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Device Controlling Using Bluetooth

Aldrin Rohclem A. Emata

Introduction Controlling device wirelessly is about the convenience of saving your time and effort by having your home automatically do routine functions such as turning off all lights, setting the air-condition unit on and arming the security system when you sleep for the night or opening the garage door from your car. Interfacing an everyday device with the above requirement would be the best solution; a device that can control several appliances. A mobile phone with Symbian OS would be the best fit. Creating a circuit that can receive Bluetooth signals and interpret those signals to turn on a relay that controls the home appliance. Wireless control of device can be the first step for home automation. This system will allow control over lighting, heating machine, cooling, security and cctv systems whenever you leave and enter your house and more. The possibilities are endless, although commercial remote controller equipment tends to cover the main areas above. It can also be tied into home cinema systems, so a single remote can turn on a projector, lower the screen, dim the lights, activate the sound system and start a media source. Wireless device control can reduce energy consumption, increase security

and make a home more comfortable. A wireless controlling integrates electrical devices in a house with each other. Devices may be connected through a computer network to allow control by a personal

computer or a Smartphone, and may allow remote access from the internet or Bluetooth. Through the integration of information technologies with the home environment, systems and appliances are able to communicate in an integrated manner which results in convenience, energy efficiency, and safety benefits. Bluetooth is a specification for a small form-factor, low-cost radio solution providing links between mobile computers, mobile phones and other portable handheld devices, and connectivity to the Internet.. It will enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices easily and simply, without the need to buy, carry, or connect cables. It is a wireless technology that operates on an unlicensed radio spectrum. There is no charge for communicating between two Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth is intended to get around the problems that come with both infrared and cable synchronizing systems. The hardware vendors, which include Siemens, Intel, Toshiba, Motorola and Ericsson, have developed a specification for a very small radio module to be built into computer, telephone and entertainment equipment. From the users point of view, there are few important features of Bluetooth:

1. Its wireless. When you travel, you dont have to worry about keeping track of a briefcase full of cables to attach all of your components, and you can design your office without wondering where all the wires will go. 2. its inexpensive. 3. You dont have to think about it. Bluetooth doesnt require you to do anything special to make it work. The devices find one another and strike up a conversation without any user input at all.

4. Simple Configuration. Bluetooth-activated devices within 30 feet of each other will find one other. Some Bluetooth devices will require you to enter a security code to complete pairing, but overall Bluetooth is light years easier to configure than your home wireless network. 5. Not a Power Hog. The low amount of power consumption for the devices makes it ideal for small, portable devices. The average Bluetooth device uses about 2.5 miliwatts of power. Bluetooth is also designed to have the ability to power its radio down during periods of inactivity. 6. Standardized Technology. Standardizing Bluetooth technology ensures that it will be always be compatible, even with devices made by different manufacturers.

It is a wireless protocol that is used to communicate from one device to another in a small area usually less than 30 feet. Bluetooth communicates on a frequency of 2.45gigahertz, which has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM). Bluetooths founding members include Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba. Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become so simple to use that they seamlessly integrate into your daily life. This project describes a new economical solution of device control systems. This can be used for different sophisticated home applications. The system consists of a Symbian Phone, and control circuitry and the electrical devices.

Objectives The main goal of this project is to create a wireless device that will control any device, by switching it on or off, using Bluetooth. This prototype will then be interfaced to devices that uses electricity to power on. This project will also provide convenience and effort for controlling the devices.

Scope and Limitation

This project is limited only to control specific devices by Bluetooth. The components being used in this project is carefully selected to provide the best performance for the circuitry. The Bluetooth transmitter is only limited to mobile phones that support Symbian OS. The Bluetooth receiver being used can only be used to this specific project. Device control using Bluetooth uses Symbian OS mobile to control devices through Bluetooth. A serial to Bluetooth converter is used in this project. The micro controller AT89c2051 is used to receive the data from the mobile through Bluetooth. Most of the Nokia smart phones can be used in this project. Our project aims at data acquisition and based on the data acquired the control of the switching action of any device attached to the circuit. Data is transferred between two Bluetooth enabled devices, one act as the server and other as the client. All the controlling action is done by mobile phone. The technology used (Bluetooth) is wireless and inexpensive and uses an unlicensed radio spectrum with the main disadvantages being the range of

operation. Bluetooth has a range of only 10m in closed spaces and 20m in the open there by restricting the operational area Moreover, this project aims to provide mobility, convenience and reliability over turning on of devices. This project also aims data acquisition and based on the data acquired the control of the switching action of any device attached to the circuit. Data is transferred between two Bluetooth enabled devices, one act as the server and other as the client. All the controlling action is done by mobile phone.

