The Copper Scroll is One of the Dead Sea Scrolls Found at K | Dead Sea Scrolls | Manuscript

Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea scrolls comprise roughly 825-870 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea). The texts are of great religious and historical significance, as they are practically the only known surviving Biblical documents written before AD 100. Date and contents According to carbon dating, textual analysis, and handwriting analysis the documents were written at various times between the middle of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD. At least one document has a carbon date range of 21 BCAD 61. The Nash Papyrus from Egypt, containing a copy of the Ten Commandments, is the only other Hebrew document of comparable antiquity. Similar written materials have been recovered from nearby sites, including the fortress of Masada. While some of the scrolls were written on papyrus, a good portion were written on a brownish animal hide that appears to be gevil. The scrolls were written with feathers from a bird and the ink used was made from carbon black and white pigments. One scroll, appropriately named the Copper Scroll, consisted of thin copper sheets that were incised with text and then joined together. The fragments span at least 800 texts that represent many diverse viewpoints, ranging from the beliefs of the Essenes to those of other sects. About 30% are fragments from the Hebrew Bible, from all the books except the Book of Esther and the Book of Nehemiah (Abegg et al 2002). About 25% are traditional Israelite religious texts that are not in the canonical Hebrew Bible, such as the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, and the Testament of Levi. Another 30% contain Biblical commentaries or other texts such as the Community Rule (1QS/4QSa-j, also known as "Discipline Scroll" or "Manual of Discipline") and the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness (1QM, also known as the "War Scroll") related to the beliefs, regulations, and membership requirements of a small Jewish sect, which many researchers believe lived in the Qumran area. The rest (about 15%) of the fragments are yet unidentified. Most of the scrolls are written in one of two dialects of Hebrew, Biblical Hebrew or Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew (on which see Hoffman 2004 or Qimron 1986).

Biblical Hebrew dominates in the Biblical documents, and DSS Hebrew in the documents composed in Qumran. Some scrolls are also written in Aramaic and a few in Greek. Only a few of the biblical scrolls were written at Qumran, the majority being copied before the Qumran period and coming into the ownership of the Qumran community (Abegg et al 2002). There is no evidence that the Qumran community altered the biblical texts that they did copy to reflect their own theology (Abegg et al 2002). It is thought that the Qumran community would have viewed the Book of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees as divinely inspired scripture (Abegg et al 2002). The biblical texts cited most often in the nonbiblical Dead Sea Scrolls are the Psalms, followed by the Book of Isaiah and the Book of Deuteronomy (Abegg et al 2002). Important texts include the Isaiah Scroll (discovered in 1947), a Commentary on the Habakkuk (1947); the Community Rule (1QS/4QSa-j), which gives much information on the structure and theology of the sect; and the earliest version of the Damascus Document. The so-called Copper Scroll (1952), which lists hidden caches of gold, scrolls, and weapons, is probably the most notorious. Essenes
According to a view almost universally held until the 1990s, the documents were written and hidden by a community of Essenes who lived in the Qumran area. This is known as the Essene Hypothesis. Jews revolted against the Romans in AD 66. Before they were massacred by Roman troops, the Essenes hid their scriptures in caves, not to be discovered until 1947. The opinion that the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls were Essenes is the most prevalent view among scholars (Abegg et al 2002 ).

Another theory, which has been gaining popularity, is that the community was led by Zadokite priests (Sadducees). The most important document in support of this view is the "Miqsat Ma'ase haTorah" (MMT, 4Q394-), which states purity laws identical to those attributed in rabbinic writings to the Sadducees (such as concerning the transfer of impurities). This document also reproduces a festival calendar which follows Sadducee principles for the dating of certain festival days.

Additional evidence is found in 4QMMT which agrees with the Sadduceean position that held streams of liquid were ritually unclean contrary to Pharisee belief. Most scholars feel that despite the similarities in purity laws, some pretty large unbridged theological issues make this unlikely. For example, Josephus says that the Sadducees and the Essenes held

opposing views of predestination, with the Essenes attributing everything to fate, while the Sadducees denied fate altogether. Similarly, many scrolls show evidence that the scroll authors believed the soul survived beyond death (and this belief included resurrection) which was contrary to the Sadducess who argued that there is no resurrection, no angel or spirit. Temple Library In 1963 Karl Heinrich Rengstorf of the University of Münster put forth the theory that the Dead Sea scrolls originated at the library of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. This theory was rejected by most scholars during the 1960s, who maintained that the scrolls were written at Qumran rather than transported from another location (a position supported by de Vaux's identification of a probable scriptorium within the ruins of Qumran). However, the theory was revived by Norman Golb and other scholars during the 1990s, who added that the scrolls probably also originated from several other libraries in addition to the Temple library. Christian Connections Spanish Jesuit JosÈ O'Callaghan has argued that one fragment (7Q5) is a New Testament text from the Gospel of Mark, chapter 6, verses 52 53. In recent years this controversial assertion has been taken up again by German scholar Carsten Peter Thiede. A successful identification of this fragment as a passage from Mark would make it the earliest extant New Testament document, dating somewhere between AD 30 and 60. Opponents consider that the fragment is tiny and requires so much reconstruction (the only complete word in Greek is "and") that it could have come from a text other than Mark. Robert Eisenman advanced the theory that some scrolls actually describe the early Christian community, characterized as more fundamentalist and rigid than the one portrayed by the New Testament. Eisenman also attempted to relate the career of James the Just and Paul of Tarsus to some of these documents. Other Theories Some of the scrolls may actually be the lost books mentioned in the Bible. Because they are frequently described as important to the history of the Bible, the scrolls are surrounded by a wide range of conspiracy theories: one example is the claim that they were entirely fabricated or planted by extra-terrestrials. There is also writing about the Nephilim related to the Book of Enoch. Other theories with more support among scholars include Qumran as a military fortress or a winter resort (Abegg et al 2002).


