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COSMOLOGY AND IDEOLOGY OF TANTRIC SELF-DEIFICATION
8q Acrcn C|cc|
This article seeks to outline some of the basic conceptual grounds upon which the tantric process
of self-deification is founded. However, as this encompasses the often interweaving currents of
rcs¯qcnc (alchemy), |ci|c-qcgc, siddha practices and related esoterica, we can by no means
pretend to give a comprehensive account of the entire tradition.
Rather, our primary task will be
to convey some of the broader and more salient ideological aspects informing the tantric impetus
toward liberation and deification, with particular reference to Kula or pro-Srïvidyä tantrism.
Insofar as the ideology of tantra is largely based upon specific cosmological premises, we will
begin by articulating the tripartite construct of the universe seen to underpin tantric initiatory
Fundamental to tantric cosmology is the notion of the homology existing between the greater
material cosmos (macrocosm), the individual practitioner (microcosm), along with a mediating
structure which exists between them (mesocosm).
As far back as Vedic times we find a mythic
connection established between cosmic and human levels of existence via means of the
primordial sacrifice, which took on such importance as to possess its own ontological character.
Thus the archaic beginnings of Hindu cosmogony are bound to a tripartite construct whereby a
mythic slaying of the primordial being establishes (1) cosmos, (2) anthropos, and (3) sacrifice.
Furthermore, the fundamental hierarchies that inform both cosmic and human order are derived
from this anthropo-cosmogonic process. The earliest form of this appears in the purusc su|ic of
the Rg Vc!c,
which connects specific parts of the primordial purusc or 'person,' with not only
This article is reprinted, with minor additions and corrections, from K|i|cnics. A jcurnc| jcr i|c Siu!q cj
Rc|igicn 1, no. 1 (2003), 43-50. An earlier version of this article appeared in 1|un!cr|c|i 1 (2003).
See in particular the magisterial work by David Gordon White, 1|c A|c|cmicc| 8c!q . Si!!|c 1rc!iiicns
in Mc!ictc| |n!ic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), passim.
Rg Vc!c 10.90. For (transliterated) text see Theodor Aufrecht, Dic Hqmncn !cs Rigtc!c, 4. Aufl. / ed., 2
vols. (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1968). For translation, see Wendy Doniger, 1|c Rig Vc!c . An Ani|c|cgq
the material cosmos, but also the origin of the four tcrncs (castes).
On one hand, the material
and animate substance of the cosmos is established from purusc´s body; that is to say, from his
head, navel, feet and ears come the heavens, atmosphere, earth and quarters; from his eyes,
nose/ears, mouth and mind come the sun, winds, fire, and moon.
On the other hand his body is
sacrificed to create the human order:
The Brahman was his mouth,
The arms were made the Prince,
His thighs the common people,
And from his feet the serf was born.
Significantly, the creation of cosmos from anthropos articulates the fundamental link between the
microcosmic and macrocosmic domains of existence, thereby providing the foundation for not
only Vedic sacrifice - whereby ritual (re)generates the cosmos - but also the internalization of this
sacrifice in tantric, yogic and alchemical practices, whereby the (re)generation of the physical and
subtle body may be effected.
This tripartite cosmology is best understood as a cosmogonic prcccss.
It consists of two phases:
(1) a centripetal or inward-turning phase directed toward csscncc and (2) a centrifugal or outward-
. Onc Hun!rc! cn! |ig|i Hqmns, Sc|ccic!, 1rcns|cic! cn! Anncicic!, Pcnguin C|cssics
(Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England ; New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1981).
