertical geothermal collector type spiral drill (h = 5m), and great depth geothermal probe of (h = 100 m) Capture and use solar energy by using solar, thermal and photovoltaic panels, located on roof-terrace of each laboratory in the solar park. Heating and cooling instalations for all 12 laboratories by radiating surfaces: concrete tempered, semitemperat and concrete floor heating by radiation. By coupling installation of heat pumps and solar panels with heating and cooling systems of the laboratories of scientific research results that about 6570% of annual energy for heating and cooling of a scientific research laboratory is provided by unconventional energy sources. Key words: heat pump, solar panel, collector geothermal, heating/cooling, radiant surfaces.

1.

Introduction

The project is addresing to a thematic relevant area of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development and responds to the strategic priorities of scientific research identified to the national and European level (2007-2013): Energy, especially the components of Sustainable Energy: Energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy systems. Realization of high-tech products, by and for sustainable energy involves innovation of two other complementary strategic priorities: Materials, innovative processes or products, and Environment. The institute respond to the Direction of National Strategic Action regarding to concentration of research resources and efficient use, and represents a first step towards a center of excellence, through training of multi-actor partnerships, regionally, nationally and internationally.

Scientific Research Institute building represent itself an area of research designed to test, optimize and develop new solutions for the implementation of sustainable energy, renewable energy and development of intelligent buildings. The Scientific Research Institute building represent itself an area of research designed to test, optimize and develop new solutions for the implementation of sustainable energy, renewable energy and development of intelligent buildings. Thus it will be built with the principles of minimum energy loss (less than 70 W / sqm), following research areas as the Solar Park to investigate solutions for losses below 40 W / sqm. The ensemble will be supported with energy by a hybrid system based on renewable energy (Solar Park) completed, if necessary, with conventional energy. Monitoring of energy dates, will enable recommendations on energy certification of buildings and consultants in the field. "The intelligence" of the institute building refers also to services and automated decisions being taken in response to various changes, to ensure safety, energy efficiency, of the internal and external communication channels and the comfort of the beneficiaries. 2.

Laboratories

In the institute will work 12 laboratories (Fig. 1):

Fig.1 Laboratories of Scientific Research Institute

3.

Project Solutions

In the space of the heating station, located in a basement room specifically adapted to each laboratory, (12 labs), was designed to mount equipment wich ensure production of heat, for heating all areas of the building in cold period of the year, but also for domestic hot water preparation.

The necesary heat calculated for each laboratory, according to normative SR 1907/97 is 49,745 W. It was proposed that all 8 laboratories (L1, L2, L3 ... L8) to be provided, each with two heat pumps of 24 kW, and for the maxim peak heat with one mural condensing boiler with forced draft, with nominal thermal power of 60 kW each, equipped with modular burner and 4.0 bar safety valve (Fig. 2). Technological scheme chosen is provided with a distributorcollector Dn 80 mm with four outputs, one for floor heating, one for concrete tempered, one for ventiloconvectors and one for domestic hot water preparation. As a protection for pressure and expansion it was mounted on the boiler a closed expansion vessel with elastic membreane of 60 liters and two safety valves 3 / 4 ". The circulation of the heating agent for the heating period is accomplished through electropomps with variable speed, mounted on a tur circuit heating, thus ensuring the quantitative adjustment of the installation. Pumps will be equipped with communication interface module type IF LON and electronic system that allows maintaining a constant differential pressure. Operating diagram chosen and performance allows operation without continuous surveillance equipment, installation being led by an automation system, consisting of an electronic temperature regulator, and temperature sensors. Taking into account the outside air temperature regulator must be able to determine the heat load required to achieve thermal comfort and to order starting and stopping the cascade of boilers. Depending on outside temperature, the automation system can lead to heating installation by starting and stopping the circulation pump, and adjusting the position electroventilelor three-way, of mixing, so that the temperature of heating agent for each circuit to be the best. Feedback should be provided for each circuit in part, by reading the temperature of tour and return, with a contact temperature sensor and internal temperature reference of the spaces served. Preparation of hot water consumption for each laboratory is in part, and is prepared through a bivalent boiler with a capacity of 500 liters, powered with heat from solar panels with flat surface capture of 2.3 meters each(8 pcs.) and heat pump. For heating upstairs space was adopted a heating sistem by radiation in floor and temperat concrete, which will be realized with the crosslinked peroxidic polyethylene pipes, to temperature heat agent of 40 C. It was installed a distribuitor-collector, which is powered to heat from the boiler, and the temperature drop is achieved through the circulation pump and safety limiter of temperature provided on each circuit. The heating installation from the ground floor and basement will be achieved through the concrete temperate floor of the basement. The

