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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Machine Design III

Composite Tower for Various Applications

October 2012

Declaration
This report has been submitted to the Durban University of Technology on the 26 of October 2012. The authors declare that the report entitled Composite Tower for Various Applications is a record of their work carried out by themselves. The content of this report in full or in part has not been submitted to this institution for any award:

Signed:

_____________________

Govender N

20907576

_____________________

Govender Y

20910089

_____________________

Harrichand T 20600597

_____________________

Horning S S

20918319

_____________________

Jagjivan N

21142523

_____________________

Kahulume T 20924220

_____________________

Khoosal A M 21142431

_____________________

Khumalo N

21010156

Acknowledgements
We have taken efforts in this design project, however this would not have been possible without the kind support and help of colleagues, lecturers, friends and families. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. We would like to express our gratitude to Professor Kanny for his guidance and assistance in successfully completing this project.

ABSTRACT
The present design consists of a composite tower mounted on a trailer for circumstances of a temporary nature. The tower includes a number of retractable segments which extend to a maximum height of 10.5m and nest to minimum height of 2.7m. It can be moved to an inclined position, for storage and transportation, and a vertical position for use. The highest segment of the tower supports a flange on which a mast rotator is mounted to provide a 4500 rotational range to a maximum payload of 200kg. Each of the succeeding segments is gradually smaller in cross sectional area to enable the nesting of the individual sections. The extension of the tower is pneumatically operated. In terms of improvement, advanced composite material technology would be utilized in the manufacture of the tower structure. This offers a lower maintenance cost in the long run and a lower risk of environmental pollution. There are also reduced installation costs when composites are used. As a result the higher material cost of the composite material as opposed to steel is offset.

CONTENTS CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION Horning S Khoosal A Jagjivan N 1

CHAPTER 2
2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 LITERATURE REVIEW ALTERNATE MATERIALS PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE TOWER DESIGNS PNEUMATIC POWERED TOWER HYDRAULIC POWERED TOWER CHAIN DRIVEN TELESCOPING TOWER Harichand T Khumalo N 3 3 3 4 4 5 5

CHAPTER 3
3. 3.1 DESIGN PRODUCT REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION Harichand T 3.1.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 3.1.2 DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 3.1.3 DESIGN CRITERIA 3.2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Group 3.2.1 DESIGN CONCEPTS 3.2.2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SELECTION 3.3 FINAL DESIGN 8 9 10 11 13 6 6 7 7 6 6

Kahulume T 3.3.1 TOWER SECTIONS (SEGMENT) 3.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS Kahulume T

3.5

PISTON AND SEALS Kahulume T

19

3.5.1 SELECTION OF PISTONS MATERIAL 3.5.2 PISTON AND SCRAPER SEAL MATERIAL SELECTION 3.5.3 WEAR RING 3.6 COLLAR or CYLINDER END CAP Kahulume T 3.7 LOCKING MECHANISM Kahulume T 3.8 TILTING MECHANISM Khoosal A Horning S - Kahulume T Govender N 3.8.1 REACTIONS ON TOWER Kahulume T 3.8.2 CLEVIS MOUNTING AND PIN CALCULATION 3.8.3 PNEUMATIC PISTON ROD CALCULATION Kahulume T 3.8.4 WING BOLT CALCULATION Horning S 3.9 COMPRESSOR SELECTION Govender Y 3.9.1 THE MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE REQUIRED Kahulume T 3.9.2 COMPRESSOR DRIVE SYSTEM Kahulume T

19 21 23 24

25

26

27

29 31

32

35

35

36

3.9.3 SELECTED COMPRESSOR SPECIFICATIONS Kahulume T 3.9.4 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM DIAGRAM

37

38

Kahulume T

3.9.5 MAST ROTATOR Jagjivan N Govender Y 3.9.6 INVERTER Govender Y 3.9.7 ELECTRICAL WIRING Govender Y 3.9.8 BATTERY ISOLATOR Goverder Y 3.9.9 SODIUM ELECTRICAL WIRE Govender Y 3.10 UNIVERSAL CONNECTING ADAPTERS FOR COMPOSITE TOWER Jagjivan N Govender N 3.10.1 UNIVERSAL POLE MOUNT DOUBLE SIDED 3.10.2 UNIVERSAL TILTING BRACKET 3.10.3 POLE MOUNT SIDE ARMS DOUBLE SIDED 3.10.4 ATTACHMENTS FOR SIDE ARMS 3.10.5 POLE KIT WITH 2 INCH (5.08 CM) U - BOLTS 3.11 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Horning S Kahulume T 3.12 MANUFACTURING PROCESS Harichand T Khumalo N 3.12.1 SYNOPSIS 3.12.2 MATERIAL SELECTION 3.12.3 TOWER MANUFACTURING PROCESS 3.12.4 REVIEWED MANUFACTURING PROCESS 3.12.5 CHOSEN MANUFACTURING PROCESS

39

39

41

43

44

45

45 46 47 48 49 52

74

74 75 77 77 79

3.12.6 CHASSIS MATERIAL 3.12.7 CHASSIS AND PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION 3.12.8 STANDARD PARTS TO BE USED 3.12.9 TOWER BASE PLATE 3.13 ENGINEERING DRAWINGS Kahulume T Govender N

84 85 87 87 90

CHAPTER 4
4. HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDIES Group 4.1 HAZARD STUDIES 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 125 126 126 126 127 127 127 128 124

4.1.1 TOWER EXTENSION HAZARD 4.1.2 LIFTING HAZARD 4.1.3 TRANSPORTATION HAZARD 4.1.4 MOVING PARTS HAZARD 4.1.5 CRUSH HAZARD 4.1.6 BURST HAZARD 4.1.7 WELDING ALUMINIUM 4.2 TOWER OPERATION

4.2.1 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 4.2.2 EXTENDING THE TOWER 4.2.3 RETRACTING THE MAST 4.3 MAINTENANCE AND SERVICE INSTRUCTION

4.3.1 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE 4.3.2 CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE

CHAPTER 5
5. COSTING Group 129

CHAPTER 6
6.1 CONCLUSION Harichand T Horning S 6.2 RECOMMENDATION Jagjivan N 132 131

CHAPTER 7
7.1 7.2 REFERENCES APPENDIX 133 135

CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION

Increasing reliability, transportability and cost savings Our group has been assigned the task of designing a composite tower for various applications. Our project 'Composite Tower for Various Applications' is to create a lightweight cost effective mobile platform that can have various components installed on it. Mobile broadcasting stations are usually expensive converted vehicles driven to locations to broadcast signals to viewers. However due to cost most companies send out one to two vehicles depending on the scale of the televised event. With our mobile trailer we could have only one main vehicle but multiple antennas/trailers to boost signal and quality of the broadcast due to the lower cost of our trailers. Due to the mobility of the trailer we can avoid damaging property as well as renting property nor is there a need to fell trees or excavate land. Our trailers are not only limited to broadcasting, atop our tower is a universal attachment for various applications such as satellites for weather information. Our goal is to make a tower that can be used for as many applications as possible making the transition between applications as quick and as cost effective as possible.

The general approach to this project was to do extensive research on portable telescopic towers, finding various designs, and gaining sufficient knowledge to improve on those designs or even generate an entirely new innovative design. Although there are already numerous proposals available, not all are considered to be reliable, easily transportable and affordable to maintain. Therefore, several concept plans were drawn up by members in the group, taking into account the limitations of the design, costing, the manufacturing process, etc. With the most promising concepts being selected through an evaluation process, a further analysis was carried out on those selected designs. Materials and mechanical components (bearings, bolts, etc.) were also selected for certain concept plans, thus giving us a cost estimate, aiding us in the selection process.

Included in this report are all of the concept designs, together with the evaluation/selection

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method used. The pros and cons are listed as well, indicating the reasons why certain concepts will/will not work in this application.

Based on the knowledge acquired, through research, this report examines the imperfections in other proposals and provides a new and improved composite tower design through an organised process that will be seen throughout this report. Each and every issue that was encountered was recorded and inserted into this text for easy viewing of how the design was brought down to the finest, most elite concept chosen by this group.

Creating a design that is as intricate as this one is not an easy task. A lot of research and time is required of those who are directly involved in the design. A tower with antenna-like properties made out of composite material is a complex device that has numerous uses in industry and life as we know it. Functionality and convenience are key factors when designing any piece of equipment and this design comprises of both of the above key characteristics.

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CHAPTER 2
2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.

ALTERNATE MATERIALS

New and innovative materials for towers have been researched for many years as an alternative to steel and concrete. The desire for cost effective and environmentally friendly options is fast becoming a global trend. It also provides the advantage of reduced assembly and logistics costs. The selection of carbon fibre over other considered materials was based mainly on its strength to weight ratio and its tensile strength. Making the tower out of such material will allow the tower to be able to handle many weather situations, in extreme heat the carbon fibre will not catch fire easily but the carbon fibres may expand slightly due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion. This slight expansion will not affect the overall capabilities of the tower. In windy conditions the tower should have no problems due to the high ultimate strength of the combined carbon fibre, i.e. the composite wound structure. In extreme weather cases like hurricane winds the strength of the material may be exceeded and failure may occur.

2.2

PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE

There are many processes in manufacturing composite components which are cylindrical, but the two manufacturing methods that were reviewed for this design project are the composite pultrusion process and filament winding process. The most common and widely used method of manufacturing cylindrical parts is the filament winding method. The filament winding process is a simple and general process used to manufacture cylindrical parts, but some modifications were made to the process to produce the desired final product. The modifications done to the process will provide a good surface finish, without have to machine, cut, or scrape the wound fibres.

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2.3

TOWER DESIGNS

When conducting the needs analysis of our design, we have established that a telescopic mast has the closest possible operational factors to our design task. Present designs of telescoping masts are commonly pneumatically, hydraulically, or chain driven.

2.4

PNEUMATIC POWERED TOWER

Pneumatic drive motors need airtight seals sandwiched between telescopic mast sections to function effectively. Currently the environment in which these masts are utilized makes maintaining an airtight state between mast segments difficult. Impurities, or radial ice, left between mast intersections will stop the mast from descending or may impair the mast segments, and can certainly destroy the seal necessary for efficient operation of the pneumatic drive. With the destruction of the seal the mast will fall due to gravity with disastrous consequences. Another disadvantage that current pneumatically powered telescoping masts contain is that they can only hold one of two positions. The tower is fully extended otherwise fully retracted. In many instances due to obstructions or other concerns, it is required to have the telescoping mast segments in a restricted state of extension or retraction. Also such drives are costly to manufacture, assemble, and maintain, which confines their appeal in uses where the device is used on irregular terrain, pneumatic units are unable to work consistently on grades beyond fifteen degrees and, if the loading at the peak is high. The cylinders on pneumatic masts on gradients exceeding the limit may curve at the joint, triggering air leakage at the joint and a corresponding failure. Thus a unit is needed which can safely preserve structural integrity on inclines exceeding fifteen degrees.

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2.5

HYDRAULIC POWERED TOWER

A hydraulic jacking system was our first considered option. We looked at many jacking systems to discern whether or not we could incorporate it in the lifting mechanism of our composite tower. Hydraulic systems for the purpose of raising masts suffer from several of the same limitations as pneumatic powered systems. Hydraulic drives are quite heavy in weight plus are expensive to manufacture, assemble, and maintain. Additionally, such drives are susceptible to damage from environmental contact as hydraulic lines are exposed. Furthermore, impurities can penetrate the hydraulic system and cause malfunction.

2.6

CHAIN DRIVEN TELESCOPING TOWER

Chain driven telescopic masts likewise suffer from the same deficiencies. The drive mechanisms are relatively heavy in weight and are expensive to manufacture, assemble, and maintain. The chain link mechanism is also exposed and susceptible to damage from contact with environmental objects. Other shortcomings common to the aforementioned conventional telescopic mast drives and devices are that the wiring to the outboard end of the mast is exposed and can be damaged by accidental contact with surrounding obstacles or suffer from damage from exposure to the elements. Moreover, the masts are generally fabricated from conductive material from the base to the top end. An electrical charge introduced into such, masts from inadvertent contact with exposed overhead electrical lines will, accordingly, be transferred to the vehicle below, causing a potential for danger to the operators on the ground. Available systems lack effective means for preventing such a charge transfer, such as a fuse system. However, even were fuses implemented into wiring of available units, because the wiring is exposed to the elements, such fuses would be prone to damage and deterioration from exposure to the elements and may not function as intended when they are needed.

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CHAPTER 3
3. DESIGN

3.1 PRODUCT REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION


3.1.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The design will be proficient in performing the following functions: supporting in a stationary position, raising, lowering, and shielding the equipment The tower must be constructed of composite materials as stated in the task statement It must be possible to install and level the device on a flat surface having a gradient not exceeding 5. The device must include a support platform The device should allow comfortable admittance of the working zone through the height range 0 to 12m. The tower must be capable of supporting, lifting, and lowering a total payload quantity of at least 200kg, including the mass of the platform. The support platform and payload must be supported by means of a mechanism capable of raising tower and loaded platform at a constant speed with an allowable tolerance of 0,001m/s The tower must be capable of keeping the laden platform stationary with a precision of 30mm The tower must be capable of lowering the laden platform at a constant speed of 0.4m/s with an suitable tolerance of 0.01m/s The tower must be capable of enduring, without toppling, bending or fracturing, winds not exceeding 22m/s at sea level The tower has to include a safety feature that will avert the platform from dropping, in the event of a power failure.

