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CHAPTER - II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Review of literature is an early step for conducting research. It enables to avoid the duplication of research work and broadens the understanding of the research problem. Various research studies related to the present research problem “A Study of the Use of Libraries of Colleges of Education in Punjab” has been conducted in India and other countries of the world. These studies relate to the different aspects of libraries particularly college libraries, including library administration, finance, document collection, library staff, services, physical facilities, use of libraries by students, research scholars and teachers, their information seeking behavior, use pattern and user’s satisfaction with the resources and services of libraries, etc. In this chapter, a review of the selective and useful studies related to the research problem has been attempted. RESOURCES AND SERVICES Mukherjee (1965) carried out a study titled, “Library Facilities in Training Colleges of India” to assess the prevalent position of 50 teacher training college libraries. Questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Study revealed that majority of libraries did not have sufficient space for proper functioning. Some of teacher training colleges did not have their own libraries. Staff and students depended on the university libraries to which education section was attached.

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All libraries were lacking abstracting, indexing and inter-library loan services. Another study was conducted by Hingwe (1969) under title “Organizational Patterns of Academic Libraries.” A survey of 50 libraries, covering 44 constituent and affiliated college libraries and 06 recognized research institutions libraries falling under jurisdictions of the University of Poona was conducted. Objective was to find the adequacy of library facilities to supplement the teaching and research programmes of concerned institutions. It was found that newly established institutions were spending more funds on libraries to build up their basic collection, whereas long-standing institutions had not increased their expenditure in proportion to increase in students, teachers and rising price of books. Study brought forward that importance given to libraries on theoretical plane was not experienced in practice. To disclose the overall picture of degree college libraries in Kashmir, Raina (1980) took up a study named “Degree College Libraries in Kashmir: A Survey.” Analysis of the responses received from 10 libraries revealed that the collection was outdated and mainly comprised of textbooks. Library services, except circulation service were found missing and majority of libraries were following close access system. Funds were inadequate and the acquisition rate was very slow.

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Naidu (1981) in his research paper, “College Libraries in Andhra Pradesh: With Special Reference to Andhra University” attempted to find the causes leading to unhappy situation of libraries. Author disclosed the gloomy picture of college libraries and suggested to lay down some norms and standards for college libraries by inspection commission of each university. He further suggested that atleast 6% of the college budget should be spent on library. Author emphasized the need to give initiation to users in the beginning of each academic year. In an article titled “A Survey of College Libraries in West Godavari District” Raju (1984) explored the prevailing position of libraries of 18 colleges affiliated to Andhra University, Waltair. Various facets of libraries i.e. library staff, building, collection, book banks, budget and technical services, etc have been examined. Financial sources were found inadequate. DDC and AACR-I were popular among libraries. Survey revealed the immediate need to improve the services to meet information needs of students, teachers and research scholars. Kumbar (1986) took up a study named “College Libraries under Gulbarga University Area: A Survey.” He assessed the existing situation and status of 54 colleges libraries. Besides using

questionnaires, interviews were also conducted to collect data. Only one librarian possessed master’s degree in Library Science. Survey represented a disappointing picture of libraries as only 12 libraries had their own buildings. Libraries were spending more funds on books

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library rules existed only on paper and were not being implemented properly.and comparatively less on periodicals. e. He grouped these problems into three parts i. Bajpai (1995) in research paper “Evaluation of College Library Services in Delhi” assessed the services of college libraries in Delhi and identified their problems. Chopra (1995) revealed the problems being faced by college libraries of Punjab in his article titled “College Libraries in Punjab: Some Problems Re-Considered”. Questionnaire-I was used to know about the prevalent position of libraries and problems being faced by librarians in managing these. Article is based on the personal observations of the author. He covered 210 colleges under study. It was found that more than 50% libraries brought out annual reports. Two separate questionnaires were used to know the opinions of students and teachers about their respective libraries. including five colleges of education also. problems 14 . For this. Jasmer Singh (1990) carried out research for doctorate degree on the topic “College Libraries in Punjab: A Statistical Analysis of the Problems” He conducted a survey to find the problems being faced by college libraries of Punjab and Chandigarh and also attempted to study the use of libraries. He brought forward that librarians often found it difficult to deal with teaching and non-teaching staff members regarding return of books. Library services were not found satisfactory. problems related to the management of colleges.

translation. circulation of books. document reservation and bibliographical services were existing in all the IIT libraries. were the facets discussed in paper. reference. Author suggested the formulation of standards and guidelines particularly for college of education libraries. current awareness service. Al-Ansari and Al-Enezi (2001) conducted a study to assess the current status of health sciences libraries in Kuwait. It has been found that reader services namely circulation. inadequate funds. Singh (1999) took up a comparative study of reader services provided by IIT libraries of India under name “Reader’s Services in IIT Libraries (India): A Comparative Study”. Study was titled 15 . Three of the total 05 libraries under study started the process of transforming themselves into digital libraries. The CDROM search was most popular service. Author discussed the various problems of libraries related to finance. inter-library loan. collection and services. photocopy. physical facilities. staff. whereas adequate funding can solve a major part of the problems. Survey revealed that libraries have failed to perform their role mainly because of inadequate finance. Shortage of staff. Awolola (1998) undertook a survey to examine the prevailing position of libraries of two colleges of education in Nigeria under title “College of Education Libraries in Kwara State (Nigeria): A Comparative Study”. space. stock verifications and library hours etc.concerned with principals of colleges and finally those related to library staff.

Library facilities. Book collection was found inadequate to meet information needs of the users and its growth was very slow.“Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait: A Survey of Their Resources. Joshi (2001) “Veterinary College Libraries in Maharashtra. A survey was conducted by Oyesiku et al. (2006) for the study titled “Resources. Journal subscription was not satisfactory. Libraries were offering only basic information services and a significant number of libraries were not automated. and Services”. Services and Management of Academic Law 16 . use of IT.D. thesis.” It is an unpublished Ph. Survey revealed that majority of the library staff was non-professional. Similarly. Facilities. It had been found that all libraries were providing CAS and bibliographical services. Veer (2004) carried out a study titled “College of Education Libraries in Maharashtra: A Survey. information services and co-operation were the various facets explored. Author recommended that Indian Council for Agricultural Research and Agricultural Universities should regularly organize orientation programmes for librarians. libraries were understaffed.” Information was gathered about libraries through questionnaire. Gautam and Srivastava (2006) examined the prevailing position of documentation and information services of libraries of 30 agricultural universities in India under title “State-of-the-Art of Documentation and Information Services in SAU Libraries in India”.

02 law court libraries and 07 law firm libraries of Nigeria. Out of the 15 libraries surveyed. Results of the study revealed that libraries were rendering basic services as recommended by National Commissions for Colleges of Education. The study included 06 academic law libraries. library staff of 10 libraries responded to the questionnaire. He suggested for the introduction of user education programme and stressed on the need to increase the range and depth of collection and services. Only five libraries had written acquisition policy and 60% had serial sections. Strength of library staff varied among different types of libraries. Except one. Majority of the libraries were being kept open for 6 to 7 hours a day.Libraries and Law Firm Libraries”. Adebayo (2007) conducted a study to examine the implementation of library service standards in the colleges of education in Nigeria under name “Library Services Standards Implemented in Colleges of Education in Nigeria”. It had been found that all types of libraries had same information sources in law. These were not providing indexing and abstracting services. 17 . none of the librarians of law firm libraries was professionally qualified. He found that collection size of the libraries varied considerably and comparatively older colleges had large collections. Partap (2007) conducted a survey of the libraries of 18 colleges of education in 3 districts of Punjab. Data was collected through structured questionnaire.

Sujatha and Mudhol (2009) in the paper titled “Evaluation of Electronic Information Services in the Fisheries College Libraries in South India: A Study” described the electronic information services in four fisheries college libraries. In most of the colleges. furniture and equipment for library and sale of ‘raddi’ etc. Lack of properly laid down functions and change of members of committee every year were the problems in their proper working. LIBRARY COMMITTEE Anand (1981) carried out a study named “Library Committees in Delhi University Colleges: A Survey Report” to examine the composition and functioning of library committees of colleges affiliated to Delhi University. committee’s main function was the allocation of funds to various departments. He found that only one college had the functions of library committee in written. In majority of the colleges the committees played advisory role. Because of lack of specific guidelines some library committees were assigned arbitrary functions like supervision of library staff. It was found that selection and weeding were not guided by any written policy and studies of use 18 . purchase of stationary. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT Biggs and Biggs (1987) conducted a survey of the heads of academic library reference services to examine the collection development for the study titled “Reference Collection Development in Academic Libraries: Report of a Survey”. Authors also discussed the challenges the libraries and information centers were facing.

