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1. Benjamin Franklin was the first person to correlate change in weather with volcanic activity 2.

At the end of Permian time, about 90% of life on Earth died out 3. Global cooling generally follows a major volcanic eruption 4. The cause of the Great Dying was giant fissure eruptions of flood basalt in Siberia 5. At the time of the Great Dying, North America was part of supercontinent Pangaea 6. Cygnognathus is a dog-like animal that survived the Permian extinction but died out at end or Triassic extinction event 7. Synapsids are animals that arose in the Permian and eventually gave rise to mammals 8. Trap is the step-like appearance created by abrupt termination of successive flood-basalt flows 9. In 1783, high concentration of fluorine gas from Laki eruption killed of livestock in Iceland, resulting in famine, which killed 10.000 Icelanders 10. Continued global warming can eventually raise ocean temperatures sufficiently to cause frozen methane in marine sediments to gasify, bubble up to sea surface, and become part of the atmosphere 1. The volcanic hazard responsible for the most recorded deaths was global cooling 2. Areas of U.S. designated as volcanic hazard areas include the following except Rio Grade Rift 3. People choose to live near a volcano for the following reasons except hard igneous rock make firm ground for building 4. Harmonic tremor is a low-frequency rolling ground movement preceding many volcanic eruptions 5. Paleovolcanology can be used to determine recurrence intervals 6. The following are examples of primary hazard except lahars 7. Sabo dams have been used to stop lahar flows 8. A basic emergency kit should have food and water for 3 days 9. Tiltmeter is a device that records any change in slope on flank of volcano 10. The following methods have been used to stop or divert a lava flow except erecting Sabo dams to stop flows 1. The mineral scheelite is processed for tungsten 2. Territorial water is the offshore area owned by a coastal state but in which ships are allowed innocent passage 3. New soils take some time to form from volcanic deposits, depending on the following parameters except type of vegetation 4. The Troodos ophiolit complex is an example of a sea-floor ore deposit that is now exposed on land 5. The Pine Creek Mine in the Sierra Nevada Mts. was a major source for tungsten 6. EEZ area is the offshore area in which coastal state has all exploitation rights 7. The temperatures at different depths /pressures in the Earth are described by curved lines called geotherms 8. Pozzolan is a siliceous material, which in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide to form durable cement