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In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Education 101

Clippings on Inclusive Education

Submitted By: Apple Joy Cabay

Submitted To: Ma’am Joar Caňares

Date Submitted: March 21, 2013

CLIPPINGS THAT AFFECT LEARNERS AND THE LEARNING PROCESS I have attended many schools but never one quite like Eagle Rock. I started my Eagle Rock career by spending 25 days in the Superstition Mountains of Arizona as part of the new student orientation program. I have been a part of many Eagle Rock courses including Colorado Rocks where I spent three out of four days outside in an experiential setting. Colorado Rocks, an integrated learning experience that includes environmental science, health, history, literature and outdoor education is a sure reminder that I was in a different learning environment than ever before. I address all my instructors by their first names and work with them one on one in a relaxed and comfortable environment. One of my favorite times of the day at Eagle Rock is during meals in our dining Lodge, when all staff and students are together enjoying an amazing meal together and chatting about the latest political hot topic. Eagle Rock offered me a home where I could grow and reflect on my learning both academically and personally. Unlike many schools, Eagle Rock dedicates time and energy toward personal growth using 8 + 5 = 10 as a powerful set of values. Students and staff spend lots of time holding each other accountable. Presentations of Learning are everyday occurrences at Eagle Rock in addition to serving as a celebration of learning for each of us at the end of every trimester. Student voice and leadership at Eagle Rock is very strong. In fact, a lot of what happens at Eagle Rock is student-led. There are endless possibilities for any club, group, learning experience or activity to become a reality such as a student taught salsa dance class. We host a lot of educators at Eagle Rock through our Professional Development Center so they can learn what we do. I even had the chance to help give a presentation with staff and a fellow student at the Coalition of Essential Schools Summer Institute in Tacoma, Washington. My time at Eagle Rock has spun me 180 degrees and I will forever be giving back to Eagle Rock School. — Coral Ann Student

What exactly should students "know and be able to do" and how do we help them to know and do it?
The Other Side of Curriculum answers these questions with a powerful model of curriculum development—one that fosters experiential and personal growth. Lois Brown Easton provides ideas and practical tools for creating an effective learning community, based on her experience at Eagle Rock School, where learners are central and the curriculum responsive to their needs. Her curricular concepts are common to all; Easton carefully considers how they can be customized and applied to almost any school or district. Each of her chapters begins with a story of learning that illustrates a concept of curriculum. She then describes that concept and offers questions that will help you translate the concept to your own setting. Learn about curriculum in relation to culture, instruction-assessment, learner-centered education, competency-based systems, self-directed learning, personal growth, and much more. Then explore your own story—consider how these concepts relate to your own context with the end-of-chapter questions you can ask yourself or use with colleagues. If you're a practicing teacher, administrator, staff developer, or teacher educator, The Other Side of Curriculum will inspire you to make the changes needed in your own environment, enable you to embark on those changes, and convince you with the theoretical background and concrete examples that will help you be successful in shaping a curriculum for all learners.

no simple. single uniform approach can be applied with the expectation that significant improvements of the system will occur. this insightful resource helps educators make positive connections with youngsters of all ages who are at risk of failing or dropping out. personal. regardless of socioeconomic factors. any strategy for change must contend with the diverse factors affecting the education system. and the intricate interdependencies within it and with its environment. and social growth. Miriam Bar-Yam.Create an integrated system of support for struggling students! Based on Lois Brown Easton's experience working with disengaged learners. In confronting this challenge it is necessary to consider the complexity of the education system itself and the multitude of problems that must be addressed.  . Indeed. and Yaneer Bar-Yam The rapid changes and increased complexity of today‘s world present new challenges and put new demands on our education system. Featuring the voices of educators and students. There has been generally a growing awareness of the necessity to change and improve the preparation of students for productive functioning in the continually changing and highly demanding environment. Clearly. this invaluable text covers methods for improving the school wide climate in ways that support all students and for creating a learning environment that promotes academic. Linda Booth Sweeney. the interactions of its parts. Jim Kaput. The author illustrates how to make meaningful changes in curriculum and instruction and examines the importance of: Teacher-student relationships  Innovative teaching strategies for struggling learners  Developing self-directed learners  Using appropriate assessments for students with learning difficulties Easton's book inspires teachers to make a significant change in their school's culture to engage developing minds and champion all learners. Kathleen Rhoades.