8. 9. 10. 11.

3.1.2 DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 1. 2. 3. 4. The construction material of the tower must be composite in nature All applicable regulations and standards need to be adhered to. The design should be non-hazardous and cause no environmental damage to the site of use The design should be as lightweight as possible.

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3.1.3 DESIGN CRITERIA The device ought to be easy to operate with no special training required. Little or no maintenance should be required, if possible The life expectancy of the design should exceed 10 years The annual operational costs should be as little as possible The tower should be transportable so as to be utilized where the selected application is required. 6. The tower should be easily extended within 2 minutes by two people 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

3.2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN


The purpose of conceptual design process is to determine the main components of the design that will satisfy the market need, regulations and target specifications as stated in the previous section. Different parts and sub-assemblies need to be researched to choose the best options. Depicted below in figure 3.1.1 is the overall process flow used to determine the best concept design concept.

Market need and specifications

Basic configuration

Safety

Powering method and source of power

Final concept
Figure 3.2.1: Conceptual design flowchart

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3.2

DESIGN CONCEPTS

After intense information gathering and research on various methods and configurations to meet the design specifications, the design team provided several ideas and hand sketches of basic design concepts. The concepts provided can be seen in the following page. Figure 3.2.1

Figure 3.2.1

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Concept Configurations 1. Pneumatically erected tower: in this configuration the tower is made of hollow cylindrical composite adjacent telescoping sections, with each section sliding relatively to an adjacent section. The tower is erected by means of compressed air, therefore requiring an Air compressor or a manual air pump. 2. Belt driven tower: this configuration is similar to the first except that instead of compressed air, a belt is used to erect the tower. The belt can be manually driven or coupled to an electric motor. 3. Lead screw driven tower: This design comprises a screw on its base section, and each section has a nut which engages with the screw to raise and lower the tower. The screw can be manually cranked or automatically driven by an electric motor through a gear set.

3.2.2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SELECTION

Criterion

Easy to operate Maintenance Life expectancy Capital cost Transportable Total

Weighting (Relative importance) 25% 15% 15% 10% 35% 100%

Concept (Max 5)

Concept 2 (Max 5) 3 1 1 1 3 44

Concept 3 (Max 5) 4 1 3 5 3 63

5 4 3 1 5 83 Table 1: Evaluation Chart

Based on the design criteria determined in the beginning of the design process a pneumatic driven lifting mechanism is the most suitable design for the application and is thus the selected/approved proposal.

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3.3 FINAL DESIGN


The following design, as depicted in figure 3.4.1 shows the final assembly of the product with all components and sub-assemblies in place. The telescopic tower is mounted on a base plate that is hinged to the trailer frame to allow the tilting manoeuvre. A pneumatic cylinder is mounted on clevis-mounting to tilt the tower into vertical and inclined position for use and transportation respectively. A compressor is mounted on the trailer to supply compressed air for the erection of the tower and the actuation of the air cylinder. Two 12V batteries are secured to the chassis to supply power to the compressor.

Figure 3.3.1 Final assembly. Most components were entirely designed by the team, yet some items were selected from suppliers for time saving purpose. Items designed by the team include; telescopic tower, tilting mechanism and trailer. Selected items include; Air compressor, batteries and the universal connecting adapter for equipment securing. In the following sections, calculations and parameters used for the design and selection of each item or sub-assembly will be discussed in detail.

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3.3.1 TOWER SECTIONS (SEGMENT) As previously mentioned in the design specifications, the tower is to be no less than 10m of extended height and no more than 3m of retracted height. The tower is to be telescopic to reduce the storage space and ease the transportation, all telescoping sections of the tower are to made of composite materials to achieve a strong but yet light in weight structure, the tower is to be self-supported to reduce the time and number of people required for deployment, the tower should not deflect more than 20mm when working at maximum load. To accomplish all the specifications earlier mentioned, intense research on different composite materials were carried to select a suitable material for the application. The table (table 3.3.2) below shows the properties of different fabrics used with epoxy resin.

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Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fibre Composite Materials, Fibre / Epoxy resin (120C Cure)
Fibres @ 0 (UD), 0/90 (fabric) to loading axis, Dry, Room Temperature, Vf = 60% (UD), 50% (fabric)
Std Symb CF Units ol Fabr ic Youngs Modulus 0 Youngs Modulus 90 In-plane Shear Modulus Major Poissons Ratio Ult. Tensile Strength 0 Ult. Comp. Strength 0 Ult. Tensile Strength 90 Ult. Comp. Strength 90 HMC F Fabr ic E glass Fabri c Kevl Std ar CF Fabr UD ic

HM CF UD 175 8 5

M55 E Kevl Bor ** on glass ar UD UD UD UD 300 12 5 40 8 4 0.25 75 6 2 200 15 5

Ste Al. Tit. el L6 dtd S97 5 5173 207 72 110 207 72 110 80 25

E1 E2 G12 v12 Xt Xc Yt Yc

GPa GPa GPa

70 70 5 0.10

85 85 5

25 25 4

30 30 5

135 10 5

0.10 0.20 350 150 350 150 35 440 425 440 425 40

0.20 0.30 480 190 480 190 50

0.30 0.30

0.34 0.23
46 0

MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa % % % % %

600 570 600 570 90 0.85 0.80 0.85 0.80 1.80

1500 1000 1600 1000 1300 1400 990 1200 850 50 250 70 40 200 60 0.55 0.45 0.50 2.50 1.20 1300 600 50 250 75 30 110 40 2.50 1.50 0.35 1.35 1.00 280 30 140 60 2800 90 280 140

Ult. In-plane Shear S Stren. Ult. Tensile Strain 0 Ult. Comp. Strain 0 Ult. Tensile Strain 90 Ult. Comp. Strain 90

ext exc eyt eyc

0.40 1.75 0.15 1.70 0.40 1.75 0.15 1.70 0.70 1.00

1.60 1.05 0.60 0.85 1.60 0.50 0.60 2.50 1.00 1.40

1.70 0.70 0.35 1.40 0.50 0.60 2.30 1.85 3.00 2.80 4.00
18.0 0

Ult. In-plane shear es strain Thermal Exp. Coef. 0 Thermal Exp. Coef. 90 Moisture Exp. Coef 0 Moisture Exp. Coef 90 Density

Alpha Strain 2.10 1 /K Alpha Strain 2.10 2 /K

1.10 11.60 7.40 -0.30 1.10 11.60 7.40 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.07
1.60 1.90 28.0 0

-0.30 6.00 0.30

25.0 40.0 40.0 28.00 35.00 0 0 0

Beta1 Beta2

Strain 0.03 /K Strain 0.03 /K g/cc 1.60

0.07 0.01 0.07 0.30


1.40 1.60

0.01 0.30
1.60 1.65

0.01 0.30
1.90

0.04 0.01 0.30 0.30


1.40 2.00

** Calculated figures Fibres @ +/-45 Deg. to loading axis, Dry, Room Temperature, Vf = 60% (UD), 50% (fabric)
Symbol Units Longitudinal Modulus Transverse Modulus In Plane Shear Modulus Poissons Ratio E1 E2 G12 v12 GPa GPa GPa Std. CF 17 17 33 .77 HM CF 17 17 47 .83 E Glass 12.3 12.3 11 .53 Std. CF fabric 19.1 19.1 30 .74 E Glass fabric 12.2 12.2 8 .53 Steel 207 207 80 Al 72 72 25

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Tensile Strength Compressive Strength In Plane Shear Strength Thermal Expansion Co-ef Moisture Co-ef

Xt Xc S Alpha1 Beta1

MPa MPa MPa Strain/K Strain/K

110 110 260 2.15 E-6 3.22 E-4

110 110 210

90 90 100

120 120 310 4.9 E-6

120 120 150 10 E-6

990 990

460 460

0.9 E-6 12 E-6 2.49 E- 6.9 E-4 4

11 E-6

23 E-6

Table 3.3.2 [10] From the above table, standard carbon fibre epoxy resin was selected for its high tensile and compressive strength and good youngs modulus at 0 and 90 degrees to the loading axis. Also from this information it was determined to lay fibres at 0 and 90 degrees to the loading axis to achieve maximum resistance to internal/external pressure and longitudinal bending/buckling given that the tower will be subjected to internal pressure as it is pneumatically erected and to compressive load. Using the mechanical properties of standard carbon fibre epoxy resin highlighted in the above table, the average outside and inside diameter of the tower will be determined and later refined to satisfy the specifications. (NB: a very small deflection was taken to avoid any kind of leakage at the tower sections joints).

3.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS


Tower Loading Maximum axial load: 200kg Maximum projected area: 1m2 Maximum operational wind speed: 100km/h, calculations will performed at a wind speed of 150km/h to accommodate a safety factor of 1.5 Maximum allowable deflection 20mm Maximum height: 10.5m Material properties Youngs modulus: 70GPa Ultimate tensile strength: 600MPa Ultimate compressive strength: 570MPa

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NB: In the preliminary calculations of the tower diameter, the force induced by the air pressure on the projected area of the tower itself will be neglected given that the size is not known; it will be included later in the refinement calculations. Assumptions The tower is dealt with as a cantilever beam of circular hollow cross sectional area; therefore the maximum stress is induced at the support where the beam is clamped. Wind loading Before determining the wind pressure we need to obtain the basic wind speed which is adjusted for: Mean return period Terrain category Local effects Height above ground Class of structure The mean return correction factor for communications structures such this mobile tower is kr=1.04 [Parrot] For safety reasons in the design process the terrain category 1 will be considered, in this category it is assumed that structure is in an exposed open terrain with few or no obstructions and in which the average height of any obstruction is 1.5m.[parrot] Local effects: not considered for this design given that the structure is mobile. [parrot] Height above the ground will be considered as the maximum level above the sea in South Africa The tower is a structure of class A since there is no dimension exceeding 20m.

From these parameters the wind speed multiplier kz=1.09 was selected from the SANS 10160-3:2009 publication page 11-17(See appendix). Characteristic wind speed:

Basic wind speed: = = 1.04 47 = 48.88/ Altitude factor: = 0.60 500 Air density: = 1.20 /

(3.1)

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1.09 48.88 53/


Velocity pressure:

(3.2) (3.3)

0.60 53 1685/ Force due to projected area: 1685 1 Force due to axial load: 200 9.81 1962 Free body diagram representation of the tower assuming that the axial load is 1m offset from the towers vertical axis F
A B 1m

(3.4)

10.5m The anticlockwise moments and downward forces are considered as positive. Force P will cause a moment MB equal to 1 1962 0 10.5 1 1685 10.5 1962 1 19654.5 0 1685 0 1962 (3.7) (3.6) (3.5)

In the next section the moment of inertia of the beam will be determined using Macaulays method, and later the beam diameters will determined from the Inertia equation. 10.5 0 10.5 0 10.5 0

(3.8) (3.9)

10.5 0

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10.5

10.5 0 + +

(3.10)

Boundary conditions: at point A (X=10.5) deflection and slope is 0 = 10.5 ( 3.9)

3.11 3.10 0= = 0 0 + + 6 2 1962 10.5 1685.4 10.5 + 113508.675 10.5 = 758508.975 2 6

= 1962 10.5 + (1685.4 10.5 )/2 = 113508.675

(3.11)

As previously mentioned the maximum allowable deflection is to be 20mm, therefore using this parameter the moment of inertia will be calculated from the deflection equation (3.10) at x=0 (maximum deflection occurs at x=0) = = (3.12)

| 758508.975| = = . 70 10 20 10

The moment of inertia of a hollow cylindrical cross section is determined by the following expression :

(3.13)

t: thickness d: outside diameter Using error and trail method, different thickness values will be used in equation (3.13) until a suitable diameter is found.

(3.14)

Outside Inside Thickness Diameter Diameter 10 516.7220958 496.7220958 12 486.2541091 462.2541091 14 461.8997081 433.8997081

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16 18 20 22 24 26 28

441.7911775 424.7820906 410.1225992 397.297781 385.9401421 375.7790669 366.6100413

409.7911775 388.7820906 370.1225992 353.297781 337.9401421 323.7790669 310.6100413

Table 3.4.1 (copied from an excel spread sheet) see appendix From table 3.4.1, 410mm outside diameter and 20mm thickness were selected as the suitable size for the bottom section of the tower bearing in mind that the tower is telescopic. For easy transportation and good telescopic functioning, it was decided for the tower to be made out of 6 cylindrical sections of approximately 1.75m. The following are the 3D models for each tower section.

First cylinder (bottom section)

Second cylinder

Third cylinder

Fourth cylinder

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Fifth cylinder

Sixth cylinder (Top section)

Figure 3.4.2 all models were drawn on Pro Engineer Wildfire 5.0 Each cylinder or segment of the tower will have a piston on its bottom end and a collar or cylinder end cap on its top end, with exception of the first cylinder or bottom section of the tower which does not require a piston, and the top section which is equipped with a six hole flange on its top instead of a collar.

