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Virus classification Group IV



Order: Family: Subfamily:

Nidovirales Coronaviridae Coronavirinae Genus

Alphacoronavirus Betacoronavirus Gammacoronavirus Coronaviruses are species in the genera of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae.[1][2] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, extraordinarily large for an RNA virus. The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown or halo, and refers to the characteristic appearance of virions under electron microscopy (E.M.) with a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of the solar corona. This morphology is actually created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism. Coronaviruses are grouped in the order Nidovirales, named for the Latin nidus, meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3' co-terminal nested set of subgenomic mRNA's during infection.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[3] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[1]


1 Diseases of coronavirus 2 Replication 3 Severe acute respiratory syndrome 4 Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses o 4.1 Listing of human coronaviruses 5 Taxonomy 6 References 7 External links

[edit] Diseases of coronavirus

Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Four to five different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. The most publicized human coronavirus, SARS-CoV which causes SARS, has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis. Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds and pneumonia in human adults. Coronaviruses cause colds and pneumonia in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. In chickens, the Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a Coronavirus, targets not only the respiratory tract but also the uro-genital tract. The virus can spread to different organs throughout the chicken. Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both result in diarrhea in young animals. Feline Coronavirus: 2 forms, Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in

vitro as well as at the molecular level. Some strains of MHV cause a progressive demyelinating encephalitis in mice which has been used as a murine model for multiple sclerosis. Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases.

[edit] Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus Replication of Coronavirus begins with entry to the cell which takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment. Upon entry to the cell the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm. The Coronavirus genome has a 5 methylated cap and a 3polyadenylated tail. This also allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation. Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cells machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made as once the gene encoding the replicase is translated the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript, where the transcript only encodes one gene- it is monocistronic. The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein called a protease which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus allowing it to encode the most amounts of genes in a small amount of nucleotides. Coronavirus transcription involves a discontinuous RNA synthesis (template switch) during the extension of a negative copy of the subgenomic mRNAs. Basepairing during transcription is a requirement. Coronavirus N protein is required for coronavirus RNA synthesis, and has RNA chaperone activity that may be involved in template switch. Both viral and cellular proteins are required for replication and transcription. Coronaviruses initiate translation by cap-dependent and cap-independent mechanisms. Cell macromolecular synthesis may be controlled after Coronavirus infection by locating some virus proteins in the host cell nucleus. Infection by different coronaviruses cause in the host alteration in the transcription and translation patterns, in the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton, apoptosis and coagulation pathways, inflammation, and immune and stress responses.[4]

[edit] Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome In 2003, following the outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The SARS epidemic resulted in over 8000 infections, about 10% of which resulted in death.[3] X-ray crystallography studies performed at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have begun to give hope of a vaccine against the disease "since [the spike protein] appears to be recognized by the immune system of the host."[5]

[edit] Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses

Following the high-profile publicity of SARS outbreaks, there has been a renewed interest in coronaviruses in the field of virology. For many years, scientists knew only about the existence of two human coronaviruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43). The discovery of SARS-CoV added another human coronavirus to the list. By the end of 2004, three independent research labs reported the discovery of a fourth human coronavirus. It has been named NL63, NL or the New Haven coronavirus by the different research groups.[6] The naming of this fourth coronavirus is still a controversial issue, because the three labs are still battling over who actually discovered the virus first and hence earns the right to name the virus. Early in 2005, a research team at the University of Hong Kong reported finding a fifth human coronavirus in two pneumonia patients, and subsequently named it HKU1. In September 2012, what is believed to be a new type of coronavirus, tentatively referred to as Novel Coronavirus 2012,[7] being similar to SARS (but still apart from it, and also different from the common cold-causing coronavirus) was discovered in Qatar and Saudi Arabia.[8] The World Health Organisation has issued a global alert accordingly [9] and issued an interim case definition to help countries strengthen health protection measures against the new virus. [10] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 said that the virus did not seem to transmit easily from person to person.[11] Another coronavirus has been identified from a human with pneumonia and renal failure.[12] This virus - HCoV-EMC/2012 - is most closely related to Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 (BtCoV-HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 (BtCoV-HKU5), which prototype two species in lineage C of the genus Betacoronavirus.