e. In the following we consider:  Integrating the commonly polarized goals of education. patterns of different abilities. and cultural backgrounds. and that providing a balance or coexistence of what seem to be opposites may provide the greatest opportunities for successful courses of action. Integrating the curriculum by developing inter-disciplinary curriculum units that enable students to acquire knowledge from different disciplines through a unifying theme while having the opportunity to contribute in different and special ways to the objectives of the integrated units. personality characteristics. A key insight from complex systems is that simple solutions are not likely to be effective in cases such as the education system. i. Adapting teaching to different student characteristics by using diverse methods of teaching. the goal that focuses on transmitting knowledge with the goal that emphasizes the development of the individual student. Adaptation to the ability levels.As we consider these problems.   . learning styles. we become increasingly cognizant of the various possibilities of using concepts and methods of the study of complex systems for providing direction and strategies to facilitate the introduction of viable and successful changes.

calculating. there has been a strong emphasis on setting convergent goals. It is likely that the two approaches may increasingly become not mutually exclusive but interrelated and interdependent. etc. convergent and divergent teaching strategies are both needed and the challenging question is how to find the balance between them within the complexity of the process of teaching and learning. an aspect of which is the use of across-the-board standardized testing. Testing has been commonly viewed as a prudent way to determine the success or failure of the teaching and learning process. On the other hand. and special projects (see also Niche Selection (link to be added soon)). Since the creative process involves new ways of using existing knowledge. The convergent approach is highly structured and teacher-centered. a divergent approach is needed today. it is important to provide opportunities for students to acquire such knowledge (which can be acquired by convergent teaching). As educators seek ways to meet the demands put upon the education system in today‘s world of rapid changes and ever increasing complexity. Hence.Educational Goals The approaches to teaching can be categorized according to major educational goals that affect teaching strategies. On one hand the goal of education is viewed as the transmission of knowledge by the teachers to the students. Still. it may be helpful to recognize that there is a need for both convergent and divergent approaches to teaching and learning. documentation portfolios. In the highly complex education system there may be various combinations of the different approaches to teaching and probably no ‗pure‘ convergent or divergent teaching. On the other hand the goal of education is viewed as facilitating students‘ autonomous learning and self expression. The divergent approach is flexible. . the students are passive recipients of knowledge transmitted to them and learning achievements are measured by standardized tests. those who emphasize the importance of autonomous growth and creative self-expression. it is critical to develop students‘ capacity for self-directed learning and self growth. the tendency in the education system of today is toward the convergent approach. There has been a relatively limited use of other means of evaluation which are more complicated and more demanding in terms of application and interpretation. Educators who stress the importance of the acquisition of specific knowledge as a useful way to prepare the students for productive future functioning. writing.) as prerequisites for productive self expression. may be termed ‗convergent‘ teaching and the latter approach which stresses open ended self-directed learning may be termed ‗divergent‘ teaching. student-centered. where the students are active participants in the learning process and learning achievements are assessed by a variety of evaluation tools such as self-evaluation in parallel to teacher evaluation. With the great proliferation of knowledge and rapid changes in most fields as well as the appearance of many new fields. In fact. among the current suggestions for implementing educational reforms to deal with the considerable problems of the education system. must come to realize that even for the purpose of this goal alone. The former approach which converges toward the teaching of specified subject matter. must realize that the students need academic skills (such as reading.

there are students who may not function well under divergent conditions because of their strong need for guidance. where each student can be allowed to work at his/her own pace. other aspects of adaptation to students‘ individual differences get far less attention. their motivation is enhanced to pursue further learning.An important development is the growing awareness that academic achievement could improve by adapting teaching to students individual differences. active. there are various possibilities of effective adaptation to individual differences under convergent teaching. along with ongoing assessment and subsequent modifications. As the students experience success and consequently a sense of competence. adaptation to individual differences under convergent teaching tends to be limited. Such a ‗multiconvergent‘ approach can be more effective in giving the students opportunities to use their aptitudes and inclinations for learning and attaining higher achievements. Adaptation to individual differences under divergent teaching may be expected to be productive because of its emphasis on student autonomous. In addition to adaptation in the rate of learning. This awareness is finding its most distinct expression in the education system‘s attempts to deal with the issues of students with special needs. Yet. direction. This is a ‗guideddivergent‘ approach which is more structured and less flexible than the open divergent teaching but less narrow and limiting than convergent teaching. . The students are all expected to strive toward one goal of learning specified required knowledge. Such an approach has a better potential for success than the common reality of students with learning difficulties. However. Divergent teaching can cater to such needs by individual guidance. and structure. self-reliant learning. In general. there are many possibilities of adaptation through the use of diverse methods of teaching. who often struggle through remediation with a sense of inadequacy and discouraging experiences of failure. different techniques or different media. Nevertheless. Even when all the students are taught the same material. to cater to individual differences in abilities and personality characteristics. teachers can use different methods. some may attain it and others may fall by the wayside or be given some remediation with limited results.

