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Botany (LT 1 cont

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GROUP Hydroxyl CHARACTER Polar LOCATION Amino acids Sugars Other alcohols

7/24/2011 10:48:00 PM STRUCTURE

Methyl Carbonyl

Non polar Polar Reactive Acidic

Fatty acids Some amino acids Sugars Amino acids Nucleotides Amino acids Fatty acids Carbohydrates

Carboxyl

Amine

Basic

Amino acids Some nucleotide bases Nucleotides (e.g. ATP) DNA & RNA Many proteins Phospholipids Cysteine (an amino acid)

Phosphate

High energy Polar

Sulfhydryl

Forms disulfide bridges

Lipids   Function as the body’s major energy reservoir, and the structural foundation of cell membranes fatty, oil, or waxy organic compounds that are insoluble in water Fatty acids o many lipids incorporate fatty acids o simple organic compounds w/ a carboxyl group joined to a backbone of 4 to 36 carbon atoms o essential fatty acids are not made by the body and must come from food o omega-3 and omega-6 o saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated o Saturated Fats (animal fats)

water-repellant covering  cuticle in plants. bees honeycomb Steroids   lipids w/ a rigid backbone of four carbon rings and no fattyacid tails carbon atoms arranged in 4 rings  cholesterol  bile salts  some hormones Cholesterol .   fatty acids with only single covalent bonds packed tightly (no double bonds) solid at room temp o Unsaturated fats (vegetable oils)  fatty acids with one or more double bonds  kinked  liquid at room temp Trans fat     partially hydrogenated vegetable oils formed by a chemical hydrogenation process double bond straightens the molecule packed tightly solid at room temp Phospholipids  molecules with a polar head containing a phosphate and two non polar fatty acid tails  heads are hydrophilic   tails are hydrophilic the most abundant lipid in cell membranes Waxes  complex mixtures with long fatty acid tails bonded to longchain alcohols or carbon rings  protective.

  component of eukaryotic cell membrane remodeled into  bile salts  vit. and detergents can disrupt the hydrogen bonds that maintain a protein’s shape . awry so does its function Proteins undone – denaturation o Proteins function only as long as they maintain their correct 3dimensional shape o Heat changes in pH. and one or more variable groups (R group) Polypeptides o Protein synthesis involves the formation of amino acid chains called polypeptides o A chain of amino acids bonded by peptide bonds in a condensation reaction between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid *when a protein structure goes. salts. D  steroid hormones (estrogens and testosterone) *lipids and carbohydrates – energy reservoirs (lipids -1st) Proteins  Diversity in structure and function  Most diverse biological molecule o o o o Structural Nutritious Enzyme Transport   o Communication o Defense proteins Cells build thousands of different proteins by stringing together amino acids in different orders An organic compound composed of one or more chains of amino acids Amino acids o A small organic compound with and amine ( ). a carboxyl group ( ).

proteins are the most diverse molecules of life o They include enzymes. structural materials. and transporters o A protein’s function arises directly from its structure Nucleic Acids  Some nucleotides are subunits of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA  Some nucleotides have roles in metabolism Nucleotide o A small organic molecule containing of a sugar with a 5-carbon ring.o When a protein loses its shape and no longer functions.containing base. a nitrogen. and one or more phosphate groups  Phosphate group Regulatory proteins Protective proteins . move specific substances across cell membranes Some are protein hormones Some control the expression of specific genes Motile proteins Participate in cellular movements (actin and myosin are essential for muscle contraction) Defend against foreign invaders (antibodies play a role in the immune system) Key concepts: proteins o Structurally and functionally. it is denatured PROTEIN CLASS Enzymes Structural Proteins Storage proteins Transport proteins FUNCTIONS AND EXAMPLES Catalyze specific chemical reaction Strengthen and protect cells and tissue Store nutrients. particularly abundant in eggs and seeds Transport specific substances between cells.