Harloe and Budd (1994) in “Collection Development and Scholary Communication in the Era of Electronic Access” examined the relationship between collection development and system of scholarly communication in academic library. non-existence of acquisition policy statements. He explored the various factors affecting collection development in special libraries and highlighted the significance of collection development policy manual. Lack of proper management. They discussed on ownership verses access to information and presented strategies for collection development in electronic networked system. Andrade and Vergueiro (1996) also wrote an article under title “Collection Development in Academic Libraries: A Brazilian Library's Experience”. Authors concluded that online sources were important factors in selection. Author pointed out the various problems related to document selection and procurement. non-existence of selection aids. The article is based on the collection development practices of a Brazilian academic library. Sridhar (1995) wrote an article named “Problems of Collection Development in Special Libraries”. Haider (1996) in his paper “Acquisition and Collection Development in Pakistan” analyzed the constraints faced by Pakistani libraries in the procurement of books from abroad. ever 19 . Authors outlined the different models of collection development given by professionals. absence of competent personnel.of collection were missing.

were the major hurdles found. evaluate and select the web-based information resources in article named “Collection Development in Cyberspace: Building an Electronic Library Collection”. Gessesse (2000) in paper titled “Collection Development and Management in the Twenty-First Century with Special Reference to Academic Libraries: An Overview” examined the concepts and problems which needed consideration for collection development in academic libraries for aligning the collection development activities with the changing environment of digital librarianship in twenty first century.shrinking library budgets. import policy. trade embargoes against some countries. Thornton (2000) “Impact of Electronic Resources on Collection Development. Kovacs and Elkordy (2000) threw light on the guidelines and strategies to find. inflation. Study was conducted to find the impact of electronic resources and the 20 . The focus of the paper was on the web-based information resources rather than the electronic information resources. the Roles of Librarians. fluctuating rate of the rupee. and Library Consortia”. The bibliographers need to concentrate on selection and evaluation of the collection rather than writing policies that become outdated and irrelevant quickly. Snow (1996) in article “Wasted Words: The Written Collection Development Policy and the Academic Library” put forward that in academic libraries written collection development policies are unnecessary. fiscal policy etc.

etc.Internet on collection development and discuss the changing role of librarians. She pointed out that the policy of content development needs to be worked out and re-designed. IT trained manpower and paucity of finances. appropriate infrastructure in IT and a need based collection. Mulla and Chandrashekara (2006) “E-Resources and Services in Engineering College Libraries – A Case Study”. It had been concluded that consortia will become more important sources in electronic information world. 21 . The existing state of library collection and infrastructural facilities of 17 engineering college libraries in West Bengal were examined. Mandal and Panda (2005) in their research paper titled “Collection Development in the Internet Age and the Need for a Consortium in the Engineering College Libraries in West Bengal: A Study” discussed the different dimensions of collection development. Results of the study revealed that collection and service infrastructure of the libraries in sampled regions were not up to the mark and libraries were struggling to build digital collection and in disseminating digital information due to lack of ICT infrastructure. Author suggested the staff training. provision of adequate staff and funds. Study was conducted to examine the efforts made by the engineering college libraries in Karnataka to build electronic resources. library co-operation and collection development. Pandita (2004) in her paper “Collection Development in the Digital Era” examined the impact of electronic format on the collection development.

deputy principals of colleges and board of the affiliated institutions of the University of Botswana.Adekanmbi and Boadi (2008) in study titled. Lack of constant training for librarians. in Botswana. “Problems of Developing Library Collections: A Study of Colleges of Education Libraries in Botswana” ascertained the availability and use of collection development policies in the college of education libraries. Sharma et al. interviews were conducted to gather information from senior librarians. lack of support from administration and unavailability of collection development policies were some of the major problems found. (2008) evaluated the collection development in libraries of 38 engineering colleges of Orissa under title “Collection Management of Engineering College Libraries of Orissa: An Evaluative Study”. Authors described the various techniques of evaluating the document collection in academic libraries and evaluated the collection development practices of two engineering colleges. Study revealed the need to train librarians on collection development. Study brought to notice that majority of the libraries did not have collection development policies. It was further found that majority of the libraries did not involve their users in formulation of policies and did not implement these for collection development. inadequate staff. Mary and Sankar (2008) “Collection Evaluation of PSN College of Engineering and Technology Library and PET Engineering College Library in Tirunelveli District”. In addition to using questionnaires. 22 . Information was collected from libraries using questionnaires.

so the responses of users should be an integral part of the ongoing practice of librarians. USER STUDIES Martin (1976) in his article “User Studies and Library Planning” discussed the user studies and appraised their role in library planning. Author examined the various factors influencing the attitude of users towards libraries and also took into consideration the socioeconomic. Author provided various guidelines for conducting user studies and concluded that user data strengthens the planning and decision-making processes at several levels. inhibit users and potential users. by rendering at least CAS or current contents or information about latest addition to users.Study concluded that growing dissatisfaction of the users arising from non-availability of needed documents and lack of provision of services could be boiled down to some extent. providing constant feedback. Mallaiah and Gowda (2009) in paper “Collection Development in Mangalore University Library: A User Study” discussed the usefulness of collection development in a university library and attempted to find whether the UGC-INFONET E-journals were meeting the users information needs. 23 . Coker (1993) has written a useful article titled “Libraries Verses Users? How and How Not to Deter Library Users”. physical/technical and psychological/ emotional conditions shaping up the perceptions of non users. technological.

Wildemuth (2003) in article titled “Why Conduct User Studies? The Role of Empirical Evidence in Improving the Practice of Librarianship” emphasized that by gathering evidences about library users. timings. The article summarized the results of 101 user studies conducted in the electronic environment. Carr (2006) “What Users Want: An Academic ‘Hybrid’ Library Perspective”. facilities and services of library. She concluded that majority of users were satisfied with opening hours. rules and regulations and services of a public library under title “User’s Survey of Delhi Public Library Karol Bagh Branch”. Author discussed on the methodology for conducting user studies and utilization of results as basis for decision making. Author described the development of user centered approach in academic libraries over the recent decades. staff. and to 24 . He wrote that largely unquestioned ‘user get what we give them’ attitude was being transformed into ‘what do users want?’ approach. their interactions with library services and materials and context in which those materials and services are used. Questionnaire was used as a data gathering instrument. librarians can make sound decisions for the future. USE OF LIBRARIES Sharma (1974) conducted a survey of users to know their views about library collection. Varghese (2008) “User Studies in the Electronic Environment: Review and Brief Analysis”. The failure to take what users want into account would leave academic library high and dry in the desert of lost opportunities. rules.

reasons for using and satisfaction with these. Data was collected from faculty. Panwar and Vyas (1976) carried out a study of libraries of the two women colleges affiliated to the University of Delhi under name “User’s Survey of the Women College Libraries”.some extent with its collection also. Linton (1980) conducted a survey of the students and faculty of the college of Charleston’s Robert Scott small library to find the use of library material and services. Separate questionnaires were used to know the opinion of students and faculty. postgraduate students and teachers of social sciences. Hendrix and Rudolph (1981) “MSU libraries: A User Survey”. Library services and physical facilities did not have a satisfactory picture. The study was carried out to find how effectively Msu libraries were meeting the needs of their users. It was supplemented by select interviews. 25 . because it had more budget for books. graduate and undergraduate students and special privileged users. Data was collected from undergraduate. Results revealed that respondents used libraries to find and read books and periodicals for academic purpose. It was found that maximum use of library was made by students. The study was titled “A Users Survey of the College of Charleston’s Robert Scott Small Library”. using questionnaire. therefore special emphasis were needed to meet their information needs. Survey revealed that in laterally established college more books were added every year as compared to other one. Properly planned orientation was needed.

use of material. computerized literature searching. etc.Mathews (1981) executed a general evaluation survey of the academic community to ascertain whether resources. Prather and Clemons (1981) “Results of a Survey of Pullen Library Users”. Kerala under name “Incentives for Use of College Libraries”. Opinions of 404 students were collected. Author examined the users’ frequency of visit. services and facilities of the Iowa State University Library meet the needs of its users. It was titled as “Survey of User Services: General Evaluation Survey”. Bavakutty (1985) carried out a study to examine the use of libraries of colleges affiliated to University College of Calicut. staff and alumni were using for personal research. satisfaction with collection. use of catalogue. The students of govt. whereas faculty. Onardian and Onardian (1986) invited the opinion of undergraduate students to assess the use of Ahmedu Bello University Library. reasons for visit. Nigeria for study “Nigerian University Library Services: Students Opinion”. 26 . Authors conducted a survey of the users of the Georgia State University Library to examine their usage of library and perceptions about its adequacy. Undergraduates were using it heavily for studying. colleges were using libraries mainly for outside their study needs whereas those of private colleges were using libraries for curricular purpose. Authors concluded that large number of users visited library frequently. Results of the study revealed that users were using library for non-book related purposes.