Significance of the Study

The study of controlling devices using bluetooth will enable the students to discover the other applications of bluetooth technology. This will also enhance their knowledge in communication between two devices in short distances. This study will also beneficial in terms of security purpose by toggling the alarms located inside the house from the outside.

Definition of Terms

Bluetooth -

Related Literature

The researcher mainly focused on the literatures that describes the process of how bluetooth communication is done, the components that is needed, and the factors that should be considered upon implementing this project. Information from related studies taken through the internet was taken into account to obtain a reliable basis for the study. Origin of wireless controlling

Home automation refers to the use of computer and information technology to control home appliances and features (such as windows or lighting). Systems can range from simple remote control of lighting through to complex computer/micro-controller based networks with varying degrees of intelligence and automation. Home automation is adopted for reasons of ease, security and energy efficiency. In modern construction in industrialized nations, most homes have been wired for electrical power, telephones, TV outlets (cable or antenna), and a doorbell. Many household tasks were automated by the development of specialized appliances. For instance, automatic washing machines were developed to reduce the manual labor of cleaning clothes, and water heaters reduced the labor necessary for bathing. Other traditional household tasks, like food preservation and preparation have been automated in large extent by moving them into factory settings, with the development of pre-made, pre-packaged foods, and in some countries, such as the United States, increased reliance on commercial food preparation services, such as fast food restaurants. Volume production and the factory setting allows forms of automation that would be impractical or too costly in a home setting. Standardized foods enable possible further automation of handling the food within the home. The use of gaseous or liquid fuels, and later the use of electricity enabled increased automation in heating, reducing the labor necessary to manually refuel heaters and stoves. Development of thermostats allowed more automated control of heating, and later cooling.

In simple installations, home automation may be as straightforward as turning on the lights when a person enters the room. In advanced installations, rooms can sense not only the presence of a person inside but know who that person is and perhaps set appropriate lighting, temperature, music levels or television channels, taking into account the day of the week, the time of day, and other factors. Other automated tasks may include setting the HVAC to an energy saving setting when the house is unoccupied, and restoring the normal setting when an occupant is about to return. More sophisticated systems can maintain an inventory of products, recording their usage through bar codes, or an RFID tag, and prepare a shopping list or even automatically order replacements. Home automation can also provide a remote interface to home appliances or the automation system itself, via telephone line, wireless transmission or the internet, to provide control and monitoring via a smartphone or web browser. An example of remote monitoring in home automation could be triggered when a smoke detector detects a fire or smoke condition, causing all lights in the house to blink to alert any occupants of the house to the possible emergency. If the house is equipped with a home theater, a home automation system can shut down all audio and video components to avoid distractions, or make an audible announcement. The system could also call the home owner on their mobile phone to alert them, or call the fire department or alarm monitoring company. In terms of lighting control, it is possible to save energy when installing various products. Simple functions such as motion sensors and detectors integrated into a relatively simple home automation system can save hours of wasted energy in both residential and commercial applications. For example imagine an auto on/off at night time in all major city office buildings, say after 10pm. When no motion is detected, lights shut down, and the owner could save kilowatts of wasted overnight energy. Similar controls on HVAC in buildings could save even more energy.

Home automation has been a feature of science fiction writing for many years, but has only become practical since the early 20th Century following the widespread introduction of electricity into the home, and the rapid advancement of information technology. Early remote control devices began to emerge in the late 1800s. For example, Nikola Tesla patented an idea for the remote control of vessels and vehicles in 1898. The emergence of electrical home appliances began between 1915 and 1920; the decline in domestic servants meant that households needed cheap, mechanical replacements. Domestic electricity supply, however, was still in its infancy meaning this luxury was afforded only the more affluent households. Ideas similar to modern home automation systems originated during the World s Fairs of the 1930s. Fairs in Chicago (1934), New York (1939) and (196465), depicted electrified and automated homes. In 1966 Jim Sutherland, an engineer working for Westinghouse Electric, developed a home automation system called ECHO IV; this was a private project and never commercialized. The first wired homes were built by American hobbyists during the 1960s, but were limited by the technology of the times. The term smart house was first coined by the American Association of House builders in 1984. With the invention of the microcontroller, the cost of electronic control fell rapidly. Remote and intelligent control technologies were adopted by the building services industry and appliance manufacturers worldwide, as they offer the end user easily accessible and/or greater control of their products. During the 90s home automation rose to prominence. By the end of the decade, domotics was commonly used to describe any system in which informatics and telematics were combined to support activities in the home. The phrase appears to be a portmanteau word formed from domus (Latin, meaning house) and informatics, and therefore refers specifically to the application of computer and robot technologies to domestic appliances.

