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Bibliography Primary Sources

Boxer, C. R. "Sakoku Edict of June 1636." Sakoku Edict. University of Pittsuburgh, n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. This edict established in the Tokugawa era is a fundamental piece of Japans isolation throughout the period. It provided a direct idea of the era and serves as an extremely clear example what their isolation was like. It was maintained for over two centuries and accurately describes the foreign relations of Japan during those times, vividly presenting ideas of what isolation could mean. Brinkley, Frank. "Globetrotters' Japan." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. These photographs of Japan were taken by Captain Frank Brinkley and display the society of Japan after the restoration. A variety of new professions are displayed in these photographs. "Digital Archive." National Archives of Japan, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. I used this archival resource for maps and pictures of mines. It provided me with a variety of information. Fillmore, Millard. "Letter to Emperor of Japan." Primary Source Document. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This letter to Japan was sent through Commodore Perry and very clearly explains the intentions America had with Japan to open up diplomatic relations, primarily trade for coal. This account allowed me to display Americas intentions exactly, without any room for debate. America wanted Japans coal, which of course interfered with the shogunates ban on trade. Hirobumi, It. "1889 Meiji Constitution." 1889 Japanese Constitution. Hanover College, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This constitution, instituted within 21 years of the restoration, marks domestic stability of Japanese politics, an idea sought for earnestly. It established widely known political structures in Japan, making Japan a very modern nation (politically). Meiji. "Emperor Meiji to President Grant." Primary Source. Children and Youth in History, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This letter to President Grant to Emperor Meiji in 1871 expresses the efforts of the Iwakura Mission, and I took a quote from it expressing how Meiji wished to explore and select institutions from America (and other enlightened nations) and implement them in Japan. Moon, F. G. "Treaty of Nanking." Brown University Library. Brown University, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This famous picture of the signing of the Treaty of Nanking between the Chinese and British displays - as it did to the Japanese at the time the power and might of the British, along with the susceptibility of the Orient as a whole. Knowing that an event such as the signing of this treaty could take place

speaks volumes about the general confusion of the era, and the painting captures the nearly diplomatic resolution of such a gruesome event as the First Opium War. The Chinese barely, if at all, had a say in this treaty signing. "Miike Mine." Libraries. University of Washington, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2013. This picture of Miike mine supplemented my Meiji Industries page. It helped display the economic alliance between monopolies and the government. Mineta, Fk. "Kaigai Shinwa New Stories from Overseas." MIT Visualizing Cultures. Trans. Sam Malissa. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. An extremely lively account of the First Opium War, this tale written contemporarily by a Japanese scholar captures the most pressing moments of the Opium War, and accurately assesses Japans fate in the years to come. From 1849, Mineta describes the potential might of the West and duly takes note of how the war was in fact an omen type event. Rarely did I come across first hand accounts as direct and vivid as this. Perry, Matthew C. "Narrative of Perry's Expedition." Google Books. Google, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. Perry, with details, described his journeys throughout the Orient in this journal. I read through the sections to do with Japan, and found an amazingly explanative quote that includes an almost barbaric rationale for opening trade relations with Japan. This adds emphasis onto Perry being a very unsettling man who didnt necessarily care for the culture he may have destroyed. Perry, Matthew C. "Perry's Letter to Japan." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This second letter to Japan, which was brought along with a large fleet of impressive steamships, was what forced Japan into signing the Treaty of Kanagawa. Japan had no choice but to give up rights to America, and Perrys ideas of a more stringent import display that America was ready to forcefully open the country. "Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures." National Diet Library, Japan, 2004. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. These portraits of the most important figures of the restoration (and the period after) added a depth to my website. It showed the figures leading this event were able to be traced back individually to specific ideas, and allowed me to show the faces behind those ideas. Takachika, Fukuoka. "Charter Oath of 1868." Primary Source Document. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This oath established in 2868 set the general course of action to be followed after the restoration, and in fact was followed throughout the 19th century. It was a basic structure of the new Japan, superseded by the Constitution in 1889. Takayoshi, Kido. "Diary Entries." Trans. Sydney Brown. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. These diary entries were written from one of the most prominent figures of the Iwakura Mission of 1871. I selected a quote from the portions written during the mission itself.