3.5 PISTON AND SEALS


The pistons are designed to convert the pressure into a lifting force, to bear the piston seals that provide a sealing between the sections of the tower and to carry wear rings that will provide a smooth contact surface and support between the tower sections. To avoid any kind of leak around the pistons, it is crucial that the pistons are made of a less or non-deformable material under extreme working temperatures and forces. Several materials were considered, among them; Glass filled nylon, Glass filled epoxy, Aluminium, steel and other thermoset composite And due to the complex shape of the piston, it was decided that the pistons should be casted and later machined to provide dwelling grooves for piston sealing and wear ring. The selection of a suitable material was carried taking into account all previously cited

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characteristics. 3.5.1 SELECTION OF PISTONS MATERIAL Below in table 3.5.1 is a list of considered material for the tower pistons. From the properties of materials listed in the following table a suitable material for the pistons will be selected. Composites
Density -3 (10 kg/m3) Tensile Modulus -E(GPa) Tensile Strength -(GPa) Short-fiber Specific Modulus - E/ Maximum Specific Service Strength Temperature - / (oC)

Material

Glass-filled epoxy (35%) Glass-filled polyester (35%) Glass-filled nylon (35%)

1.9

25

0.3

8.26

0.16

80 - 200

2.0

15.7

0.13

7.25

0.065

80 - 125

1.6

14.5

0.2

8.95

0.12

75 - 110

Unidirectional

S-glass epoxy (45%) Carbon epoxy (61%)

1.8

39.5

0.87

21.8

0.48

80 - 215

1.6

142

1.73

89.3

1.08

80 - 215

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Material

Density -3 (10 kg/m3)

Tensile Modulus -E(GPa)

Tensile Strength -(GPa)

Specific Modulus - E/ -

Maximum Specific Service Strength Temperature - / (oC)

Kevlar epoxy (53%)

1.35

63.6

1.1

47.1

0.81

80 - 215

Metals
Density -3 (10 kg/m3) Tensile Modulus -E(GPa) Tensile Strength -(GPa) Specific Modulus - E/ Maximum Specific Service Strength Temperature - / (oC)

Material

Cast Iron, grade 20 Steel, AISI 1045 Aluminum 2045-T4 Aluminum 6061-T6

7.15

100

0.14

14.3

0.02

230 - 300

7.7 - 8.03

205

0.585

26.3

0.073

500 - 650

2.7

73

0.45

27

0.17

150 - 250

2.7

69

0.27

25.5

0.10

150 - 250

Table 3.5.1 list of different materials for pistons [10] From the list of materials shown in table 3.6.1, Aluminium 6061-T6 was selected for its highest castability, good stress strain ratio (3.91*10-9) and high working temperatures. Steel and cast iron were avoided for their high density and composite were dismissed for their high deformation and low working temperatures. The figure 3.5.2 bellow shows a piston 3D model created on Pro Engineer wildfire 5.0

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The piston is casted and machined. The blue highlighted grooves show the piston seal dwelling, while the green one shows the wear ring location.

Backup seal groove Wear ring groove Seal groove

Figure 3.5.2 piston model

3.5.2 PISTON AND SCRAPER SEAL MATERIAL SELECTION The selection of the piston seals and scraper seals were based on the following criteria: Long wear life: The tensile strength of seal material is a commonly used indicator of wear resistance. Material with high tensile strength offer superior performance compared to low tensile strength material. Lifetime self-lubricating: self-lubricating seals offer the advantage of low maintenance requirement reduces the friction, heat generation and wear in both seal and cylinder. High strength and toughness: due to shock loads and high working pressures, seal lips might nick or tear. To avoid this seals should be strong and tough but yet without reinforcing fabric which can decompose and affect the system. Self-life: the seal should be able to perform correctly even after a long storage time Easily installed: the seal should be easily installable, and should retain its original shape after installation.

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As seen in the table 3.5.3 below the thorseal polymer offers the best tensile strength and is self-lubricated, thus was selected for this application (see appendix for the design information)

Table 3.5.3 Tensile strength of common elastomers.

3.5.3 WEAR RING The wear ring will be used on the piston to guide the piston in the cylinder and in collar to guide cylinder and provide more support at the joint. Glass filled nylon was selected as the suitable material for its high compressive strength and load bearing capabilities

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Figure 3.5.4 Thorseal polymer piston seal

Figure 3.5.5 Glass filled nylon wear ring

Figure 3.5.6 Thorseal polymer scraper seal 3.6 COLLAR or CYLINDER END CAP

The role of the collar in this design is to cover the cylinder, provide a stop for the inner cylinder and accommodate a wear ring and seal. The collars will be made of the same material as the pistons (casted aluminium alloy 6061 T6) and will fastened to the cylinders. Base Plate for Risen Insert will be imbedded in the composite cylinders during the manufacturing process of the later to fastening of collars. See more details in the manufacturing process section. Because of the complex shape of the collar and of course the piston, only finite element analysis will be carried to determine the induced stresses in these components.

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Scraper seal groove

Wear ring groove

Locking key way

Fastening holes

Figure 3.6.1 Collar model

3.7

LOCKING MECHANISM

The locking mechanism is a mean of locking each section of the tower after extension or retraction. The locking mechanism is fitted in each collar and is operated manually to allow the erection of the desired section the tower. The locking mechanism is a spring loaded key with a wing nut which allows to engage or disengage the key by rotating it 3060 clockwise or anticlockwise respectively. The locking mechanism is made of aluminium; a 3D model assembly of the locking mechanism is shown in figure 3.8.1 see next page.

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Wing Nut

Circlip

Spring (compressed)

Locking key

Figure 3.7.1 locking mechanism assembly.

3.8 TILTING MECHANISM

A tilting mechanism has been designed to ease the tilting of the tower to vertical or inclined position for use and transportation purpose. Two conceptual designs were provided by the team, one consisted of a winch system driven by an electric motor and the second is a pneumatic cylinder. The second design was implemented because of its simplicity and use of the same Air supply as the tower. The whole tilting mechanism is composed of following sub-items; a tilting base plate on which the tower is secured, a swing bolt that help secure the tower once in vertical position and lastly a pneumatic cylinder fixed on a clevis mounting at one end and connected to clamp around the towers bottom section. The figure 3.9.1 bellow shows the tilting assembly. The pin and pneumatic cylinder sizing calculations will be demonstrated in the following sections. Reactions at the tilting point and at the clamp connection will be determined in and used as acting forces on the pins. The weight, centre of gravity and dimensions of the tower were directly taken from the CAD

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model, see appendix for references

Tower weight: 408kg Tower centre of gravity along y axis: 1271.5mm Payload: 200kg

Figure 3.8.1 tilting mechanism

3.8.1 REACTIONS ON TOWER To facilitate calculations a free body diagram will be drawn to illustrate the tower. From figure3.9.1 it can be seen that maximum reaction on the clamp pin and hinge pin will occur when the tower starts moving from the inclined position. Therefore calculations will be performed with tower inclined at 190 and the payload added on top of the tower.

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Refer to dimensions on the previous page Payload (P)

2.78m

Weight of tower (F)

Horizontal and vertical clamp pin reaction Reaction at hinge Figure 3.8.2 Tower representation

Force due tower weight: 408 9.81 4002 Vertical component= 4002 cos 19 3784 Horizontal component =4002 sin 19 1303

Payload force: 200 9.81 1962 Vertical component= 1962 cos 19 1855 Horizontal component= 1962 sin 19 634

From the diagram it can noticed that the horizontal clamp pin reaction is 1303 634 The vertical reactions will determined using Beam Boy2.0 see result on the next page. Figure 3.8.2

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Beam result screen shot

Figure 3.8.2 Reaction at hinge was found to be 13100N Vertical component at clamp pin was found to be 18800N Therefore the resultant reaction at clamp is given by 18800 + 1937 =

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At angle: tan 5.85 3.8.2 CLEVIS MOUNTING AND PIN CALCULATION

Force in the Piston rod

5.850 18900N 26.40

18900 cos 50.45

With this force the size of the Pin connecting the pneumatic cylinder to the clamp will be calculated, knowing that it is more likely to fail under shear. The following figure 3.8.3 shows the connection setup

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Figure 3.8.3 detailed view of clevis joint. (Drawn on Pro Engineer Wildfire 5.0) The pin is made of steel and the clevis mount is made of aluminium 6060 T6. Steel yield strength =380MPa Shear strength = 0.5380=190MPa Aluminium yield strength=270MPa Shear strength=0.5270=135Mpa A factor of safety of 3 will be used in all calculations. 3.6.Shear in the Pin

=
=

(3.15)

Taking into account the factor of safety 3 6 = 2

= = = 17.3

For normalization purpose a pin of 20mm will be used 3.7.Tension in the double eye clevis mount

(3.16) 3 3 29682 = = 7.5 2 (0.046 0.024) 2 270 10

A minimum thickness of 8mm has been used in the design. 3.8.Tension in the singe eye clevis mount

(3.17) 3 3 29682 = = 16.5 ( ) (0.044 0.024) 270 10

A minimum thickness of 14mm with reinforcing rib

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3.8.3 PNEUMATIC PISTON ROD CALCULATION The pneumatic cylinder used in this design is a tie rod cylinder with stainless steel piston rod, Aluminium cylinder and polyurethane seals. This type of Air cylinder was selected for its light weight and maintenance simplicity. The cylinder is mainly subjected to compressive load and hence tends to buckle. To avoid this calculation are performed to choose the right size of the piston rod that carry the design load with a safety margin and not buckle. The cylinder stroke is 714mm. Piston rod material 304 stainless steel - annealed condition Yield strength: 215MPa Modulus of elasticity: 190GPa Piston rod diameter

Buckling critical load formula (safety factor 3)

=
3 =


3 3 29682 0.714 ; = = = 2.42079 10 190 10

(3.18)

Taking in account the factor of safety

(3.19)

64 64 2.42079 10 = = 26.5

A standard 26mm piston rod was selected for the design

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Figure 3.8.4 Air cylinder 3D model 3.8.4 WING BOLT CALCULATION P=200kg F: Force due to wind pressure on projected Area= 380N A wind speed of 25.16m/s or 80km/h was used as the speed limit to avoid turn-over of the tower. the same speed is used to determine the reaction at the swing bolt. Pressure load F =0.625.162=380N/m2 The 200kg is secured a meter from the tower.
Wind direction

Force due to tower projected Area Force due to gravity G=4002N

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Rh: reaction at hinge

Rb: reaction at bolt

The Projected Area of the tower is found by multiplying each section diameter to its length. Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 Length (m) 2 1.7 1.66 1.63 1.62 1.55 Diameter (m) 0.410 0.364 0.318 0.272 0.226 0.180 Area (m2) 0.82 0.62 0.53 0.44 0.37 0.28

Projected Area of the tower =3.06m2 Force due to projected Area is equal to wind pressure multiplied by the towers projected Area. Projected Area Force =3.06 380=1163N This force acts at the centroid of the towers projected Area ( ) = 1 0.82 + 2.85 0.62 + 4.53 0.53 + 6.115 0.44 + 7.74 0.37 + 9.325 0.28 3.06 = .

Taking the sum of moment at the hinge reaction, = 0.666 4002 0.31 + 1136 4.3 + 1962 1 + 380 10.36 = 0 = Using a factor of safety of 3 and taking steel yield strength to be 215Mpa, the wing bolt diameter (d) will be calculated (The bolt is in tension)

()

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12 14328 = . 215 10

From calculations a 16mm wing bolt was used.

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3.9 COMPRESSOR SELECTION


Selecting a compressor that is too small for the task will waste valuable time, yet purchasing one that is too large will waste valuable resources. Therefore a calculated decision needs to be taken to prevent either the waste of time or resources, to do so the following criteria will be considered for the selection of an appropriate compressor to erect the tower and actuate the tilting air cylinder. 3.9.1 THE MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE REQUIRED The maximum pressure required to erect the tower and actuate the tilting cylinder will be calculated to decide whether a single or double acting cylinder is required. The pressure required is found by dividing the total load to be lifted by the piston area. Pressure required= (Payload + lifted tower section(s) mass) 9.81/Piston Area (3.20)

The following data were acquired from the product CAD model properties (see appendix for model properties) The second tower section mass is 75.3kg, the piston diameter is 370mm The third tower section mass is 63.8kg, the piston diameter is 324mm The fourth tower section mass is 54kg, the piston diameter is 278mm The fifth tower section mass is 44.2kg, the piston diameter is 232mm The sixth tower section mass is 32.2kg, the piston diameter is 186mm Pressure required to lift the tower second section P2 (200 + 75.3 + 63.8 + 54 + 44.2 + 32.2) 9.81 4 = . = 0.37 Pressure required to lift the tower third section P3 (200 + 63.8 + 54 + 44.2 + 32.2) 9.81 4 = . 0.324 Pressure required to lift the tower fourth section P4 (200 + 54 + 44.2 + 32.2) 9.81 4 = = . 0.278 Pressure required to lift the tower fifth section P5 (200 + 44.2 + 32.2) 9.81 4 = . = 0.232 Pressure required to lift the to lift tower sixth section Machine Design III Composite Tower for Various Applications
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(200 + 32.2) 9.81 4 = . 0.186 Pressure require by the tilting Air Cylinder Pt 8900 4 = = = . 0.082

From the pressure results obtained in the previous page, it can be seen that the highest required pressure is the Tilting Air Cylinder pressure (1.68MPa). Thus the Compressor pressure should be a little above the maximum required pressure.

