You are on page 1of 3


A Transducer designed to transmit or receive electro magnetic . Convert electro magnetic waves into electrical and vice versa. Used in system such as radio and television broad casting. Arrange of conductor that generate a radiating to electro magnetic field in response to an applied alternating voltage and associated with alternating current.

Physical Arrangement:

Hardware specification:
Frequency: 914MHz , 2.5 MHz Output power: 10dBm Local oscillation PLL: Phase locked loop

PLL Working:

A Control system that generates a signal that has a fixed relation to the phase of a reference signal. A PLL circuit responds to both the frequency and the phase of the input signal, automatically raising or lowering the frequency of a controlled oscillator until it is matched to the reference in both frequency and phase PLL uses ve feed back. A single integrated circuit can provide a complete PLL building back. IF: 21.7MHz

System Block diagram

AGC Aplifier: Tunner: Intermediate frequency (IF):
Automatic gain control amplifier for adjusted. Tunner the transmitting frequency to 914MHz of broadcasting.

A frequency to which a carrier freq. is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception (created by mixing the carrier signal with a local oscillator signal in a process called Hetrodying IF used for three general reason 1. At very high freq. signal processing circuit performs poorly. Transistor cannot deliver gain without becoming unstable. 2. To convert various freq. of station to a common freq for processing 3. To improve freq selectivity.

dBm:Power ratio in dB of the measure power reference to 1mw. Difference b/w dB & dBm: dB is used when expressing the ratio b/w two
power value. dBm is used when expressing an absolute value of power. dB= 10log(p1/p2) , dBm= 10log(p1/1000)

Antenna Properties: Radiation pattern: *It is a graphical depiction of relative field. Stength
transmitted from or received by particular antenna. *As antenna radial in space often several curves are necessary to describe the antenna. * If radiation pattern is symmetrical about its axis the unique graph is sufficient. * The radiation pattern absolute to easily see the side and back lobe. *Radiation pattern: The locus of all pts whr the emitted power/unit surface is same. * The radial power is proportional to squared electric field of the EM waves, *It is the locus of the pts with same electric field.

Parameters: Efficiency: Ratio of actual power to the power put into the antenna
terminals. Ex: A dummy load weight have a SWR if 1:1 but efficiency for zero, as it absorbed all power & radiated heat but to RF energy showing that SER alone is hot an effective measure of antenna efficiency. It is calculated as radiated resistance divide with total resistance. Bandwidth: The length of freq. width which performance of an antenna w.r.t some characteristics confirm to a specific standard. BW depends upon over all effectiveness of an antenna through a range of freq. Directivity: The ratio of max radiation intensity radiated by the antenna in max direction divided by intensity radiated by isotropic antenna loss-less. Ex: An antenna which has a radiated pattern of a Hemi-sphere has directivity (D) of 2. It is a dimensionless ratio and converted in dB. Gain of Antenna: Measure the directivity of a given antenna. it is defined as the radio of intensity(power by unit surface)radiated by the antenna in given direction at an arbitrary distance divided by intensity radiated at same distance by a hypothetical isotropic surface antenna. G= (p/s) ant / (p/s) iso VSWR: if voltage control send 10 volts and transmit towards antenna .it takes required voltage and send back the remaining volts .The ratio of selected input and back input is called vswr.