"The Rescript on Education of the Meiji Emperor." George Arrington, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. This basic rescript on education marks an important idea in Meiji society. Children were to serve the state in times of need, and were widely known to be the future of the state. To the government, they were very important. "Treaty of Kanagawa." U.S. Navy Museum, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This historic treaty marks the end of Japans seclusion and the success of Perrys efforts. Japan didnt give up full rights to trade, but their isolation was hitherto still in existence. "Treaty of Portsmouth." World War I Document Archive, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This treaty didnt end with a massive victory as had with the Sino-Japanese war, but when it marked the end of the Russo-Japanese war it provided Japan with some long sought for rights. "Treaty of Shimonoseki." Taiwan Documents Project, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This treaty marked the end of the Sino-Japanese war, the point where all eyes turned on Japan and countries around the globe began to view it as a world power. Four years later, Japan finally revised its unequal treaties. Yasushi, Aizawa. "New Theses of 1825." Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. These theses were widely known among Japanese scholars of the time, and for decades (throughout the rest of the 19th century and even beyond) were read and discussed. I particularly found interest in the theses to do with the feudal and isolationist aspects of Japan, but all were interesting to read. The importance of these theses should be emphasized; Japan was on the verge of collapse within an unknown amount of years at the time, and Yasushi discussed things from domestic economics to the fate of the nation as a whole. His discussions were studied extensively. Yukichi, Fukuzawa. "On Throwing Off Asia (Datsu-A Ron)." Japanese History. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This essay on Japans success on throwing off Asia displayed the future intentions of Japans political relations going into the 1890s, when their efforts in imperialism were revived.

Secondary Sources
Akamatsu, Paul. Meiji 1868: Revolution and Counter Revolution in Japan;. London: Allen and Unwin, 1972. Print. This book provided me with information on the agriculture section of my site. Barker, Colin. "Origins and Significance of the Meiji Restoration." N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This essay by a British historian goes over fundamental aspects of the restoration key to my project.

De, Bary William Theodore, Donald Keene, and Ryusaku Tsunoda. Sources of Japanese Tradition. New York: Columbia UP, 1971. Print. This book, providing a large compilation of primary resources throughout all periods of Japanese history, allowed me to read primary accounts from multiple domains of the restoration. I used political, social and economic aspects from the book and utilized the variety of sources to support my project and also understand those aspects of my topic. No other source I used compiled so many primary accounts in such an organized fashion. Dickinson, Frederick. Email interview 06 Dec. 2012. A professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Dickinson answered two sets of questions I had and offered perspectives I hadnt heard of before. This was truly a successful interview. Dower, John W. "Black Ships & Samurai." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This essay on Japan during the period from the 1853 to 1854 is a highly informative section on Commodore Perry and his business in Japan. He represented the United States and after sincere efforts broke the seal on the once isolated nation with a treaty in 1854. He is of the most significant figures the Meiji Restoration. This source also provided me with multiple pictures, all to do with 1853 and 1854. Dower, John W. "Russo Japanese War." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This account of the Russo-Japanese war provided woodblock prints and an essay on the topic. I used primarily the woodblock and supplemented the section with the essay. Dower, John W. "Sino-Japanese War." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This account on the Sino-Japanese war provided me with a variety of war prints, including war propaganda. Dower, John W. "Throwing Off Asia." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. This account of Japans emergence into the position of Asias overlord provided me with certain woodblock prints I utilized. Dower, John W. "Yokohama Boomtown." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. From this resource I took quotes and pictures for the page on the Restoration. It displayed the chaos that occurred before Japan became a boomtown of commerce. Ericson, Steven J. The Sound of the Whistle: Railroads and the State in Meiji Japan. Cambridge Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1996. Print. This book provided me with information on Meiji railways how, why, when and where they were built. It also gave me primary quotes. Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa times to the Present. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Print. Written by a renowned professor in the field,

Gordon discusses the aspects of Japanese history starting from the Tokugawa period and steadily moves through all aspects of the restoration. I was able to read the book and have a close to fully rounded perspective on the restoration, being able to then make decisions as to where to move next with my project. Particularly informative were the sections on Meiji social life, covering very diverse aspects such as the popular rights movements of the period before (and even after) the restoration. Gordon, Bill. "Tokugawa Period." Japan Essays. N.p., 04 Jan. 2007. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. These essays, two of which I used, discuss the fundamental changes of the Meiji period to a great extent. They outline important aspects of the period and then go over effects of the respective aspects. The most important use of these essays was being able to read a near list of reformations with explanations following. Gunn, Geoffrey C. "Shimabara Rebellion." Correa. UWOSH, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This essay goes into important examples of Japans austere isolation and reviews an example I used, the Shimabara rebellion. Around 36,000 Christians killed, this rebellion displays the seriousness of Tokugawa Japansidea of isolation from Christianity. "Harris Treaty." Wikisource, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This treaty marks the opening of commerce between Japan and all foreign nations that participated. Trading rights were given to the United States and any nations that wished to follow suit. Hesselink, R. H. Prisoners from Nambu: Reality and Make-believe in Seventeenthcentury Japanese Diplomacy. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i, 2002. Print. This book displays the isolation and severity of Tokugawa Japans expulsion against Christianity. A group of Christians arrived in Japan and were horribly tortured, just for the fact that they were Christian. I read specific sections of this novel and was deeply interested in the primary accounts. Not many Christians visited Tokugawa Japan, and the few foreigners that visited the nation during that period were horrified at what they saw. This represents something that may truly be of barbaric nature. Huffman, James. Email interview. 31 Oct. 2012. This email interview was highly informative. Huffman answered my questions very extensively and I was able to utilize parts of the interview in my website. He is a professor at Wittenberg University. Howell, David. Email interview. 30 Oct. 2012. This interview was my first and helped me understand the basic ideas I had trouble grasping with the restoration. Howell is a professor at Harvard University. "Japanese Flags." Flags. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2013. These flags provided me with the important ideas of cultural anchors utilized throughout the Meiji era.

