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The State of the Art of

Precast/Prestressed
Integral Bridges

IB-01

209 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60606


Phone: 312-786-0300
Fax: 312-786-0353
http://www.pci.org
e-mail: info@pci.org

PCI Publication Number IB-01


Copyright 2001
By Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute
First Edition, First Printing, 2001
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced in
any form without the written permission of
the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute.

ISBN 0-937040-66-5

This report has been prepared and reviewed as a Precast/Prestressed Concrete


Institute (PCI) Committee effort to present the state of the art for design of and
construction of integral, i.e. jointless prestressed concrete bridges. Substantial
effort has been made to ensure that all collected data and information included in this report are accurate. PCI, the committee members, and the quoted
agencies cannot accept responsibility for any errors or oversights in the use of
this material or in the preparation of any final design and engineering plans.
This report is intended for reference by professional personnel who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and who are
able to accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains.
Actual conditions on any project must be given special consideration and
more specific evaluation and engineering judgement may be required that are
beyond the intended scope of this state-of-the-art report. The contents of this
report do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the agencies
mentioned, and do not constitute a standard, or policy for design or construction.

Printed in U.S.A.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The subcommittee wishes to thank all those who participated in the development of this report. The subcommittee also extends its gratitude to the many individuals in the respective organizations of the members who contributed to this report for their active participation either in developing the material or in editing and typing.
Finally, the subcommittee expresses its appreciation to the support of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete
Institute Committee on Bridges to embark on a major effort which will be a benefit to the precast concrete industry.
Members of the Subcommittee on Integral Bridges:
Vijay Chandra, P.E.
Willis Grinstead, P.E.
James Gallt, P.E.
Morad Ghali, P.E.
Edward Wasserman, P.E.
Kris Bassi, Retired, P.E.
Claude Napier, P.E.
Henry G. Russell, P.E.

Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. (Chair)


Harrington & Cortelyou, Inc.
Palmer Engineering Co.
Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan, Inc.
Tennessee Department of Transportation
Ontario Ministry of Transportation
FHWA
Consultant (Ex Officio Member)

The Subcommittee acknowledges the valuable contribution made by Ms. Lori Gale, P.E. at Parsons
Brinckerhoff, Inc. in reviewing and making suggestions to improve the report, Mr. Stephen Weintraut,
P.E. of Butler, Fairman & Seufert, Inc. and Mr. William Dowd, P.E. of HDR for their contribution in
providing the case studies.
Assistance with the preparation of a portion of the graphics was received from the Texas Department of
Transportation and the Florida Department of Transportation. Their contributions to this manual are
gratefully appreciated.
The final editing of the manuscript, final graphics preparation, layout, and prepress work were performed by Roy L. Eriksson, P.E., Eriksson Technologies, Inc.

PRECAST/PRESTRESSED INTEGRAL BRIDGES

Table of Contents
Page

1. Introduction
1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

2. Integral (Jointless) Bridges


2.1 Basic Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
2.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

3. Superstructure Design
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Superstructure Details at Integral Abutments


Continuity at Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Movements and Restraint Forces . . . . . . . . .
Approach Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . .5
. . . . . . .5
. . . . . . .8
. . . . . . .9

4. Abutment Design
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Abutment Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11


Accommodating Superstructure Movement at Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Passive Pressure Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Details at Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Problems and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

5. Pier Design
5.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
5.1 Accommodating Superstructure Movements at Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
5.2 Analysis and Design of Semi-Rigid Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

6. Analysis Considerations
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equivalent Cantilever Method
Forces in Substructure Units
Conclusions from Example . .

