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Biometric Technology

Introduction
In the digital age that we live in, security has become a pressing issue. Innovations, like personal identification numbers, cards, passwords and personal Information are being replaced by extremely sophisticated technologies such as Biometrics. Biometrics is known to be the best safeguard against identity theft and Internet frauds.PINs, cards and passwords are soon becoming obsolete since people have developed card skimmers, they have also come up with ways to crack and decrypt passwords and PINs. Hence there is an urgent need of better and more sophisticated technology to protect the consumers who use products that require these security measures.

What is a Biometric
Biometric is a biological and behavioral characteristic of a person. These characteristics are unique to every individual and serve as individual identity tags.

What is Biometric Technology

Biometric Technology is the use of an individual’s biological and behavioral characteristics for the purpose of security. Biometrics is more efficient and precise than other existing technologies such as Personal Identification Numbers, Passwords or Cards. Biometric characteristics rarely ever change, and since it does not involve any hardware that has to be carried or any information that has to be memorized, it reduces the chances of security breaches. The biological characteristics that are currently being used by Biometric Technology are:
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Face Recognition Hand Scan Retina Scan Iris Scan Finger Prints

This technology also has its drawbacks since samples can mismatch due to dry skin. This new sample will be converted into a digital string and compared to the one initially stored in the database.The behavioral characteristics that are currently being used are:    Voice Recognition Personal Signature Scan Keystroke Scan How Biometric Technology Works In a standard system. Either the optical scanner is used which maps the fingerprints by the use of light. This technology is not yet perfected as a picture can be distorted by facial angle or lighting hence is susceptible to breaches. in our case these would be the string stored in the database and the new string created each time a person needs to access the system. It takes over 95 different measurements of the back of the hand. Access will be granted based on how closely the new sample matches the stored sample.g. every new person will register with the system by using one of their biological / behavioral characteristic (depending on what trait the system is designed to work with e. and is widely used in businesses and institutions for security purposes. zero being a complete mismatch and one being a perfect match. voice recognition or hand scans. Hand Scans also have drawbacks as young children are unable to use . or a capacitive scanner which uses electrical currents. Unlike popular belief the hand scan does not read finger prints or palm prints. The hamming distance range is between zero and one. skin ailments. Finger Print Scan: The finger print scan is a more common kind of biometric technology. These maps are then compared to the sample maps to provide a match or a mismatch. These nodal points are the compared to the ones stored on the database to provide a match or a mismatch. cheekbones. Hamming distance measures how similar two digital strings are. old skin or smudges on the reader. the distance between the eyes and other distinguishable features. The Finger Print Scan uses the person’s finger prints as a basis for recognition. Face Recognition: The facial recognition systems are capable of identifying human faces by measuring “nodal points” such as the shape of one’s eyes.) This information will then be processed and transformed in to a digital representation of the biometric and stored in a database. The finger prints are mapped in two ways. All subsequent attempts to use the system will require the person to give a sample of the same trait that was initially registered with the system. The comparison process uses “Hamming distance”. These measurements are recorded and can then be used to provide a positive or a negative identity match. Hand Scans: The hand scan is similar to the face recognition.

and the use of biometrics is a step towards the security upgrade that we continuously require. however new innovation such as the use of different pitches is helping in improving this technology. where exist multiple points that can be used for comparison like rings. it is imperative that we continuously upgrade our security systems. identity thefts and Internet scams are becoming increasingly common. This technology is not as intrusive as the Retina scanners since a person can be identified or verified from up to two feet away Voice Recognition: Voice recognition requires a person to record a sample of phrases and words. This biometric is the most efficient way to provide identification or verification since the iris is not replicable and a dead persons’ iris starts to rot immediately after death. In this era. Retina Scans: Retina Scans uses the identification of blood vessels at the back of a person’s eye. prisons and other sensitive areas. This voice print is saved on a spectrogram. More and more governments and institutions are now using this technology to safeguard their airports. This is then measured with old samples to provide positive or negative verification. However. .this technology since the measurements of their hands are quickly changing. and freckles. furrows. Conclusion As we step ahead into the new millennium. Voice recognition can be manipulated by using recorded voices. Personal Signature Verification: Signatures are taken on tablets or paper and compared to existing samples in the database to provide verification. A low-intensity light source and an optical coupler are used to create a pattern which is the compared with the sample pattern to provide a match or a mismatch. which measures the sound’s frequency against time. Keystroke Verification: People are asked to type out words and their speeds are measured and compared to the speeds existing in the database to provide verification. Iris Scan: Iris scans use the features that are in the iris. it is also the most intrusive as people generally dislike having anything inside their eyes measured. hospitals.