Lack of needed books in library was one of the main causes for user’s dissatisfaction.Majority of them were visiting to study. More than 90% users were not satisfied with physical facilities of library.” Data was collected from users through questionnaire. Hyderabad: A Case Study. Majority of users wanted change in library timings. A survey of students at the University of Maiduguri library (media division) was conducted by Oyeleltan (1992) to disclose the available audiovisual facilities and their extent of use. Osmania University. Library rules were not effective on teachers. The study was 27 . assisted by interviews and personal observations. Hyderabad. About 65% users considered library collection as adequate to meet their information needs. using library books. 66. It was followed by personal interviews with users and library staff. About 85% users were unaware of catalogue. Kanakachary (1989) “User’s Survey of Engineering College Library. Only 10% users were found not satisfied with library.” Author assessed the performance of engineering college library. Osmania University. total 50 questionnaires were distributed and 27 (54%) were received back. while 33. Walia and Gautam (1988) conducted a study under title “Library Services in Colleges of Delhi: A Survey.7% users were satisfied.3% were dissatisfied with regard to quality and standard of periodicals on subscription. For study. In order to examine the basic services of 20 college libraries in Delhi.

it is the total library environment that makes greatest effect. Publicity and public relation needed attention. Ebenezer (1993) “A User Survey Conducted at the Medical Library of the University of Limburg at Maastricht”. Study brought to light that all the respondents were aware of the existence of audiovisual facilities in media division.03% users were not satisfied with the loan policy. Presentation of reading material was found poor. Marshall et al. noisy and constraining.titled as “Undergraduates’ Utilization of Services in Nigerian University Libraries: The Case of University of Maiduguri Library”. Author found that failure of library to provide needed environment was the main reason for user’s finding library uncongenial. Authors concluded that although individual factors in library environment do effect users’ perceptions. About 69. Issue of access to stacks material needed urgent attention. (1993) undertook a study named “A Study of Library Use in ProblemBased and Traditional Medical Curricula” to find the difference in use of 28 . Users found study landscape too open. Clee and Maguire (1993) investigated the importance of library environment in influencing the use of library and its facilities under title “Library Environment and Library Usage”. Allen (1993) conducted a study under name “International Students in Academic Libraries: A User Survey” to investigate the international students library use. current perceived difficulties in using libraries were traced and implications were drawn for libraries. Students’ prior uses of microcomputers.

interviews were conducted and records were examined to collect data. most frequently used services and helpfulness of library staff. It was revealed that more students used libraries in problem based learning than in traditional programmes. Authors conducted a survey to ascertain the suitability of opening hours. Raina and Dayal (1998) carried out a study of the Indian Institute of Management Library. Sanjeev Kumar and Mishra (1993) “Use of National Institute of Fashion Technology Library: A Survey”. Lending service was most frequently used followed by photocopy service. Respondents were not satisfied with services of library. Lukhnow under title “An Analysis of Student’s Feedback on the Library Utilization and Resource Evaluation at IIML”. 29 . Borrowing books was the main reason to visit library followed by use of reference material and periodicals. The basic resources were found inadequate. Library hours were found convenient to users. Author found that library collection was used satisfactorily. The purpose of survey was to assess the level of utilization of IIML and the effectiveness of its facilities and service. frequency of library use. Tirupati”. A survey of post graduate students and teaching staff was conducted through questionnaire. Veeranjaneyulu (1994) evaluated the resources and services of a medical college library under name “A Study with Reference to Information Sources and Services in Shri Venkateshwara Medical College Library.libraries in problem based learning programmes and traditional programmes. Majority of the users were satisfied with library. In addition.

Available resources were found relevant and accessible but inadequate. 99% faculty was using library for own research. Collection on some subjects needed attention for strengthening. Majority of users visited library to use 30 . Apeji (1999) assessed the resources and services of the library of Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council under title “Information Availability and Use in the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) Library”. A study was undertaken by Satyanarayana (1999) to ascertain the use of text book section of Andhra University library by students under title “Use of Text Book Section in Andhra University Library: A Case Study”. Maughan (1999) conducted a survey of 07 departments at the University of California. Author suggested the provision of sufficient funds and use of computer in providing services. Response rate of faculty and students was 44% and 32% respectively. Berkley under name “Library Resources and Services: A Cross-Disciplinary Survey of Faculty and Graduate Student Use and Satisfaction”. Majority of the users were satisfied with helpfulness of library staff.Microfilms were in very less use in comparison to other documents. Study brought to light that library resources mainly consist of books and back volumes of journals. Users were consulting older published material regularly. Respondents consulted narrow range of material than was expected. About 59% students rated circulation as good or excellent. Survey revealed that most of the active users were visiting the section daily.

Journals and textbooks were not considered very adequate. About 40% users favoured the need to increase fee/ additional fee to get more revenue for library. followed by reference books and general books. Majority of the users considered library resources and services as essential to their professional productivity.” Study brought forward that textbooks were most frequently used resources. Opinions of users were collected by interviews.textbooks and very few to spend leisure time. Feldman (2000) conducted a study under name “Library Use Survey of Random Sample of University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Faculty: Final Report”. Objective was to ascertain the utilization of archival information by researchers and the extent to which the Kenya National Archival and Documentation Services was meeting their information needs. 31 . Almost all the faculty members favoured need for computerization of their libraries. Large number of students suggested to increase the number of textbooks and update collection regularly. Kemoni (2002) conducted a study titled “The Utilisation of Archival Information by Researchers in Kenya: A Case Study of the University of Nairobi”. Objective was to ascertain the use of university library in the year 2000. Main purpose of visiting library was to prepare notes for students. A change was observed between the usage patterns of library as 56% users were connecting to library by computers against the 32% users in 1996. Gurdev Singh (2002) “Use of College Libraries by Faculty Members of University of Delhi.

Kumbar and Lohar (2002) conducted a survey of 91 teachers of Sahyadri Arts and Commerce College and Sahyadri Science College in Shimoga (Karnataka) under title “Use of Library Facilities and Information Resources in Sahyadri College” to study the use of resources and services of their respective college’s libraries. Abraka”. (2002) carried out a study to reveal the utilization of newspapers and magazines in an undergraduate college under title “Utilisation of news papers and magazines by the U. Okiy (2002) executed a survey of students and faculty members to assess the use of Delta State University library under name “Assessing Students and Faculty Use of Academic Libraries in Nigeria: The Case of Delta State University. Both the categories of users utilized books more often than any other material. Various aspects of libraries regarding use of resources. Only a small part of users responded that they always found the needed material in library. Padmamma et al. because of dearth of relevant current journals. Majority of users considered library services and facilities as fair. services and physical facilities were examined during study. abstracts and indexes. College teachers in Shimoga City: A 32 .G. Abraka. The library had its origin from Advanced Teachers College Library. A difference was found between the frequency of use of library by the faculty and students.Study revealed that researchers were using variety of information sources to meet their information needs and relied more on archival personnel to access information.

to ascertain the use of resources and services of library of JJM Medical College. Marcum and George (2003) conducted a survey of 3. In another study. Padmamma et al. and private liberal arts colleges of USA under title “Who Uses What?” Responses revealed in aggregate that electronic information use was substantial and growing in the nation's major universities and liberal arts colleges. e. Authors assessed the impact of personal attributes of teachers on the use of periodicals by them. User group was divided into five categories i.case study”. graduate students. Study concealed that majority of users were regular visitors to library. Majority of the users were satisfied with physical facilities of library. postgraduate students. New Delhi”. Davangere. staff members. Purpose was to study the use of library collection of JNU library. and textbooks were the most used resources. (2002) took up a study under title “Evaluation of Medical College Library Sources and Services: A Study”. 33 . Another survey was carried out by Siddique (2002) under name “Use of Library Collection in the Jawaharlal Nehru University Library. Karnataka. graduate students. and others. researchers.234 faculty members. research material and to borrow books. public and private. Most of them visited library to consult course material. and undergraduates in 392 doctoral research universities. Majority of the users were aware about the services provided by the library. Survey disclosed that majority of users were visiting library to consult books or journals.

and coursework. Ogombo and Adomi (2003) conducted a survey to reveal the utilization of library resources under name “Student’s Utilization of Library Resources at Baptist School of Nursing. Nigeria”. Author attempted to ascertain the level of utilization of services of Nimbe Adepe Library of the University of Agriculture. Long distance between the campus and town. teaching. less number of books issued at a time and inadequate opening hours of library were the problems found during study. Data was collected using questionnaire. As the students were not given orientation.Respondents were making their use for research. Study brought forward that students used library mainly to prepare for examination and to write class assignments. Responses confirmed that print was not dead. Salaam (2003) “Library Utilization by the Undergraduates of a University of Agriculture”. Waldman (2003) surveyed the freshmen at Baruch College in study “Freshmen's Use of Library Electronic Resources and SelfEfficacy”. Short duration of loan period. while 54% users used library to prepare assignments. Purpose was to examine the role self-efficacy plays in their 34 . where most of students reside was found as main obstacle in the use of library. nor was the campus library. About 59. Eku.6% students went to library to prepare for examination. It was found that majority of the users visited library daily. and have equipped themselves well to do so. Delta State. majority of them went directly to the shelves to locate needed material.