The mythic origins of tcrnc can best be seen as a religious ideal. Moreover, this is to be clearly
distinguished from socio-political explanations, which tend toward a view of tcrnc as a human institution
resulting from conflicting principles, self-seeking, economic considerations, and superstition; See in
particular John Henry Hutton, Ccsic in |n!ic . |is Nciurc, Iunciicn cn! Origins, 3rd ed. (Bombay: Oxford
University Press, 1961). Among other things, the myth of the sacrifice of purusc establishes (1) the human
social order; (2) the hierarchical division of a religious whole into four parts exalting the Brahmin over
other castes; and (3) the primacy of spiritual authority over temporal power. On this see Louis Dumont,
Hcmc Hicrcrc|icus . 1|c Ccsic Sqsicm cn! |is |mp|icciicns (London: Paladin, 1972), 104-7.
Herman Wayne Tull, 1|c Vc!ic Origins cj Kcrmc . Ccsmcs cs Mcn in Ancicni |n!icn Mqi| cn! Riiuc|,
SUNY Scrics in Hin!u Siu!ics. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), 50-3.
Rg Vc!c 10.90; See also the Icus cj Mcnu 1.31, where the Lord or Self-existent-one produces the four
tcrncs from his own being:
from his mouth he created the priest,
from his arms the ruler,
from his thighs the commoner,
and from his feet the servant.
From 1|c Icus cj Mcnu . Wii| cn |nirc!uciicn cn! Ncics, trans. Brian K. Smith, Pcnguin C|cssics.
(London, England ; New York, N.Y. USA: Penguin Books, 1991).
The nature of the micro-macrocosmic process has subsequently been articulated by religious theoreticians
in terms of either emanation or differentiation, that is to say, between the monism informing Vedanta, and
the dualism informing Samkhya. These need not be irreconcilable; Such religio-philosophical distinctions
flowing phase directed toward mcnijcsiciicn. This process is cyclic: emanation and reabsorption
eternally recur, with bi-unity and bi-polarity characterising the extremes at either end of these
Bi-unity (Essence) >> cmcnciicn >> Bi-polarity (Manifestation)
Bi-Polarity (Manifestation) >> rcc|scrpiicn >> Bi-unity (Essence)
In tantra, the bi-unity is obviously expressed as the sexual conjunction of the male-female dyad:
Siva and Sakti.
The bi-unity is a condition characterized as absolute, unlimited, infinite, and so
on. Yet from within this state, an impetus arises toward its opposite: towards dissolution,
limitation, and the finite. Such an impetus inaugurates the process of cmcnciicn, by means of
which the bi-unity expresses a desire to experience itself as an Other. Here Sakti moves
progressively away from Siva, becoming increasingly differentiated to the point where, at the
outermost level of emanation, she is identifiable with the manifest world itself (cf. prc|rii as
feminine materiality). As the tension
inherent in this bi-polarity reaches a critical level, the
second phase is initiated, that is, the return of the separated lovers. This is the basis of the
fundamental tantric notion that desire, and hence the erotic impulse (Sanskrit |cmc), is the
essential means of transcendence.
During this stage of the cycle, which occurs under the aegis
of the |c|i-qugc, the manifest world undergoes dissolution, which is the necessary process
enabling the rcc|scrpiicn of the world (Sakti, prc|rii) into the absolute condition of primordial
As the Prciqc||ijñ¯|r!cqc of Ksemaräja puts it:
do not always preclude the fundamental cosmological homology that we have been describing. For further
discussion, see White, 1|c A|c|cmicc| 8c!q, 15ff.
Obvious personifications of the Samkhyan purusc ‘person’ and prc|rii ‘matter, nature’ (hence anthropos
Tension is inherent to the polarisation of opposites. The very word icnirc is derivable from the Sanskrit
root icn (cognate with English ‘tone’ and ‘tensile’). Among the Stoics, the Greek cognate icncs indicates a
comparable condition of cosmic tension engendered through the interaction of opposites.
Cf. the Socratic notion that crcs is the way to the gods (Plato, Sqmpcsium, 201 D ff).
This is well expressed in the Mciicti|¯sc:
Now, when the Kali Age is here
And lofty virtues disappear, […]
The countless fragments of creation
Sought refuge with the Primal Man.