"Kimigayo." YouTube, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. This was the national anthem of Japan adopted during the Meiji era, and served as a cultural anchor to bring the diversified people together. Liebke, Juliana M. "Feudal Japan." San Diego State University, n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. This image of the social structure of Tokugawa Japan is a simple and very explanative idea ofhow the nation operated. As it was a fundamental structure of Tokugawa Japan, it is a fundamental structure of my Premodern section. Nagahara, Hiromu. Email interview. 14 Dec. 2012. This interview with an assistant professor at MIT answered the final questions I had about the topic. He gave me links to very useful sources that I too utilized. Norman, E. Herbert. Japan's Emergence as a Modern State; Political and Economic Problems of the Meiji Period,. New York: International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1940. Print. This book provided me with information on the agricultural section of my site. PBS. "The Pacific Century." YouTube. YouTube, 11 May 2011. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. This documentary was not only very informative and helpful during the initial stages in my project, but it also provided sound conclusions that I used via audio clips. It was made very well, had unique primary source videos and was instrumental to the conclusion of my project. Perdue, Peter C. "The First Opium War." Visualizing Cultures. MIT, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This section on the First Opium War, sponsored by MIT, offers brilliant explanations to the causes and effects of the war. With an essay and visuals, I utilized this resource to discover what the First Opium War meant not only for China, but more importantly for Japan. It was seen as an omen. Platt, Brian. Burning and Building: Schooling and State Formation in Japan, 1750-1890. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004. Print. This book provided me with information I used for a section of my social tab. Pollard, Clare. "Meiji Japanese Textiles." Ashmolean Museam, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2013. This essay on Meiji textiles greatly supplemented the textile section of my Meiji Industries page. Popeo, Mary. "City of Bridges and Cats." The City of Bridges and Cats. Japan America Society, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This image of the 26 Martyrs of Japan displays further isolation of Japan. Nearly sacred missionaries were killed in this event, due to their faith. Reischauer, Edwin O. "The Transition to a Modern State." Meiji Restoration. Stetson University, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This essay from a renowned professor and activist on the subject goes into in-depth detail on the topic, discussing aspects

before and after the restoration. I used a lot of quotations lucky to find an essay such as this.

from it, and was very

Smith, Thomas C. "Old Values and New Techniques in the Modernization of Japan."Meiji Restoration. Stetson University, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. This essay went into aspects of the agricultural reformations of the Meiji period. Smits. "Making Japanese, Chapter Three: Culture Wars." Penn State, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. This essay provided me with a variety of facts and ideas of Meiji social life. I utilized the sections on westernization and cultural reforms. Swale, Alistair. The Iwakura Mission in America and Europe: A New Assessment. Richmond, Surrey: Japan Library, 1998. Print. This account of the Iwakura Mission displayed what happened in each country visited, and I selected a quote from it that summarized the missions efforts wholly. Varley, Herbert. "'Feudalism' in Japan." Asian Topics on Asia for Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. This amazing site sponsored by Columbia University offered the most in-depth explanations to Tokugawa Japan. Of course, the nations pre-modern stage is equally important as the modern stage. The legacy left behind Tokugawa Japan marks the traditional Japan we view today. This site captures those aspects. Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi. Anti-foreignism and Western Learning in Early-modern Japan: The New Theses of 1825. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1986. Print. Including the Expulsion Edict of 1825 and the included quote from Sun Tzu (which the Japanese took note of), this book displays some of the first pieces of Tokugawa Japan inevitably breaking its period of isolation. Watkins, Thayer. "Japan's Missed Opportunity." Japan's Missed Opportunity. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. This webpage includes topics on very esoteric aspects of the restoration, before and after. Japans Missed Opportunity came with their expulsion of all things Christian and even Western. Wittner, David G. Technology and the Culture of Progress in Meiji Japan. London: Routledge, 2008. Print. This book went into the aspects of Meiji technological industries and I used it to supplement my Meiji Industries page.