way the pipes are placed in concrete, is the double meander, with the dimensions 20x2,0 mm, of polyethylene crosslinked peroxide, with a step of 15 cm, fixed with wire type concrete steel grating, including binding pipelines 2 2 m. Project parameters: Construction of ceiling = concrete ceiling 280 mm, dig the concrete 70 mm, 10 mm felt, pipe position "neutral phase". Operating parameters of the cooling situation: room temperature 27 C, tour = 17 C, return = 19 C. The operating parameters of the heating situation: room temperature 21 C, round = 28 C, return = 26 C. The sistem floor heating and temperat concrete installation, will be supplemented in the basement, ground and first floor, with fan coil units, supplied with heat from the boiler through pipes of polypropylene, mounted in floor screed after were previously insulated with insulation type K-flex. All rooms will be fitted with room thermostats in three steps and / or summer / winter or with regulating the temperature gradually. Temperature calculation and battery capacity is based on a temperature level of 7 / 12 C respectively 70 50 C.

Fig.2. Thermal station of the installation of heating / cooling in a laboratory

4.

Sizing heat pumps

Proper sizing and exploitation of the heat pump instalation represents premises of a lasting operation, effective and satisfactory. For this it is necessary that all components be properly defined and

established. This refers both to the heat source, heat pump and on consumer. In conclusion, it is important not to place a over-sizing or a under-sizing of the installation equipped with heat pumps. Following an over-sizing, appear unnecessarily high costs of investment and the heat pump (due to its high capacity) is not working steadily and is starting to have realy high cadence, which affect the life of the compressor. An under-sizing may lead to an insufficient comfort, and in longterm may lead to an dysfunction, economical legally, for a heat pump. Design and tender the heat pumps instalation consist essentially of the following stages: knowing the necesary heat, establish the capacity of the heat pump, determining the heat source and heat source size. For calculation of the heat capacity of the pump take into account: thermal load of the building, energy requirements for heating water and energy requirements for special applications. Q heat pump = Q heating + Q hot wather + Q special wather The more the supply temperature is lower, the better and more economical the heat pump will work. Reference value: for every degree saved of the tour temperature, can economize up to 2.5% of energy consumption of heat pump. The heat pump is a device that, through an internal refrigeration cycle, pumps heat from a low temperature to higher one. - During winter, extracts heat from the soil, groundwater or outdoor air, to give it the building's heating plant. - In summer, extracts heat from the building with an air conditioning system to assign it to the environment. The heat generated by the earth (= geothermal) is the thermal energy stored in the solid upper surface of the earth. Reversible heat pump operating - operating heating system (fig.3) Installing a 4-way valves and an additional expansion valve allows the heat flow direction to be change automatically for entire sistem. Instalarea a 4-way valve allows the compressor to maintain the same direction of the heat flow. Thus, heating system, the compressor, push the refrigerant agent under form of vapor through the condenser, to the heating system. Here, the refrigerant agent condenses, transferring heat to the heating system.

Fig.3.

Fig. 4.

Fig. 3. Reversible heat pump operating - operating heating system Fig. 4. Reversible heat pump operating - operating cooling system

The cooling system, heat flow direction is reversed through 4way valve. Thus, the capacitor becomes now evaporator, and transfer heat from the heater (which has taken heat from inside the rooms) to the refrigerant agent. Thereafter, the refrigerant agent under form of vapor, reach the compressor, via the expansion valve, being transferred to the environment (source).