Translation, David N. Lorenzen, "A Parody of the KäpäIikas in the MallaviIäsa," in Tantra in Practice,
ed. David Gordon White, Princeton Readings in Religions (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press,
2000), 85. Note here that the primordial anthropic condition is to be understood as androgynous.
The universe opens out (unmiscii) in appearances (prcscrcnc) and in
continuation, (then) it closes in (nimiscii) with the turning back of appearances.
Thus, in effect, the path of the tantric adept is one of reabsorbing the power (sc|ii) inherent in
feminine materiality (prc|rii). This is a process of integrating or assimilating the forces of the
manifest world to empower and liberate the self. Integration of worldly dissolution thus becomes
a path of absolution.
This goes some way to explaining why tantra employs conventionally
destabilizing elements (e.g. intoxicants, libertinism, impurities) into its initiatory process.
Moreover, it would seem that this general procedure of self-creation through assimilating
elements typically connected with cosmic dissolution has some broader parallels. The Indo-
Europeanist Bruce Lincoln has reconstructed a primordial form of the Indo-European creation
myth whose reflexes are attested in the mythico-religious literature of its descendent cultures.
Most notable is the role of the sacrifice of the primordial being cognate with the Vedic purusc
(Germanic Ymir, Persian Yima etc.) in the creation of the cosmos. We can therefore recognise
that the relation of anthropos to cosmos is one of microcosm to macrocosm, and that in Indo-
European myth the primordial human is sacrificed to fit out the substance of the manifest cosmos.
In short, through a process of sacrifice or “creative death,” anthropos |cccmcs cosmos. More
interestingly, this very process is reversed in the creation of the human order, the elements of the
physical cosmos being converted into the elements of the primordial corporeity: cosmogony
|cccmcs anthropogony. Microcosmic and macrocosmic domains of existence thus become
alloforms, that is, alternate shapes, of one another.
Creation : Anthropos becomes cosmos
(Emanation of cosmos = dissolution of anthropos)
De-creation : Cosmos becomes anthropos
(Reabsorption of cosmos = incorporation of anthropos)
In light of this, the cosmological matrix of tantra is ultimately based upon a fluidity between the
feminine cosmic creative principle, prc|rii,
and the masculine anthropic de-creative principle,
Translation in Gavin D. Flood, 8c!q cn! Ccsmc|cgq in Kcs|mir Scitism (San Francisco: Mellen
Research University Press, 1993), 34, parenthesis Flood.
I use these terms in reference to their Latin meaning (sc|uius, free, unfettered; sc|tcrc, to release); the
derivatives (e.g. dissolute, absolute) are intended to convey the interrelationship of tantric religious realities
in English parlance.
Bruce Lincoln, Mqi|, Ccsmcs, cn! Scciciq . |n!c-|urcpccn 1|cmcs cj Crcciicn cn! Dcsiruciicn
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986), 1-40.
Ibid., 16 ff.
Cf. the Western alchemical notion of primc mcicric, which, in turn, probably derives from the
Presocratic doctrines of a primordial material crc|¯. Not insignificantly, this is recapitulated in Aristotle as
purusc. That is to say, between absolute and manifest levels of existence. Paralleling the Western
alchemical process of sc|tc ci cccgu|c (dissolve and coagulate), it is simultaneously a world-
ccn¡ucring and world-cssimi|ciing process, proceeding via the separation and conjunction of
In accordance with the veneration of Sakti-prc|rii, and hence cjjirmciicn cj i|c ucr|!, tantra
originally seems to have been concerned with practical and empirical knowledge, as opposed to
the abstract and absolute knowledge of the Brahmins.
Thus, not only does tantra form a parallel
tradition to the more orthodox paths provided by the Vedic, Brahminic and Upanisadic
it is often a product of the lower or non-privileged castes (particularly artisans and
craftsmen, i.e. the tcisqc). Such a position necessarily inverts the emphases of the Hindu caste
system, particularly in regards to patriarchy and religious formalities. Moreover, it is
characterised by a revival of ‘primitive’ beliefs and practices, a more informal approach to the
personal deity, and a liberal attitude to women.
