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UPSR SCIENCE HOW TO ANSWER SECTION B [Prepared By: Iwin] Keywords that you must know 1.

. Variables [Pembolehubah] Constant variable (what is kept the same) Pembolehubah dimalar (apa yang tidak ditukar) Manipulated variable (what is changed) Pembolehubah dimanipulasi (apa yang ditukar) Responding variable (what is measured) Pemboleubah bergerakbalas (apa yang diukur) 2. Aim/Purpose [Tujuan] To investigate the relationship between the [manipulated variable] and the [responding variable] Untuk menyiasat hubungan diantara [pemboleh manipulasi] dan [pembolehubah bergerakbalas] 3. Hypothesis/Relationship [Hipotesis/Hubungan] The [higher/lower] [manipulated variable], the [higher/lower] [responding variable] Semakin [tinggi/kurang] [pemboleh manipulasi], semakin [tinggi/kurang] [pembolehubah bergerakbalas] 4. Observation [Pemerhatian] Write down what you see Tuliskan apa yang anda boleh lihat 5. Inference/Reason [Inferens/Sebab] Give reason explaining your observation Berikan sebab yang menerangkan pemerhatian anda 6. Conclusion [Kesimpulan] The [higher/lower] [manipulated variable], the [higher/lower] [responding variable] Semakin [tinggi/kurang] [pemboleh manipulasi], semakin [tinggi/kurang] [pembolehubah bergerakbalas] 7. Trend [Corak] Increase/Decrease/Unchanged Meningkat/Menurun/Tetap

UPSR SCIENCE HOW TO ANSWER SECTION B [Prepared By: Iwin] bergerakbalas]

inference (reason) and conclusion. Relationship : As the [ WTC ] [ trend], the [WTO] [trend] Semakin [ corak] [PM], semakin [corak] [PB] Hypothesis : As the [ WTC ] [ trend], the [WTO] [trend] Semakin [ corak] [PM], semakin [corak] [PB] Conclusion : As the [ WTC ] [ trend], the [WTO] [trend] Semakin [ corak] [PM], semakin [corak] [PB] Trend : Increase / Decrease / Unchange

Constant variable, Responding variable, Manipulated variable Constant variable: Does not change or varying. Sometimes they will use the term as 'kept constant' Responding variable: To act in return or in response to an external factor or the stimulation. Manipulated variable: Controls individual factor causes. Another term used is 'changed'

Mnemonic Graph & Table analysis When come to data analyzing, here are some mnemonics that can help you to figure out the responding variable and manipulated variable from graphs and tables:
1. 2. 3.

Left Change Right Respond Up Change Down Respond Horizontal Change Vertical Respond

UPSR SCIENCE HOW TO ANSWER SECTION B [Prepared By: Iwin] and remember that Unchanged is constant (), to look for constant variable.

Left Change Right Respond

(Diagram 1)

(Table 1) Diagram 1 shows an investigation of frictional force. Table 1 shows the result of the investigation. Refering to table 1, the data on the left shows the types of surface to use in the investigation. It is controlled by the investigator and will affect the end results of the investigation. Thus, surface is manipulated (changed) variable . The data on the right shows the distance travelled by a toy car. The changes is due to the surface used. Thus, the end results on the right column is depend on (respond to) the changes on left. Distance travelled by a toy car is responding variable. What is the unchanged data? The height of the surface and the toy car. The student will use the same toy car and same height of the surface for every test. So, toy car and height are constant variables.

Up Change Down Respond It means the data on the upper part of the table is manipulated (changed) variable. The data at

UPSR SCIENCE HOW TO ANSWER SECTION B [Prepared By: Iwin] the bottom part of the table is responding variable.

(Table 2) Ah Beng prepared 2 beakers which are filled with 300ml water. The water temperature used is 40C and 100C respectively. Ah Beng adds in 8 table spoons of sugar into each beaker and stirs until the sugar is fully dissolved. Table 2 shows the result of an investigation about the time taken to dissolve the sugar. In this investigation, the water temperature is manipulated variable, because changes in the water temperature will affect the end result of the time taken for sugar to dissolve in water. The data at the bottom (Time taken for sugar to dissolve) responds to the manipulated variables. The result depends on the temperature of the water. Constant variable are beakers and water volume, because both tests are using the same bealer size and the same amount volume of water.

Horizontal Change Vertical Respond The data on horizontal axis is manipulated (changed) variable. The data on the vertical axis is responding variable.

UPSR SCIENCE HOW TO ANSWER SECTION B [Prepared By: Iwin]

(Diagram 2) Diagram 2 shows a bar chart on the number of telephone numbers memorised by 5 people aged 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 years. In this investigation, the age is the manipulated variable. As the age changes, the number of telephone numbers could be memorised changes. The number of telephone numbers that can be memorised is responding variable. The result depends on the age of the person. Constant variables are the numbers of telephone number and the time given to memorise the telephone numbers used in the investigation must be the same.