valuable teaching can be done by peers of different ages and abilities. many possibilities exist that are not often implemented even though they could make the teaching and learning process more effective and more beneficial by providing a variety of experiences and alternative strategies for adaptation to students‘ characteristics. hightech resources such as multimedia technology.Teaching Strategies and Students Characteristics Among the most difficult problems faced by the education system are those associated with teaching effectiveness. The complexity of this issue is apparent as one considers results of research studies or surveys measuring students‘ performance under conditions aimed at ―slow‖ versus ―fast‖ learners. Also. . Also. for instance. In addition to the preparation of teachers to more differentiated teaching. once a group of two students is formed. Presently. does not take into consideration sufficiently the complexity of factors such as students‘ various characteristics. specific subject matter. teaching can be enhanced by volunteers. 1. specific academic skills. The current preparation of teachers for specific age levels. public service. etc. business. personality traits and needs by using more differentiated teaching strategies (See also Complexity in the Classroom (link to be added soon)). Obviously. engineering. parents. and relatives could participate in and contribute productively to the teaching process. Ability levels and patterns of different abilities.. the profile of different abilities can be quite dissimilar and many other personality characteristics add to the dissimilarity of the students‘ attributes that affect their learning. In some cases this has led to phenomena such as. there could be more divergent use of teaching resources. learning styles. Worthwhile teaching can be done with advantageous results by persons other than the traditional classroom teachers. For example. ―anxiety and school phobias‖. Furthermore. grandparents. entertainment. people with various areas of expertise from the worlds of science. Even if the two have an identical IQ. Undoubtedly. different ways of life. Student learning can be greatly enriched further by traveling . medicine. and others. it cannot be considered homogeneous.near and far. and others can provide beneficial options. interaction with people of different cultures. There is a strong need to train teachers to adapt instruction to the diverse student abilities. retirees. ―conduct problems‖. ―attitude problems‖. the practice in some schools is to adapt teaching to different ability levels by forming classes or groups of students of similar levels (usually based on achievement tests or psychological tests) taught by teachers who tend to treat the students as if they were in homogeneous groups. audio-visual techniques. computer programs. The over-simplification of today‘s ways of adaptation to students‘ differences in abilities and other characteristics has resulted in many difficulties in the academic performance of many students. telecommunication. different geographical areas. different occupations. different outlooks. ―learning disabilities‖. the Internet.

as well as preferences for interactive visual or auditory presentations. the multiplicity and differentiality of mental abilities must be taken into consideration when teaching at any level of the education system.g. yet little has been done to develop adequate conditions aimed at adapting teaching to this diversity.The differences evident in rate of learning are only one aspect of the diverse effects of students with different abilities studying under different conditions. 2. Thus. or other ways of representing information have effects on students‘ academic performance (See Kagan‘s work on impulsive and reflective cognitive styles. Learning styles such as reflectivity/impulsivity. There has been a growing acknowledgement of the importance of adapting teaching to a variety of intelligences (e. The diversity of patterns of mental abilities is well recognized today. the effectiveness of teaching and the pertinence of the assessment of learning achievements can be enhanced by teachers‘ adaptation of instructional strategies to students learning styles. Learning styles and preferences affect the way students approach any task and the way they function under different conditions and different learning environments. It is possible to design instructional strategies and learning materials that provide options and flexibility for matching students‘ particular patterns of abilities. matching teachers‘ styles with students‘ ability patterns can have significant effects on students‘ attitudes. teaching strategies can be differentially facilitating various ability patterns. The interaction between specific aptitudes and specific teaching styles can be important in considering the various options of implementing changes in the teaching and learning process. Some educators have begun to acknowledge the importance of adapting teaching strategies to student‘s different learning styles. Also. For instance. . but no earnest efforts have been devoted to this promising endeavor. Furthermore. Gardner‘s work on the seven intelligences and Sternberg‘s work on the triarchic dimensions of intelligence. the type and manner of teaching has differential effects: students with higher ability tend to perform better under non-directive teaching methods while those with lower ability tend to do better under directive methods. motivation. Sternberg‘s work on mental self-government styles. Witkin‘s work on field dependent style. Thus. The adaptation of teaching to learning styles may include not only more appropriately differentiated teaching strategies but also may add to the dependability of the evaluation measures of what students have learned. and achievements. and the work on computer simulations preferences). as well as providing for special learning needs. and mental self-government. also see Goleman‘s work on emotional intelligence). field-dependence/field-independence.