Cooling with heat pumps: PASSIVE-Natural cooling (fig.4)


In general, during summer, indoor temperature is higher than the temperature of soil or groundwater. In these conditions, lower temperatures of the source-soil or water may be used to directly cool the spaces. For this, heat pumps offer so-called function of "natural cooling". Basically, the source used during winter to provide heating, can be used to provide cooling in summer. This function is not possible to air-water heat pumps, because of the higher temperatures of outdoor air. Natural cooling function can be achieved only with some additional components (heat exchanger, valves and pump circulated deviation). During the operation of natural cooling, automation sistem starts only primary circuit pump and cooling circuit pump, while the compressor remains off. Thus, the heat agent of the floor heating sistem, for example, takes heat from all rooms and transfer to primary circuit-source. It follows a natural cooling of rooms. Heat pumps that allow the use of active cooling system are called reversible. Cooling (activation) of massive concrete structures It is an innovative cooling sistem and energy distribution in buildings. Throughout the period of a day, the pre-cooled concrete slab wich forms the ceiling, will take extra enegie appeared in the room from various sources. During the night the system will deliver / yield by continuous circulation of water, heat accumulated in the concrete slab. The system is used mainly for cooling but can be used to basic heating of the room. Because of accumulation of heat the temperature in the room can not be controlled at a fixed value but fluctuate between a comfortable margin of 21 -26 C. To get comfortable and have an economic system cooling and heating can maintain water temperature between 18 to 26 C (annual average) close to room temperature. 5. Calculation Collectors Geothermal

Stratification land Surveys conducted have encountered a relatively homogeneous stratification. From top to bottom this is as follows (considering the rate of natural land as share 0.00): Soil plant with a 0.40 m thick; Follows a cohesive complex with total thickness wich consists of: brown sandy powder, consistent plastic, with thickness 0.50 m, F1; sand dust, loose, with a thickness of 0,60-2,40 m a layer of small gravel sand powder, stuff, which is an area crossing to the bedrock, its thickness is 0.50-2.00 m From the depth of 2.10 m in S4 or maximum to 3.50 m in F1, met a layer of gravel with rare boulders, in inter-spaces with clay sandy, thickseted. (See block diagram). Correspondence between dynamic penetration and stratification was made based on comparison with reference drillings. Thus, depending on the number of kicks, results of standard penetration it resulted the following correlation: Nspt 1-2 5-9 11-22 >30 Lithologic Ground plant Advanced cohesive eluvial: Brown powder sandy, loose sand dust Powder sand with rare gravel Sandy gravel with rare boulders very stuff

In figure 5 is represented the variation in soil temperature near the earth surface.

Fig.5. Variation of temperature in soil in the area of earth surface

PC laboratory: heating capacity 22 kW, COP = 4.2 Surface geothermal collector The capacity of vaporization = heat capacity x (COP1) / COP = 16,760 W

The specific capacity of extraction of soil = 15 W / sqm The Geothermal collector surface= Vaporization capacity / specific extracting capability of the soil = 1117 square meters; taken: 1200 sqm Choose tube PE 100 with 25x2,3 mm dimension Length of tube = Surface geothermal collector / Siting distance = 1200 sqm / 0.80 m Result: 11 W / m tube

Fig.6. Surface geothermal collector

Geothermal probe Length probe = vaporise capacity / extraction capacity = 16.700W / 55W / m = 304m, choose 3 probe of 100 m. Result: 55 W / m drill geothermal. Spiral probe geothermal collector: To the sizing and installation of Helix probe, should be considered provisions of VDI4640. Helix probe caracteristics: height (dimension of transport) 1.1 m, height (in the mounted state) 3.0 m, outer diameter 0.38 m, length of pipe: 40 m, pipe sizes 25x2.3, pipe material: PE-Xa, weight (without antifreeze solution) 7.5 kg; internal volume: 13 liters. Extraction specific capacities of probes Helix: dry sand 200-300 W, wet sand 400-700 W, clay / dried mud 250-350 W, clay / wet mud 400-650W, clay / hard clay 250-350 W, dried sandy clay KD 300-400 W, wet sandy clay 450-700 W;

Fig.7. Spiral probe geothermal collector

Fig.8. Geothermal probe

Vaporization capacity = 16,760 W Extraction capacity / collector spiral: 620 W / pc Number of collectors geothermal type spiral probe=16,760W/620W/ /pcs = 27 pcs. Result: 620 W / pc. spiral drill PC Spina: capacitatea de incalzire 27,8 kW;COP= 4,0 Capacitatea de vaporizare= capacitatea de incalzire x (COP-1)/COP = 20.850 W.