Agaba et al. It was found that majority of the staff was aware about the availability of electronic information resources but did not utilize them. type of resources provided and utilization of resources. About 40. Author assessed the use of library and information resources by the students of distance learning in three universities of Nigeria. Haruna (2004) assessed the extent of utilization of resources and services by users of a public library. Author examined the users’ awareness. whereas some users were using departmental libraries and other libraries out of the campus to read 35 . Survey revealed that majority of users used library to study using library books followed by use for assignment and examination purposes using own books. Mabawonku (2004) “Library Use in Distance Learning: A Survey of Undergraduates in three Nigerian Universities”. Nigeria”. Study revealed that less than 50% respondents were using main libraries of their respective universities regularly.search for information and use of the library's electronic resources.9% users were partially satisfied with library material and were using it because they did not have any other alternative. Lokoja. (2004) examined the utilization of electronic information resources by the academic staff of Makerera University in Uganda under title “Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Staff at Makerere University”. In a study titled “Utilization of Information Resources and Services of the Kogi State Public Library.

College Libraries in Andhra Pradesh” to know the opinion of students and teachers on library collection. opening hours. OPAC for periodicals and other reading material. Dharwad”. Helen (2005) conducted an online user survey to evaluate the University of Hong Kong libraries under title “The 2004 User Survey at the University of Hong Kong Libraries”. assistance from library staff in using OPAC. Nigeria”. Authors examined the users frequency of use and purpose of consulting OPAC. etc. The reference and electronic collection was not used properly. thesis. rules and regulations. Services and User Survey of B. services. Swarna (2004) took up a study under name “Information Resources.personal books. Sangam and Hadimani (2004) examined the use of Online Public Access Catalogue by research scholars under title “Use of Online Public Access Catalogue by the Research Scholars in Karnatak University Library. difficulties in locating books. time spent in using it.Ed. It is unpublished Ph. Study revealed that majority of the 36 . approaches followed to locate material. facilities. reading facility and organization of documents etc.D. Uzezi (2004) attempted to find the effect of staff/ user relationship on the use of library under name “The Effect of Staff/ Users Relationship (PR) on the Utilization of Library Services and Resources: Case Study of Delta State University. Some users suggested for up to date library guides explaining how to use catalogue.

Majority of the users were satisfied with 37 .respondents preferred to use online journals than print versions. To study the use of periodicals by scholars at National Library of Veterinary Sciences. Out of 125 questionnaires distributed 110 were received back. available information resources and expected from librarians to provide a comfortable academic environment in library. Authors were not satisfied with students’ library use skills. An interaction-value model emerged from study which is driven by the value and impact of information unlike other previous models driven by information needs. Ahmad and Haridasan (2006) undertook a study named “Use of Periodicals by the Scholars at National Library of Veterinary Sciences: A User’s Survey”. Musoke (2005) investigated the availability and use of information by primary health care providers under title “Access and Use of Information by the Primary Health Care Providers in Rural Uganda: An Interaction-Value Model”. Authors ascertained the perceptions of faculty members on the students library use and their role in motivating students to use libraries. Findings of study revealed that teachers played an important role in promoting the use of libraries by students. but on the contrary about 72% users preferred to use printed books over the electronic. It was found that majority of the users were visiting library daily and used back volumes of periodicals for research purpose. Adikata and Anwar (2006) “Student Library Use: A Study of Faculty Perceptions in a Malaysian University”.

Survey revealed that 74. Kumasi”. Atilgan and Bayram (2006) took up a study titled “An Evaluation of Faculty Use of the Digital Library at Ankara University. (2007) “Use of Periodical Literature in the University of Agricultural Sciences Daharwad: A Case Study”. Authors examined the adequacy of collection to meet subject needs of users. as lecturers were recommending them. One-tenth of the registered members were chosen as a sample for survey. undergraduates were using journals significantly.35% respondents scanned the current issues of the journals to keep themselves updated with latest 38 . Turkey” to ascertain the faculty’s awareness and use of electronic material at Ankara University. This study revealed gaps in collection development. Findings of the study brought forward that majority of the faculty members were aware about the existence of digital library and many were using electronic databases. Interestingly. Data was collected from random sample through questionnaire.arrangement of current issues of periodicals and arrangement of back volumes. The impact of newly subscribed databases on the increased publications was found. Lawoe (2006) conducted a study to examine the use of serial collection by students and faculty under name “A Study of Serials Use at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Library. Authors assessed the extent of use of periodical literature by agriculture scientists. Kumbar et al.

developments. Only a small fraction of users was familiar with inter library loan service. The Internet was found as the most preferred facility by respondents of both the male and female gender. were also examined. Data was collected from 375 users using library facilities. Sami and Shahida (2007) conducted a survey to study the effect of gender on the use of IT facilities in libraries and information centres. as 74. informing users about recent arrivals and effective reprographic service are the best ways to serve the users and suggested to encourage users to make use of eresources. Authors concluded that proper display of periodicals. Authors concluded that need to 39 .64% opted for electronic version. Majority of the users considered print journals as better version than electronic journals. Accessibility of the reading material. photocopy service. inter-library-loan. the Internet. orientation. computerization of libraries. It was titled “Use of IT in Information Centres: Gender Based Analysis”.25% users spent less than an hour and more than half an hour only in libraries per week. Lohar and Kumbar (2007) evaluated the use of libraries by teachers under name.36% chosen print journals and 25. etc. Results of the study revealed that 52. users’ opinion about library services such as lending service. its adequacy. “Teachers Attitude towards Library Facilities and Information Resources in First Grade Colleges in Shimoga Districts: A Survey”. pattern of search for latest literature.

Lakan (2008) carried out a study named “Availability and Utilization of Electronic Information Databases by Staff of the Agricultural Complex. inadequate provision of computers. power outrage etc. usage and problems faced in use of e-journal resources at the Yaba College of Technology library. Techno-stress was found low among users of both sexes. Web of Science. Ahmadu Bello 40 . Achonna (2008) in research article “Awareness. need to popularize the information technology and its usage and to motivate the students to use e-journal resources. examined the students’ awareness. Results revealed that many faculty members were using electronic databases. Atakan et al. were the problems faced in use of resources. access. provision of adequate computers. A survey was conducted to measure the effectiveness of digital library. Science Direct and Ebsco were the most preferred databases. Users’ preference to use computers and related technologies depended up on the cultural. family and the educational background of the users. Investigators compared the results of two surveys carried out in 2002 and 2005. Study concluded the need for the training skills. Lack of skills. (2008) “An Evaluation of the Second Survey on Electronic Databases Usage at Ankara University Digital Library”.use information technology facilities was high for users irrespective of their gender. by the Students of Yaba College of Technology. Access and Usage of E-Journal Resources of the Library. Yaba –Lagos Nigeria”. Use of e-journal resources was found low.

Zaria”. A considerable difference was found in the faculty awareness about library and information products and services. consultation of librarian etc. The users were using electronic journals mainly for research work and PDF format was the most preferred. Author concluded that level of knowledge of faculty have relationship with the frequency of library use. Popoola (2008) examined the faculty’s awareness and use of library information products and services in study titled “Faculty Awareness and Use of Library Information Products and Services in Nigerian Universities”. Questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Results revealed that power outrages. slow Internet service and insufficient computers were the factors affecting the provision and use of electronic information resources. It further disclosed that the users did not have the required knowledge of library products and services relevant to their teaching and research work. Moghaddam and Talawar (2008) “The Use of Scholarly Electronic Journals at the Indian Institute of Science: A Case Study in India”. A sample of about one tenth of the faculty members was chosen randomly for survey.University. 41 . A growing interest in using electronic journals was found as users had free access to electronic journals at all hours. Objective was to find the availability and use of electronic databases by staff of university.

resources and facilities under title “Autonomous College Libraries in Chennai: A Survey of Faculty Perceptions”. Only govt. Authors suggested for right choice between print and electronic sources of information for collection development. More than three fourth respondents were visiting libraries for research studies and to write research papers.66% of the total 375 users surveyed responded to the questionnaire. Mangalore.9% users used electronic information sources for thesis/ project work and 87. (2008) conducted a survey named “Measuring the Effectiveness of Library Services of Selected College Libraries in Mysore City from Users Perspective” to ascertain the effectiveness of college library services in Mysore. and govt. Harinarayana et al. research scholars and post graduate students under title “Use of Electronic Information Sources at the College of Fisheries. aided colleges were covered in study.6% used for ongoing research 42 . Sample was chosen randomly. A few users were using e-resources.Rao and Babu (2008) executed a survey of the faculty members of autonomous colleges in Chennai to examine the provision and use of library services. Text book service was the most highly sought after service. Sujatha and Mudhol (2008) carried out a survey to study the use of different types of electronic information sources by teachers/ scientists. About 78. Libraries were lacking behind to provide specific information. It was found that majority of the users were visiting libraries to study in library and for borrowing books. About 88. India”.