Due to its real-worldly basis, tantra, in marked
distinction to Upanisadic asceticism, sought liberation not jrcm the body, but uii|in it. It is in
this context that we are best able discern the concept of jitcnmu|ii, or 'liberation in life,' as
opposed to the more prevalent, world-rejecting concept of liberation jrcm life, i.e. via an austere
renunciation of corporeal and worldly existence. From this we begin to understand the crucial
role of the body, which in tantric and related practices is accorded especial significance as the
epitome of the universe. As we have seen, such a homology between corporeal and cosmic matter
is accorded to their common generation from each other.
Because the feminine held limited prestige in the orthodox and patriarchal socio-religious
structures of India, it is easy to understand why the material and feminine principle of Sakti-
prc|rii takes on notoriety as a highly unorthodox religious orientation. Indeed, the history of
the material substratum (connected with the feminine) in which form (connected with the masculine) is
Narendra Nath Bhattacharyya, Hisicrq cj i|c 1cniric Rc|igicn . A Hisicricc|, Riiuc|isiic, cn!
P|i|cscp|icc| Siu!q (New Delhi: Manohar, 1982), 1-7.
As White has pointed out, tantra is typically employed as blanket definition covering a body of theories
and practices differing from the Hindu, Buddhist and Jain mainstream. See David Gordon White,
"Transformations in the Art of Love : KämakaIä Practises in Hindu Tantric and Kaula Traditions," Hisicrq
cj Rc|igicns 38, no. 2 (1998): 172.
Bhattacharyya, Hisicrq cj i|c 1cniric Rc|igicn, 9ff.
tantra seems to demonstrate the need to sublimate it. Originally rooted in Kula (i.e. clanic)
practices based in cremation grounds, the origins of tantra have been shown to develop out of a
conflation of the erotic and the horrific with an emphasis on the role of yoginïs and female deities
In seeking to literally cm|c!q or manifest divine power (sc|ii) in the human
microcosm through a ritual methodology of worldly power and pleasure, tantra envisioned the
medium of human-divine transaction as proceeding via sexual fluids in which the essence of
numinous power was instilled.
Thus the tantric adept sought to engage sexually with divine
feminine entities in a reciprocal exchange of sexual fluids for the mutual gain of supernatural
However, sectarian differences culminating in the Srïvidyä tantra of the twelfth-
thirteenth centuries resulted in a process of “Brahminisation,” whereby the assimilation of the
divine element to sexual fluids was sublimated into a symbology of photic and acoustic
representations (e.g. qcnirc and mcnirc).
This dichotomy between Kula and Srïvidyä practices is most likely at root of the distinction in
tantra between the t¯m¯c¯rc (left-hand path) and the !c|sin¯c¯rc (right-hand path).
David Gordon White, Kiss cj i|c Ycginï . ¨1cniric Scx¨ in |is Scui| Asicn Ccnicxis (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2003), passim, White, "Transformations in the Art of Love," 173.
White, "Transformations in the Art of Love," 174-5.
Ibid., 195 ff.
Ibid., 174-5, 80 ff.
Tantrism is known to distinguish certain ¯c¯rcs, 'paths' or 'conducts.' Most notably we find the
t¯m¯c¯rc (left-hand conduct) and !c|sin¯c¯rc (right-hand conduct) whence derive the terms left-hand
and right-hand paths respectively. V¯m¯ refers to the left, or to that which is situated or related to the left.