Geothermal probe: probe length = vaporisation capacity / extraction capacity = 20,850 / 55W / m = 379m, choose 4 hole 100.PC Atrium: heating capacity 34.7 kW: COP = 4.1
The capacity of vaporization=heat capacity x (COP-1)/COP = 26,236 W Geothermal probe: probe length = vaporisation capacity / extraction capacity = 26,236 / 55W / m = 477 m, choose 5 probe of 100 m. Geothermal probe of 100 m deep: - 48 pc - for PC laboratories; - 16 pc - for PC SPINA; - 20 pc - for PC atrium. TOTAL: 84 pc Final solution of geothrtmal collectors related to the 12 laboratories a) 15 pcs geothermal probe: Each lab will have 1 pcs geothermal probe and 3 laboratories also will have for the second PC a geothermal probe; Remain, however, 3 geothermal probe of 100 m deep for reserve, for the heat pump for wich is provide geothermal surface collector. b) 7 pcs. geothermal surface collectors;

c) 2 pcs. geothermal collectors type spiral probe.


Installation of heat pumps in the 12 laboratories - 12 thermal stations 1. Heating pumps with heating capacity of 22 kW, heating COP 4.2, cooling capacity 27.2 kW, EER cooling 4.94 ... ... ... ...24 pcs. 2. Geothermal probe of 100 m deep, 3 pcs of probe for each 16 PC ... ... ... 48 pcs. 3. Flat geothermal collectors with surface of 1200 mp for 6 PC ....... 6 pcs - General mechanized excavation 6x1800 mc = 10,800 cubic. 4. Geothermal collector type spiral probe, 27 probes each 3 in serial ... 2 pc. - Digging holes of 0.40 m diameter, depth 5 m. .....= 54 pcs. Installation of heat pumps in the Spine - 2 thermal stations

1. Heating pumps with heating capacity of 27,8 kW, heating COP 4, cooling capacity 37.5 kW, EER cooling 5.14 ... ... ... ...4 pcs. 2. Geothermal probe of 100 m deep, 5 pcs of probe for each 4 PC ... ... ... 20 pcs x 100 m. Installation of heat pumps on Atrium - 2 thermal stations 1. Heating pumps with heating capacity of 34,7 kW, heating COP 4.1, cooling capacity 46 kW, EER cooling 5... ... ... ...4 pcs. 2. Geothermal probe of 100 m deep, 5 pcs of probe for each 4 PC ... ... ... 20 pcs x 100 m. Type of collector laboratories 1 pc. Pc:

1. 100 m deep geothermal probes, each probe for 3 pcs 1 PC


2. Geothermal flat collectors with 1200mp surface, for 1 PC 3. Geothermal collector type spiral probe from 27 probes for 1PC

Fig. 9. Placement plan of geothermal collectors of the heat pumps for laboratory

6. Conclusions Design heating and cooling sistems for the 11 scientific research laboratories from the University campus Brasov by radiant concrete surface temperate is justified by the benefits of these heating systems over classical solutions, that ensure a superior thermal comfort with reduced energy consumption. Using different radiating surfaces (floors, walls, ceiling, temperate concrete and semitemperat concrete) to achieve heating and cooling rooms is complemented with an integrated control system,

dehumidifier and heat pump, ensuring opportunity for efficient use of energy sources (pump ground-floor heat and solar thermal and photovoltaic panels), the optimum heating system for a combination with regenerative energy sources. Achieving a specific energy annual consumption of 167 kWh / year, the laboratory building is engaged in energy class B, the specific annual energy consumption from renewable sources being 110.5 KWh/ year. 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Robert Gavriliuc " Heat pump. From Theory to Practice ", MatrixRom Publishing House, Bucharest 1999 pg.136-161; 2. Ilina M. Bandabur C., Oancea N. - " Unconventional Energy used in conventional construction installations " Engineering Publishing House, Bucharest, 1987, pg.130-147;