0%. Shimoga: A Case Study”. were fairly used. Data was collected using questionnaire and the response rate was 73. encyclopedia and yearbooks. The services like SDI. CD Rom search etc. (2009) conducted a survey of the students of Agriculture science college. browsed the Internet for subject specific information websites and 75. Study was titled “Use of Information Sources and Services in Library of Agriculture Science College. E-mail was the most frequently used electronic information source followed by web resources. and Talawar (2009) conducted a study to assess the extent of use of reference sources in university libraries under title “Use of Reference Sources in University Libraries of Karnataka: A Study”.79% were satisfied. Kumari H. Survey revealed a growing interest in reference sources among users in university libraries.work. Majority of the respondents comprising 79. ILL. A small percentage of users made use of bibliographies and directories as compared to the use of dictionaries. while non documentary sources were less used.27% users were using lending service and among them 54. Authors concluded with the urgent need to establish e-consortia model among agriculture libraries in India. About 72. Biradar et al. 43 .3% for international/ regional institution websites. Shimoga to ascertain the use of information sources and services of the college library.28% for the total 1740 questionnaires distributed.

Gowda and Shivalingaiah (2009) “Awareness and Use of Library Facilities and Services by the Research Scholars in the Universities in Karnataka: An Analytical Study”. Gulbarga: A Survey” disclosed the use of electronic resources by the faculty members and research scholars in Gulbarga University. Sami and Iffat (2009) in paper “Use of Electronic Information Services in Research Libraries” discussed the use of electronic information services in research libraries and attempted to reveal the impact of users’ background and awareness about services on the use of electronic information services Patil and Parameshwar (2009) in paper titled “Use of Electronic Resources by the Faculty Members and Research Scholars in Gulbarga University. whereas the respondents of science group considered the facilities and services as moderately good. Dharwad: A Study” to ascertain the use of UGC-Infonet E-Journals Consortium by the faculty members and research scholars of university. Another study was conducted by Kumbar and Hadagali (2009) under title “Use of UGC-Infonet E-Journals Consortium by Faculty Members and Research Scholars of Karnatak University. Questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Study brought forward significant differences in the satisfaction level of research scholars of different disciplines with facilities and services of libraries. Majority of the respondents of humanities and social science found the facilities and services of university libraries poor. 44 .

Trivedi and Joshi (2009) conducted a study under title “Usage of Electronic Journals (E-Journals) Versus Print Journals by Healthcare Professionals in H M Patel Centre for Medical Care and Education (HMPCME)” to examine the use of e-journals by the health care professionals.33% of the teachers considered at partially adequate.Study revealed the need to train users in using the electronic resources. Authors concluded that there is a growing use of e-journals over print journals 45 . About 58. Pushpalatha and Mallaiah (2009) executed a study named “Use of Information Resources in Chemistry: A Study of Mangalore University Library” to know the users opinions about adequacy of library resources. In addition to building up the functional and sound libraries. It was titled “Use of Gram Panchayat Libraries in Gulbarga District: A Study”. whereas 40% research scholars and 83. It was found that majority of the users were visiting libraries to borrow books followed by consulting the periodicals.92% post graduate students rated library collection as adequate to meet their information needs. Study revealed that there was more use of print journals (54. the findings also emphasized on the user education programs for their optimum utilization. Online Public Access Catalogue and assistance of library staff were the primary means to locate needed documents.63%) as compare to e-journals. Shivalingappa and Tadasad (2009) carried out a study to evaluate the use of gram panchayat libraries in Gulbarga district.

It was titled “Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour of Ayurveda Information Users”. Browsing was the preferred method to locate the needed material. Authors investigated the information seeking behaviour of psychologists and sociologists working in six universities of Delhi and Haryana. Author concluded 46 .but which is preferable over the other is a debatable issue. Survey revealed the general lack of interest in reading books and newspapers. Shokeen and Kaushik (2003) “Information Seeking Behaviour of Psychologists and Sociologists: A Case Study of Delhi and Haryana Universities”. Another survey was conducted by George (2007) to reveal the information needs and information seeking behaviour of Ayurveda information users. Study brought to light that trainee teachers’ information needs were influenced greatly by the course requirements centred around their course. Computers were used largely for typing rather than for handling information. The study brought forward that 23. out of a total 91 respondents were visiting libraries daily and 35 visited twice a week. as study did not show a significant decrease in use of print journals as compared to e-journal for research. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR Shanmugam (1999) examined the information seeking behaviour of trainee teachers of the two teacher training colleges of Malaysia under title “Information Seeking Behaviour of the Trainee Teachers in Selected Teacher Training Colleges in Malaysia”.

Carrier development was the most preferred response for seeking information.” Data was collected from 60 students using questionnaire. On the other hand most of the practitioners do not use libraries regularly and depended mainly on their personal collection of books and periodicals. (2007) conducted a comparative study of the information needs and information seeking behaviour of international graduate students and American graduate students under title “Information-Seeking Behaviour of International Graduate Students vs. 47 . Ninety percent students agreed that students needed instruction on how to use information source in their subject area for the effective and efficient use of the information sources and services. Aligarh Muslim University: A Survey.that scientists. Study is based on the opinions collected through online survey.67% users were visiting libraries daily. 51. teachers and students made use of literature available in their parent institutions but majority of them were not satisfied with collection and services of these. Fatima and Ahmad (2008) carried out a study to examine the information seeking behaviour of college students under name “Information Seeking Behaviour of the Students at Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College. Library and information field and primary publications were not found so attractive in ayurveda. Liao et al. Newspapers were the most used documents followed by use of books and journals. American Graduate Students: A User Study at Virginia Tech 2005”.

facilities available for seeking information and knowledge about them. (1989) “An Evaluative Study of Services Provided by Delhi University Library System”. (2008) executed a survey to find the information seeking behaviour of teachers and research scientists working in ICAR institutions of Delhi and Punjab Agriculture University. Author measured the satisfaction of research scholars with services provided by the Delhi University 48 . Author concluded that information sources and services utilization will improve the research output if the services are properly utilized.Singh and Satija. Results revealed that library and information centres were the most preferred sources to meet information requirements of agriculture scientists. affect the information seeking behaviour of the users. Umbur (2008) carried out a study titled “The Information Generation and Seeking Behaviour of Some Academics in Two Universities. chances of getting the required information etc.” Being sources of current and authentic information to researchers. Study was titled “Information Seeking Strategies of Agricultural Scientists Working in the ICAR Institutions in India”. Ludhiana. The working culture of those who need information. Users depended heavily on the computerized information search facility. journals were the most used sources of information. Current awareness service was the most used information service to support the research activities. SATISFACTION WITH RESOURCES AND SERVICES Singh et al.

faculty and staff to measure their satisfaction with the Paradise Valley Community College Library under title “Library User Survey: Resources. Uganneya and Idachaba (2005) conducted a survey of the students and teachers under name “Information System Effectiveness: A User’s Satisfaction Approach Study of Francis Sulemanu (F. Facilities and Circulation Service”. Idabacha Library. Makurdi. To ascertain the level of effectiveness of F. Chavez et al. Benue State. Findings revealed that generally users were satisfied with the resources. In a study titled “Satisfaction of the Carrier Seekers in the Resources and Services of Libraries in Kerala” Koovakki and Jalaja (2005) ascertained the level of satisfaction of career seekers in the resources and services of university. Majority of users were satisfied with circulation and reference service. Circulation and Information Technology services were deficient. which indicates that library did 49 . A difference was also observed between the level of satisfaction of male and female users. S. University of Agriculture. Frequency of use of library was low. No particular collection was found to be excellent.) Idachaba Library. college and public libraries.S. (2005) carried out a survey of the students. It was recommended to repeat survey in two years to compare satisfaction level of students.library system. facilities and circulation service. Survey revealed that users using university libraries were most satisfied and using public libraries were least satisfied. Nigeria”.