3.9.2 COMPRESSOR DRIVE SYSTEM

The most common type of compressor drive system is either electric motor or gasoline engine. In this design the electric motor drive system was selected for its low pollution to the environment and the possibility of using batteries as power source, thus making the mobility of the compressor much easy.

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3.9.3 SELECTED COMPRESSOR SPECIFICATIONS The compressor that was selected from relevant calculations is a 38 litre ASME tank mounted. It is primarily used for industrial applications and in the automotive industry for the inflation of truck tyres. This specific ASME motor is fan cooled which allows it to operate for many continuous hours. The compressor will be purchased from Oasis

Manufacturing item # XDT10-4000-24. The product information below was provided on request by Oasis Manufacturing.

Compressor Model Nominal Operating Voltage Dimensions in meters (L x W x H) Net Weight (kg) Motor Type Motor Thermal Protector Max Pressure Max Restart Pressure Horsepower Current at Max Load (Amps) Power at Max Load (Watts) Duty Cycle @ 689.475 Kpa @ 70 deg

XD4000-24 24 Vdc 1.0160.2540.6096 49.895 Series Wound Not Required 250 PSI 150 2.2 90 2160 100% 38 litre Tank Fan cooled motor Fan cooled compressor

Features

Table 3.9.1 compressor specifications

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3.9.4 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM DIAGRAM This section illustrates the pneumatic system diagram for the control of the tower and that of the tilting cylinder. The system is set in such a way that only one actuator can be operated at a time to avoid lowering or lifting the tower while moving it to the horizontal or inclined position. The system consists of the following components: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Telescopic tower Tilting cylinder Three position four way spring-centred, lever operated valve An Adjustable pressure relief valve Air line lubricator Air Compressor Air filter Pressure gauge Three position 3way spring-centred, lever operated valve

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3.9.5 MAST ROTATOR

The composite tower is designed to be utilised for various applications in the telecommunications field. In this field a major challenge is to achieve a constant and reliable signal .The tower is fitted with a mast rotator which be operated by remote, this allows a vast rotation range for best signal. The mast rotator operates at a low rpm thus allowing a minute change for optimum quality to be achieved. This will be purchased from Will Burt item G800S Mast Rotator.

Figure 3.9.2 mast rotator

3.9.6 INVERTER An inverter is an electrical device that converts Direct current to Alternating current. DC power is steady and continuous, with an electrical charge that flows in only one direction. When the output of DC power is represented on a graph, the result would be a straight line. AC power, on the other hand, flows back and forth in alternating directions so that, when represented on a graph, it appears as a sine wave, with smooth and regular peaks and valleys. A power inverter uses electronic circuits to cause the DC power flow to change directions, making it alternate like AC power. An inverter is silent and virtually maintenance free. The inverter will be used to power a compressor and a mast rotator .The inverter will run of a separate 12 volt battery mounted on the trailer , this battery will be charged by the vehicles

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alternator. The electronic components require 90 amperes and 1000 watts of power.

A Schematic circuit diagram of a 1 kw inverter :

Figure 3.9.3 inverter circuit

A table of parts required to build the circuit

Part C1, C2 R1, R2 R3, R4 D1, D2 Q1, Q2 T1 MISC

Total Qty.

2 2 2 2 2 1 1

Description 68 uf, 25 V Tantalum Capacitor 10 Ohm, 5 Watt Resistor 180 Ohm, 1 Watt Resistor HEP 154 Silicon Diode 2N3055 NPN Transistor 24V, Center Tapped Transformer Wire, Case, Receptical (For Output)

Table 3.9.4

The inverter will incased in lightweight aluminum housing. This casing would have

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perforations in it to permit ventilation.

3.9.7 ELECTRICAL WIRING

Electrical wire is the medium through which electricity is carried to the associated devices. It consists of a metal that easily conducts electricity, such as copper, aluminium and gold. The conductor or metal is covered by a plastic sheath called an insulator. There are various different types of electrical wire, each suited to certain loads and conditions. The electrical wire to be used to the charge the batteries from the alternator would consist of a single core multi strand copper wire, this wire was selected due to it being lightweight, cheap, the plastic insulation has a high melting point and is SABS approved for car wiring. The requirements for battery cable: 12 Volts 90 Amperes 1000 Watts 5 % Ampere rating 7.7 meters or 25.2625 in length

Wire Gauge WG 1 10 8 6 4 2 1 Table 3.9.5 908 1452 2 454 726

Maximum length in feet for car wiring Current load in Amps @ 12 Volts DC 4 227 363 585 925 6 8 10 12 75 15 60 20 45 72 29 23 37 30 38 50 100 200 151 113 90

241 181 145 120 96

2342 1171 3702 1851

390 292 234 194 155 117 46 616 462 370 307 246 185 74

6060 3030 1515 1009 757 606 503 403 303 121 60 7692 3846 1923 1280 961 769 638 511 384 153 76

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From the table a No. 6 gauge copper was selected. This gauge of wire is most often used in high temperature electrical devices such as stoves, some furnaces, and in air conditioners. The insulation coating of this gauge can withstand temperatures of 150 degrees, which makes it ideal for engines bays. A No 6 wire will have a cross sectional area of 16

WG 6 4 2

mm 16 25 35

Above table represents the cross sectional of a wire gauge

Electrical wiring for lights on the trailer:

Table 3.9.6

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3.9.8 BATTER ISOLATOR

A battery isolator protects alternator circuit against heavy voltage surge and prevents engine from excess strain. It can control a circuit up to 500 amps, with an initial load of 100 amps and a continuous load 12 - 24v. The isolator incorporates two pairs of terminals as well as the main battery lead terminals. One of these pairs of contacts opens when you turn off the switch and kills the engine by either interrupting the ignition supply or closing the fuel solenoid (diesel). The second pair of contacts closes when the switch is turned off and this diverts the power from the alternator (which is still producing power until it stops turning) and diverts this power through a ballast resistor to earth thereby protecting the alternator.

Table 3.9.7

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3.9.9 SODIUM ELECTRICAL WIRE

The composite tower required a unique electrical cable, this cable needed to supply power to a turn table motor and to facilitate fast data transfer for telecommunications. It also had to be flexible so that it could wrap around the tower without interfering with the lifting mechanism of the tower. Such a cable was designed by Dr David Levine; it was called sodium electrical wire. This cable has a springy flattened micro tube tempered beryllium copper and aluminium alloy chemically isolate with sodium which is covered with a reinforced insulating material. The micro tube enables the wire to be pre stressed around almost any shape it also gives the wire a significantly greater melting point of 550 . The bimetallic thermal stresses compensate while maintaining spring force near elastic limit. The sodium electrical wire has a self-repairing feature, when cut the atmospheric pressure pushes sodium deep into the micro tube causing it to expand radially outwards. Simultaneously, pressurized liquid extrudes from cut micro channels. Some of the liquid covers the hole, smothering retreating oxidizing sodium. The cable can easily be recycled with less energy than aluminium or copper, because sodium is also more biodegradable.

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3.10 UNIVERSAL CONNECTING ADAPTERS FOR COMPOSITE TOWER


The composite tower is designed for various applications; therefore a universal adapter is required for the numerous functions that the telescopic tower can be used for. It needs to be simple yet functional, and efficient. These adapters and accessories were selected for their functionality and simplicity. It does not require a great amount of effort to assemble and fit as all the accessories are ready for application and pre manufactured to specification by BlueSky Masts elevating solutions. 3.10.1 UNIVERSAL POLE MOUNT DOUBLE SIDED

The pole mount is the foundation of all the accessories to be utilised as it is essential for the facilitation of all other connections. It is built to specific diameter and then fastened into place on the tower connecting mast via two screw type swivel clips that apply a tension that holds the pole mount into place. This part is fully height adjustable by just loosening the clips slightly and then raising or lowering it to the required height. It is advisable to adjust the height before other connections are fitted. Approximate weight is 0.4 kg. The universal pole mount is illustrated in the picture below.

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3.10.2

UNIVERSAL TILTING BRACKET The tilting bracket works hand in hand with the universal pole mount above. It

connects directly onto the pole mount and allows for 60 degrees of vertical tilting allowing for accurate positioning of satellites and antennas to provide the best possible results for transmission of signal and reception etc. This bracket could also be customised to be fitted with cameras and/or lights. It facilitates angle adjustment by a screw type fastener, loosening to allow movement and then tightening once the correct angle is selected. This part weighs approximately 0.4 kg and is easily fitted onto the pole mount.
(Picture: http://www.blueskymast.com/images/stories/MasterDocs/Datasheets)

1. Universal Pole mount - double sided (Part number: BSM2-P-A352-T00-000)

2. Universal tilting bracket (Part number: BSM2-P-A349-BRK-000)

Extension arms are to be utilised in order to attach a satellite or antenna mounting. These arms are adjustable and can vary in length. Shown below are more attachments necessary for various applications.

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3.10.3

POLE MOUNT SIDE ARMS DOUBLE SIDED

These side arms are used in conjunction with the universal pole mount and tilting brackets. They have lengths varying from 15.24 cm to 111.76 cm with respective weights starting from 1.2 kg and ranging to 2.7 kg. The lengths and weights increase in various increments that can be chosen at will. These arms will be attached onto the tilting bracket simply with a pin connection holding it in place at whatever angle the tilting bracket is set to.
(Picture: http://www.blueskymast.com/index.php/accessories-main/pole-mount-side-arm-kits)

3. Pole Mount side arm kit (Part number: BSM2-K-A352-TXX-100)

Illustration showing the shortest available side arm kit. Custom made connections, could deviate from illustrations shown as satellites will vary in size and nature, requiring different adapter settings, lengths and angles necessary for maximum efficiency of product and the best results required from tower and relevant equipment.

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3.10.4

ATTACHMENTS FOR SIDE ARMS

Bolster Plate

The bolster plate is an add-on attachment that slots into the end of the side arm fitting. It comprises of a 180 degree tilt feature with 22.5 degrees adjusting spaces which allows this accessory to be mounted either upright(vertically) or flat(horizontally). It has universally spaced bolt holes for easy fitting of satellites. The total weight of the item is 0.4 kg and is held in place with a pin and slots.
(Picture: http://www.blueskymast.com/images/stories/MasterDocs/Datasheets/BSM2-P-A101-BOL-EM0.pdf)

4. Side Arm Mount- Bolster plate (Part number BSM2-P-A101-BOL-EM0)

Adjustable Cup Holder

Easily adjustable cup holder for most radio and cell phone antennas allows part to be fixed vertically or horizontally with the aid of a 22.5 degree spaced, 180 degree tilting feature that can be pinned at any angle in 22.5 degree increments. This part can hold an antenna of diameter 3.175 cm - 5.08cm with an adjustable screw type fastening bolt for the purpose of keeping antenna firmly slotted in place at any angle selected. Total depth of the cup is

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equivalent to 16.51 cm and the total weight of the fixture is approximately 0.41 kg. Illustration of part mounting shown below.
(Picture: http://www.blueskymast.com/images/stories/MasterDocs/Datasheets/BSM2-P-A100-CUP-EM0.pdf)

3.10.5

POLE KIT WITH 2 INCH (5.08 CM) U - BOLTS

This antenna fixture is aluminium and 5.08 cm in diameter. Its length is 30.48 cm and connects onto the bolster plate by means of two, 2 inch stainless steel U-bolts. The illustration below shows how the pole kit assembles onto the bolster plate fixture. Approximate weight is 0.4 kg.

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5. Side Arm Mount - Adjustable Cup holder (Part number: BSM2-P-A100-CUP-EM0)

Cross pattern plate

20.32 X 25.4 cm aluminium plate with cross shaped cut out for fixing of heavy duty antennae. Approximate weight is 0.76 kg.
(Picture: http://wwww.blueskymast.com/images/stories/MasterDocs/Datasheets/BSM2-A-M408-MPPEM0.pdf)

7. Side arm mount - Cross pattern plate (Part number: BSM2-A-M408-MPP-EMO)

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Solid Aluminium plate

Square plate with 27.94 cm sides and approximate weight of 0.43 kg.

Lighting and Camera fittings

All lighting and camera fitting are custom made by BlueSky Masts elevating solutions, to specifications required.
(Picture: http://www.blueskymast.com/index.php/vertical-markets)

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3.11 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Mechanical components in form of bars, beams, and so on can be easily analysed by basic method of mechanics that provide closed-form solutions. Actual components, however, are rarely so simple, and the designer is forced to less effective approximations of closed form solutions, experimentation, or numerical methods. There are great numerical techniques used in engineering applications for which the digital computer is so useful. Where Computer Aided Design software is heavily employed, the analysis method that integrates with CAD is finite element analysis (FEA) [Richard, G. and Keith J. 2008. Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design. Singapore: McGraw-Hill]. and. This method was used to analyse complex components of our design such as the collar the piston etc.., the finite element analysis mode used in this design is the static analysis and the application used is Pro Engineer mechanica 5.0. The analysis process consist of assigning the right material to the component, applying loads and constraint to much the working conditions of the components, meshing the component and then selecting a type of analysis to run. The following pages present the von Mises and maximum principal stress obtained from the finite element analysis. All maximum stresses were found to be three or four times less than the yield strength of the particular material.