The scrolls were found in 11 caves near a settlement at Qumran, none of them coming from the actual settlement. It is generally accepted that a Bedouin goat- or sheep-herder by the name of Mohammed Ahmed el-Hamed (nicknamed edh-Dhib, "the wolf") made the first discovery towards the beginning of 1947. In the most commonly told story the shepherd threw a rock into a cave in an attempt to drive out a missing animal under his care. The shattering sound of pottery drew him into the cave, where he found several ancient jars containing scrolls wrapped in linen.

Dr. John C. Trevor has carried out a number of interviews with several men going by the name of Muhammed edh-Dhib, each relating a variation on this tale. The scrolls were first brought to a Bethlehem antiquities dealer named Ibrahim 'Ijha, who returned them after being warned that they may have been stolen from a synagogue.

The scrolls then fell into the hands of Khalil Eskander Shahin, "Kando", a cobbler and antiques dealer. By most accounts the Bedouin removed only three scrolls following their initial find and, either encouraged by Kando to return, revisited the site to gather more. Alternatively, it is postulated that Kando engaged in his own illegal excavation: Kando himself possessed at least four scrolls. Arrangements with Bedouin left the scrolls in the hands of a third party until a sale of them could be negotiated. That third party, George Isha'ya, was a member of the Syrian Orthodox Church, who soon contacted St. Mark's Monastery in the hope of getting an appraisal of the nature of the texts. News of the find then reached Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, more often referred to as Mar Samuel. After examining the scrolls and suspecting their age, Mar Samuel expressed an interest in purchasing them. All four scrolls found their way into his hands, the now famous Isaiah Scroll, the Community Rule, the Habakkuk Peshar, and the Genesis Apocryphon. Through the antiquities market, more scrolls soon surfaced, and Eleazer Sukenik found himself in possession of three: The War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns, and another more fragmented Isaiah scroll. By the end of 1947, Sukenik, received word of the scrolls in Mar Samuel's possession and attempted to purchase them. No deal was reached, and instead the scrolls found the attention of Dr. John C. Trevor, of the American School of Oriental Research (ASOR). Dr. Trevor compared the script in the scrolls to the Nash Papyrus, the oldest biblical manuscript at the time, finding similarities between the two. Dr. Trevor, a keen amateur photographer, met with Mar Samuel on February 21, 1948, when he photographed the scrolls. The quality of his photographs often exceeded that of the scrolls themselves over the years, as the texts quickly eroded once removed from their linen wraps.In March of that year, violence erupted between Arabs and Jews in Palestine, prompting the removal of the scrolls from the country for safekeeping. The scrolls were illegally removed to Beirut.

Cave 1

In 1949, scholars pinpointed the cave from which the scrolls were lifted, following the initial discovery, two years previously. Excavations of the cave began in February, under the direction of G L Harding, Roland de Vaux, and Ibrahim El-Assouli, caretaker of the Rockefeller Museum. Many of the larger manuscripts and fragments had been removed by local Bedouin peoples, yet the excavation uncovered some 600 fragments, alongside scraps of wood, cloth and pottery fragments. Infrared photographs, later to provide a valuable means of reading the texts, were taken on-site. A sum of 1000 Jordanian pounds was negotiated with the Bedouin, working with Kando, in exchange for the remaining fragments, after it became apparent that the scrolls obtained by Sukenik and Mar Samuel were missing.

Cave 2

Three years later in 1952, the Bedouin, working with Kando, uncovered numerous fragments and sold them to the Palestine Archaeological Museum and the École Biblique.

Cave 3

On March 14 of the same year, the scholarly expedition discovered a third cave containing manuscript fragments. In addition to these fragments was the Copper Scroll, which aroused much speculation, comprising a list and directions to treasure sites. The Copper Scroll records a list of 64 underground hiding places throughout the land of Israel. The deposits are to contain certain amounts of gold, silver, aromatics, and manuscripts. These are believed to be treasures from the Temple at Jerusalem, that were hidden away for safekeeping.

Cave 4

In August 1952 the Bedouin made a find in Cave 4. Large volumes of scroll fragments (though no complete scrolls) soon surfaced on the antiquities market. When Harding discovered the site more than half of the cache had been gathered from the cave. The archaeological excavation began in late September of that year, yielding many more fragments from many more texts, as well as a second chamber to the cave.

The financially struggling Jordanian government soon found itself unable to fund further purchases, and so instead offered the opportunity to foreign institutions to invest in the acquisition of the scrolls, for which they would be compensated with fragments. Several institutions responded, but were to be denied their purchase and refunded their money when the Jordanian government changed its position, instead keeping the texts in Jordan.

Caves 5 and 6

Excavations at Cave 4 soon led to the discovery of Cave 5, offering a modest yield of fragments. The Bedouin, shortly thereafter, found Cave 6, removing the remains of nearly three dozen more scrolls. Most of these were papyrus rather than the leather that predominated in the other caves.Mar Samuel, meanwhile, had made his way to America. Here he tried in vain to sell the texts in his possession, even displaying them once at the Library of Congress. Finally a now famous advertisement was taken out in the Wall Street Journal. On June 1, 1954, a Wall Street Journal ad proclaimed, "The Four Dead Sea Scrolls: Biblical Manuscripts dating back to at least 200 BC, are for sale. This

would be an ideal gift to an educational or religious institution by an individual or group." This ad was brought to the attention of Yigael Yadin, who, working through an intermediary, managed to purchase the scrolls for the sum of $250,000.

Caves 7-10
In 1955 archaeologists would discover four more caves, 7 through 10. Yielding few fragments, they were nonetheless significant. Cave 7 would yield nineteen Greek fragments (including 7Q5) and spark much debate in the ensuing decades. Cave 8 held but five fragments, though many materials used in the tying of scrolls would be found. Cave 9 held but one fragment and Cave 10 nothing but an ostracon.

