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except by a reviewer. Manufactured in the United States of America Library of Congress Catalog Card No. without the permission of the publisher. KENNEDY All rights reserved. 59-11394 First Printing .COPYRIGHT 1959 BY JOHN M. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form.


Since understanding the principles is more important than merely building the devices. But if you can't find suitable or pieces get them cut. most of the necessary materials around the house aluminum foil. needles. tools are required. drinking glasses. You probably have a hammer. Except for two will find You special items. the plans have these you will find more about and to use been carefully worked out to make the construction simple easily obtainable materials wherever possible. is a book about electricity and its first cousin. 1-7. Finishing nails are the kind with almost no head. Here is what you will need: Some common paper clips about 1 J4 ones in Fig. Very few small pair of tin snips. scissors. magand As you read the book and learn how electricity magnetism work. A . like the than 100 for all the with a box of 100. handful of wire-finishing nails of the size called fourpenny. You will need more projects. like the ones in Fig. a ruler. Scotch Tape. household bleach. so start inches long. 1-4.TO This netism. you will probably want to make many of the games and devices described in the book. you will also need a saw. The pieces of wood for the projects can be of almost any size. coffee cans. and the like. all the rest of the materials can be obtained in neighborhood stores. and a paring knife. and as you make yourself learning more and basic electricity. You will need a pliers.

2-1. and occasionally one will burn out. General Electric or Westinghouse. They should be thick fiat About 50 be about enough so that you can't bend them with your them at your neighborhood hardware store. You will see how this works in Chapter L You will need about 130 for all the projects. connections. These have almost the same diameter as a fifty-cent piece.TO THE READER These are nails with thin shafts inches long and with rounded heads 54 to l / 2 inches in diameter. like the ones in 1-4.) The coils in the five-and- ten or the housewares store probably won't be marked with the size. then the box and the bulb should be marked with the same number which is 112 if the bulbs are made by Flashlight bulbs. If these markings are on the box and not on the bulb. which have an odd shape (see Fig. 1-7) because the glass tip is formed to act as a lens. fingers. A A small piece of sandpaper. Start with one or two. They have a threaded base. Get Flashlight batteries of the size called D. upholsterer's nails. but start with a card of 25 or so. Start with one or two. You will need "penlight" bulbs. coil of bell 'wire or hookup 'wire. The heads can be smooth Fig. They should inch in diameter with the small hole in the center y2 much more than l not / s inch in diameter. Select a size which you can bend easily with your fingers. l Some to 2 / % or dented. Some two-wire plastic-coated lamp it cord. There are many kinds. The is best kind has "a insulation or outside covering plastic when you make Wire Gauge or The easy to remove wire inside should be one which solid piece of size 20 or 22. You will need eight for all the projects. washers like the ones in Fig. (These numbers are American Brown and Sharpe. Since to connect mostly between parts of a project you will use which are in . but they must have an unpainted metal finish such as chromium or which will copper carry electricity.2 V" (volts) and ".22 A" (amperes). The box or the bulb should be marked "1.

M. you when you get to the projects. It is yeoman service at the not possible to thank either of these two enough. Mrs. Manoel F. such as electric battery. You will need two feet of it to make an about five cents a foot. Probably the buy If will be % pound smallest spool you can (about 800 feet) but even that much will cost under a dollar. P. The two special items can be obtained at radio-part stores need a neon glow or mail-order radio-supply houses. These magnets are often used in magnetic novelties. at the Ray-O-Vac Company for Cipriani and his associates their contributions to that chapter. Coleman and Mr. It costs l small alnico the magnetic pot holders which stick to the side of a stove. Cameron. and 1 inch long. A number of persons helped and encouraged me Company. of the National preparation of this book. K. and Mr. New York. J. J. 77 "Gift mail-order houses usually sell alnico magnets ten for a dollar. made helpful suggestions for the battery chapter. E. 30 American Wire Gauge plain enamel magnet wire. order General Electric's type NE-2 or You will the equivalent bulb made by another manufacturer. Arthur J. Behar did typewriter. should have little difficulty you and their you will be able to concentrate on the constructions and underlying principles. New York June 1959 J. Particular thanks are due to Mr. you are careful about asking for the right materials. B. Mr.TO THE READER will have to decide how much you need separate rooms. You will also need 250 feet or more of No. . Carbon of the Burgess Battery Company. or expense in getting them. bulb with wire leads. about A s inch square / magnet the in Get the straight-bar type and not the kind shape of a U. in important ways to make the book David Klein helped take form. Krouse. in the D.



and even people. the toaster and the washing machine. or nucleus. for that matter.CHAPTER I WHAT IS ELECTRICITY? and powerful bolt of lightning. the neon sign and the television brilliant set. all IS AN ELECTRON? up out of material substances. or paths. all The depend for their action upon all all called the electron. and around the nucleus one or more electrons travel in orbits. WHAT All matter. it's a good idea to get acquainted with of electricityand the electron right at the start. Since sults a tiny particle of matter the useful and enjoyable re- the things that we shall deal with in this book depend upon a stream of many millions of these electrons. The atom consists of a center. are built atoms. Wat tiny planets around a sun. which are the basic building blocks of everything in the world coal and steel and rocks. The nucleus holds th^pr1 .