while the effect of personality characteristics on learning is significant. There is some acknowledgement that attention should be paid to students personality needs and to particular aspects of students different cultural backgrounds. Admittedly. the attempts to match teaching strategies with student‘s characteristics may become critical steps toward dealing with some of the particularly difficult problems of the teaching and learning process. very little has been done or even suggested regarding the adaptation of teaching to students different personality traits and needs. In sum. anxiety. Such interactions need to be explored further to find more about the various factors affecting the teaching learning process. To some extent there is recognition among educators that personality characteristics such as self-reliance. with lower anxiety tend to do better under divergent teaching and self-directed learning conditions. but the methods and concepts of the field of complex systems can provide ways of implementing such changes in the attempts to introduce reforms to the education system. tend to do better under convergent teaching with clear structure and much direction. the complexity of the interactions of personality characteristics with various other factors affecting learning seems too difficult to tackle. However. Many educators and educational administrators are convinced that it is very difficult to implement multidimensional teaching strategies in the classroom. attitudes. independence. Personality Characteristics. Also. Nevertheless. students of higher ability levels who are also self-reliant. The outcomes of such exploration can be very helpful in the search for enhancing teaching effectiveness and student‘s achievements. For example. Among the reasons for that is the very large number of traits with a wide variety of tests to measure them and the problem of their lower validation than the ability tests. emotional stability have differential effects on students learning achievements. independent. .3. it is possible to analyze the interactions between students‘ and teachers‘ characteristics and closely examine the resulting different learning outcomes. while students of lower ability levels who are also dependent. many difficulties are faced not only by teachers but also by administrators and policy makers in the endeavor to adapt instructional strategies to students characteristics. and anxious.

different economic conditions. Experiencing the benefits of contributing to the goals of the unit by members of the team is empowering and gratifying and is also a beneficial way of preparing them for future functioning in the world. This can provide students with ways to study and attempt to comprehend the world around them through concepts and ideas that are less disparate or disconnected. pairs. and dealing with issues arising from different fields of study and different aspects of real life conditions. Integrated curriculum units are chosen by the students with the teacher and involve teams of students working cooperatively toward common goals. There are important implications for the preparation of students to function and be productive in a world with diverse populations.Inter-Disciplinary Curriculum One of the most exciting developments in the world of science today is the growing involvement of researchers in interdisciplinary collaborations. or individuals can work on relevant tasks and materials that can be shared with the other students and yield peer-topeer learning. Moreover. . Small groups.. religious and ethnic groups. and many other different factors. it is highly beneficial to begin early in the educational process to organize learning around problem solving. The tendency in our schools is to teach bits and pieces of information related to particular disciplines. critical thinking. and interdependencies of the different fields. and the increase in cross-fertilization of ideas and research endeavors of people in different fields of science. Furthermore. The benefits for crossdisciplinary scientific work are invaluable and the various application possibilities are promising not only for science but for many aspects of daily living. interactions. An integrated. The growing inter-disciplinary collaborations and cooperative sharing of information from different fields and the efforts to find pragmatic solutions to global problems have further implications for education. inter-disciplinary curriculum links a variety of learning subjects as they are related to the topics of integrated curriculum units. These developments have direct implications for the education system. In view of the cross-disciplinary trends. multitudes of cultural. the curriculum can be integrated around topics that reflect the patterns. The emphasis on connecting and synthesizing information around topics of interest to the students provides favorable conditions for the acquisition of knowledge from different disciplines through congruous concepts and ideas. the opportunity given to each student to capitalize on his/her strengths can become a strong motivating factor in pursuing further learning and further giving to others.

needs and interests. musical intelligence. A number of required subjects and academic skills can be taught in a multiconvergent way where methods of teaching are adapted to students‘ different abilities. administrators and others involved in the school. multi-media technologies. logical-mathematical intelligence. These units enable students to acquire knowledge and skills associated with different disciplines through congruous meaningful learning revolving around a topic of interest to the students. parents. cultural and socioeconomic background. in addition to teachers‘ didactic presentations. 2. A major part of the program can be devoted to integrated inter-disciplinary curriculum units chosen by teachers and students together. learning centers. In terms of the structure and settings adapted to different teaching and learning conditions. and fulfill their needs. There are also various options in the way teachers are assigned to classroom teaching. The work on the units is undertaken by groups of students who are encouraged to take active part in the decisionmaking process and focus on aspects of the units in which they can best develop their capabilities. programmed instruction. The structure and organization of the student body can be in the form of small and large groups. museums. Individual teachers may find it difficult to implement multi-dimensional strategies in teaching any class. Social alternatives are possible in heterogeneous groups with a great deal of interchange within them and between them and other groups. satisfy their interests.In terms of teaching strategies. an integrated curriculum encourages a multi-dimensional approach to the educational process and tends to combine regularly multi-convergent and divergent strategies of teaching. and various organizations. spatial intelligence. and others. At the end of a period of work on the unit. using. and other techniques involving technological innovations. special interests and special needs. community institutions and businesses. Each student is given the opportunity to use their strengths (academic or non-academic) to contribute to the common goals of the group. videos. Clearly. the conclusion and accomplishments of the work on the unit. the group can celebrate with other students. linguistic intelligence. 3. but teachers can work in teams using different teaching strategies compatible with individual teachers‘ particular capabilities. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. student groups may vary in age. peers and others who could contribute to the teaching process. there can be alternative places for learning. specialists. In working on these integrated units. different intelligences may be emphasized such as. guided divergent teaching is used as needed. laboratories. even when small in size. libraries.. e.g. study pairs. outdoors. . They can also organize various teaching experiences with the assistance of volunteers. For example. cognitive styles and personality characteristics. computer programs. and individualized study arrangements. Required subjects and basic academic skills some of which are taught in a convergent way. There are various alternatives in the types of learning that an integrated curriculum can include: 1.