INFORMATION NEEDS AND USE PATTERN Gupta (1973) “Users Survey of the Laxmibai Nagar Branch of the Delhi Public Library”. services. (1986) executed a survey titled “Central Secretariat Library: Users and the Pattern of Use-A Survey” to identify real users.not meet information needs of users properly. use pattern. It revealed that journals continued to be the most valuable resource for NIST scientists. Half of the respondents considered library collection inadequate while all most all the users were satisfied with services of library. pattern of use and scope for new services. (1989) “Information Use Pattern of Indian Historians”. Liu and Allmang (2008) conducted a survey through online tool ‘Survey Monkey’ to reveal the user’s satisfaction under title “Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning”. services and facilities. Survey led to conclusion that shortage of space has effected library collection and services. Questionnaire addressed library resources. with overwhelming preferences for e-journals. their information needs. customer preferences and impact of libraries on customer’s work. Respondents suggested the introduction of new journals and the Internet service to improve the library system. It had been found that majority of the users were using 50 . Author examined the characteristics of users. and users’ views about collection. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 persons and 121 responded. Biswas et al. Krisiddappa et al.

addition lists issued by library and periodicals to know current literature in concerned fields. bibliographies. Survey revealed that majority of the college faculty members needed 51 . Study revealed the need for simplification of information packaging and improvements in its delivery. Ikoja-Odongo (2001) ascertained the information needs of informal economic sector in Uganda under title “A Study of the Information Needs and Uses of the Informal Sector in Uganda: Preliminary Findings”. interviews of informants and organizations and observations. Teachers preferred book trade catalogue. Author examined the use of information and role and impact of information in the growth and development of concerned sector. abstracts. Another survey was conducted by Choukhande and Kumar (2004) named “Analytical Study of Information Needs and Use Pattern of Faculty Members and Research Scholars of Amravati University.” Author concluded that the purpose of user’s visit to library largely depends up on the free time available to them.” Author ascertained the information needs of college and university faculties.books/ monographs frequently followed by use of journal articles. Purnima (2005) “Information Needs in Higher Education: A Study of College Faculties in Manipur. indexes. Almost three fourth of the users were facing problems in getting up to date information. Opinions of population under study were collected through focus group discussion.

college and university teachers. secondary. conduct regular user education programmes. READING HABITS To examine the reading habits of women teachers and reveal the role of library in promotion of reading habits Shivalli (2000) conducted a survey named “Reading Habits of Working Women Teachers in Goa: A Survey”. (2008) “Information Use Pattern by the Academicians: A Case Study of NIFT Centres in India”. Study brought forward that reading habits of the users get affected by the non availability of the required information in libraries. etc. interview and observation method from primary. acquire both print and non-print material. A survey was conducted to examine the information needs and information use pattern of the academicians of seven institutes of fashion technology in India. whereas university faculty members needed information to update knowledge and for research work. Most of the faculties of colleges and university were unaware of the use of IT.information for academic work. Sharma and Singh (2005) explored the reading habits of faculty members in natural sciences under title “Reading Habits of Faculty Members in Natural Sciences: A Case 52 . move towards digitalization. because of lack of infrastructure in libraries. higher secondary. Authors suggested having functional and effective collection development programme to meet information needs of users and need to popularize the less used services to ensure their optimum utilization. Gopalakrishnan et al. Data was collected through questionnaire.

Shaw (1998) examined the use of the Internet and the electronic environment by English academics in the study titled “The Use of the Internet by English Academics”. Sudha and Harinarayana (2009) conducted a study under title “Role of Teachers in Promoting Reading Habits of Professional and Non Professional College Students: A Study” to examine the issues related to role of teachers in developing reading habits of professional and non professional college students. The use of the Internet was found comparatively higher among faculty of sciences and agriculture than in humanities and social sciences.Study of University of Delhi”. distance of library and non-availability of required material were main reasons for user’s not visiting the library frequently. Majority of faculty members read to meet their teaching and research needs. Author proposed to know 53 . Non-professional students and female students expressed more involvement in knowing current affairs by their teachers than other respondents. THE INTERNET USE Lazinger et al. research work. Teaching assignments. Questionnaires were distributed to faculty members of all departments and professional schools of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (1998) in study titled “Internet Use by Faculty Members in Various Disciplines: A Comparative Case Study” investigated the use of the Internet among various sectors of faculty members. Questionnaires were distributed among 1757 students of 52 colleges. Journals were the main sources of scientific and technical information.

sports and news etc. purpose. Authors examined the users’ experience and frequency of the Internet use.the opinions of users from colleges of University of Wales and also revealed the pattern of using aforesaid sources. problems faced by users. time spent. India: A Case Study”. Because of this factor users accessed the Internet for entertainment. It aimed to examine the pattern of use of the Internet by the teachers and students of engineering colleges of Punjab. Anasi (2006) examined the pattern of the Internet use by undergraduate students of university in study titled. problems faced by users in using these sources. “Internet Use 54 . usage and problems faced in its use by the students of the university. but lacked necessary searching skills for effective use of the Internet. difficulty in finding relevant information and privacy were the main problems faced by the users. In a study named “Internet Access and Usage by Students of the University of Botswana”. Another study was conducted by Rajiv Kumar and Amritpal Kaur (2005) under title “Internet and its Use in the Engineering Colleges of Punjab. Findings of the study revealed that though a considerable number of users were aware about the benefit of the Internet. purpose of use. Ojedokun (2002) investigated the Internet access. Slow access speed of the Internet. location of use. etc. resources and services being used. benefits of the Internet over conventional documents and its impact on the academic efficiency of respondents.

Bansode and Pujar (2008) conducted a study to ascertain the use of the Internet by research scholar in science. In a research article “Internet Use by Teachers and Students in Engineering Colleges of Punjab. Joteen Singh et al.” Users were using the Internet mainly for communication purpose that is e-mail as compared to information retrieval.5% users felt that the Internet can not replace library services. Nigeria”. Kohlapur. (2009) executed a study under title 55 . Haryana. The level of the Internet use was found low among students under study as they were lacking the search strategies to locate information. social sciences and humanities under title “Use of Internet by Research Scholars at Shivaji University. because they find it easy to locate information on the Internet than in library. Along with the recommendations for provision of adequate computer laboratory and proper power back up system author also recommended the integration of the Internet and computer literacy into compulsory general studies programme of the university.Pattern of Undergraduate Students at the University of Lagos. There was need to give training on the use of the Internet so that researchers use appropriate tools and techniques to obtain information.5% responded otherwise. whereas 22. and Himachal Pradesh States of India: An Analysis” Rajeev Kumar and Amritpal Kaur (2006) examined the Internet use by teachers and students and attempted to find whether the Internet can replace libraries? Survey revealed that 77.

interviews and observations were also used to collect data. Journals in stock were outdated and 14% users advocated the need to subscribe more journal titles. teachers and non-teaching staff members. Survey brought to light that majority of students visiting library were not its registered members.“Use of Internet Based E-Resources at Manipur University: A Survey” to examine the use of electronic information focusing on the Internet services by post graduate students. Salma and Yelwa (2004) examined their attitude towards resources and services of public library under title “A Survey of Students Attitude towards Public Library Services: A Case Study of Central Library in Borno State of Nigeria”. Resources and services were 56 . research scholars. Users were using the Internet mainly to download the information from web based resources and web sites. Questionnaires were administered to librarian. faculty members and students. In addition to questionnaire. Survey led to the findings that more than 90% users rated library material as inadequate. Lack of power supply and the low speed Internet access were general problems faced by users in accessing information from web based resources USERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS LIBRARIES Babafemi (1999) executed a survey named “Resources and Services of a Special Library: A Case of a Medical Library in Nigeria” to evaluate the resources and services of university of Illorin Medical library. In a survey of students.

All the users rated library as an excellent. Survey was conducted using questionnaire as an instrument to collect the opinion of users about the services from a 100% sample of registered users in all staff categories. Study concluded with need for fresh research concerning the information needs of allied health and scientific staff. The library stock needed improvements in many areas such as allied health and biomedical sciences. Turtle (2005) “A Survey of Users and Non-Users of a UK Teaching Hospital Library and Information Service”. Khaiser and Madhu (2006) “Expectations and Perceptions of the Users of the National Law School of India University Library (NLSIU): A Study”. Naushad Ali and Hasan (2006) undertook a survey of teachers to assess the library and information services of Aligarh Muslim 57 . Total 150 questionnaires were distributed and 124 were received back. The study was conducted to be used as bases for developmental strategy. very good or good. Users wanted easy access to library and new books on emerging subjects. It was found that 88% users visited library daily. The same questionnaire was sent to a sample of 10% of non-users. but faculty members were not the regular visitors to library. Investigators ascertained the expectations and perceptions of users about the facilities and services offered by National Law School of India University Library. Survey revealed that library staff and facilities were well regarded.inadequate to meet information needs of users. Inadequate funds and accommodation were the problems being faced.