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.27
.30
.32
.35

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Collection/Survey Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lessons Learned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Future Research Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.36
.36
.37
.38

7. Survey of Current Practice


7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3

8. Case Studies Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44


9. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
11. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

Appendix: Case Studies


A.1 The Nebraska City Viaduct, Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
A.2 I-496 Bridge Over I-69, Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
iv

PRECAST/PRESTRESSED INTEGRAL BRIDGES

Table of Contents
Page
A.3 Menauhant Road Bridge, Massachusetts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
A.4 Deer Creek Industrial Park Access Bridge, West Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
A.5 Tennessee State Route 50 Over Happy Hollow Creek, Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

PRECAST/PRESTRESSED INTEGRAL BRIDGES

List of Figures
Page
Figure 1.1 Elevation of a Typical Integral Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Figure 3.1 Connection of the Superstructure to the Integral Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Figure 3.2 Typical Pier Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Figure 3.3 Retrofitting at Piers for Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

Integral Abutment Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11


Typical Integral Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Typical Semi-Integral Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Typical Approach Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Sleeper Slab Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Integral Bridge Abutment Detail 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Integral Bridge Abutment Detail 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Integral Bridge Abutment Detail 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Typical Flexible Bent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Typical Isolated Rigid Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Semi-Rigid Pier to Superstructure Connection
Typical Hinged-Base Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

Elevation of Structure . . . . . . . . .
Substructure Details . . . . . . . . . .
Stiffness Assumptions . . . . . . . . .
Simplified Pile Deformation Model
Soil-Pile Interaction Model . . . . . .
Forces Acting on End Bent . . . . .

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. . .28
. . .29
. . .30
. . .31
. . .31
. . .34

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

A.1.1 Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55


A.1.2 Cross-Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
A.1.3 Computer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
A.1.4 Detail at Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
A.1.5 Longitudinal Section at Approach Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
A.1.6 Abutment 2 Piles Encased in Corrugated Metal Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
A.1.7 Abutment 2 Girder in Place Before Abutment Pour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
A.1.8 Abutment 1 Abutment Forms in Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
A.1.9 Pipe Sleeves Through Abutment to Accommodate Conduit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
A.1.10 The Completed Nebraska City Viaduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
A.1.11 Aerial View of the Completed Nebraska City Viaduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

A.2.1
A.2.2
A.2.3
A.2.4
A.2.5
A.2.6
A.2.7
A.2.8

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Plan and Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Cross-Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bearing and Abutment Details . . . .
The Completed Structure . . . . . . . .
View of the Underside of the Bridge
Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pier Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Girder Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.................................
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.................................
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.................................
.................................

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.20
.21
.22
.23

.61
.62
.64
.65
.65
.66
.66
.66

Figure A.3.1 Plan and Profile of Menauhant Road Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67


Figure A.3.2 Bridge Section with Fishing Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Figure A.3.3 Bridge Section without Fishing Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
vi

PRECAST/PRESTRESSED INTEGRAL BRIDGES

List of Figures
Page

Figure A.3.4 Typical Abutment Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69


Figure A.3.5 Aerial View of Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Figure A.3.6 Box Beams Being Set into Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

A.4.1
A.4.2
A.4.3
A.4.4
A.4.5
A.4.6
A.4.7
A.4.8
A.4.9

Bridge Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Abutment Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pier Diaphragm Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elevation View: Three-Span Continuous for Live Load and Integral Abutments . . .
Plan View: Deer Creek Industrial Park Access Bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuous for Live Load at Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erection of AASHTO Type IV Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erection of Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

A.5.1
A.5.2
A.5.3
A.5.4
A.5.5
A.5.6
A.5.7
A.5.8
A.5.9

Aerial View of S.R. 50 Over Happy Hollow Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76


Plan and Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Cross-Section and Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Pier Plan and Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Abutment Plan and Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Abutment Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Structural Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Slab Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Approach Slab Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

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.72
.72
.73
.73
.74
.74
.75
.75
.75

PRECAST/PRESTRESSED INTEGRAL BRIDGES

List of Tables
Page
Table 6.1 Soil Spring Stiffnesses for Loose and Dense Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Table 6.2 Displacement and Moment Versus Soil Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Table 6.3 Effective Length of Pile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Summary of Responses . . . .
Response from each Agency
Why Integral Bridges Work . .
Geometrical Constraints . . . .
Agency Design Criteria . . . . .

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.37
.39
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