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Figure: 3.11.1. Maximum principal stress obtained in cylinder 2: 267.8MPa

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Figure: 3.11.2. Maximum principal stress obtained in collar 1: 58.4MPa

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Figure 3.11.3: Maximum displacement in collar 1: 0.0130mm

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Figure 3.11.4: Maximum principal stress in Piston 2: 15.8MPa

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Figure: 3.11.5. Von Mises stress in piston 2: 14.2Mpa

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Figure: 3.11.6. Maximum principal stress in lock key: 33.86Mpa

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Figure: 3.11.7. Von Mises stress in lock key: 77.87MPa

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Frame Analysis Report

Analyzed File: Version: Creation Date: Summary:

chasis 2.iam 2012 (Build 160160000, 160) 10/22/2012, 6:03 PM Simulation run with a factor of safety of 2.

Simulation Author: Stefano Horning

Project Info (iProperties)


Summary
Author Group 3

Project
Part Number Chasis Designer Cost AutoCad R1500

Date Created 8/21/2012

Status
Design Status Completed

Physical
Mass Area Volume 124.019 kg 120776.360 mm^2 45763.315 mm^3

x=-1583.311 mm Centre of Gravity y=-901.433 mm z=-0.000 mm

Simulation:1
General objective and settings: Simulation Type Static Analysis

Last Modification Date 10/22/2012, 6:00 PM

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Material(s)
Name General Aluminum-6061 Mass Density Yield Strength Ultimate Tensile Strength Stress Young's Modulus Poisson's Ratio Expansion Coefficient Stress Thermal Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Part Name(s) ISO 80x80x8 00000062.ipt, 80x80x8 00000063.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000068.ipt, ISO 50x50x5 00000041.ipt, ISO 2.710 g/cm^3 275.000 MPa 310.000 MPa 68.900 GPa 0.330 ul 0.0000236 ul/c 167.000 W/( m K ) 1.256 J/( kg K ) ISO 80x80x8 00000066.ipt, 80x80x8 00000064.ipt, ISO 50x50x5 00000042.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000061.ipt, ISO ISO 80x80x8 00000069.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000065.ipt, ISO 50x50x5 00000043.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000067.ipt

Cross Section(s)
Section Area (A) Section Width Geometry Properties Section Height Section Centroid (x) Section Centroid (y) Moment of Inertia (Ix) Moment of Inertia (Iy) Torsional Rigidity Modulus (J) Mechanical Properties Section Modulus (Wx) Section Modulus (Wy) Torsional Section Modulus (Wz) Reduced Shear Area (Ax) Reduced Shear Area (Ay) 2084.248 mm^2 80.000 mm 80.000 mm 40.000 mm 40.000 mm 1683770.111 mm^4 1683770.111 mm^4 3070000.000 mm^4 42094.253 mm^3 42094.253 mm^3 66600.000 mm^3 999.871 mm^2 999.871 mm^2

ISO 80x80x8 00000062.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000066.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000069.ipt, Part Name(s) ISO 80x80x8 00000063.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000064.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000065.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000068.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000061.ipt, ISO 80x80x8 00000067.ipt Section Area (A) Section Width Geometry Properties Section Height Section Centroid (x) Section Centroid (y) Mechanical Properties Moment of Inertia (Ix) Moment of Inertia (Iy) 835.619 mm^2 50.000 mm 50.000 mm 25.000 mm 25.000 mm 270377.484 mm^4 270377.484 mm^4

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Torsional Rigidity Modulus (J) Section Modulus (Wx) Section Modulus (Wy) Torsional Section Modulus (Wz) Reduced Shear Area (Ax) Reduced Shear Area (Ay) Part Name(s)

475000.000 mm^4 10815.099 mm^3 10815.099 mm^3 16600.000 mm^3 394.684 mm^2 394.684 mm^2

ISO 50x50x5 00000042.ipt, ISO 50x50x5 00000043.ipt, ISO 50x50x5 00000041.ipt

Beam Model
Nodes Beams 36 12

- Square/Rectangular Tubes 12

Rigid Links
Displacement Name Rigid Link:1 Rigid Link:2 Rigid Link:3 Rigid Link:4 Rigid Link:5 Rigid Link:6 Rigid Link:7 Rigid Link:8 Xaxis fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed Yaxis fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed Zaxis fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed Rotation Xaxis fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed Yaxis fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed Zaxis fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed fixed Parent Node Node:15 Node:16 Node:18 Node:19 Node:32 Node:34 Node:37 Node:38 Child Node(s)

Node:9, Node:35 Node:11, Node:17 Node:10, Node:29, Node:14 Node:27, Node:31 Node:30, Node:33 Node:12, Node:13, Node:28 Node:26 Node:25

Operating conditions
Gravity
Load Type Gravity Magnitude 9810.000 mm/s^2 Direction Z-

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Force:1
Load Type Magnitude Angle of Plane Angle in Plane Fx Fy Fz Offset Force 12000.000 N 0.00 deg 180.00 deg 0.000 N 0.000 N -12000.000 N 1010.340 mm

Beam Coordinate System No

Selected Reference(s)

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Results
Reaction Force and Moment on Constraints
Constraint Name Reaction Force Magnitude Components (Fx,Fy,Fz) 0.000 N Fixed Constraint:2 883.413 N -0.000 N 883.413 N 0.000 N Fixed Constraint:1 876.855 N 0.000 N 876.855 N -0.000 N Fixed Constraint:4 5702.862 N -0.000 N 5702.862 N 0.000 N Fixed Constraint:3 5801.109 N 0.000 N 5801.109 N 2754129.016 N mm 2723413.131 N mm Reaction Moment Magnitude Components (Mx,My,Mz) -306703.756 N mm 663008.155 N mm -587803.215 N mm 0.000 N mm 307316.919 N mm 659144.566 N mm -583119.088 N mm 0.000 N mm 1943414.253 N mm 1907909.883 N mm -0.000 N mm -1959895.363 N mm 1934951.369 N mm 0.000 N mm

Static Result Summary


Name Displacement Fx Forces Fy Fz Mx Moments My Mz Smax Smin Normal Stresses Minimum 0.000 mm -50.951 N -5702.862 N -0.000 N -39674.778 N mm 0.000 MPa -46.560 MPa Maximum 4.058 mm 50.903 N 5801.109 N 0.000 N 7546.539 N mm 46.560 MPa -0.000 MPa 46.560 MPa -0.000 MPa 3.668 MPa 0.000 MPa 0.000 MPa 0.129 MPa 5.704 MPa 29.053 MPa

-1908584.463 N mm 1959895.363 N mm -1934951.369 N mm 1907909.883 N mm

Smax(Mx) 0.000 MPa Smin(Mx) -46.560 MPa Smax(My) -0.000 MPa Smin(My) -3.668 MPa Saxial Shear Stresses Tx Ty -0.000 MPa -0.129 MPa -5.802 MPa -28.647 MPa

Torsional Stresses T

Figures

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Displacement

Fx

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Fy

Fz

Mx

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My

Mz

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Smax

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Smin

Smax(Mx)

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Smin(Mx)

Smax(My)

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Smin(My)

Saxial

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Tx

Ty

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3.12 MANUFACTURING PROCESS


3.12.1 SYNOPSIS

The filament winding process has become a primary process in manufacturing composite circular or oval shaped components, this is mainly because of its low cost and it being an automated process. This process requires few workers on it as it is a process where the speeds of the moving parts are programmed.

Image 1: image briefly illustrate filament winding process Image from: www.cadfill.com/filamentwindingprocess.html The fibre in this process has three different types of winding that can be used. There is helical, circumferential and polar winding. These different types of winding have their own advantages but in designing this tower the helical winding has been chosen. The filament winding process, in order produce the desired product with the desired surface finish, has had to be modified slightly to facilitate the desired purpose. Prior to choosing the filament winding process to manufacture the tower another method of manufacturing the tower was considered. This considered process was the filament pultrusion process. In this pultrusion the fibres are pulled from roving racks, passed through a resin, and then passed through a heating die to cure the resin on the fibres.

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3.12.2

MATERIAL SELECTION

Tower Material

The tower will be made several composite materials. Each cylindrical section of the tower will be made of two parts; a filament wound cylinder section and a short collar that covers the top. These short collars which cover the top section of the tower will have scraper which will keep the dirt from entering the inside of the tower and interfering with the air system. The short collar also supports the smaller section of the tower, which will rise from inside the larger section as air is pumped into the tower. The cylindrical section of the tower will be made of wound carbon fibre. Carbon fibre was chosen because of the impressive properties, which is why carbon fibre is so widely used. These properties are: Description This is the force per unit area, divided by density. Carbon fibre has a value of 2457 kN.m/kg compared to fibre glass which has 1307 kN.m/kg Good tensile strength The maximum stress a material can withstand before failing, compressive or tensile stress. Carbon fibre has a tensile strength of 4127 MPa compared to 3450 MPs for E-glass fibres Corrosion resistance Carbon fibre itself does not corrode, the epoxy and other substances that carbon fibre is combined with that corrode away. Epoxy is sensitive to the sun and is protected from it. Good rigidity Rigidity is measured by the youngs modulus value and measures a materials deflection under stress. Fire resistance Carbon fibre does not burn easily, this property also depends on the manufacturing process and the material its combined with. Low coefficient of thermal expansion A measure of the amount of expansion or contraction of a material when there is an increase in temperature. Fatigue resistance An ability to oppose failure due to continued use. Non poisonous Carbon fibre is not toxic; which is why it is used for medical applications. Relatively expensive Because carbon fibre has excellent advantages, especially weight saving. It has a higher cost compared to fibre glass. Needs specialist equipment and To take full advantage of carbon fibres properties, workers the fibre have to have a high level perfection must be achieved. This means no imperfections. Properties High strength to weight ratio

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Table 3.12.1: Properties of carbon fibre In selecting the material for the two materials were considered, carbon fibre and fibre glass. With further refinement in the material selection carbon fibre was chosen. Carbon fibre AS4 was chosen over carbon fibre T700S. Carbon Fibre T700S Fibre Properties Tensile strength (MPa) 4.9 Tensile modulus (GPa) 230 Electrical resistivity (ohm-cm) 1.610-3 Composite Properties Tensile strength at 0 (MPa) 2.55 Tensile Modulus at 0 (GPa) 135 Flexural strength at 0 (MPa) 1.67 Tensile strength at 90 (MPa) 69 Table3.12.2 carbon fibre T700S vs AS4 Carbon Fibre AS4 4.433 231 1.710-3 2.205 141 1.889 81

In the manufacturing process and for the final product, the tower, the type of resin used is very important. This is because the resins probably degrade before the carbon fibre due to exposure to the natural elements, i.e. sunlight, cold air, wind or even rain. The below properties will show why epoxy liquid resin has been selected over vinyl ester liquid resin. Liquid Resin Properties Epoxy Specific Gravity 1.1 Tensile Strength (MPa) 344 Tensile Modulus (GPa) 17.4 Flexural Strength (MPa) 235 Flexural Modulus (GPa) 6.1 Glass Transition Temperature 423 (K) Dynamic Viscosity (MPa/s) 600 Table 3.12.3: resin properties, Epoxy vs vinyl ester Collar Material Vinyl ester 1.046 86 3.2 150 3.4 393 100

The material which was chosen for the short collar is aluminium. The material chosen for the collar has to be a material which will not deflect or deform easily. The material must not deform in any conditions, such as extremely hot or cold weather. The material considered material was a thermoset polymer. The thermoset polymer softens when heat is applied and therefore deforms too much for the desired application, it also is weak compared to aluminium and therefore does not provide the support that is required of the collar.

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Thermosets Polymer Aluminium Density (kg/m3) TensileStrength (N/mm2) 2700 310 Melamine formaldehyde 1800-2000 50-90 Phenol formaldehyde 1600-1900 38-50 17-35

YoungsModulus (GPa) 69-70 7 Table 3.12.4: Collar material, Aluminium vs Thermoset Polymer 3.12.3 TOWER MANUFACTURING PROCESS

There are many processes in manufacturing composite components, but the two manufacturing methods that were reviewed for this design project are the composite pultrusion process and filament winding process. The most common and widely used method of manufacturing cylindrical parts, which was chosen for this project, is the filament winding process. 3.12.4 Pultrusion The pultrusion process is similar to the filament winding process, except for the sections of the fibre winding. The pultrusion process is a process of pulling the composite fibres through a resin bath and a heating die. REVIEWED MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Image 3.12.5: Image illustrates the pultrusion process Image from: www.sparecomposite/pultrusion

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This process of manufacturing begins with racks containing rolls of the composite fibre/ fibre rovings or composite fibre mats. The fibres or mat is then guided from the racks through the resin bath. The fibres are now completely impregnated with the resin so that the fibres are completely saturated. The resin soaked fibres leave the resin impregnation system. The soaked fibres, uncured fibres are guided to design shaping tools that organize and correctly align the fibres into the desired shape. The excess resin is also removed, squeezed from the fibres. This is known as debulking. This tool that pre-shapes the fibres is known as the pre-former. To improve the surface finish of the final product the composite mats are added at this point of the process. The fibres, which now contain no excess resin, then pass through a heated die. The heating die is generally chromed steel. In this heating die the temperature is kept constant, though it may have several temperature zones throughout the length. This part of the process cures the thermosetting resin as the fibre pass through the heat produced. The final product is then a pultruded fibre reinforced polymer or FRP composite. The final product is pulled through by the pulling mechanism, which could be callipers tracks or hydraulic grips. The product is a long continuous part. This long continuous piece now enters the final stage where it is cut by the cut off saw into specified lengths and then stacked as finished products.