retrieving. and translating information about building proteins RNA (ribonucleic acid)  Contains 4 kinds of nucleotide monomers. including ATP  Important in protein synthesis DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  2 chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double  helix and held by hydrogen bonds contains all inherited information necessary to build an organism. G-C RNA : AGUC -> A-U . states that cells are the fundamental units of life . G-C  o ATP  A nucleotide w/ 3 phosphate groups  Important in phosphate group (energy) transfer o Nucleic Acids  Building blocks -> nucleotides  DNA and RNA -> long chains of nucleotides  Store and transfer information  Sequence of amino acids in proteins  Structure and function of the organism  Interact as the cells system of storing. Sugar (pentose)  Ribose  Deoxyribose N-bases  Purines (PAG)  Adenine  Guanine  Pyrimidine (PYCUT)  Cytosine  Uracil  Thymine * DNA : AGTC -> A-T . coded in the order of nucleotide bases   The cell theory (chapter )  A foundation of modern biology.

simple cells without a nucleus 3 common characteristics of cells o plasma membrane  controls the substances passing in and out of the cell    . which he called animalcules and beasties Robert Hooke o first to sketch and name cells Cell theory emerges 1839 o Scheiden and Schwann proposed concepts of the modern cell theory o All organisms consist of one or more cells o A cell is the smallest unit with the properties of life o Each new cell arises from division of another preexisting cell o Each cell passes its hereditary material to its offspring Sources of DNA o Nucleus o Chloroplasts (plant) o Mitochondria Cell     Smallest unit that shows the properties of life All cells have a plasma membrane (outer cell membrane covering of cell) and cytoplasm (inside the plasma membrane) All start out with DNA 2 types o eukaryotic “true nucleus” cell interior is divided into functional compartments. including a nucleus o prokaryotic  small.Measuring o 1 micrometer is one-thousandth of a millimeter Van Leewenhoek o first to describe small organisms seen through a microscope.

internal membraneenclosed compartments Prokaryotes – The first cells . the smallest and most metabolically diverse forms of life o are similar in appearance and size but differ in structure and metabolism o prokaryotic cells which have few.o DNA containing region  Nucleus – eukaryotic cells  Nucleoid – prokaryotic cells o Cytoplasm  A semifluid mixture containing cell components   Key concepts: o Each cell has a plasma membrane. if any. a boundary between its interior and the outside environment o The interior consists of cytoplasm 3 basic types of cells (based on structure) o Animal o Plant o Bacterial   Microscopes o Light microscope  Phase-contrast microscope  Reflected light microscope    Fluorescence microscopes o Electron microscope  Transmission electron microscope  Scanning electron microscope * plant cell > animal cell > bacteria unicellular – one cell multicellular – many cells organized into tissue Prokaryotic  Bacteria and archaea o prokaryotes (“before the nucleus”).

o Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles o o o o o o o Includes bacteria Smallest and structurally the simplest type of cell Single. circular chromosome Nucleoid region (center) – contains DNA Surrounded by cell membrane and cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contain ribosomes (no membrane) Cytoplasm – makes proteins General Prokaryote Body Plan o Cell wall – surrounds the plasma membrane  Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) or proteins(in archaea) and coated with a sticky capsule o Flagellum – for motion o Pili – help cells move across surfaces  Sexpilus – aids in sexual reproduction Eukaryotic  True nucleus  Cells carry out much of their metabolism inside membrane-enclosed  organelles Organelle – a structure that carries out a special function in a cell Eukaryotes o Cells that have membrane-bound nucleus and organelles o Includes  Protists  Fungi  Plants  Animals o More complex type of cell Cell Cell or plasma membrane  Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins  Surrounds outside of all cells  Controls what enters or leaves the cell  Living layer (cell wall – dead layer) .

