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K.

Yegoryan

AUXILIARY
Auxiliaries or Helping verbs are used with main verbs to express time (form a verb tense) form a question (questions start with Auxiliary or Modal) form negative (Aux + Not + main Verb) Auxiliaries stand before the main verb: AUXILARY + MAIN VERB Ex. I have seen your sister. Auxiliaries do NOT have a meaning of their own, when used with the main verb they help to express time, make a question, or form a negative statement. There are PRIMARY and MODAL Auxiliary Verbs. Modal Auxiliaries are used with the main verb to show necessity, suggestion, urgency, and possibility. (Ex: can, must, may) There are 4 Primary Auxiliaries in English DO, BE, HAVE, WILL that are used with the main verb to form tenses/aspects. These Auxiliaries have their forms for present/past. Ex. Do- does did Be- am/is/are was/were Have/has-had Will-would AUXILARIES AND TENSES Each of the 4 primary auxiliaries (with their forms) is used to form a specific tense: 1. Auxiliary DO is used with- SIMPLE TENSES (Questions and Negatives only) NO Auxiliary is used for Present Simple Statements. Ex. They like ice-cream (Present Simple Tense -No Aux in Statements) BUT Use AUX + Subject + Main Verb- to form Questions of Simple Tenses. Ex. Do you like ice-cream? Use AUX+ Not+ Main Verb- to form Negatives in Simple Tenses Ex. No, I do not (dont) like ice-cream. 2. Auxiliary BE is used with PROGRESSIVE TENSES (Statements, Questions, Negatives) 1

K. Yegoryan Use the appropriate form of BE (am/is/are/was/were) + Main Verb+ ing to form statements in Progressive Tense. Ex. I am reading about Auxiliaries right now. Use AUX + Subject + Main Verb to form Questions of Progressive Tenses. Ex. Are you watching the new show on TV? Use AUX+ Not+ Main Verb to form Negatives of Progressive Tenses Ex. No, we are not (arent) watching the show. 3. Auxiliary HAVE is used with PERFECT TENSES (Statements, Questions, Negatives) Use the appropriate form of Have (Have/has-had) + Main Verb (Past Participle, which is Verb+ed or the 3rd column of irregular verbs) to form Statements in Perfect Tense. Ex. I have finished my project. Use AUX + Subject + Main Verb (Past Participle) to form Questions of Progressive Tenses. Ex. Have you finished your project? Use AUX+ Not+ Main Verb (Past Participle) to form Negatives of Perfect Tenses Ex. No, I have not finished my project yet. 4. Auxiliary WILL is used to form Future Tenses (Statements, Questions, Negatives). Use the appropriate form of WILL (will/would) + Main Verb to form Statements in Future Tense. Ex. I will visit my grandparents tomorrow. Use AUX + Subject + Main Verb to form Questions of Progressive Tenses. Ex. Will you visit them tomorrow? Use AUX+ Not+ Main Verb to form Negatives of Progressive Tenses Ex. No, I will not (wont) visit them; I am very busy. REMEMBER AUXILARIES are Helping Verbs so they are used with the Main Verb to help to express time/form tense, make a question, or form a negative statement. Ex. I have seen your sister. (have is the auxiliary, seen is the main verb). If DO, HAVE or BE are used without any other verb than they are the main verb of the sentence and are not Auxiliaries. Ex. I have a sister. (have is the main verb)