[edit] Listing of human coronaviruses

HCoV-229E HCoV-OC43 SARS-CoV NL63/NL/New Haven coronavirus HKU1-CoV Novel coronavirus 2012 HCoV-EMC

[edit] Taxonomy

Genus: Alphacoronavirus; type species: Alphacoronavirus 1 o Species: Alpaca coronavirus,Alphacoronavirus 1, Human coronavirus 229E, Human Coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus HKU8, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Rhinolophus Bat coronavirus HKU2, Scotophilus Bat coronavirus 512 Genus Betacoronavirus; type species: Murine coronavirus o Species: Betacoronavirus 1, Human coronavirus HKU1, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus Bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus Bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Tylonycteris Bat coronavirus HKU4 Genus Gammacoronavirus; type species: Avian coronavirus o Species: Avian coronavirus, Beluga whale coronavirus SW1

A fourth genus Deltacoronavirus which includes BuCoV HKU11, ThCoV HKU12 and MunCoV HKU13 has also been proposed but has not yet been ratified by the ICTV.

[edit] References
1. ^ a b de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, Perlman S, Poon L, Rottier PJM, Talbot PJ, Woo PCY, Ziebuhr J (2011). "Family Coronaviridae". In: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. AMQ King, E Lefkowitz, MJ Adams, and EB Carstens (Eds), Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 806-828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6.[page needed] 2. ^ "ICTV 2009 MASTER SPECIES LIST VERSION 4". 20 March 2010. CTV_2D00_Master_2D00_Species_2D00_List_2D00_2009_5F00_v4.xls[dead link] 3. ^ a b Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC (September 2005). "Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor". Science 309 (5742): 18648. doi:10.1126/science.1116480. PMID 16166518. 4. ^ Enjuanes (2008). "Coronavirus Replication and Interaction with Host". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6.[page needed] 5. ^ "Learning How SARS Spikes Its Quarry". Press Release PR-HHMI-05-4. Chevy Chase, MD: Howard Hughes Medical Institute. pid=1000828. Retrieved September 16, 2005. 6. ^ van der Hoek L (April 2004). "Identification of a new human coronavirus". Nature Medicine 10 (4): 36873. doi:10.1038/nm1024. PMID 15034574. 7. ^ Doucleef, Michaeleen (26 September 2012). "Scientists Go Deep On Genes Of SARS-Like Virus". Associated Press. Retrieved 27 September 2012. 8. ^ 9. ^ 10. ^ "Novel coronavirus infection - update". Retrieved 26 September 2012. 11. ^

12. ^ van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Lauber C, Bestebroer TM, Raj VS, Zaki AM, Osterhaus AD, Haagmans BL, Gorbalenya AE, Snijder EJ, Fouchier RA (2012) Genomic characterization of a newly discovered coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. MBio 3(6). pii: e00473-12. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00473-12

[edit] External links

Laude H, Rasschaert D, Delmas B, Godet M, Gelfi J, Charley B (June 1990). "Molecular biology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus". Veterinary Microbiology 23 (14): 14754. doi:10.1016/0378-1135(90)90144-K. PMID 2169670. Sola I, Alonso S, Ziga S, Balasch M, Plana-Durn J, Enjuanes L (April 2003). "Engineering the transmissible gastroenteritis virus genome as an expression vector inducing lactogenic immunity". Journal of Virology 77 (7): 435769. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.7.4357-4369.2003. PMC 150661. PMID 12634392. Tajima M (1970). "Morphology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. A possible member of coronaviruses. Brief report". Archiv Fr Die Gesamte Virusforschung 29 (1): 1058. doi:10.1007/BF01253886. PMID 4195092. Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae German Research Foundation (Coronavirus Consortium) [show]

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