Cave 11
The Bedouin discovered Cave 11, yielding over two dozen texts, including the Temple Scroll, which would later be seized by the Israeli army at the behest of Yigael Yadin. Two other complete scrolls would emerge from Cave 11, a copy of Leviticus and a book of Psalms, including several previously unknown hymns. Many have speculated that more Cave 11 scrolls may rest in the hands of a private collector. The Temple Scroll is the longest scroll. Its present total length is 26.7 feet (8.148 meters). The overall length of the scroll must have been over 28 feet (8.75m).

Some of the documents were published in a prompt manner: all of the writing found in Cave 1 appeared in print between 1950 and 1956; the finds from 8 different caves were released in a single volume in 1963; and 1965 saw the publication of the Psalms Scroll from Cave 11. Translation of these materials quickly followed. The exception to this speed was the documents from Cave 4, which represented 40% of the total material. The publication of these materials had been entrusted to an international team led by Father Roland de Vaux, a member of the Dominican Order in Jerusalem. This group published the first volume of the materials entrusted to them in 1968, but spent much of their energies defending their theories of the material instead of publishing it. Geza Vermes, who had been involved from the start in the editing and publication of these materials, blamed the delay - and eventual failure - on de Vaux's selection of a team unsuited to the quality of work he had planned, as well as relying "on his personal, quasi-patriarchal authority" to control the completion of the work.

As a result, the finds from Cave 4 were not made public for many years. Access to the scrolls was governed by a "secrecy rule" that allowed only the original International Team or their designates to view the original materials. After de Vaux's death in 1971, his successors repeatedly refused to even allow the publication of photographs of these materials so that other scholars could at least make their judgments. This rule was eventually broken: first by the publication in the fall of 1991 of 17 documents reconstructed from a concordance that had been made in 1988 and had come into the hands of scholars outside of the International Team; next, that same month, by the discovery and publication of a complete set of photographs of the Cave 4 materials at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, that were not covered by the "secrecy rule". After some delays these photographs were published by Robert Eisenman and James Robinson (A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, two volumes, Washington, D.C., 1991). As a result, the "secrecy rule" was lifted, and publication of the Cave 4 documents soon commenced, with five volumes in print by 1995.

Vatican Conspiracy Theory
Allegations that the Vatican suppressed the publication of the scrolls were published in the 1990s. Notably, Michael Baigent's and Richard Leigh's book The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception claim that several key scrolls were deliberately kept under wraps for decades to suppress unwelcome theories about the early history of Christianity; in particular, Eisenman's speculation that the life of Jesus was deliberately mythicized by Paul, possibly a Roman agent who faked his "conversion" from Saul in order to undermine the influence of anti-Roman messianic cults in the region. The complete publication and dissemination of translations and photographic records of the works in the late 1990s and early 2000s - particularly the publication of all of the "biblical" scrolls - has greatly lessened the credibility of their argument among mainstream scholarship. Today most scholars, both secular and religious, feel the documents are distinctly Jewish, rather than Christian. Dr. Trevor himself, in his book about the Dead Sea Scrolls, made the assertion that the scrolls have a deep archeological and historical significance, but asserts that they are the writings of another sect of Jews living out in the desert and nothing more.

The significance of the scrolls is still somewhat impaired by the uncertainty about their date and origin.

In spite of these limitations, the scrolls have already been quite valuable to text critics. Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible were Masoretic texts dating to 9th century. The biblical manuscripts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls push that date back to the 2nd century BC, and until that happened the oldest Greek manuscripts such as Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus were the earliest extant versions of biblical manuscripts. Although some of the biblical manuscripts found at Qumran differ significantly from the Masoretic text, most do not. The scrolls thus provide new variants and the ability to be more confident of those readings where the Dead Sea manuscripts agree with the Masoretic text or with the early Greek manuscripts. Further, the sectarian texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, most of which were previously unknown, offer new light on one form of Judaism practiced in the Second Temple period. References and Links The Dead Sea



The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. Whereas the other scrolls are written on leather or papyrus, this scroll is written on metal: copper mixed with about 1% tin. Unlike the others, it is not a literary work, but contains a listing of locations at which various items of gold and silver are buried or hidden. It is currently on display at the Archaeological Museum in Amman, Jordan. The treasure it describes is worth at least one billion dollars.[1]


1 History and origin 2 Writing style 3 Claims 4 Media 5 Footnotes 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links


History and origin

The scroll was found in 1952 in Cave 3 at Qumran[2], the last of 15, and is thus referred to as 3Q15.[3] Two copper rolls were discovered off by themselves in the back of the cave. The metal being corroded, they could not be unrolled by conventional means. Professor H. Wright Baker, of the College of Technology at Manchester, England, cut the sheets into strips. It then became clear that the rolls were part of the same document. Low-quality photographs of the scrolls were taken and published. Scholars have found these to be difficult to work with, and have relied on a drawing of the text by scholar Józef Milik published in 1962. Another scholar, John Marco Allegro, published his translation in 1960. The scroll was

rephotographed in 1988 with clearer precision, under an effort led by P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. [edit]

Writing style

The style of writing is unusual, different from the other scrolls. It is written in a style similar to Mishnaic Hebrew. There is an unusual orthography, and the script has the features resulting from someone writing on copper with a stylus. There is also the anomaly that seven of the names of locations are followed by a group of two or three Greek letters. The text is a listing of sixty-four locations; sixty-three of which are treasures of gold and silver, which have been estimated in the tons. The final listing points to a duplicate document with additional details. Some scholars believe that this document could be the Silver Scroll - a scroll which archaeologists are still searching for in the Israeli desert. Scholars hold that the text was perhaps copied from another original document by an illiterate scribe who did not speak the language in which the scroll was written. Perhaps this was done so that the secrecy of the content of the text would be preserved. This scribe made a total of about thirty errors or mistakes in the copying of the text, mistakes that someone familiar with the original language would not have made.[citation needed] The listings are a challenge to decipher. They contain city and street names. There is some dispute, however, that the Cave of Letters might have contained one of the listed treasures [1], and if the artifacts from this location may have been recovered. Although the scroll was obviously made of alloyed copper in order to last, the locations are written as if the reader would have an intimate knowledge of obscure references — e.g., "In the irrigation cistern(?) of the Shaveh, in the outlet that is in it, buried at eleven cubits: 70 talents of silver" (from Allegro's translation), or "In the cave that is next to the fountain belonging to the House of Hakkoz, dig six cubits. (There are) six bars of gold" (from McCarter's translation). [edit]