The t¯m¯c¯rc thus contrasts with the !c|sin¯c¯rc, the right hand path, which designates uprightness in
conduct. Hence t¯mc has come to signify that which is reverse, adverse, contrary, opposite or
unfavourable. It is to act in the opposite way, hence to be different, hard, cruel, vile, wicked, base, low, or
perverse. Further permutations associate t¯mc with a snake, an animal, as well as sentient beings in
general. More conventionally, the actual left-hand path (t¯m¯c¯rc) or left hand doctrine (t¯mcm¯rgc)
refer to the left-handed practices or doctrines of the tantras, specifically the worship of Sakti, female
energy, personified as the wife of Siva. See Monier Monier-Williams, Ernst Leumann, and Carl
Cappeller, A Scns|rii-|ng|is| Diciicncrq . |iqmc|cgicc||q cn! P|i|c|cgicc||q Arrcngc! uii| Spccic|
Rcjcrcncc ic Ccgncic |n!c-|urcpccn Icngucgcs, New ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 465, 941.
See also André Padoux, "Tantrism," in 1|c |ncqc|cpc!ic cj Rc|igicn, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York:
Macmillan, 1993), 14: 276-7. On the feminine and the left-hand path, see Bhattacharyya, Hisicrq cj i|c
1cniric Rc|igicn, 108:
… of the existing modes of Tantric worship the V¯m¯c¯rc is so important that the term
has become a synonym of Tantra itself. The conception of Dc|sincc¯rc as opposed to
V¯m¯c¯rc seems to be a later development, and it is possible that the first word of the
expression t¯m¯c¯rc is not t¯mc or left, but t¯m¯ or woman.
As regards the cultural associations of left, see Robert E. Svoboda, Ag|crc. Ai i|c Icji Hcn! cj Gc!
(New Delhi: Rupa, 1994), 182:
Look at the difference between the left and right hands, at least in Indian culture. The
right hand takes the food and drink to the mouth, performs religious ceremonies, makes
defined by its use of what (from the moral perspective of high Hindu culture) amounts to purity
the left-hand path is typically devalued as an antinomian practice. Yet, while
liberation from socio-religious fetters is not without initiatory merit,
pre- Srïvidyä tantra is
more properly understood as a process whereby the initiate is able to transmute the most
overwhelming, dangerous and destabilising of experiences into a source of vivifying
At its most extreme, this is tantamount to a reversal of the forces of mortality
and death (e.g. the downward flow of |un]c|inï) in order to effect immortality and transcendence
of the human condition whilst still embodied.
Behind all this symbology, then, lies the most practical and existentially confronting of aims:
victory over the natural processes of time and death. As we have seen, the left-handed Kula did
not seek this via post-mortem transcendence. In overcoming the natural forces of mortality, the
initiate sought to establish the supernatural processes which bequeathed the divine power of
immortality to the inccrncic self. By conflating the manifest and the absolute, the alchemy of
offerings, and does everything else auspicious. The left hand must perform all the
inauspicious activities: cleaning the excretory orifices, even killing animals. And almost
all the people in the world are naturally right handed. Aghora is the mastery of all actions,
inauspicious as well as auspicious. Left is always more intense than right, because the left
side of the body is controlled by Shakti.
The antinomian indulgences of the left-hand path are usually defined in terms of the five mc|¯rcs: five
forbidden elements which in Sanskrit begin with the mc-|¯rc, which is to say, the letter m. These five
elements are namely mc!qc, ‘wine,’ m¯msc, ‘flesh,’ mcisqc, ‘fish,’ mu!r¯, ‘cereals’ and mcii|unc, ‘sexual
intercourse.’ It is important to realise that these five areas of indulgence were in stark opposition to the
observances of the orthodox traditions of Hinduism, particularly Upanisadic asceticism, which sought
liberation by abstaining from such activities. Consider, for instance, the pre-tantric attitude which
conceived women as "fuel to the fire of hell” (Georg Feuerstein, 1|c |sscncc cj Ycgc . A Ccniri|uiicn ic
i|c Psqc|c|isicrq cj |n!icn Citi|isciicn (London: Rider, 1974), 183).