Nearly 58.50% users considered public libraries either as more important or extremely important. Survey brought to light that most of the users were visiting library to collect teaching material and borrow books. In research article “Expectations and Perceptions of the Users of Public Libraries in Mysore City: A Survey” Nikam and Chandershekra (2007) examined the expectations and perceptions of users including children. Respondents did not find it easy to locate the needed reading material from libraries. women and old towards public libraries. The preferences of users depended upon the nature of resources available in libraries.12% respondents indicated their preference towards print resources over electronic resources. Majority of the teachers were not satisfied with overall functioning of library. young adults.University library under title “Library and Information Services in Central Library of Aligarh Muslim University from the Teacher’s Point of View: A Survey”. Approximately 86% users responded to questionnaire. Gowda and Shivalingaiah (2009) conducted a study under title “Attitude of Research Scholars towards Electronic Information Resources: A Survey of University Libraries in Karnataka” to examine the preference of research scholars towards print and electronic resources and effectiveness of usage of e-resources among users. Users were not satisfied with the helpfulness of library staff. About 90. while approximately 14% teachers visited for research purpose. Opinions of 200 users were collected through a structured questionnaire. while 58 .

A brief account of major findings of the studies in each facet is given below: A. RESOURCES AND SERVICES: In this facet. Some of the colleges did not have their own libraries. USER EDUCATION Chang and Ting (1995) ascertained the viewpoint of faculty members towards library user education in study titled. 19 studies have been discussed. in this chapter the review of literature has been organized into 12 facets. “A Survey of Library User Education toward the Faculty of College in Taiwan”.usage of electronic resources depended upon the type of IT infrastructure available in libraries. most of the libraries did not have sufficient space for proper functioning. Hingwe (1969) concluded that newly established institutions were spending more funds on libraries for building up the basic 59 . Quality and quantity of library user education needed improvement to satisfy faculty members and gain their support on library user education. To conclude. Chowdappa et al. (2009) in study “Impact of Electronic Information sources on the academic users in Mysore: An analytical study” disclosed the extent to which the users of educational and research institutions of Mysore city depended upon the electronic/ digital media. Main results of these studies are that Mukherjee (1965) found that out of the 50 teachers training colleges. Staff and students depended on university libraries to which education section was attached.

Awolola (1998) explored the position of libraries of two colleges of education in Nigeria and revealed that libraries have failed to perform their role mainly because of inadequate finance whereas adequate funding can solve a major part of the problems. These were grouped as problems related to management. In a study of degree college libraries. Two separate questionnaires were used to ascertain the opinions of students and teachers. teachers and rising price of books.collection. whereas long-standing institutions had not increased their expenditure in proportion to increase in students. only 12 libraries had their own buildings. principals of colleges and library staff. Kumbar (1986) disclosed that of the 54 college libraries. Author suggested the formulation of standards and guidelines particularly for 60 . Bajpai (1995) revealed that librarians often found it difficult to deal with teaching and non-teaching staff members regarding return of books. The libraries were spending more funds on books than periodicals. Chopra (1995) discussed the problems being faced by college libraries in Punjab. Raina (1980) revealed that Library services except circulation service were found missing. Naidu (1981) suggested to lay down the norms and standards for college libraries by inspection commission of each university and further added that at least 6% of the college budget should be spent on library. Jasmer Singh (1990) conducted survey using questionnaire-I to know about the prevalent position of libraries and problems being faced by librarians in managing these.

Oyesiku et al. Adebayo (2007) depicted that libraries of colleges of education in Nigeria were rendering basic services as recommended by National Commissions for Colleges of Education. He suggested the introduction of user education programme and need to increase the range and depth of collection and services. Absence of properly laid down functions of the committees and change of members every year were the major problems in the proper working of committees. 61 . Joshi (2001) found that Book collection in veterinary college libraries was not satisfactory and suggested that Indian Council for Agricultural Research and Agricultural Universities should regularly organize orientation programmes for librarians. These did not provide indexing and abstracting services. (2006) brought forward that out of 10 respondent libraries. Sujatha and Mudhol (2009) discussed the challenges the libraries and information centers face. B. Partap (2007) revealed that in the libraries of colleges of education the collection size varied considerably and comparatively older colleges had large collections. while remaining majority did not. only five had written acquisition policy and 60% had serial sections. The strength of library staff varied among different types of libraries.college of education libraries. LIBRARY COMMITTEE: Anand (1981) found that only one college of Delhi University Colleges had the functions of library committee in written.

Snow (1996) in his article provided that the bibliographers needed to concentrate on selection and evaluation of the collection rather than writing policies that become outdated and irrelevant shortly. fluctuating rate of the rupee. were the major hurdles found in acquisition of books for Pakistan from abroad. Pandita (2004) brought forward that the policy of content development needs to be worked out and re-designed for collection development. provision of adequate staff and funds. trade embargoes against some countries. import policy. appropriate infrastructure in IT and a need based collection. non-existence of selection aids. Biggs and Biggs (1987) revealed that selection and weeding in academic libraries were not guided by any written policy and studies of use of collection were missing. ever shrinking library budgets. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT: This facet includes 16 studies. absence of competent personnel.C. 62 . non-existence of acquisition policy statements. fiscal policy etc. Andrade and Vergueiro (1996) outlined the different models of collection development given by professionals. Thornton (2000) concluded that consortia will become more important sources in electronic information world. Online sources were important factors in selection of documents. Haider (1996) discussed that lack of proper management. inflation. Mandal and Panda (2005) discussed the different dimensions of collection development and suggested for the staff training.

technological. inhibit users and potential users. Wildemuth (2003) provided that by gathering evidences about library users. It was further found that majority of the libraries did not involve their users in formulation of policies and did not implement these for collection development. Carr (2006) disclosed that failure to take what users want into account would leave academic library high and dry in the desert of 63 . by rendering at least CAS or current contents or information about latest addition to users.Adekanmbi and Boadi (2008) discussed the availability and use of collection development policies in the colleges of education in Botswana. USER STUDIES: Five studies have been discussed in this facet. their interactions with library services and materials and context in which those materials and services are used librarians can make sound decisions for the future. Coker (1993) examined the various factors influencing the attitude of users towards libraries and considered the socio-economic. Sharma et al. Martin (1976) provided various guidelines for conducting user studies and concluded that user data strengthens the planning and decisionmaking processes at several levels. Majority of the libraries did not have collection development policies. (2008) concluded that growing dissatisfaction of the users arising from nonavailability of needed documents and lack of provision of services could be boiled down to some extent. physical/ technical and psychological/ emotional conditions shaping up the perceptions of non-users. D.

therefore special emphasis were needed to meet their information needs. while 33. Prather and Clemons (1981) brought forward that users were using library for non-book related purposes.lost opportunities. E. because it had more budget for books. Panwar (1976) found.7% users were satisfied. staff and alumni were using for personal research. Lack of needed books in library was one of the main causes for user’s dissatisfaction. Walia and Gautam (1988) concluded that 65% users considered library collection as adequate to meet their information needs. Non-Book material was almost absent in libraries. whereas faculty. USE OF LIBRARIES: Total 65 studies have been reviewed in this facet. In a study of a university library. Varghese (2008) summarized the results of 101 user studies conducted in the electronic environment. colleges were using libraries mainly for outside their study needs whereas those of private colleges were using for curricular purpose. Undergraduates were using it heavily for studying.3% were dissatisfied with the quality and standard 64 . Bavakutty (1985) found that students of govt. Onardian and Onardian (1986) in the study of use of Ahmedu Bello University Library revealed that only 10% users were found not satisfied with library. in laterally established college more books were added every year as compared to other one. In a study Kanakachary (1989) revealed that 66. Main results are that Sharma (1974) concluded that maximum use of library was made by students. Library rules were not effective on teachers.

Nearly 85% users were unaware of catalogue and more than 90% users were not satisfied with physical facilities. Marshall et al (1993) brought forward that more students used libraries in problem based learning than in traditional programmes. Microfilms were in very less use in comparison to other documents. About 40% 65 . it is the total library environment that makes greatest effect. Sanjeev Kumar and Mishra (1993) found that in NIFT library users were visiting library mainly for borrowing books followed by use of reference material and periodicals. Respondents consulted narrow range of material than was expected. Available resources were found relevant and accessible but inadequate. Apeji (1999) assessed the resources and services of the library of Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council and found that library resources mainly consist of books and back volumes of journals. Collection on some subjects needed strengthening. Berkley depicted that 99% faculty was using library for own research. Clee and Maguire (1993) concluded that although individual factors in library environment do effect users’ perceptions. About 59% students rated circulation as good or excellent.of periodicals on subscription in college library. Raina and Dayal (1998) in study of IIML found that library collection was used satisfactorily. Maughan (1999) in study of 07 departments at the University of California. Feldman (2000) observed a change between the usage pattern of library as 56% users were connecting to library by computers against the 32% users in 1996 at University of Texas Health Science Center.

