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What is blood?

Blood is a liquid tissue that runs along the body carrying cells, and all the elements needed to perform their vital functions (breathing, form substances, fending off attacks) and a host of features very complex and very important for life. One of the functions of blood is to supply nutrients, constituents of the tissue and direct products of metabolic activity, such as oxygen. Other substances are transported through their conforming items such as plasma. The amount of blood from one person is related to age, weight, sex and height, an adult can be considered to have between 4.5 and 6 liters of blood. All body organs function because of the blood flowing through arteries, veins and capillaries. The force needed to circulate the blood gives it the heart, forming together with veins, arteries and capillaries, the circulatory system. The heart is a muscular organ located between the two lungs. Arteries: They carry blood with oxygen at high pressure. Veins: Veins carry blood to lower pressure than arteries, not as strong as them. Veins carry waste-rich blood back to the heart and lungs. Capillaries: allow the exchange of gases within the tissue between veins and arteries. The capillaries are very thin and fragile. Blood is made up of several components: Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) They are most numerous blood cells and contain hemoglobin, it is responsible for its red color. They form in the bone marrow, which is within the bones of the skeleton, where they are released into the bloodstream. Its function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to different tissues of the body to breathe cells, and also eliminate the waste produced by cellular activity (carbon dioxide). Red blood cells are disc-shaped, biconcave, depressed in the center, this increases the effective area of the membrane. Mature red blood cells lack nucleus, because he is expelled in the bone marrow before entering the bloodstream. Hemoglobin A protein that gives red to red blood cells, which in turn give color to the blood. Its mission is to transport almost all the oxygen to the body and most of the carbon dioxide and waste to be eliminated through urine and breath (exhalation). White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Cells with migratory capacity are using blood as a vehicle to access different tissues. They are responsible for protecting the body against different types of microorganisms. When infection is increasing their numbers to improve the defenses. Some were formed in the bone marrow and other lymphatic system (spleen, lymph nodes, etc). Also secrete protective substances such as antibodies, which fight the infection. According to the microscopic characteristics of their cytoplasm and nucleus, are divided into: Granulocytes or polymorphonuclear cells: Neutrophils (phagocytes) Basophils (secrete heparin) Eosinophils (Defend of allergies, parasitic infections) The monomorfonucleares agranulocytes or cells:


Lymphocytes (Viral, bacterial, secretion of antibodies) Monocytes (Macrophages) Lymphocytes are divided into two: B lymphocytes (antibody-secreting) T lymphocytes (Recognition of etiologic agents) Platelets Platelets are small cell fragments, oval and without a nucleus. They are produced in the bone marrow from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes are free in the bloodstream. Blood cells are smaller. Are also produced in the bone marrow and home to about 6-7 days. Platelets play when a break occurs in one of the conduits of the blood. Stick breaking quickly on the scene to stop the bleeding, giving time for the final clot. Plasma It is a liquid composed of water, proteins, minerals and other substances needed for normal body functioning and where they are "swimming" blood cells. It is salty and yellowish translucent and is denser than water. Among the substances that carries the plasma are the following. Antibodies Responsible for the body's defense Coagulation factors Are essential to prevent bleeding. Hormones Electrolytes Enzymes Lipids Blood groups A blood type is a classification of blood according to the features present or not on the surface of red blood cells and serum from the blood. The two most important classifications to describe blood types in humans are the antigens (ABO system) and the Rh factor. The identification of blood groups was a major event both for the many contributions to the establishment of genetic principles, as for its importance in transfusion. ABO System Four combinations have been described of red blood cells and plasma, defining the four blood groups are known by the letters O, A, B and AB. In each of the groups discovered, red blood cells on their surface a substance (antigen), which is different for each group. Group A has antigen A and group B has the B antigen, group AB has both antigens and group O has no antigen. Rh System It was discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, making it the first known blood group. In 1940, Landsteiner identified the existence of a new antigen in the membrane of red blood cells of most people. This is called Rh antigen. In the same way as in the ABO system, in Rh system cant be transfused Rh antigen to people who do not, because it

could cause the production of Rh antibodies in the recipient. Individuals can only receive Rh negative blood Rh-negative donors. Transfusions in both the donor and recipient must belong to the same ABO blood group and Rh.