Cf. Ku|¯rnctc 1cnirc 9.55:
Valuing what is devalued in the world and devaluing what the world values, this the
Terrifying Lord who is the supreme Self has pointed out is the path of the Heart (i.e.
Translation, Douglas Renfrew Brooks, "The Ocean of the Heart : Selections from the Ku|¯rnctc 1cnirc,"
in 1cnirc in Prcciicc, ed. David Gordon White, Princcicn Rcc!ings in Rc|igicns (Princeton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press, 2000), 357, parenthesis mine.
That the t¯m¯c¯rc demands more than indulgence in socio-religious taboos is attested to in the
To follow the path of Kula is more difficult than walking on the edge of a sword; if by
merely drinking wine or eating meat or indulging in sexual intercourse a man were to
attain siddhi, then all drunkards and debauchees might have attained it.
Bhattacharyya, Hisicrq cj i|c 1cniric Rc|igicn, 72.
Thus, according to the Ku|¯rnctc 1cnirc, awakening and raising the vitalising feminine energy of
|un]c|inï to the cranial vault is said to result in the “nectar-essence of the union of Siva-Sakti flowing from
the highest cerebral region.” Again we find the impetus toward the anthropic bi-unity of masculine and
tantric transmutation, like its Western counterpart, thereby sought to transform a conditioned and
perishable substance into an unconditioned, imperishable one
: “As in metal, so in the body”
(qci|¯ |c|c i|ci¯ !c|c).
Similarly, the aim of the Kula täntrika is to become a god on earth. In
doing this, the Kula must confront, embrace and reconcile, in this life, the forces of desire and
death, of crcs and i|cncics. By so doing, all that is awe-ful and Other becomes as a vivifying fuel
to the flame of Self-knowledge, thereby enabling initiation into godlike power.
By way of conclusion, it is enough to reiterate that this impetus toward the essential confluence of
crcs and i|cncics is present in the very cosmogonic cycle which informs the symbology of the
tantric mythos. Where death de-creates the Self by exteriorising it as an Other, crcs re-creates the
Self by inicricrising all that is Other. We have seen that this process informs the pre- Srïvidyä or
left-handed Kula traditions, whose initiates seek to create themselves as gods via integrating (i.e.
inicricrising) the elements of cosmic and social dissolution characteristic of the |c|i-qugc. On the
other hand, the ultimate transaction with and integration of the Other was most poignantly
enacted as an initiatory transmission between male-female, human-divine opposites, conflating
the carnal and the numinous in a manner that replicates the divine syzygy of Siva-Sakti.
By doing this, the tantric alchemist seeks to impart the perfecting effect of metallurgical transmutations
to the body, thus rendering it immortal, invincible and godlike.
See White, 1|c A|c|cmicc| 8c!q, 52-3.:
The hallmark of religious alchemy is its dual emphasis on transmutational (|c|ct¯!c)
alchemy and elixir (!c|ct¯!c) alchemy, on the bodily transformation of the living
practitioner into a perfected immortal […] The goal of tantric alchemy is bodily
immortality, invincibility, and transcendence of the human condition. The tantric
alchemist […] seeks through his practices to render himself godlike, a second Siva.
So the legendary Hindu alchemist, Nagärjuna, reinforces the notion that mastery over macrocosmic
processes is the practical foundation from which mastery over microcosmic processes could be
extrapolated. Thus, for the tantric alchemist, mastery of the macrocosm (or elements within it, such as
sexual processes or metallurgical transmutation) was cognate to mastery of the microcosm; conversely,
mastery of self (i.e. overcoming psycho-physiological contingencies) enabled mastery over the cosmos (i.e.
overcoming mortality, time and death). For discussion, see Ibid., 5. For (edited) Sanskrit text of the
“Rasarnava” of Nagärjuna," see Priyadaranjan Ray and Prafulla Chandra Ray, Hisicrq cj C|cmisirq in
Ancicni cn! Mc!ictc| |n!ic . |nccrpcrciing i|c Hisicrq cj Hin!u C|cmisirq |q Ac|crqc Prcju||c C|cn!rc
Rcq (Calcutta: Indian Chemical Society, 1956), 321 ff.