9% users of a public library were partially satisfied with library material and 66 . Respondents were making their use for research. As the students were not given orientation. Okiy (2002) found that in Delta State University library both the faculty and students were using books more often than any other material.users favoured the need to increase fee/ additional fee to get more revenue for library. Haruna (2004) found that 40. most of them went directly to the shelves to locate needed material. Journals and textbooks were not considered very adequate. As a result of the survey of a Nursing School in Nigeria. Marcum and George (2003) revealed in aggregate that electronic information use was substantial and growing in the nation's major universities and liberal arts colleges in USA.6% students went to library to prepare for examination. Waldman (2003) examined the role self-efficacy plays in freshmen’s search for information and use of the college library's electronic resources. teaching. and have equipped themselves well to do so. abstracts and indexes. Gurdev Singh (2002) revealed that faculty members’ main purpose of visiting library was to prepare notes for students. Ogombo and Adomi (2003) found that 59. because of dearth of relevant current journals. and coursework. Kumbar and Lohar (2002) explored the use of resources. services and physical facilities of two college libraries. while 54% users used library to prepare assignments. Salaam (2003) concluded that long distance between the campus and town where most of students reside was found as main obstacle in the use of university library.

Gaps were found in collection development. Helen (2005) evaluated the University of Hong Kong libraries and found that majority of the respondents preferred to use online journals than print versions. rules and regulations. college libraries in Andhra Pradesh on library collection. as 74.64% opted for electronic version.were using it because they did not have any other alternative.Ed. Only a small fraction of users was found familiar with inter library loan service. reading facility and organization of documents etc. Kumbar et al. (2007) examined the extent of use of periodical literature by agriculture scientists and found that most of the users considered print journals as better version than electronic journals. Swarna (2004) invited the opinions of students and teachers about B. Sami and Shahida (2007) ascertained that need to use information technology facilities was high for users irrespective of their gender. opening hours. Adikata and Anwar (2006) revealed that teachers played an important role in promoting the use of libraries by students. Kumasi that undergraduates were using journals significantly. services. Users’ preference to use computers and related 67 . Lawoe (2006) brought forward during study of serials use at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Library. as lecturers were recommending them. Lohar and Kumbar (2007) found that 52.25% users spent less than an hour and more than half an hour only in libraries per week.36% chosen print journals and 25. facilities. but on the contrary about 72% users preferred to use printed books over the electronic.

Lakan (2008) brought forward that power outrages. 88. inadequate provision of computers. (2008) ascertained that majority of the users were visiting libraries to study in library and for borrowing books and text book service was the most highly sought after service. Author concluded that libraries were lacking behind to provide specific information. Rao and Babu (2008) found that more than three fourth respondents were visiting libraries for research studies and to write research papers. family and the educational background of the users.0% browsed the Internet for subject specific information websites and 75. Majority of the respondents comprising 79. were the problems faced in use of resources.6% were using for ongoing research work. while a few users used e-resources.technologies depended up on the cultural.3% for international/ 68 .9% users used electronic information sources for thesis/ project work and 87. Harinarayana et al. power outrage etc. slow Internet service and insufficient computers were the factors affecting the provision and use of electronic information resources at Ahmadu Bello University. Sujatha and Mudhol (2008) depicted that in the college of fisheries. resource sharing. Authors suggested for right choice between print and electronic sources of information for collection development. Lack of skills. Moghaddam and Talawar (2008) disclosed a growing interest in the use of electronic journals as the users had free access to electronic journals at all hours. Internet based services. Achonna (2008) found that use of e-journal resources was low among students of engineering college.

while non documentary sources were less used. as study did not show a significant decrease in use of print journals as compared to e-journal for research. ILL. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR: In this facet 07 studies have been reviewed. Gowda and Shivalingaiah (2009) in study of use of library facilities and services of a university library disclosed the significant differences in the satisfaction level of research scholars of different disciplines with facilities and services of libraries.regional institution websites. About 58. Shanmugam (1999) in the study of the 69 .79% were satisfied. E-mail was the most frequently used electronic information source followed by web resources.27% users were using lending service and among them 54. Biradar et al. As the result of study of use of information resources in chemistry at Mangalore University library Pushpalatha and Mallaiah (2009) found that Online Public Access Catalogue and assistance of library staff were the primary means to locate needed documents. F. The need was felt to establish e-consortia model among agriculture libraries in India. Trivedi and Joshi (2009) concluded that there is a growing use of ejournals over print journals but which is preferable over the other is a debatable issue. whereas 40% research scholars and 83.33% of the teachers considered at partially adequate.92% post graduate students rated library collection as adequate to meet their information needs. CD Rom search etc. were fairly used. (2009) as a result of the survey of agriculture science college found that 72. The services like SDI.

Main results are that Chavez et al. Carrier development was the most preferred response for seeking information.67% users were visiting libraries daily.information seeking behaviour of trainee teachers of the two teacher training colleges of Malaysia found that trainee teachers’ information needs were influenced greatly by the course requirements centred around their course. (2008) as a result of survey to find the information seeking behaviour of agricultural scientists concluded that the working culture of those who need information. Singh and Satija. facilities available for seeking information and knowledge about them. Uganneya and Idachaba (2005) found that circulation and Information Technology services of 70 . SATISFACTION WITH RESOURCES AND SERVICES: This facet includes 05 studies. A general lack of interest in reading books and newspapers was observed. G. facilities and circulation service and recommended to repeat survey in two years to compare satisfaction level of students. Newspapers were the most used documents followed by use of books and journals. (2005) revealed that generally users of the Paradise Valley Community College Library were satisfied with the resources. Computers were used largely for typing rather than for handling information. affect the information seeking behaviour of the users. Ninety percent students agreed that students needed instruction on how to use information source in their subject area. chances of getting the required information etc. Fatima and Ahmad (2008) revealed that 51.

the surveys are absolutely invaluable and well worth the time spent. whereas university faculty members needed information to update knowledge and for research work. The university teachers preferred book trade catalogue. INFORMATION NEEDS AND USE PATTERN : Total seven studies have been reviewed in the facet.S.university of agriculture library were deficient. which indicates that library did not meet information needs of users properly. (1989) in study of information use pattern of historians found that almost three fourth of the users were facing problems in getting up to date information and one fourth of the respondents were not aware about existence of the NASSDOC. Frequency of use of library was found low. Choukhande and P.G. addition lists issued by library and periodicals to know current literature in concerned fields. I. H. Sudha 71 . Purnima (2005) found that majority of the college faculty members needed information for academic work. READING HABITS : Total three are included in this facet. abstracts. Kumar (2004) concluded that the purpose of user’s visit to library largely depends up on the free time available to them. Main results of the studies are that Krisiddappa et al. indexes. Shivalli (2000) concluded that reading habits of the users get affected by the non-availability of the required information in libraries. Liu and Allmang (2008) examined the user satisfaction at the NIST Research Library and concluded that as a tool for planning and to understand library’s customers’ base. bibliographies.

whereas 22.and Harinarayana (2009) found that non-professional students and female students expressed more involvement in knowing current affairs by their teachers than other respondents. THE INTERNET USE : This facet includes 08 studies. students from Kannada medium and students studying in urban area revealed more encouragement by teachers than their counterparts. Lazinger et al. (1998) found that use of the Internet was found comparatively higher among faculty of sciences and agriculture than in humanities and social sciences. Journals in stock were outdated and 14% users advocated the need to subscribe more journal titles. K. Non-professional students. Anasi (2006) revealed that the level of the Internet use was low among undergraduate students of university as they lacked the search strategies to locate information. because they find it easy to locate information on the Internet than in library. USERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS LIBRARIES : In this facet also 08 studies are discussed. Major findings of the studies are that Babafemi (1999) found that more than 90% users rated library material as inadequate.5% responded otherwise.5% users felt that the Internet can not replace library services. Rajeev Kumar and Amritpal Kaur (2006) depicted that 77. J. Bansode and Pujar (2008) disclosed that research scholars were using the Internet mainly for communication purpose that is e-mail as compared to information retrieval. Khaiser 72 .

73 . but faculty members were not the regular visitors to library.and Madhu (2006) revealed that 88% users visited library daily. Gowda and Shivalingaiah (2009) concluded that the preferences of users depended upon the nature of resources available in libraries. USER EDUCATION : Chang and Ting (1995) concluded to improve the library service to get support form faculty members for user education. The users wanted easy access to library and new books on emerging subjects. while usage of electronic resources depended upon the type of IT infrastructure available in libraries. L.

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