The treasure of the scroll has been assumed to be treasure of the Jewish Temple, presumably the Second Temple. Professor McCarter makes a tentative identification of one location, found on the property of the "House of Hakkoz", with the family of Hakkoz being treasurers of the rebuilt Temple, following the return from Babylon, as

listed in the Biblical Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. The theories of the origin of the treasure were broken down by Theodor H. Gaster:
1. First, the treasure could be that of the Qumran community. The difficulty here

is that the community is assumed to be an ascetic brotherhood, with which vast treasures are difficult to reconcile.
2. Second, the treasure could be that of the Second Temple. However, Gaster

cites Josephus as stating that the main treasure of the Temple was still in the building when it fell to the Romans, and also that other Qumranic texts appear to be too critical of the priesthood of the Temple for their authors to have been close enough to take away their treasures for safekeeping.
3. Third, the treasure could be that of the First Temple, destroyed by

Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, in 586 BC. This would not seem to fit with the character of the other scrolls, unless perhaps the scroll was left in a cave during the Babylonian Exile, possibly with a small community of caretakers who were precursors of the Dead Sea Scrolls community. 4. Fourth, Gaster's own favourite theory is that the treasure is a hoax. If so, it is an elaborate hoax by an ancient people not known primarily for their sense of humor. The idea of ancient, lost, hidden treasures in the Holy Land is not without fascination. The Second Book of Maccabees describes the prophet Jeremiah bringing the Ark of the Covenant and other items to be hidden in a cave on Mount Nebo. The very matter-of-factness of the listings in the Copper Scroll would seem to indicate that somewhere in the area from Hebron to Mount Gerizim there might just be some treasure, if it has not already been discovered within the last 2000 years. [edit]


In 1958, novelist Nathaniel Norsen Weinreb published The Copper Scrolls, the tale of a scribe named Kandane who is hired by a priest from Qumran to inscribe a list of sacred treasures. Weinreb wrote his novel before he or the general public learned that the so-called 'scrolls' of copper, were in reality, two separated sections of what was originally a single scroll about eight feet in length. The denouement of Edwin Black's Format C: included using the Copper Scroll to find the Silver Scroll, giving the protagonists the information they needed to find and defeat the main threat of the book.

The Copper Scroll is the subject of a political thriller, The Copper Scroll, by Joel C. Rosenberg, published in 2006. This book implements its author's theory that the treasures listed in the Copper Scroll (and the Ark of the Covenant) will be found in the End Times to refurnish the Third Temple. It also features in Sean Young's novel, Violent Sands. In this historical novel, Barabbas is the sworn protector of the Copper Scroll and the treasure it points to. He is under orders to protect this document at all costs. The scroll—and a search for its treasures—was featured in a 2007 episode of The History Channel series Digging For The Truth. The program gives a basic knowledge of the research of the Copper Scroll and all the major theories of its interpretation. [edit]

(The History Channel)

1. ^ "Lost Treasuries of the Copper Scroll", Digging for the Truth, Season Three (2007)

2. ^ the first cave to be explored by archaeologists 3. ^ Inventory of Manuscripts from Qumran Cave 3


See also References

1. Kohlit


1. John M. Allegro (1960). The Treasure of the Copper Scroll. Garden City, NY, 2. Robert Feather (2003). The Mystery of the Copper Scroll of Qumran. Bear &

Company. ISBN 1-59143-014-3.
3. Theodor H. Gaster (1976). The Dead Sea Scriptures. Peter Smith Publishing

Inc. ISBN 0-8446-6702-1.
4. Hershel Shanks, ed. (1992). Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York,

Random House. ISBN 0-679-41448-7. [edit]


1. Brooke, George J.; Philip R. Davies, eds. (2002). Copper Scroll Studies,

Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series, Vol. 40. New York: Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 0-82646-055-0.
2. Lefkovits, Judah K. (2000). The Copper Scroll 3Q15: A Reevaluation: A New

Reading, Translation, and Commentary, Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah, Vol. 25. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004-10685-5.
3. Parry, Donald W.; Emanuel Tov, eds. (2005). Additional Genres and

Unclassified Texts, The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Vol. 6. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 250–261. ISBN 90-04-12646-5. [edit]

External links
text of Copper Scroll with explanatory footnotes

1., English 2., Hebrew text of Copper Scroll with

English translation (work in progress)
3., Interesting site

regarding possible locations of treasures Categories: Dead Sea scrolls | Copper

Codex Vaticanus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the similarly named manuscript, see Codex Vaticanus 354 and Codex Vaticanus 2066.
New Testament manuscripts papyri • uncials • minuscules Uncial 03

Name Sign Text Date Script Now at Size Type

Vaticanus B Old and New Testament c. 350 Greek Vatican Library 27 x 27 cm Alexandrian text-type

Category I Note Page from Codex Vaticanus; ending of 2 Thes and beginning of Heb

The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; Gregory-Aland no. B or 03) is one of the oldest and most valuable extant manuscripts of the Greek Bible. Probably it is slightly older than Codex Sinaiticus, both of which were probably transcribed in the 4th century. It is written in Greek, on vellum, with uncial letters.