Each student in the group is encouraged to contribute whatever they can to such celebrations by presenting their work through various performances. exhibits. wherever they lie. Undoubtedly. The attempts to use simple large forces (such as standardized testing. as an oral presentation. and often independently pursued. Students can be encouraged to present their work on their project to the group in any way compatible with their tendencies. for example) in dealing with the ills of the complex education system are essentially doomed to fail. a video. projects. or any other means of communicating and disseminating information. as written material. videos and other contributions to the festive activities. The above discussion of ways to implement various changes in the approach to teaching and learning grew out of the recognition that the current attempts at reforming the education system tend to be ineffectual. Individually chosen projects where the students can work on topics they have chosen and where they could apply their strong skills and competencies. The students can present their work to their peers and teachers as an exhibit. as a play. . Divergent teaching is the approach used for those individually selected. Such celebrations can become useful ways of evaluating the students‘ learning achievements 4. presentations. there are no simple general solutions to those multifarious complex problems.

a text book represents a one-way flow of knowledge from the teacher's conceptual knowledge to the student's conceptual knowledge. the teacher. Laurillard. As educators. but there is a possibility of meaningful discussion between teacher and learner. Therefore. A lecture or tutorial may be seen the same way. Learning can be defined as the relatively permanent change in an individual's behavior or behavior potential (or capability) as a result of experience or practice (i.THE TEACHER FACTOR IN THE LEARNING PROCESS Teaching-learning process is the heart of education.learning process. Teaching learning are related terms. as proposed by Diana Laurillard (Laurillard. For example. She then considers how different educational media and styles can be described in these terms.(d)Reflection -on the learner's performance by both teacher and learner. the learner. It is the most powerful instrument of education to bring about desired changes in the students. teaching and then teaching-learning relation.(c)Adaptation -of the world by the teacher and action by the learner. 1994). 1993. Essential aspects of the teaching-learning process are informative to examine the ideal teachinglearning process. or ourselves we know that the primary cause was either maturation (biology) or learning (experience). teaching is the process of providing opportunities for students to produce relatively permanent change through the engagement in experiences provided by the teacher. Note that teaching is not giving knowledge or skills to students.. an internal change inferred from overt behavior). depends the fulfillment of the aims & objectives of education. On it.(b)Interaction -between the learner and some aspect of the world defined by the teacher. the only influence open to use is to provide an opportunity for students to engage in experiences that will lead to relatively permanent change. In teaching . She argues that there are four aspects of the teaching-learning process: ( a) Discussion -between the teacher and learner.e. Teaching Can be thought of as the purposeful direction and management of the learning process . there is not hing we can do to alter an individual‘s biology. This can be compared with the other primary process producing relatively permanent change -- Maturation --that results from biological growth and development. when we see a relatively permanent change in others. the curriculum& other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre-determined goal Let us first understand in short about learning.DiscussionReflection on Adaptation of Adaptation of Reflection onStudent World Action InteractionInteraction .

I live in a rural community so these above mentioned factors are just a few that I feel effect my community. as well as the classroom and student characteristics. . The district also provides several opportunities for student‘s at all socio-economic levels to learn and grow. I will also describe three classroom factors and six student characteristics. socio-economic. which is mainly associated with farming. The school has Title I. 2) Teaching objective cannot be realized without being related to learning situation. objectives of education in right perspective. Due to the low socio-economic status of the community the school is provided with programs to help students with learning. Physical and Occupational Therapy. The geographic location of the district is a mix of rural communities due to a consolidation of three small schools. Contextual factors can affect the teaching and learning process in a classroom. 4) The strategies and devices of teaching may be selected in such a manner that the optimal objectives of learning are achieved. and district. goals. It's important for teachers to consider the environmental factors of their community. school. There are four environmental factors that can affect a rural school. free/reduce lunches. There are also four environmental factors that can affect the teaching and learning process of the school district.Discussion. 6) Appropriate learning situation condition may be created for congenial and effective teaching. 5) To understand principles. There are also home daycares in the area so the school works with these as well to make sure their children are growing and developing skills as well. My community is located in a rural area. The socio-economic status of the community consists mainly of low to middle class. and reading and math programs to increase learning as well as special services such as Speech. The political climate of the district is a mix of Democrat and Republican with a majority being Democratic. and community support for education. 3) We may create and use teaching aids to create some appropriate learning situation. These environmental factors include geographic location. Also the support for education from the community is one of great support and community members tend to become involved in activities or show support. Resource. The political climate of the community consists mainly of the Democratic Party. In this essay I will describe four environmental factors that could affect the teaching and learning process for a school in a rural community or district. The socio-economics of the school district includes mainly the low and middle class status. The three school communities show a large amount of support for the educational needs of all students. political climate. Reflection on Adaptation of Adaptation of Reflection on Student World Action Interaction 1) Teaching can become effective only by relating it to process of learning. The district provides daycare and a preschool program.

