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Chapter 8

Introduction to Behavior


Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

What is Overt Consumer Behavior?

The observable and measurable responses or actions of consumers
Distinct from affect and cognition because it is external and can be observed directly Problems studying overt consumer behavior:
Determining the appropriate level of analysis Deciding whether individual consumers or the entire world market is the appropriate level Linkages between it and affect and cognition are not well developed at a theoretical level


The Importance Of Overt Consumer Behavior

Problems with studying overt consumer behavior
Many cases influencing affect and cognition may lead to overt behavior, but this linkage often does not hold Behavior precedes and causes affect and cognition in some cases Most marketing strategies cannot succeed without influencing overt consumer behavior



Traditional Models of the Adoption/Purchase Process


A Common Behavior Sequence for a Retail Store Consumer Goods Purchase


A Model of Overt Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior sequence model qualifications
Consumers commonly perform many other combinations of behavior Model is intended to illustrate only one type of behavior sequence for retail purchases The time it takes for a consumer to perform the behaviors depends on a variety of factors



A Model of Overt Consumer Behavior cont.

Members of the channel of distribution usually vary in their emphasis on encouraging particular behaviors Although the consumer behavior chain exhibits logical and useful categories of behavior, other labels or breakdowns could also be useful


Purchase Sequence
Stages in the purchase sequence:
Information contact Funds access Store contact Product contact Transaction Consumption and Disposition Communication


Information Contact
Occurs when consumers come into contact with information, either intentionally or accidentally
Marketers seek to provide consumers with information Consumers search for information about products, brands, stores, and prices



Factors Affecting Information Search by Consumers

Information Sources
Five common information sources
Internal Personal Marketing Public Experiential

Types of marketing strategies employed to bring about attentive behaviors


A Comparison of Information Sources


Funds Access
Primary marketing issues
Methods used by consumers to pay for particular purchases Marketing strategies to increase the probability that consumers can access funds for purchase

Another issue is the effort the consumer exerts to obtain the actual funds that are spent or used to repay loans

Store contact
Locating the outlet Traveling to the outlet Entering the outlet

Nature of consumers in their roles as shoppers affects the probability of store contact


Product Contact
Push strategies Pull strategies Three behaviors usually necessary for a purchase to occur
Locate the product or brand in the store Physically obtain the product or brand Take the product or brand to the point of exchange



Consumers funds are exchanged for products and services Positive consequences are critical elements in obtaining transactions


Marketers want consumers to communicate with two basic audiences
Provide the company with marketing information Tell other potential consumers about the product and encourage them to purchase it


Communication cont.
From consumers to marketers
Marketers want at least three types of information from consumers
Information about the consumer Names of other potential buyers Information about defective products

From consumers to consumers

A product that is effective and performs well may encourage this behavior



Marketing Implications
Marketing managers need to :
Consider carefully precisely behaviors necessary for consumers to purchase, and use particular products and brands Have clear implications for offering products in appropriate outlets

Marketing strategies and tactics are designed to alter overt consumer behavior by changing one or more aspects of the environment

Introduced topic of overt consumer behavior and discussed its importance to marketing Sequential model of overt consumer behavior was developed for use in analyzing and increasing responses Discussed the seven behaviors listed in the model