Cell membrane in plants o Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells o Pushes out against the cell wall to maintain all shape Cell Wall  Non-living layer  Found in plants . and bacteria  Made of o Cellulose – plants o Peptidoglycan – bacteria o Chitin – fungi Supports and protects cell Found outside of the cell membrane   Cytoplasm of a cell  Jelly like substance enclosed by cell membrane  Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place  Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs  Found in ALL CELLS The control organelle -> NUCLEUS  Controls the normal activities of the cell  Contains the DNA in chromosomes  Bounded by a nuclear envelope (membrane) with pores  Usually the largest organelle  Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes  Genes control cell characteristics Nuclear Envelope     Double membrane surrounding the nucleus Also called nuclear membrane Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter and leave nucleus Connected through the rough ER Inside the nucleus  The genetic material (DNA) is found  Chromatin . fungi.

o DNA is spread out and appears as chromatin in non dividing cells  Chromosomes o DNA is condensed and wrapped around proteins forming as chromosomes in dividing cells What does DNA do? o Hereditary material of the cell o Genes that make up the DNA molecule code for different proteins Nucleolus     Inside the nucleus Cell may have 1-4 nucleoli Disappears when cell divides Makes ribosomes that make protein The endomembrane system  A series of interacting organelles between the nucleus and the plasma membrane  Makes … for secretion or insertion into all membranes o Lipids o Enzymes o Proteins Other specialized cell functions Includes nuclear membrane connected to ER connected to cell membrane (transport)   Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)  Network of hollow membrane tubules  Connects to nuclear envelope and cell membrane  Functions in synthesis of cell products and transport  2 kinds o Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum  Has ribosomes on the surface  Makes membrane proteins and proteins for EXPORT out of cell  Proteins are made by ribosomes on ER surface  They are then threaded into the interior of the Rough ER to be modified and transported .

o Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum    Smooth ER lacks ribosomes on its surface Is attached to the ends of the rough ER Makes cell products that are used INSIDE the cell Functions of Smooth ER  Make membrane lipids (steroids)  Regulates calcium (muscle cells)  Destroy toxic substances (liver) Ribosomes  Made of proteins and rRna (ribosomal RNA)  “protein factories” for cell  join amino acids to make proteins   process called photosynthesis can be attached to Rough ER or free(unattached) in the cytoplasm Golgi Bodies  Stacks of flattened sacs  Have a shipping side(Trans face) and receiving side (Cis face)     Receive proteins made by ER Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends Look like a stack of pancakes Modify. sort. and worn out cell parts for cells  Programmed for cell death (autolysis)  Lyse (break open) and release enzymes to break down and recycle cell parts Lysosome Digestion o Cells take in food by phagocytosis o Lysosomes digest the food and get rid of wastes Other organelles . and package molecules from ER for storage or transport out of cell Lysosomes (Vesicles)  Contain digestive enzymes  Break down food. bacteria.

  Eukaryotic cells make most of their ATP in mitochondria Plastids function in storage and photosynthesis in plants and some types of algae Mitochondrion (plu. Mitochondria)  “power house” of the cell  generate cellular energy (ATP)  more active cells like muscles cells have more mitochondria  both plants and animal cells have mitochondria  site of cellular respiration (burning glucose)     surrounded by double membrane has its own DNA folded inner membrane called CRISTAE (increases surface area for more chemical reactions) interior called matrix what do mitochondria do? o “power plant” of the cell o burns glucose to release energy (ATP) o stores energy as ATP Plastids  Organelles that function in photosynthesis or storage in plants and algae. includes chromoplasts. amyloplasts. may have evolved by endosymbiosis  Found only in producers (organisms containing chlorophyll)  Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose)       Energy from sun stored in the chemical bonds of sugars Surrounded by double membrane Outer membrane in smooth Inner membrane is modified into sacs called thylakoids Thylakoids in stacks called grana and interconnected Stroma – gel like material surrounding thylakoids . and chloroplasts Chloroplasts  Plastids specialized for photosynthesis  Resemble photosynthetic bacteria.

7/24/2011 10:48:00 PM .

7/24/2011 10:48:00 PM .