By understanding and knowing the contextual factors a teacher can better prepare their classroom instruction so that all students are learning. Student‘s skill and prior knowledge can also influence how a teacher plans and implements instruction. The rooms are cramped for space due to the number of students. There is a computer lab available but students are only given 1 time through the week to use the lab. district. A second classroom factor is the availability of technology equipment and resources. district. Contextual factors can affect the teaching and learning process in the classroom. therefore. and all the equipment and materials needed to function in a classroom. Another classroom factor is the extent of parental involvement. To help get parents more active the school provides after school activities to allow parents to come and have fun. When a teacher designs instruction and assess learning they must consider student characteristics. Also daily and weekly notes are sent home for parents to read or sign. and districts environmental factors can affect teaching and learning. Some classrooms may have ELL students. school. With today's society it is important for each student to develop their computer and technology skills and this is just not possible for a rural area school due to the lack of funds to provide students with computers. Some of the classrooms have a teacher computer and then a student computer. many parents must work. A teacher must remember all. and community in which the work. contextual factors that are present in the school. school.There are also classroom factors that can affect the teaching and learning process. This can also lead to modifications or shorter work times. There may be special education students in the classroom that need modifications. There could also be students who have to be given medications to help them focus. which will need work. These notes provide information about upcoming activities in the classroom. The classrooms are too small for the number of students who are in each room. are only somewhat active in the school. . Classroom factors and student characteristics can also affect teaching and learning. and community. or possible. In most classrooms there is only 1 computer for the teacher and students to share. read in their native language. Because of the socio-economic status levels. desks. A community. One factor is the physical features of the classroom.

" A high level of Academic Learning Time means that 1) students are covering important (tested/evaluated) content. Therefore. Alternatively." Involvement is the "amount of time students are actively involved in the learning process" and is often referred to as "Time on Task. while instruction refers to actually guiding student learning.Planning refers to all of those activities a teacher might do to get ready to interact with students in the classroom. Walberg (1986). and Success. if the desired outcome is creativity and independence. 2) students are "on-task" most of the class period. Huitt. there is a high probability that the classroom is functioning well. then open education may be a better alternative (Giaconia & Hedges. Involvement. if any one of these variables is lower than expected. For example. For example. if better relationships among diverse students is the goal. 1982). changing the desired outcome measure puts the focus on different instructional methods. ALT is a combination of three separate variables: Content Overlap. There are a variety of other classroom factors which have been related to student achievement such as the classroom climate and the opportunity for students to engage in leadership roles. Rosenshine (1995) showed that the approach to instruction labeled direct or explicit instruction was most likely to positively impact on learning as measured by scores on standardized tests of basic skills. 1995). Content Overlap is defined as "the percentage of the content covered on the test actually covered by students in the classroom" and is sometimes referred to as "Time on Target. Alternately. There are a variety of specific teacher classroom variables that have been related to student learning. Management refers to controlling student behavior. . These three variables can be relatively easily measured and can be considered the vital signs of a classroom. and 3) students are successful on most the assignments they complete." Success is defined as the "extent to which students accurately complete the assignments they have been given. the cooperative learning would appear to be the better instructional method (Slavin. it is important to specify desired outcomes and their measures before decisions are made as to the implementation of specific instructional methods. Given the moderate correlations between teacher behavior and student learning as measured outside the classroom. Student Behavior includes all of the actions a student would make in the classroom and includes one very important variable (at least in relationship to predicting student achievement on standardized tests) and that is Academic Learning Time (ALT). However. If all of these are appropriate. it seems prudent to focus on student behavior within the classroom and the impact that teacher behavior has on that set of variables. further inspection of classroom processes should be undertaken. 1983). in a meta-analysis of teacher effectiveness research found support for the following individual variables:      Use of positive reinforcement Cues and corrective feedback Cooperative learning activities Higher order questioning Use of advance organizers However. ALT is defined as "the amount of time students are successfully covering content that will be tested" (Squires. Segars. however.