Aufrecht, Theodor. Dic Hqmncn !cs Rigtc!c. 4. Aufl. / ed. 2 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1968.
Bhattacharyya, Narendra Nath. Hisicrq cj i|c 1cniric Rc|igicn . A Hisicricc|, Riiuc|isiic, cn!
P|i|cscp|icc| Siu!q. New Delhi: Manohar, 1982.
Brooks, Douglas Renfrew. "The Ocean of the Heart : Selections from the Ku|¯rnctc 1cnirc." In 1cnirc in
Prcciicc, edited by David Gordon White, 347-60. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press,
Doniger, Wendy. 1|c Rig Vc!c . An Ani|c|cgq . Onc Hun!rc! cn! |ig|i Hqmns, Sc|ccic!, 1rcns|cic!
cn! Anncicic!, Pcnguin C|cssics. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England ; New York, N.Y.:
Penguin Books, 1981.
Dumont, Louis. Hcmc Hicrcrc|icus . 1|c Ccsic Sqsicm cn! |is |mp|icciicns. London: Paladin, 1972.
Feuerstein, Georg. 1|c |sscncc cj Ycgc . A Ccniri|uiicn ic i|c Psqc|c|isicrq cj |n!icn Citi|isciicn.
London: Rider, 1974.
Flood, Gavin D. 8c!q cn! Ccsmc|cgq in Kcs|mir Scitism. San Francisco: Mellen Research University
Hutton, John Henry. Ccsic in |n!ic . |is Nciurc, Iunciicn cn! Origins. 3rd ed. Bombay: Oxford University
1|c Icus cj Mcnu . Wii| cn |nirc!uciicn cn! Ncics. Translated by Brian K. Smith, Pcnguin C|cssics.
London, England ; New York, N.Y. USA: Penguin Books, 1991.
Lincoln, Bruce. Mqi|, Ccsmcs, cn! Scciciq . |n!c-|urcpccn 1|cmcs cj Crcciicn cn! Dcsiruciicn.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.
Lorenzen, David N. "A Parody of the KäpäIikas in the MallaviIäsa." In 1cnirc in Prcciicc, edited by
David Gordon White, 81-96. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Monier-Williams, Monier, Ernst Leumann, and Carl Cappeller. A Scns|rii-|ng|is| Diciicncrq .
|iqmc|cgicc||q cn! P|i|c|cgicc||q Arrcngc! uii| Spccic| Rcjcrcncc ic Ccgncic |n!c-|urcpccn
Icngucgcs. New ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.
Ray, Priyadaranjan, and Prafulla Chandra Ray. Hisicrq cj C|cmisirq in Ancicni cn! Mc!ictc| |n!ic .
|nccrpcrciing i|c Hisicrq cj Hin!u C|cmisirq |q Ac|crqc Prcju||c C|cn!rc Rcq. Calcutta:
Indian Chemical Society, 1956.
Tull, Herman Wayne. 1|c Vc!ic Origins cj Kcrmc . Ccsmcs cs Mcn in Ancicni |n!icn Mqi| cn! Riiuc|,
SUNY Scrics in Hin!u Siu!ics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.
White, David Gordon. 1|c A|c|cmicc| 8c!q . Si!!|c 1rc!iiicns in Mc!ictc| |n!ic. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1996.
———. Kiss cj i|c Ycginï . ¨1cniric Scx¨ in |is Scui| Asicn Ccnicxis. Chicago: University of Chicago
———. "Transformations in the Art of Love : KämakaIä Practises in Hindu Tantric and Kaula
Traditions." Hisicrq cj Rc|igicns 38, no. 2 (1998): 172-98.
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