1 Contents 2 Provenance 3 Importance 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links 7.1 PseudoFacsimiles 7.2 Articles



Vaticanus originally contained a complete copy of the Septuagint ("LXX") except for 1-4 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasseh. Genesis 1:1 - 46:28a (31 leaves) and Psalm 105:27 — 137:6b (10 leaves) are lost and have been filled by a recent hand. 2 Kings 2:5-7, 10-13 are also lost due to a tear in one of the pages. The order of the Old Testament books is as follows: Genesis to 2 Chronicles as normal, 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras (which includes Nehemias), the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Esther, Judith, Tobit, the minor prophets from Hosea to Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, Lamentations and the Epistle of Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel. The extant New Testament of Vaticanus contains the Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles and the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Heb 9:14, καθα[ριει); thus it lacks 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon and Revelation. These missing pages were replaced by a 15th century minuscule supplement (no. 1957).

A section of the Codex Vaticanus, containing 1 Esdras 2:1-8

The Greek is written continuously with small neat writing, later retraced by an 10th (or 11th) century scribe. Punctuation is rare (accents and breathings have been added by a later hand) except for some blank spaces, diaeresis on initial iotas and upsilons, abbreviations of the nomina sacra and markings of OT citations. The manuscript contains mysterious double dots (so called "umlauts") in the margin of the New Testament, which seem to mark places of textual uncertainty. There are 795 of these in the text and around another 40 that are uncertain. The date of these markings are disputed among scholars and are discussed in a link below[1]. Two such "umlauts" can be seen in the left margin of the first column (top image). On page 1512, next to Hebrews 1:3, the text contains an interesting marginal note, "Fool and knave, can't you leave the old reading alone and not alter it!"—"ἀμαθέστατε καὶ κακέ, ἄφες τὸν παλαιόν, μὴ μεταποίει" which suggests that inaccurate copying, either intentional or unintentional, was a known problem in scriptoriums.[2] The uppermost picture of this article shows the page this remark is found (In the middle of the yellow page, between 1st and 2nd column). [edit]


Its place of origin and the history of the manuscript is uncertain, with Rome, southern Italy, Alexandria, and Caesarea (T.C. Skeat) all having been suggested. There has been speculation that it had previously been in the possession of Cardinal

Bessarion because the minuscule supplement has a text similar to one of Bessarion's manuscripts. According to Paul Canart's introduction to the recent facsimile edition, p. 5, the decorative initials added to the manuscript in the middle ages are reminiscent of Constantinopolitan decoration of the 10th century, but poorly executed, giving the impression that they were added in the 11th or 12th century. T. C. Skeat, a paleographer at the British Museum, first argued that Codex Vaticanus was among the 50 Bibles that the Emperor Constantine I ordered Eusebius of Caesarea to produce[3]. The similarity of the text with the papyri and Coptic version (including some letter formation), parallels with Athanasius' canon of 367 suggest an Egyptian or Alexandrian origin.

The Great Hall, Vatican Library

The manuscript has been housed in the Vatican Library (founded by Pope Nicholas V in 1448) for as long as it has been known, appearing in its earliest catalog of 1475 and in the 1481 catalogue. Before the 19th century no scholar was allowed to study or edit it. In 1809 Napoleon brought it as a victory trophy to Paris, but in 1815 it was returned to the Vatican Library. In that time, in Paris, German scholar Johann Leonhard Hug (1765-1846) saw it. In 1843 Tischendorf was permitted to make a facsimile of a few verses[4], in 1844 — Edward de Muralt saw it, and in 1845 — S.P. Tregelles was allowed to observe several points which Muralt had overlooked[5]. During a large part of 19th century, the authorities of the Vatican Library put obstacles for scholars who wished to study the codex in detail.[6] In 1889 a complete photographic facsimile was published, and codex became commonly available. [edit]


Codex Vaticanus is one of the most important manuscripts for the text of the Bible and is a leading member of the Alexandrian text-type. It was heavily used by Westcott and Hort in their edition, The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881).

In the Gospels, it is the most important witness of the text, in Acts and Letters, equal to Codex Sinaiticus. Unfortunately the manuscript is not complete. [edit]

See also

1. List of New Testament uncials 2. Codex Sinaiticus


też: Codex Vaticanus Graece. The Umlauts.

1. ^ G.S. Dykes, Using the „Umlauts” of Codex Vaticanus to Dig Deeper, 2006. Zob

2. ^ Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03, "A critical note". Dr. Wieland Willker,

University of Bremen. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
3. ^ T.C. Skeat, "The Codex Sinaiticus, the Codex Vaticanus and Constantine", JTS 50

(1999), pp. 583–625.
4. ^ "Besides the twenty-five readings Tischendorf observed himself, Cardinal Mai

supplied him with thirty-four more his NT of 1849. His seventh edition of 1859 was enriched by 230 other readings furnished by Albert Dressel in 1855." (F.H. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Cambridge 1894, p. 111).
5. ^ “It was under such restrictions that it was impossible to do more than examine

particular readings.” (S.P. Tregelles, An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, London 1856, p. 162).
6. ^ "To these legitimate sources of deep interest must be added the almost romantic

curiosity which has been excited by the jealous watchfulness of its official guardians, with whom an honest zeal for its safe preservation seems to have now degenerated into a species of capricious wilfulness, and who have shewn a strange incapacity for making themselves the proper use of a treasure they scarcely permit others more than to gaze upon". (F.H. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Cambridge 1861, p. 85).


Further reading

1. Janko Sagi "Problema historiae codicis B", Divius Thomas 1972, 3 - 29. 2. T.C. Skeat "The Codex Vaticanus in the 15th Century.", JTS 35 (1984) 454 65.