Image 3.12.6: Putrusion process in the form of a production line, producing pipes Image from: www.libertypultrusions.com/pulturusion-process

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3.12.5

CHOSEN MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Filament Winding Filament winding has become a primary process for manufacturing cylindrical composite components. In filament winding threads are wound around a mandrel. The properties of the composite product are dependant not only on the properties of the fibres and the resin, but also on the way the carbon fibres are processed and laid for the manufacturing of the structure.

Image 3.12.7: Shows the angle at which fibres are laid Image from: www.sciencedirect,com The threads are wound at a specific angle, which is the angle from the horizontal; which best suits the purpose of the product and the required properties of the final product.

Tower Filament Winding Process The composite tower will consist of six sections, with each section tapering towards the top. The filament winding process will be used to manufacture the composite cylinder part of each section. Before the filament winding process begins there are some preparations to be made. The first preparation involves degreasing the mandrel, which allows contaminates to build up on the wound tube. The next preparation is to spray or apply a releasing agent to the mandrel, which

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makes the removal of the hollow cylindrical section an easy job. The final preparation is to improve the rough surface finish of the wound cylinder, by lining the mandrel with a thermosetting plastic so the smooth, polished surface finish of the mandrel will transfer to the polymer. The threads will be wound on this this polymer. The filament winding process begins with reels of dry carbon fibre, placed on a creel. The carbon fibre threads will make their way around tensioner bars. These tensioner bars may have sensors on them; the sensors send signals to the control unit. This is so the tensioner bars can keep a constant tension on the carbon threads while the reel is unwinding for the process. If the tension of the applied threads is high the resulting product will have a higher strength and rigidity. If the tension is low the result will be a flexible final product. If not enough attention is paid to the tension of the carbon threads, this may result in an increase in the amount of voids or cavities in the volume of the wound final product.

Image 3.12.8: Illustration of reels of Carbon fibre Image from: www.zoltek.com Voids in the wound products are a factor which influences the strength and stiffness of the final product.

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Image 3.12.9: Shows a single tensioner bar Image from: www.compositesworld.com From the tensioners the carbon threads are directed to a resin bath, where the threads get a coating or impregnated with the resin. The fibre will then pass under a spreader, this spreader will spread the carbon threads flat on the surface of the feedeye carriage and also remove the extra resin. The access resin will then be recycled back into the rein bath. From the spreader the carbon threads will pass under a thread comb, this untangles the threads. The untangled threads then pass through a guide or eye, this bring the threads very to close each other. From the guide the threads are ready to be wound on the mandrel. Before the threads are wound on the mandrel, the mandrel will be covered with a sleeve of a composite thermoset plastic. The sleeve is added to improve the inner surface finish and so the grooves and indentations which are required can be produced on it rather than the fibre wound sections. The sleeves will be drilled where the hole will be and special inserts will be placed. The holes that will be used for the locks will be threaded and so will the inserts. The inserts will be the same length as the combined thickness of the sleeve and the wound section.

Image 3.12.10: Shows threaded hole inserts Image From: ww.specialinsert.com This sleeve, with the inserts placed on it will be placed over the mandrel and the filament

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winding will take place on top of the sleeve. The threads will wind around the hole inserts. The carbon threads from the guide on the feedeye carriage are to be wound on the mandrel. There are three methods of winding threads that will be looked at, first will be the polar winding method, the second will be the circumferential winding and finally the helical winding method. Polar Winding

Image 3.12.10: illustrates polar filament winding Image from: www.sciencedirect.com In this form of winding (polar) the threads are wound tangentially across the mandrel. The threads are wound from one pole to the other, from left to right. This results in the angle of the threads being an acute angle, the angle approaches zero degrees, the mandrel is rotated about the longitudinal axis by the arm. This method of winding is generally used for domed end pressure vessels.

Circumferential Winding

Image 3.12.11: Shows circumferential winding method Image from: www.sciencedirect.com

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In circumferential winding the threads are wound tightly and close together around the mandrel. Each rotation of the mandrel moves the feedeye carriage one bandwidth in the direction of its horizontal movement. The angle at which the fibres are wound approaches 90.

Helical Winding

Image 3.12.12: Shows Helical winding Inage from: www.sciencedirect.com In this winding method the threads are wound at 90 to each other, 45 from the horizontal. As the mandrel rotates and the feedeye carriage moves horizontally, the threads leave gaps between each of the threads laid per revolution of the mandrel. These gaps will be closed by the multiple layers of threads to be wound. The horizontal movement of the feedeye and the rotary motion of the mandrel make the machine used here a 2 axis winding machine. The helical winding method was chosen in manufacturing the tower because the threads laid in this manner will cope well with the forces. When blown by the wind the tower may bend or deflect, this method of winding will be able to cope with the compressive stresses of the inner fibres and the tensile stresses of the outer fibre. The stresses will be distributed across the fibres Once the threads have been successfully wound on the mandrel the resin needs to be hardened or cured. The curing of the resin will affect the overall performance of the final products structure. Special attention is paid to the temperature of curing the resin. When curing the wound product the amount of layers and the thickness of the cylindrical section have to be taken into account when setting the temperature of the oven.

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Image3.12.13: Shows a large curing oven Image from: www.addax.com Advantages of Filament Winding Its a process which can be automated, reduced labour Can produce high quality components and is repeatable There is no pollution or environmental concerns Water based, transfer left on the mandrel can be washed with water The cylindrical sections will have a smooth inner surface finish Easy removal of the mandrel The use of continuous fibres produces very good properties, such as high strength and stiffness. The fibres can be laid in many ways to suit the product and its uses The material can be used in its simplest form, which saves cost

3.12.6

CHASSIS MATERIAL

For the construction of the chassis and some of its components we decided to go with an aluminium alloy as it now ranks second to steel in standings of worldwide quantity and expenditure. It has achieved prominence in nearly all sectors of the economy with foremost uses in transportation. There are numerous unique and attractive properties that account for the engineering significance of aluminium such as workability, corrosion resistance, light weight etc. Aluminium has a specific gravity of 2.7 whilst that of steel is 7.85 making it a third of the

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weight of steel at the same volume. It can also be recycled repeatedly with no harm in quality. This saves 95% of energy required to produce aluminium from ore [5]. The only serious flaw that aluminium has from an engineering perspective is a fairly low modulus of elasticity. For the trailer which forms the base of the tower we have selected aluminium alloy 6061-T6 over the 7075 series which are both from the wrought alloy classification. These are shaped as solids therefore have attractive forming characteristics. Whilst stronger than 6061, 7075 is nearly impossible to weld due the high copper content.

Composition and Properties of some wrought aluminium alloys in various conditions 7075-T6 % Composition Cu % Composition Si % Composition Mn % Composition Mg % Composition Others Tensile strength (MPa) Yield Strength (MPa) Elongation in 2 inch % Brinell Hardness Uses and Characteristics 0.2 2.5 5.6 Zinc 552 483 6 150 Strongest alloy for extrusions 1.0 0.20 Cr 290 276 12 95 Strong, Corrosion resistant 1.6 6061-T6 0.28 0.6

Table: 3.12.13 Yield strength taken at 0.2% permanent set, information is taken from reference [5]

3.12.7

CHASSIS AND PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION

The chassis will be a fully welded aluminium 6061-T6 rolled sheet and the platform consists of a skeletal top deck to accommodate the load. Welding

Aluminium 6061 is highly weldable. For the purpose of the trailer construction tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) has been selected as the most appropriate; however the weld has to be heat

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treated and age harden to the T6 temper due to a loss of strength of nearly 80% [13]. The heat treatment must adhere to the standards stated by the Structural Engineering Division cited in reference [3].

Equipment needed: A TIG Welder Welding gloves A good welding helmet (Gold plated is best) Argon gas (an argon/helium mix is the only suitable mix allowable for use) Aluminium welding rod Stainless steel brush dedicated for use on aluminium only A metal work bench A squirt bottle filled with water to put out minute fires Fire extinguisher Vice grips/clamps Blocks of aluminium or copper for use as heat sinks

Precautions: Clean the aluminium- use 100% acetone, rinse with water, and once dry scrub with the stainless steel brush. Clamp the part being welded to a heat sink to keep the work from warping Preheat the aluminium before welding Fit the parts as tightly together as possible

Many of the components of the chassis, such as the wheel hub assemblies etc. will be standard parts that can be purchased at any local store. The designed parts were done so to accommodate the tower as current components do not meet the design standards. Any local engineering firm can put the trailer together.

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3.12.8 Steering:

STANDARD PARTS TO BE USED:

A single ball bearing lock which is restricted to 45 degrees can be used as well as single or twin Ackerman steering. Axles/Hubs: Solid steel axle (diameter 50mm) beams fitted with taper roller bearings (diameter 115mm). The beam and stud configurations that are determined by load capacity are:

Wheels and tyres: Selection influences take account of load capacity and the surface condition of the environment. On that basis 15 inch was selected. Drawbar/Towing eye: A hinged frame construction with a T handle for manual operation

3.12.9

TOWER BASE PLATE

The composite tower rests on a base plate made of cast aluminium to enable easy storage and movability. Aluminium is a lightweight alternative to using steel and has the added bonus of non-rusting features. It does however have the tendency to develop stress cracks in high stress regions. Our casted aluminium base plate is designed from one piece. The connection of the base plate to the column is realized by a crimping process. This ensures a seamless, completely sealed construction. We decided to use an alloy with a higher strength than that which we used in the construction of the trailer. Aluminium 2014-T6 has an ultimate tensile stress of 485 MPa, which exceeds that of many grades of steel. Forging is porosity free therefore permitting straight forward heat treatment processes that considerably improve selected mechanical characteristics. A wide range of finished can be achieved by forging

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2014-T6 Bulk Modulus (GPa) Density (g/cm3) Elastic (Youngs) Modulus (Gpa) Electrical Conductivity (% IACS) Elongation at Break: Typical (%) Elongation at Break: Minimum (%) Fatigue Strength (Endurance Limit) (Mpa) Hardness: Brinell Maximum Temperature: Onset of Melting (Solidus) (C) Poissons Ratio Shear Modulus (Gpa) Shear Strength (Mpa) Stiffness-to-Weight Ratio: Bulk (MN-m/kg) Stiffness-to-Weight Ratio: Shear (MN-m/kg) Stiffness-to-Weight Ratio: Tensile (MN-m/kg) Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Fatigue (kN-m/kg) Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Shear (kN-m/kg) Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Tensile, Ultimate (kNm/kg) Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Tensile, Yield (kN-m/kg) Tensile Strength: Ultimate (Mpa) 71 2.80 73 40 4 6 125 135 507

6061-T6 67 2.70 69 43 14 4 97 95 582

0.33 290 160 25 10 26 44 100 170

0.33 207 150 25 12 25 35 76 110

140 485

100 310

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Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof) (Mpa) Thermal Conductivity: Ambient (W/m-K) Thermal Expansion: 20 to 100C (m/m-K)

415 154 22.5

276 167 23.6

Table3.12.14: information is taken from reference [14]

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3.13 ENGINEERING DRAWINGS This section includes all relevant engineering drawings of the final product design and the winch tilting mechanism option drawings. All drawings dimensions are in millimetre unless otherwise specified on the drawing. The number next to a part name on the drawing indicates the section of the tower on which that part is fitted or belongs. Drawings were generated using Pro Engineer Wildfire 5.0.