One measure of personality that has become popular in education circles is the Keirsey Temperament Scale (a version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). it is certainly a variable that has attracted a lot of interest. management and instruction) has a direct influence on student behavior (most importantly. learning theory (behavioristic. one requirement related to a teacher's thinking and communication skills is successful completion of a speech course at the undergraduate level. Bloom. humanistic. then a student's intelligence or academic ability is most important. Another important set of teacher characteristics includes the teacher's knowledge with respect to the content domain (knowledge of subject matter to be taught). in turn. social cognition).g. and stages). This issue of "time to learn" is very important.constructivistic. Finally. If we truly believe that everyone can learn and that it is important to learn. as it is in most learning environments in the United States. Socio emotional development. . 1977. This variable is a measure of the teacher's belief that students can learn and that he/she can teach. Sex/Gender. Anderson & Block. Performance skills are measured through a requirement of student teaching and an annual evaluation using the Georgia Teacher Observation Instrument (GTOI). Learning Style.One of the most important concepts that have been developed in educational psychology during the past 30 years is that classroom process variables are the most direct link to student achievement (Rosenshine & Stevens. Bloom and other researchers (e. Academic Learning Time) which. More specifically. a student's prior knowledge is most important.. There are a wide variety of Student Characteristics that have been related to classroom behavior and student achievement. Other researchers have shown that when time to learn is held constant. while there is no single personality that seems to make the "best" teacher. At VSU. if we believe that ability is more important and that only the most capable individuals can learn all we want them to learn. Other student characteristics that have been found to be important include study habits. Moral and character development. the list of important student characteristics is so long entire books have been written on them. Motivation. topics. Cognitive development. and the teaching/learning process (concepts and principles as well as their application in formal and informal environments). cognitive. and the teaching/learning process. Age. is most directly linked to measures of student achievement The most important teacher characteristic (in terms of predicting how well teachers will perform in the classroom as well as student achievement) seems to be the teacher's values and belief or more particularly Teacher Efficacy (Ashton. a teacher's knowledge is evaluated through the completion of collegelevel courses and passing the Teacher Certification Test (TCT). then it would seem we would make a greater effort to provide the appropriate time to learn. the teacher's classroom behavior (incorporated in the categories of planning. However. human growth and development (theories. and Race/Ethnicity. 1986). In fact. This course is designed to address three of these important areas: human growth and development. 1971) engaged in the development of mastery learning have shown that when time to learn is allowed to vary. In the state of Georgia. learning theory. then the present system will continue to produce a result that verifies that expectation. 1984).



Is this then the answer to the quest? To reflect on what we do in the classroom rather than on all the talk about theory and practice. 2. 8. 10. To develop an effective teacher model by identifying clearly what it is that effective teachers do in their classrooms? 1. 4. He states that schools should focus less on ‗talking about learning and teaching‘ and ‗more about doing‘ (p. inclusive and cohesive learning communities. 2003: vi-x) .So what is good or effective teaching? Smith (1995) suggests that learning ‗is a consequence of experience‘ (p. Curriculum goals are effectively aligned. student self regulation. 6. Pedagogy scaffolds feedback on students' task engagement. He argues that education and therefore teaching should be focused on the creation of ‗appropriately nourishing experiences so that learning comes about naturally and inevitably‘ (p. meta. (Alton-Lee. 9. Learning opportunities are effective and sufficient. Teachers and students engage constructively in goal oriented assessment. Effective links between school and the cultural context of the school. 7.cognitive strategies and thoughtful student discourse.588). 5. A focus on student achievement. 3. Quality teaching is responsive to student learning processes.589). Multiple tasks and contexts support learning cycles.589). Pedagogical practices that create caring. Pedagogy promotes learning orientations.