3. Philip B. Payne "Fuldensis, Sigla for Variants in Vaticanus and 1 Cor 14.345.", NTS 41 (1995) 251 - 262 [Payne discovered the first umlaut while studying this section.] 4. Curt Niccum "The voice of the MSS on the Silence of the Women: ...", NTS 43 (1997) 242 - 255. 5. Philip B. Payne and Paul Canart "The Originality of Text-Critical Symbols in Codex Vaticanus.", Novum Testamentum 42 (2000) 105 - 113. 6. J. Edward Miller "Some Observations on the Text-Critical Function of the Umlauts in Vaticanus, with Special Attention to 1. Corinthians 14.34-35.", JSNT 26 (2003) 217-236 [Miller disagrees with Payne on several points. He notes and uses this website.] 7. Philip B. Payne and Paul Canart "The Text-Critical Function of the Umlauts in Vaticanus, with Special Attention to 1 Corinthians 14.34-35: A Response to J. Edward Miller.", JSNT 27 (2004) 105-112 [Payne still thinks, contra Miller, that the combination of a bar plus umlaut has a special meaning.] [edit] [edit]

External links

1. Center for the Study of NT Manuscripts. Codex Vaticanus 2. Codex Vaticanus NT Edition in PDF format. 16MB download



1. Codex Vaticanus at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism 2. Codex Vaticanus B/03 Detailed description of Codex Vaticanus with many

images and discussion of the "umlauts".

Codex Sinaiticus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia New Testament manuscripts papyri • uncials • minuscules Uncial 03

Name Sign Text Date Script Now at Size Type Category Note

Sinaiticus ‫א‬ Old and New Testament c. 350 Greek British Library, Leipzig University 38 x 34 cm Alexandrian text-type I Book of Esther

Codex Sinaiticus (London, Brit. Libr., Add. 43725; Gregory-Aland nº ‫( א‬Aleph) or 01) is a 4th century uncial manuscript of the Greek Bible, written between 330–350. While it originally contained the whole of both Testaments, only portions of the Greek Old Testament or Septuagint survive, along with a complete New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas, and portions of The Shepherd of Hermas (suggesting that the latter two may have been considered part of Biblical canon by the editors of the codex[1]). Along with Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus is one of the most valuable manuscripts for textual criticism of the Greek New Testament, as well as the

Septuagint. The text of codex represents alexandrian text-type, with exception for John 1:1—8:38 which represents western text-type. It is only one uncial manuscript with complete text of New Testament, and only one manuscript of New Testament written in four columns per page.

1 Description 2 Lacunae 3 Early history of codex 4 Discovery 5 Later story of codex 6 Present location 7 Theology 8 See also 9 References 10 External links 10.1 Facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus 10.2 Articles 11 Bibliography



Luke 11, 2 in Codex Sinaiticus

The work was written in scripta continua with neither breathings nor polytonic accents. Occasional points and few ligatures are used, though nomina sacra with overlines are employed throughout. Each line has some twelve to fourteen Greek uncial letters, arranged in four columns (48 lines in column) with carefully-chosen line breaks and slightly ragged right edges. Each rectangular page has the proportions 1.1 to 1, while the block of text has the reciprocal proportions, 0.91 (the same proportions, rotated 90°). If the gutters between the columns were removed, the text block would mirror the page's proportions. Typographer Robert Bringhurst referred to the codex as a "subtle piece of craftsmanship".[2] The folios are made of vellum parchment made from ass or antelope skin. Most of the quires or signatures contain four leaves save two containing five. The portion of the codex held by the British Library consists of 346½ folios, 694 pages (38.1 cm x 34.5 cm), constituting over half of the original work. Of these folios, 199 belong to the Old Testament and 147½ belong to the New Testament, along with two other books, the Epistle of Barnabas and part of The Shepherd of Hermas. The books of the New Testament are arranged in this order: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the General Epistles, and the Book of Revelation. Some parts of the codex are preserved in good condition, others in very poor condition, it means they were separated and stored in two places. For most of the New Testament, Codex Sinaiticus is in general agreement with Codex Vaticanus and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, attesting an Alexandrian texttype, but in John 1:1-8:38 Codex Sinaiticus is in closer agreement with Codex Bezae in support of a Western text-type. This portion has a large number of corrections.[3] A notable example of an agreement between the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus texts is that they both omit the word εικη ('without cause', 'without reason', 'in vain') from Matthew 5:22.[4] But there are a large number differences between Sinaiticus and Vaticanus. Hoskier enumerated 3036 differences: Matt – 656 Mark – 567 Luke – 791 John – 1022

Together — 3036.[5] A large number of these differences are a result of itacysmus, and a different way for a transcription Hebrew names. These two manuscripts were not written in the same scriptorium. [edit]


A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8.

Text of Old Testament has some lacks: Gen 23:19–24:46 Nu 5:26–7:20 1 Chr 9:27–19:17 Esdr-Neh (from Esdr 9, 9). Text New Testament omitted several passages:

Matt 12:47, 16:2-3 Mark 16:8-20 Luke 22:43-44 marked by first corrector as doubtfull, but third corrector removed that mark. John 5:4, John 7:53-8:11 (Pericope adulterae), and John 21:25 Rom doxology followed after 16:23, v. 24 omitted. All these omissions are typical of an alexandrian text-type. [edit]

Early history of codex

Of its early history, little is known. It is thought to have been written in Egypt in the fourth century, and is sometimes associated with the fifty copies of the Bible commissioned from Eusebius by Roman Emperor Constantine after his conversion to Christianity (De vita Constantini, IV, 37)[6]. Tischendorf believed four separate scribes copied the work, and five correctors emended portions, one of them contemporaneous with the original scribes, the others dating to the sixth and seventh centuries. Modern analysis identifies at least three scribes. A paleographical study at the British Museum in 1938 found that the text had undergone several corrections. The first corrections were done by several scribes before the manuscript left the scriptorium. In the sixth or seventh century many alterations were made, which, according to a colophon at the end of the book of Esdras and Esther states, that the source of these alterations was "a very ancient manuscript that had been corrected by the hand of the holy martyr Pamphylus" (martyred AD 309). From this is concluded, that it had been in Caesarea Maritima in the 6th or 7th centuries.[7] Uncorrected is the pervasive iotacism, especially of the ει diphthong. [edit]


The Codex was probably seen in 1761 by the Italian traveller, Vitaliano Donati, when he visited Sinai. His diary was published in 1879[8].