Despite interest in home automation, by the end of the 1990s there was not a widespread uptake with such systems still considered the domain of hobbyists or the rich. The lack of a single, simplified, protocol and high cost of entry has put off consumers.

Methodology

Gathering Information The researcher conducted thorough research about the projects and its related topics. All possible sources and references were noted and were studied for further development of the project. Guides and tutorials were conducted also by the researcher to fully design the project.

Project Design The project featured in this study us an ongoing project of the researcher. This was carefully designed to meet the goal of the project. The components were selected according to the cost and performance. Other components was taken from the manufactures specified values so that the devices being used will perform at its maximum potential.

Bluetooth Technology Bluetooth, is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400 2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.

Bluetooth converter This is a device that will be used to convert and translate the bluetooth signal into codes and commands that is machine / device understandable.

AT89C2051 The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). The

device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

ULN2803 The eight NPN Darlington connected transistors in this family of arrays are ideally suited for interfacing between low logic level digital circuitry (such as TTL, CMOS or PMOS/NMOS) and the higher current/voltage requirements of lamps, relays, printer hammers or other similar loads for a broad range of computer, industrial, and consumer applications. All devices feature opencollector outputs and freewheeling clamp diodes for transient suppression.

LM7805 The LM7805 is one of series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

LM317 The LM317 is another series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and require only two external resistors to set the output voltage. Further, both line and load regulation are better than standard fixed regulators. Also, the LM117 is packaged in standard transistor packages which are easily mounted and handled.

Capacitors and Resistors Capacitors and resistors are used to simply bias the electronic components. Biasing is important so that the device can perform stable for longer period.

Data and Data Analysis

After the researcher studied the components, thereafter was the design of the project. It is a result of thorough surveys and research with the researcher modifications so that the project will be made with locally available electronic components.

Design Architecture

Figure 4.1.1

Figure 4.1.1 is the final design being used by the researcher. A supported mobile phone is used to send commands to a Bluetooth module. The module then converts the commands into on or off commands that controls a relay. The devices that will be controlled will be connected via relay.

Data As the device was tested, it was powered using a power supply rated 12 volts containing at least 1 ampere of current. The prototype will not function on ordinary 9 volts battery, because it has very low current.

Voltage Output Microcontroller Pins Pin 12 Pin 13 Pin 14 Pin 15 Pin 16 Pin 17 Pin 18 Pin 19 Voltage 3.1V 3.0 V 2.8 V 3.2 V 3.0 V 3.0 V 3.1 V 3.0 V

The voltage output was taken at each designated output pin on the microcontroller. The 10k SIP was removed when doing the measurement since it can affect the voltage of the pins. The voltages should closer to the voltage supply of the microcontroller.

Distance vs Connectivity Distance (m) 5.0 m 8.0 m 10.0 m Above 10 m Established Connection yes yes yes Poor / None

The data presented above is a measurement on how far can the connection from mobile phone to the module establish a connection. Standard Bluetooth can have a distance 0f 10 meters from the controller to the receiver module. On non-open spaces, the distance may vary according to how many obstructions a signal may go through.

Delay vs Distance Distance (m) 5.0 m 8.0 m 10.0 m Above 10 m Delay none none none Yes / no connection

Table 4.3 shows the delay on transfer of command with respect to distance. As the result shows, there is no delay if the controller is within the 10 meter radius of the Bluetooth module. Provided that it is an open space, if not delays may be present as the obstruction is also present.

Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

As the project is completed, the researcher was able to create a device that controls other device via Bluetooth. The prototype was controlled using a mobile phone with java OS, preferably Nokia s40 s60 phones. Other devices or the appliances that will be controlled are connected via relay. The benefit of wireless control is beneficial. It enables the user to save time and effort o turn on or off the device according to the desire of the user. Convenience is the main goal of this project which the device had offered as it was completed.

Recommendation

The researcher would like to recommend some upgrades for this project in order to enhance its capabilities. The software that is used to be installed in the phone should be updated to comply with later, high end mobile phone and tablets. The trending OS as of today is Android; any future plan for this project should also be compatible for Android running devices. The number of output relay should be maximized in order to control more devices.