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11 4 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ITEM 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 QTY 6 2

12

MASS EXCL. WELDING

1200 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

WELDING SPECIFICATION : AWS D14.3

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Air_cyl_Base_mount AIR_CYL_PIN air_cylinder1.asm Animated_tower_4 Pin_lock_plate stand_frame stop_timber Swing_bolt Tilting_base_mounting Trailer_plate Wing_nut1 PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/19

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,040
SIZE

COMPOSITE TELESCOPIC TOWER


PART NUMBER REVISION

A3

TOWER001

91

180 6

4 10231,5 610

3 A(0,200) SCALE 0,060 SCALE 0,060 2 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 ITEM Section_1 Section_2 Section_3 Section_4 Section_5 Section_6 PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR

2763

MASS EXCL. WELDING

408.88 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 1 1 1 1 1 QTY

410

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

2012/19/10

PROF. KANNY 2012/26/10

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

470

TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,075
SIZE PART NUMBER

TELESCOPIC TOWER
REVISION

SCALE 0,025

SECTION B-B SCALE 0,025

A3

TOWER002

92

450 6

370

7 SCALE 0,060 2 470 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ITEM 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 1 QTY

2078

3 SECTION A-A SCALE 0,075

MASS EXCL. WELDING

118.39 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Air_cyl_towerclamp base_cap.prt Base_ORing Bolt_Ring collar01 Cylinder_1 M12_Socket_Cap_Screw Support_pin Tower_support PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SCALE 0,075 10 9 5 4

2012/10/20

PRO. KANNY

CHECKED BY

2012/10/26

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,020
SIZE PART NUMBER

SECTION 1
REVISION

A3

TOWER003

93

148

1543,5 369 SCALE 0,075 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ITEM


MASS EXCL. WELDING

SCALE 0,080

75.3 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Base_Ring2 Collar02 cylinder_2.prt M10_HEX_SCREW M12_Cap_Screw Oring Piston_2 seal_1.prt Wear_ring_1 PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering

2043,38

1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

1 SCALE 0,075

TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,034
SIZE PART NUMBER

SECTION 2
REVISION

A3

TOWER004

94

358

5 1508,5 3

2002,22

SCALE 0,075 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ITEM Base_Ring3 Collar03 cylinder_3.prt M10_Hex_Socket_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring03.prt piston_3.prt seal_2.prt wear_ring_2.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

4 SCALE 0,075

7
MASS EXCL. WELDING

63.77 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 QTY

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

6
TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

0,060
SIZE PART NUMBER

SECTION 3
REVISION

A3

TOWER005

95

312 2

1485,5

1973,06

SCALE 0,075 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ITEM Base_Ring4 Collar04 cylinder_4.prt M10_Hex_Sockel_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring04.prt piston_4.prt seal_3.prt wear_ring_3.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

SCALE 0,080
MASS EXCL. WELDING

SCALE 0,080 1 9 6

54.1 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 QTY

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,026
SIZE PART NUMBER

SECTION 4
REVISION

A3

TOWER006

96

266

1478,5 3

1959,89

SCALE 0,080 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ITEM Base_Ring5 Collar05 cylinder_5.prt M10_Hex_Socket_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring05.prt piston_5.prt seal_4.prt wear_ring_4.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

SCALE 0,080 7 4
MASS EXCL. WELDING

SCALE 0,080 1 9 6

44.18 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 QTY

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,028
SIZE PART NUMBER

SRCTION 5
REVISION

A3

TOWER007

97

300 240

1873,73

SCALE 0,085 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ITEM cylinder_6.prt M10_Hex_Socket_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring06.prt piston_6.prt seal_5.prt Top_Flange wear_ring_5.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

185 8 2 SECTION A-A SCALE 0,085


MASS EXCL. WELDING

32.26 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 6 6 1 1 2 1 1 QTY

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

SCALE 0,085
TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

0,030
SIZE PART NUMBER

SECTION 6
REVISION

A3

TOWER008

98

M12x1.75 ISO - H TAP 10.2 DRILL ( 10,200 )

20,000 20,000 -( 6 ) HOLE

1,1

1990

1950

428

42,34

100

40 400 90 256 410 SECTION A-A B


MATERIAL DESCRIPTION MATERIAL No.

30

176,6

A SECTION B-B

80

Carbon Fibre Epoxy Resin


MAT. QUANTITY

1 OF 1
ITEM MASS

SHEET

75.58 kg

75.58 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,080
SIZE PART NUMBER

CYLINDER 1
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER023

99

101

1,1

40

M12x1.75 ISO - H TAP 10.2 DRILL ( 10,200 )

20,000 20,000 -( 6 ) HOLE B

1644,5

1698,5

1519,5

1698,5 30 324
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION MATERIAL No.

364

26

11

1850

369 A SECTION B-B

Carbon Fiber Epoxy Resin


MAT. QUANTITY

1 OF 1
ITEM MASS

SHEET

52.3 kg

52.3 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

B SECTION A-A
PROCESS STANDARD FOR

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,100
SIZE PART NUMBER

CYLINDER 2
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER024

100

101

A 40

M12x1.75 ISO - H TAP 10.2 DRILL ( 10,200 )

24,480 THRU -( 6 ) HOLE B

1,1

1484,5

1609,5

1663,5

318

26

11

30

323 A SECTION B-B

278

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION MATERIAL No.

1815

Carbon Fibre Epoxy Risen


MAT. QUANTITY

1 OF 1
ITEM MASS

SHEET

44.45 kg

44.45 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

B SECTION A-A

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,100
SIZE PART NUMBER

CYLINDER 3
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER025

101

101

A 40

M12x1.75 ISO - H TAP 10.2 DRILL ( 10,200 )

24,480 THRU -( 6 ) HOLE B

1,1

1461,5

1586,5

1640,5

272

26

11

30

277 A SECTION B-B

232

1792
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION MATERIAL No.

Carbon Fibre Epoxy Resin


MAT. QUANTITY

1 OF 1
ITEM MASS

SHEET

37.1 kg

37.1 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

B SECTION A-A

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,100
SIZE PART NUMBER

CYLINDER 4
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER026

102

101

1,1

40

M12x1.75 ISO - H TAP 10.2 DRILL ( 10,200 )

24,480 THRU -( 6 ) HOLE B

1454,5

1579,5

1633,5

226

26

11

30

231

186
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION MATERIAL No.

1785

Carbon Fibre Epoxy Resin


MAT. QUANTITY

1 OF 1
ITEM MASS

SHEET

30.19 kg

30.19 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

A SECTION B-B

B SECTION A-A
PROCESS STANDARD FOR TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

2012/10/21

PRO. KANNY

CHECKED BY

2012/10/26

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PART NAME

0,100
SIZE PART NUMBER

CYLINDER 5
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER027

103

81

A 30

M12x1.75 ISO - H TAP 10.2 DRILL ( 10,200 )

24,480 THRU -( 6 ) HOLE B

1,1 1603,5

1444,5

1549,5

180

26

185 A SECTION B-B

30

140
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

1755

B SECTION A-A

Carbon Fibre Epoxi Resin


MATERIAL No. MAT. QUANTITY

1 OF 1
ITEM MASS

SHEET

23.04 kg

23.04 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,100
SIZE PART NUMBER

CYLINDER 6
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER028

104

385 379 4

80

SECTION A-A 365+0,007 -0,029 410+0,14 0

40

118

148

13

36

4 A A 1 2 3 4 ITEM collar_test1.prt Lock_mechnism Scraper_1 wear_ring_01.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
PROCESS STANDARD FOR TOUT EST GRACE SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

1 2 1 1 QTY

15.92 kg

ITEM MASS

15.92 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

0,200
SIZE PART NUMBER

COLLAR 1
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER017

105

3 404 339 323 18 4

40

SECTION A-A 319+0,007 -0,029 364+0,14 0

118

148

333 4

14

A
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

1 2 3 4 ITEM

14.22 kg

ITEM MASS

14.22 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

collar_test2.prt Lock_mechnism scraper_2.prt wear_ring_02.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Mechanical Engineering

1 2 1 1 QTY

80

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,200

COLLAR 2
PART NUMBER REVISION

60
DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

SIZE

A3

TOWER018

106

358 293 7,5 277 4

68

43 17

63

40

SECTION A-A 273


+0,005 -0,027

118

148

318+0,13 0

287

4 14

A
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

1 2 3 4 ITEM

12.51 kg

ITEM MASS

12.51 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

collar_test3.prt Lock_mechnism scraper_3.prt wear_ring_03.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Mechanical Engineering

1 2 1 1 QTY

80

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,250
SIZE PART NUMBER

COLLAR 3
REVISION

60

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER019

107

312 247 231 7,5 4

68 63 43

17

18

40

148

118

1 SECTION A-A 227+0,005 -0,024 272+0,115 0 241

80

14

A 60

A
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

1 2 3 4 ITEM

10.8 kg

ITEM MASS

10.8 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

collar_test4.prt Lock_mechnism scraper_4.prt wear_ring_4.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Mechanical Engineering

1 2 1 1 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,250
SIZE PART NUMBER

COLLAR 4
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER020

108

266 201 7,5 185

68

63

43 17

18

118

148

SECTION A-A 181+0,005 -0,024 226+0,115 0 195

40

80

14

A
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION SHEET

1 2 3 4 ITEM

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

9.09 kg

ITEM MASS

9.09 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

collar_test5.prt Lock_mechnism scraper_5.prt wear_ring_05.prt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Mechanical Engineering

1 2 1 1 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PRO. KANNY

CHECKED BY

2012/10/26

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

60

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,300
SIZE PART NUMBER

COLLAR 5
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER021

109

1 11,6

25 43 62,25 95

17,6

SECTION A-A

32,7 35,7

19,6

SCALE 0,600 2 1 12 11 14

79,6

3,5 1 2 3 4 ITEM Circlip Locking_Key spring Wing_Nut PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

MASS EXCL. WELDING

0.412 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 1 1 1 QTY

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,500
SIZE PART NUMBER

LOCKING MECHANISM
REVISION

A3

TOWER016

110

23,4

13

SECTION A-A 180+0,10 -0,01 210

60 300 15 6 HOLES A 240 A


MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

18

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

4.8 kg

ITEM MASS

4.8 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PRO. KANNY

CHECKED BY

2012/10/26

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,400
SIZE PART NUMBER

CAP FLANGE
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER022

111

M10x1.5 ISO - H TAP 28,000 30,000 -( 6 ) HOLE 8.5 DRILL ( 8,500 )

70 88 96 142 124 152 87,6

185,38

116

6 4 14 SECTION A-A 291,66

3 324 +0,005 -0,094 SCALE 0,200

369 +0,06 0

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Al 6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

1 2 3 4 ITEM

8.27 kg

ITEM MASS

8.27 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Oring Piston_2 seal_1.prt Wear_ring_1 PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Mechanical Engineering

1 1 2 1 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

0,111
SIZE PART NUMBER

PISTON 2
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER030

112

9 46,24

20 889 4 SCALE 0,200

46

SCALE 0,150 10 1 3
MASS EXCL. WELDING

12.18 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ITEM

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Air_cyl Air_cyl_cap Air_cyl_head AIR_CYL_PIN Air_cyl_pistonrodmount Air_cyl_piton_rod M12_NUT Pin_lock_plate Tie_rod PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering

12 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,050
SIZE PART NUMBER

TILTING CYLINDER
REVISION

A3

TOWER009

113

16 2

20 +0,02 0

0,5 24 +0,015 +0,002

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Brass

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

MATERIAL No.

0.0183 kg

ITEM MASS

0.0183 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

4,000
SIZE PART NUMBER

2016 BUSH
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER013

114

28 2

0,5 24 +0,015 +0,002

20 +0,013 0

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Brass

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

MATERIAL No.

0.0322 kg

ITEM MASS

0.0322 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10//20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

3,000
SIZE PART NUMBER

2028 BUSH
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER014

115

44

680

106

46

79 720

15

7 53

,4
17

17

SCALE 0,150 1 1 2 3 4 ITEM bush_16_brass.prt tilting_base_plate1.asm Tiltiting_hinge Tliting_pin PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE: PART NAME ORIGINATOR

14

MASS EXCL. WELDING

19.92 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

2 1 2 2 QTY

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/21

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,200
SIZE PART NUMBER

TILTING PLATE ASM


REVISION

A3

TOWER010

116

24 +0,002 0

1 46

16 79

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Al6061 T6
MATERIAL No.

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

0.156 kg

ITEM MASS

0.156 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

1,500
SIZE PART NUMBER

TILTING HINGE MOUNT


REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER012

117

68 64 1,2 1

17

0 20 -0,0013

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Steel

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

MATERIAL No.

0.166 kg

ITEM MASS

0.166 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Department of Mechanical Engineering
KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

SURFACE FINISH: YELLOW-ZINC

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S

2,000
SIZE PART NUMBER

TILTING PIN
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER011

118

32 3

82,11 1 16

22

2 18 50

100

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Steel

1 OF 1
MAT. QUANTITY

SHEET

1 2 3 ITEM

MATERIAL No.