Constantin von Tischendorf in 1870

In 1844, during his first visit to Monastery of Saint Catherine, Tischendorf saw some leaves of parchment in a waste-basket. They were "rubbish which was to be destroyed by burning it in the ovens of the monastery".[9] After examination he realized that they were part of the Septuagint, written in an early Greek uncial script. He retrieved from the basket 129 leaves in Greek which he identified as coming from a manuscript of the Septuagint. He asked if he might keep them, but at this point the attitude of the monks changed, they realized how valuable these old leaves were, and Tischendorf was permitted to take only one-third of the whole, i.d. 43 leaves. These leaves contained portions of 1 Chronicles, Jeremiah, Nehemiah, and Esther. After his return they were deposited in the University Library at Leipzig, where they still remain. In 1846 Tischendorf published their contents, naming them the 'Codex FredericoAugustanus' (in honor Frederick Augustus). In the monastery left other portions of the same codex, containing all of Isaiah and 1 and 4 Maccabees.[10] In 1845 Archimandrite Porphiryj Uspienski (1804-1885), later archbishop of Sinai, visited the monastery and the codex was shown to him, together with leaves which Tischendorf had not seen[11]. In 1853 Tischendorf revisited the monastery at Sinai, to get the remaining 86 folios, but without success. The Codex Sinaiticus was shown to Constantin von Tischendorf on his third visit to the Monastery of Saint Catherine, at the foot of Mount Sinai in Egypt, in 1859. (However, this story may have been a fabrication, or the manuscripts in question may have been unrelated to Codex Sinaiticus: Rev. J. Silvester Davies in 1863 quoted "a monk of Sinai who... stated that

according to the librarian of the monastery the whole of Codex Sinaiticus had been in the library for many years and was marked in the ancient catalogues... Is it likely... that a manuscript known in the library catalogue would have been jettisoned in the rubbish basket." Indeed, it has been noted that the leaves were in "suspiciously good condition" for something found in the trash.[12]) Tischendorf had been sent to search for manuscripts by Russia's Tsar Alexander II, who was convinced there were still manuscripts to be found at the Sinai monastery.

Lithograph of the Monastery of St. Catherine based on sketches made by archimandrite Porphiryj Uspienski 1857)

The story of how von Tischendorf found the manuscript, which contained most of the Old Testament and all of the New Testament, has all the interest of a romance. Von Tischendorf reached the monastery on January 31; but his inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On February 4, he had resolved to return home without having gained his object:
On the afternoon of this day I was taking a walk with the steward of the convent in the neighbourhood, and as we returned, towards sunset, he begged me to take some refreshment with him in his cell. Scarcely had he entered the room, when, resuming our former subject of conversation, he said: "And I, too, have read a Septuagint" — i.e. a copy of the Greek translation made by the Seventy. And so saying, he took down from the corner of the room a bulky kind of volume, wrapped up in a red cloth, and laid it before me. I unrolled the cover, and discovered, to my great surprise, not only those very fragments which, fifteen years before, I had taken out of the basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testament complete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas and a part of the Shepherd of Hermas.[13]

After some negotiations, he obtained possession of this precious fragment. James Bentley gives an account of how this came about, prefacing it with the

comment, "Tischendorf therefore now embarked on the remarkable piece of duplicity which was to occupy him for the next decade, which involved the careful suppression of facts and the systematic denigration of the monks of Mount Sinai."[14] He conveyed it to Tsar Alexander II, who appreciated its importance and had it published as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly the ancient handwriting. The Tsar sent the monastery 9,000 rubles by way of compensation. Regarding Tischendorf's role in the transfer to Saint Petersburg, there are several views. Although when parts of Genesis and Book of Numbers were later found in the bindings of other books, they were amicably sent to Tischendorf, the codex is currently regarded by the monastery as having been stolen. This view is hotly contested by several scholars in Europe. In a more neutral spirit, New Testament scholar Bruce Metzger writes:
Certain aspects of the negotiations leading to the transfer of the codex to the Tsar's possession are open to an interpretation that reflects adversely on Tischendorf's candour and good faith with the monks at St. Catherine's. For a recent account intended to exculpate him of blame, see Erhard Lauch's article 'Nichts gegen Tischendorf' in Bekenntnis zur Kirche: Festgabe für Ernst Sommerlath zum 70. Geburtstag (Berlin, c. 1961); for an account that includes a hitherto unknown receipt given by Tischendorf to the authorities at the monastery promising to return the manuscript from Saint Petersburg 'to the Holy Confraternity of Sinai at its earliest request', see Ihor Ševčenko's article 'New Documents on Tischendorf and the Codex Sinaiticus', published in the journal Scriptorium, xviii (1964) pp. 55–80.[15]

In that time monk Simonides claimed to all world, that he is author of codex, therefore it has not historical value[16]. [edit]

Later story of codex

View to the Monastery of St. Catherine.