silver and Robinson (1995) put forward the acronyms SCORE to suggest a model of student engagement. E: To maintain this process the teacher needs Energy. ! Effective feedback that establishes the learning processes in the classroom. (SCORE acronym adapted from Strong et al. If the teacher goes in unprepared. I would suggest that this model should be applied to teachers first: S: The Success of mastery of the subject that you teach. enthusiasm and responsibility for learning. It is an essential ingredient in the effective classroom that is too often ignored. and teachers in general need the time to reflect. Teaching is far more than simply transferring information. ! Effective interaction between the teacher and the students. At the same time the teacher is the guardian for learning in the classroom environment. unwilling to share. In the creation of an effective learning environment.With this in mind I will focus on the areas that I believe are the most significant in my teaching and in my efforts to be an effective teacher. I suggest that it is the interaction of the following five key factors that provide a foundation for a good teaching:! Teacher knowledge. it is the engaging of minds to seek out answers. A teacher who is not curious has lost a critical portion of the passion for learning.. ! Classroom activities that encourage learning. R: Relationships are central to the effective classroom and teachers are crucial in the nurturing of opportunities for students to engage with subjects that at senior levels can lead to a life-long interaction with the subject. 1995: 9-11) . to re-energize and to regenerate their focus on the learning process. Strong. ! Assessment activities that encourage learning through experience. O: Originality – a teacher who is passionate about the teaching process will be creative. will be constantly seeking new ways of engaging and challenging students. encourages and stimulates learning through experience. C: The Curiosity that every teacher should have entrenched in their teaching. This a something that schools do not always provide. creating an environment that respects. unfocussed on the process of developing a context that will encourage and stimulate an interest and a thirst for further knowledge then that teaching is shirking the responsibility of being a teacher.

we are none of us born like the literal meaning of that word. teaching makes great demands on nervous energy. that it excludes all of dull or purely negative personality.not. which demands that every now and then a teacher should be able to put on an act . far the most important . melancholy. is largely a matter of self-discipline and self-training. or award praise. frustrated. however improbable (they happen!) and able to improvise. There are three principal objects of study: the subject.the children. correct a fault. of what is wrong. if necessary at less than a moment's notice. but it is all too easy.The Personal Qualities of a Teacher Here I want to try to give you an answer to the question: What personal qualities are desirable in a teacher? Probably no two people would draw up exactly similar lists. the teacher's personality should be pleasantly live and attractive. Closely related with this is the capacity to be tolerant . First. since most teachers are school teachers. and over-bearing: I would say too. especially. or even ugly. I still stick to what I said in my earlier book: that school children probably 'suffer more from bores than from brutes'. Teaching is a job at which one will never be perfect. or adults to whom they are to be taught. Finally. This does not mean being a plaster saint. even for people of above-average intelligence. and again especially children. to make mistakes. or subjects. Children. A teacher must remain mentally alert. Thirdly. because many such have great personal charm. It means that he will be aware of his intellectual strengths.) On the other hand. Secondly. (Here I should stress that I use 'he' and 'his' throughout the book simply as a matter of convention and convenience. the methods by which they can best be taught to the particular pupils in the classes he is teaching. but I think the following would be generally accepted. He must be pretty resilient. cynical. to the minds and feelings of children. That is part of the technique of teaching. This does not rule out people who are physically plain. And he should be able to take in his stride the innumerable petty irritations any adult dealing with children has to endure. A teacher must be quick to adapt himself to any situation. and will have thought about and decided upon the moral principles by which his life shall be guided. and .to enliven a lesson. I think a teacher should have the kind of mind which always wants to go on learning. a capacity to tune in to the minds and feelings of other people. I may say. which the teacher is teaching. live in a world that is rather larger than life. young people. frigid. This. especially young children. a teacher must be capable of infinite patience. indeed. to stagnate intellectually and that means to deteriorate intellectually. there is always something more to learn about it. . There is no contradiction in my going on to say that a teacher should be a bit of an actor. I hold it essential for a teacher to be both intellectually and morally honest. But it does rule out such types as the over-excitable. He will not get into the profession if of low intelligence. it is not merely desirable but essential for a teacher to have a genuine capacity for sympathy . but of the frailty and immaturity of human nature which induce people. and limitations.

7. personal reward and a chance to encourage and support others to achieve their goals. 8. Teaching. and enjoying a challenge. being a good time manager. 3. team ‗mother‘. Sunday school teacher or staying home raising their own children. A person who didn‘t ―heed the call‖ to be a teacher often can be found volunteering as a scout leader. These include:            being good at explaining things. motivating . is a ‗calling‘. having a strong knowledge in particular subject areas. having patience and a good sense of humor. enthusiasm. like the ministry. being a people person and enjoy working with a wide range of people. keeping your cool under pressure. other professionals and community members that they can inspire students and improve their learning. 4. 2. parents. joyful manner is seen smiling a lot listens with heart and mind emotionally mature and stable energetic. 5. coach. A wonderful teacher is one who could be heard saying. Good teachers know that by listening to and working with colleagues. enthusiastic passionate about kids‘ learning patient and not easily frustrated pleasant personal manner – interesting. There are many personal qualities and skills that make someone a good teacher. being fair-minded. excitement. The personal qualities which a person brings to the teaching profession are as important as their education and experience.Qualities of a good teacher Teaching is a career that provides challenges. coping well with change. ability to work in a team as well as using your own initiative. 6. kind. ―I teach because being around children makes my heart sing!‖ 1.