0.325 kg

ITEM MASS

0.325 kg

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Eyebolt_mount Eyebolt_pin Swing_Bolt PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Mechanical Engineering

2 1 1 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

SECONDARY PROCESSES

2012/10/24

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

PROCESS STANDARD FOR

TOUT EST GRACE SCALE:

PART NAME

1,000
SIZE PART NUMBER

SWING BOLT
REVISION

DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

A3

TOWER032

119

102,7

51,3

160

517,98 100 409,99

16

267

28 479,98

44
MASS EXCL. WELDING

8.02 kg

1 OF 1

SHEET

1 2 3 4 5 6 ITEM

SECONDARY PROCESSES

mm-kg-s MDES302
PROJECT

METRIC

Air_cyl_towerclamp air_cyl_towerclamp_1.prt bush_28_brass.prt M12_35BOLT M12_NUT M12_WASHER PART NAME DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Mechanical Engineering

1 1 1 6 6 6 QTY

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment


KAHULUME T
ORIGINATOR ORIGINATION DATE

2012/10/20

PROF. KANNY 2012/10/26

CHECKED BY

CHECK DATE

GROUP 3

SUBMITTING TEAM

TOUT EST GRACE PROCESS STANDARD FOR SCALE:

PART NAME

TOLERANCE SEE 700997 U.O.S DO NOT SCALE FROM PRINTED DRAWING

0,200
SIZE PART NUMBER

TOWER CLAMP
REVISION

A3

TOWER015

120

150 160

100

40

50

DRAWN CHECKED

22/10/2012 Prof. Kanny 26/10/2012

NAME NishalJ

DATE
TITLE SIZE

Durban University of Technology Mechanical Engineering Department Universal Pole Mount TOWER 031
WEIGHT: 0.4 kg SHEET 1 OF 1 121
REV

80

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS

A4

SCALE: 1 : 2

110

CHAPTER 4
4. HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDIES

4.1

HAZARD STUDIES

4.1.1 TOWER EXTENSION HAZARD Extending the tower into overhead obstructions could result in death or serious injury and could damage the tower. Therefore before actuating the tower, make sure there is enough space above and to all sides of the expected required space of the full extended tower and payload. People must be kept clear of the tower and never lean directly over the tower. 4.1.2 LIFTING HAZARD The tower is designed to lift a payload of no more than 200kg at a wind speed less than 80km/h only. Any other use without confirmation from the designing team is strictly prohibited. The tower should not be used to lift personnel under any circumstance. 4.1.3 TRANSPORTATION HAZARD Moving the tower during operation of after extension could result in death or serious injury. Do not relocate the tower while in use or extended. Operate the tower only when the trailer is stationary and all for stabilizers lowered. 4.1.4 MOVING PARTS HAZARD Moving parts can crush and cut resulting in death or serious injury. Always keep clear from moving parts such as collars or tilting plate during operation. 4.1.5 CRUSH HAZARD Do not stand directly beneath the tower or payload as this could result in death or serious injury in case of sudden failure of the tower. Make sure the payload is safely secured to the tower. 4.1.6 BURST HAZARD Over pressurizing the tower will damage pressure relief valves and cause death or serious injury. Do not exceed the maximum operating pressure of 100kPa for the tower and 1600kPa for the tilting cylinder. Keep personnel clear of safety valve exhaust direction.

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4.1.7 WELDING ALUMINIUM The success of the assembly depends on the control of many variables, such as the training knowledge of the welder, as well as the use of proper materials and welding processes. This is to ensure that reliable joints are produced in the equipment, due to the importance of this various codes and standards exist. Unsound welds can result in failure in service. Regardless of the procedure used, the welded joints must pass qualification tests. To meet the welding criteria the joints that have been welded must be verified for tensile strength and ductility. The welding characteristics of steel dont exactly apply to welding aluminium. For example, aluminiums high thermal conductivity and low melting point can certainly lead to burn through and warping complications if proper techniques arent followed. A copper alloy is generally difficult to weld due to heat cracking, however alloy 2014 can be welded easily using a 2319 filler wire.

Image taken from http://www.lincolnelectric.com/en-us/support/process-andtheory/Pages/aluminum-application-detail.aspx

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4.2

TOWER OPERATION

4.2.1 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS Before operating the tower, always ensure that: The tower is free of obstruction All electrical cables are undamaged The operator must have full view of the tower during use The trailer is not moving and the stabilizers are engaged The pneumatic system has no leaks

4.2.2 EXTENDING THE TOWER Select an area free of power lines or other overhead obstructions. The tower location should not be closer to 12m from any overhead obstructions. The trailer transporting the tower should be located on a level ground and the stabilizer engaged. Switch on the Air compressor, make sure the pressure gauge reading does not exceed the maximum operating pressure. Move the tower to vertical position using the tilting control valve. When the tower is at vertical position lock the tilting plate using the swing bolt and wing nut provided. Then unlock the top section of the tower by rotating both wing nut on the collar 3600 anticlockwise, pressurize the tower using the tower control valve to extend the top inner section of the tower. When the section is fully extended, release the control valve lever and lock the extended section in place by rotating the same wing nut this time clockwise. Exhaust the tower to confirm that the section is locked. If the section is not locked repeat this step. Follow the same procedure for each subsequent tower section going from smallest to largest. Any combination of sections can be extended if the full height is not required.

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4.2.3 RETRACTING THE MAST Pressurize the tower to lift the load until the base section locking mechanism can be disengaged by rotating the wing nut anticlockwise. Once the section is unlocked exhaust the tower until the section is fully retracted then lock it in place. Repeat the same procedure for all remaining sections going from largest to smallest. Keep hands clear of the retracting sections and collars. Once the tower is completely retracted remove the payload and tilt the tower to inclined position using the tilting control valve.

4.3

MAINTENANCE AND SERVICE INSTRUCTION

This section provides instructions for maintaining and servicing the tower.

4.3.1 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE The tower should be cleaned and lubricated on a regular basis to insure smooth operation and long life. The maintenance should be performed once per month depending up on the frequency of use and the environmental conditions. The following signs indicate that a cleaning and lubrication is required: Noisy operation of the tower Sticking of tower sections

Retract the tower completely; remove the payload from the tower. Keep the tower in vertical position, and then extend the top section very slowly by controlling the control valve. While one person is controlling the section rising, the other may wrap a rag dampen in a non-abrasive cleaner to wipe the surface of the tower. Same steps may be used for the remaining sections, going from smallest to largest. Inject lightweight machine oil into the weep hole of the exposed tower section. The weep hole is located slightly below each collar. After lubricating, lower the tower completely and allow several minutes for the lubricant to spread around the wear ring and seal. Care should be taken to avoid the penetration of any other liquid through the weep hole during maintenance.

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4.3.2 CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE In this section step by step instruction are provided for the replacement of the tower seal and wear ring both on the piston and in the collar. Lower the tower completely and tilt it to the inclined position. Use a mobile shop crane or any other safe lifting equipment should be used to hold the tower at 190. The crane strap should be secure in the middle of the base section. With the tower safely held by the crane, remove the tilting air cylinder and lower the tower horizontally on the trailer. To remove the top section, unlock the top collar locking mechanism and unfasten all 6 bolts on the top collar (see engineering drawings for better understanding). Gently pull the top section and secure it horizontally on supports to remove seals and wear ring. Insure the area is free of dust. Remove old seal and wear ring, apply grease to the new seal and wear ring and fit them back to the piston or in the collar. Repeat the three previous steps for the remaining sections. Slide back the last removed section, make sure the locking mechanism is still unlocked then slide the collar around the appropriate cylinder and fasten the bolt into the insert imbedded in each cylinder. Repeat step six to assemble back the remaining sections of the tower.

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CHAPTER 5
5. COSTING

ITEM PART NAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Section_1 Air_cyl_towerclamp base_cap.prt Base_ORing Bolt_Ring collar01 Cylinder_1 M12_Socket_Cap_Screw Support_pin Tower_support Section_2 Collar02 cylinder_2.prt M10_HEX_SCREW M12_Cap_Screw Oring Piston_2 seal_1.prt Wear_ring_1 Section_3 Base_Ring3 Collar03 cylinder_3.prt M10_Hex_Socket_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring03.prt piston_3.prt seal_2.prt wear_ring_2.prt Section_4 Base_Ring4 Collar04 cylinder_4.prt M10_Hex_Sockel_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring04.prt

QTY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 1 1 1 1 6 6 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 1

ESTIMATED PRICE/UNIT R1600 R1700 R5 R2 R1600 R4000 R5 R100 R2000 R1500 R3500 R5 R5 R5 R1600 R130 R120 R5 R1400 R3300 R5 R5 R5 R1500 R120 R110 R5 R1300 R3100 R5 R5 R5

TOTAL PRICE R1600 R1700 R5 R2 R1600 R4000 R30 R200 R2000 R1500 R3500 R30 R30 R10 R1600 R260 R120 R5 R1400 R3300 R30 R30 R5 R1500 R240 R110 R5 R1300 R3100 R30 R30 R5

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37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

piston_4.prt seal_3.prt wear_ring_3.prt Section_5 Base_Ring5 Collar05 cylinder_5.prt M10_Hex_Socket_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring05.prt piston_5.prt seal_4.prt wear_ring_4.prt Section_6 cylinder_6.prt M10_Hex_Socket_Screw M12_Socket_Cap_Screw oring06.prt piston_6.prt seal_5.prt Top Flange wear_ring_5.prt Trailer Air cylinder Compressor Battery

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2

R1400 R110 R100 R5 R1200 R2900 R5 R5 R5 R1300 R100 R90 R2700 R5 R5 R5 R1200 R90 R500 R80 R17000 R1500 R4500 R850

R1400 R200 R100 R5 R1200 R2900 R30 R30 R5 R1300 R200 R90 R2700 R30 R30 R5 R1200 R180 R500 R80 R17000 R1500 R4500 R1700 R66162

TOTAL COST Table 2.1 Bill of material and cost.

Prices listed in the above table were acquired from suppliers websites and some were estimated based on the available product, therefore the total cost may be a little bit offset. Based on this estimated price, it was concluded that if the product is rented for R100 an hour, and operates at a minimum of four hours a day, then the payback period will be approximately 10 months.

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CHAPTER 6
6.1 CONCLUSION

As seen in our project there are many benefits to having a light weight carbon fibre tower for various applications. Our tower aims to streamline operations, from transport to usability. There is definitely a market for light, cost effective towers in industry today. By having a universal attachment on top of our tower a broad array of industries could benefit from our design. The final design meets all our specified requirements. Every feature of the tower is intended to accommodate safe erecting and resist external forces. Where previously pneumatic driven towers were uncommon due to the inability to maintain the pressure once the compressor has been turned off resulting in the descending of the tower due to gravity, the placing of a

locking mechanism in each segment of the tower prevents this. There is also a slight overlap between tower segments to give the structure added stability. At the base of the tower on the trailer, adjustable stabilizers have been mounted. This provides for the maximum load condition.

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6.2

RECOMMENDATION

Trailer canopy When the tower is in the inoperative position (retracted and tilted), it lies on the trailer for easy transport and low wind resistance when driving. Adding a canopy-like cover that fits over the trailer and tower would be a major upgrade and would enhance the sophistication of the design and would also keep all the minor mechanical parts and mechanisms out of sight, resulting in a better appearance. The canopy would also add more storage space for any necessary tools and equipment required for the operation and maintenance of the tower. Keeping the tower up to date The portable structure has to be handled with care in order for it to meet its life span expectations. Improved parts and little innovative technological advancements would help in keeping the tower up to date with all the latest and most elite mechanical and electronic parts. The pneumatic system will also be upgraded when the need arises or when it ceases to function. Replacement of moving parts Constant usage of the tower will cause joints, connections and friction between sliding faces to become worn out. The replacement and proper maintenance of the essential parts will result in a composite materials have a very long life span. As the parts get older the payload will have to decrease due to the strength of the connections. For the most efficient tower, all necessary parts should be kept in good condition in order to receive the maximum output.

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CHAPTER 7
7.1REFERENCES
1. Richard, G. and Keith, J. 200. Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design. Singapore: McGraw Hill. 2. Drostsky, JG. 2008. Strength of Materials for technicians. 3rd ed. South Africa: Heinemann. 3. Figert, John D, Process Specification for the Heat Treatment of Aluminium Alloys, structural Engineering Division, NASA, August 2009 4. Ullman, David G, The Mechanical Design Process, McGraw-Hill, 2008 5. Black, J T and Kohser, Ronald A, DeGarmos Materials & Processes in Manufacturing, John Wiley and Sons, USA, 10th Edition, 2007, pp 144-152 6. http://www.contactcorp.net/faq.html 7. http://www.boschrexroth.com/pneumaticscatalog/Pdf.cfm?Language=EN&file=en/pdf/PDF_g5923_en.pdf 8. http://www.ashwinrshah.com/catalogs/Selection%20Guidelines.pdfhttp://www.perfor mance-composites.com/carbonfibre/mechanicalproperties_2.asp 9. http://www.wisetool.com/fit.htm 10. [ttp://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/engineering-materials-properties-d_1225.html 11. [http://www.allsealsinc.com/pdf6/Thompson.pdf] 12. http://www.oasismfg.com/dc-air-compressors.html 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6061_aluminium_alloy encyclopaedia, 3rd September 2012 14. http://www.makeitfrom.com/compare-materials/?A=2014-T6-Aluminum&B=6061T6-Aluminum, makeitfrom.com: Materials property database, 3rd October 2012 15. http://www.lincolnelectric.com/en-us/support/process-and-theory/Pages/aluminumapplication-detail.aspx, Lincoln Electric Welding Experts, 16. http://www.magpulse.co.in/crimping.html 17. http://garzatelecom.com/Garza_Hardware.htm 18. http://www.blueskymast.com/index.php/accessories-main/universal-pole-mount-andbrackets) 19. http://wwww.blueskymast.com/index.php/accessories-main/side-arm-mounts#, , Wikipedia: the free

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20. http://wwww.blueskymast.com/images/stories/MasterDocs/Datasheets/BSM2-KA200-POL-EM0.pdf

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7.2 APPENDIX

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