For many decades, the Codex was preserved in the Russian National Library. In 1933, the Soviet Union sold the codex to the British Museum[17] for £100,000. After coming to Britain it was examined by T. C. Skeat and Milne using an ultraviolet lamp.[18] In May 1975, during restoration work, the monks of St. Catherine's monastery discovered a room beneath the St. George Chapel which contained many parchment fragments. Among these fragments were twelve complete leaves from the Sinaiticus Old Testament.[19] [20] [edit]

Present location

The British Library

The codex is now split into four unequal portions: 347 leaves in the British Library in London, 12 leaves and 14 fragments in St. Catherine's Monastery of Sinai, 43 leaves in the Leipzig University Library, and fragments of 3 leaves in the Russian National Library in Saint Petersburg. At the present day, the monastery in Sinai officially regards that codex was stolen. Visitors in our day report that the monks at St. Catherine's Monastery display the receipt they received from Tischendorf for the Codex, in a frame that hangs upon the wall.[21] In June 2005, a team of experts from the UK, Europe, Egypt, Russia and USA undertook a joint project to produce a new digital edition of the manuscript (involving all four holding libraries), and a series of other studies was announced. This will include the use of hyperspectral imaging to photograph the

manuscripts to look for hidden information such as erased or faded text.[22] This is to be done in cooperation with the British Library. This project will cost $1m.[23] The original document is so precious that it has only been seen by four scholars in the last 20 years. [edit]


One theological controversy arising from the content of the Codex Sinaiticus is the addition of extra Resurrection material in the Gospel of Mark. [edit]

See also

List of New Testament uncials Codex Vaticanus Codex Alexandrinus [edit]


1. ^ Origen considered these books as canonical. 2. ^ Bringhurst, Robert (2004). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 3.0),

pp. 174–75. Vancouver, Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-205-5.
3. ^ G.D. Fee, Codex Sinaiticus in the Gospel of John, NTS 15 (1968-9), pp. 22-

4. ^ The same variant present P67, 2174, pc, vg, eth. 5. ^ H.C. Hoskier, Codex B and Its Allies, a Study and an Indictment, London

1914, p. 1.
6. ^ T.C. Skeat, The Codex Sinaiticus, The Codex Vaticanus and Constantine,

Journal of Theological Studies 50 (1999), 583-625.
7. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, the Text of the New Testament, its Transmission,

Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 46.
8. ^ “In questo monastero ritrovai una quantità grandissima di codici

membranacei… ve ne sono alcuni che mi sembravano anteriori al settimo secolo, ed in ispecie una Bibbia in membrane bellissime, assai grandi, sottili, e quadre, scritta in carattere rotondo e belissimo; conservano poi in chiesa un Evangelistario greco in caractere d’oro rotondo, che dovrebbe pur essere assai

antico” (G. Lumbroso, Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, 1879, p. 501). “Bibbia in membrane bellissime” it is probably Codex Sinaiticus.
9. ^ Skeat, T. C. "The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex Sinaiticus." Novum

Testamentum. Vol. 42, Fasc. 3, Jul., 2000. p. 313
10. ^ K.v. Tischendorf, When Were Our Gospels Written? An Argument by

Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript, New York: American Tract Society, 1866.
11. ^ Uspienski discribed: «Первая рукопись, содержащая Ветхий Завет

неполный и весь Новый Завет с посланием ап. Варнавы и книгой Ермы, писана на тончайшем белом пергамене. (…) Буквы в ней совершенно похожи на церковно-славянские. Постановка их прямая и сплошная. Над словами нет придыханий и ударений, а речения не отделяются никакими знаками правописания кроме точек. Весь священный текст писан в четыре и два столбца стихомерным образом и так слитно, как будто одно длинное речение тянется от точки до точки.» (Порфирий (Успенский), Первое путешествие в Синайский монастырь в 1845 году, Petersburg 1856, с. 226.)
12. ^ Davies words are from a letter published in The Guardian on 27 May 1863, as

quoted by J.K. Elliott in Codex Sinaiticus and the Simonides Affair, (Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, 1982), p. 16; Elliott in turn is quoted by Michael D. Peterson in his essay "Tischendorf and the Codex Sinaiticus: the Saga Continues", in The Church and the Library, ed. Papademetriou and Sopko (Boston: Somerset Hall Press, 2005), p. 77. See also notes 2 and 3, p. 90, in Papademetriou.
13. ^ See Constantin von Tischendorf, The Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript,

Extract from Constantin von Tischendorf, When Were Our Gospels Written? An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript [New York: American Tract Society, 1866].
14. ^ James Bentley, Secrets of Mount Sinai (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1986),

p. 95.
15. ^ Bruce A. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission,

Corruption and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 45.
16. ^ J.K. Elliott in Codex Sinaiticus and the Simonides Affair, (Thessaloniki:

Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, 1982), p. 16.

17. ^ After 1973 in British Library. 18. ^ H.J.M.Milne and T.C.Skeat, Scribes and Correctors of the Codex Sinaiticus

(London: The British Museum, 1938)
19. ^ T.C. Skeat, The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex Sinaiticus, Novum

Testamentum XLII, 4, pp. 313-315.
20. ^ Codex Sinaiticus finds 1975 with images 21. ^ Ο Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας. 22. ^ Oldest known Bible to go online. August 3, 2005. Accessed June

08, 2006.
23. ^ E. Henschke, Digitizing the Hand-Written Bible: The Codex Sinaiticus, its

History and Modern Presentation, Libri, 2007, vol. 57, pp. 45-51.

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897.

[edit] [edit]

External links
Facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus

1. Center for the Study of NT Manuscripts. Codex Sinaiticus (JPG) 2. 1911 Facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus (PDF)



1. Codex Sinaiticus at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism 2. Codex Sinaiticus page at 3. Earlham College facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus 4. Codex Sinaiticus page at the British Library website 5. A real-life Bible Code: the amazing story of the Codex Sinaiticus 6. Joint project managed by ITSEE for digitizing the codex 7. E. Henschke, The Codex Sinaiticus, its History and Modern Presentasion



1. Constantin von Tischendorf, When Were Our Gospels Written? An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript, New York: American Tract Society, 1866. 2. Kirsopp Lake, Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1911. 3. H. J. M. Milne and T. C. Skeat, Scribes and Correctors of the Codex Sinaiticus, British Museum, 1938. 4. F. G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (4th ed.), London 1939. 5. B. H. Streeter, The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins the Manuscripts Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates, MacMillan and Co Limited, Oxford 1924. 6. B. M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1991. 7. B. M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford 1980. 8. P. Magerson, Codex Sinaiticus: An Historical Observation, Bib Arch 46 (1983), 54-56. Categories: 4th century books | Greek New Testament uncials

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