and the nucleus of each basic substance. or current. Not that any of them weighs very much.000. or element. stripped off atoms and flowing through carefully arranged channels. Normally.000. it can plate metals or manufacture chemicals. In other arrangements. enough It is this electrons orbit around the nucleus to balance its positive the atom is neucharge with their negative charges so that tral even though the positive and negative charges are still more of the orbiting electrons off an atom.000. 2 . produce electricity's useful work.- 000 electrons to weigh a pound.000. the flow of electrons produces heat to cook food.000. or turn a fan.000. is Each nucleus is very heavy compared to the elec2000 to 400.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK biting electrons by a force of attraction called a positive charge.000 times as heavy as an It electron. electrons that charged state of the nucleus and interests us in our study of electricity. electrons in motion in stream. or warm a bed. In still others. Great masses of electrons.000. In some arrangements of channels. But it is one or possible to strip because the nucleus trons. Electrons are negatively charged. The electrons move more readily than the nucleus. attracts a different number of electrons.000. melt steel. and in addition to being attracted to the nucleus they repel each other. partly there. would take about 500. as we have said. ELECTRONS IN MOTION ^ a Electricity is. Then the atom is left positively are moved charged and the place to which the electrons becomes negatively charged. the flow can drive a train^lif t an elevator.

What determines this conduc- tivity. the force of repulsion between as a spring resists just Finally. The first electrons to enter the wire have to be pushed hard enough by the repulsion of the electrons coming behind them to overcome a solid a substance as water flows through a porous sponge. for exampleby a battery or wall of repulsion presented by the electrons of the copper in front of them. electrons push past the of the nearest atoms of the copper and orbiting electrons are repelled by the electrons of the next atoms. re- for this is that electrons do not flow through length copper other source. them becomes greater and greater.WHAT Always. Other electrons push orbiting electrons off atoms and take their The harder it is to strip an electron off an atom. The reason electricity composed. and through others only with great difficulty. places. As the newly arrived electrons come closer and closer to the electrons of the copper. they are repelled by the electrons orbiting about the atoms of the copper. will not They will move with equal ease through all move easily through some substill stances. some of the newly arrived 3 . less easily through others. it is IS ELECTRICITY? the movement that produces the Conductivity and Conductors But electrons substances. desired results. As electrons are pushed into one end of a piece of a substance of a wire. though. or ability of a substance to pass electrons. is the ease with which electrons can be stripped off the atoms of which the substance is moved easily. If electrons are will flow freely. more and more as it is compressed.

either passing by atoms of the copper or replacing electrons. However. This the same as the way the force of water in a dam or water tower pushes other water out of your faucet the moment you open but yet you would have to leave the faucet open for hours or days before water from the dam or water it. tower made its way to is your faucet. very sensitive instruments to. like ball players when at the bases are loaded. The it will electrons are forced ahead by the repulsion of the oncomthe ing electrons behind them and work their way down wire against the repulsion ahead of them. This force of repulsion surges through the conductor the speed of light. If the substance stripped off it its such that electrons can be easily atoms. If electrons can be stripped only with difficulty. the flow will be slower. detect it.000 miles a second. In some substances insulators almost no electrons flow at Yet in all unless the driving force is very great. three cases the force of the electric current is all felt at the other end of the substance at the speed of light. Thus. about 186. would be needed The easily from whose atoms electrons are most stripped (and which can therefore carry or conduct substances 4 . the electron pushes by and doesn't strip it off. electric current enters a conductor. but it is there. In insulators. its force is when an felt at the trons that is other end almost instantly. the elecform the current move much more slowly. then the flow of electrons through will be rapid.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the harder even if push back against an oncoming electron. or a greater driving force or voltage will be required from the source to obtain the same flow.

substances are only fair conductors. Being lighter. Such a wire is lighter and cheaper than a copper wire which will carry the same current. silver. to keep from short-circuiting. chromium. and these can be placed farther apart. it are lucky would short- all electrical equipment. It is the poor conductors that are called that air circuit is insulators. We a good insulator.WHAT electric current IS ELECTRICITY? In general the most easily) are the metals. and iron. and certain plastics are poor conductors. it reit center to make as quires fewer supporting towers. and gold are about the most efficient conductors of electron flow. A certain alloy of nickel. cloth. or flowing where they are not wanted these kinds of substances are used. a fair conductor. and it is such a good conductor that very little heat is generated and lost before the current gets to the motor. Batteries would run down 5 . Hence they are used where it is desired to generate Many heat. Where poor electrons conduction is needed for example. Aluminum but it ductor as copper. or it what is called a good resistance material. in bring- ing electrons to a motor copper is usually used. Glass. they generate considerable heat as a current passes through them. that is. steel not quite so good a conweighs less. If it weren't. nonmetals are poor conductors because their electrons are removed with difficulty. is called nkhrome. Because without burning up. It is much cheaper than gold or silver. it can reach a high temperature finds use in toasters and grills and similar heating devices. Copper. It can be made into is wires with a strong as copper. Where the most efficient conduction is needed for example.

electron is pushing against the repulsion of the electrons of an atom. a device in which a substance (the metal filament) gets so hot that it gives off light. or insulators. In the case of lightning.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK in minutes. there is a continuous agitation of the atoms within the substance. The the harder it is greater the resistance of a substance to strip electrons from its atoms the greater the agitation of the atoms as a current flows. and current would run out of one slot in the A wall plug and into the other while the electric meter spun. To reillustrate for yourself the To 6 . the flow through such insulators increases. the atom springs back into place. is all When the voltage. minute amount of current does flow through the air and other insulators. that is. cut a 4-inch length of magnet wire. HEAT AND ELECTRICITY While an placed from substance. as a current of electricity flows through a substance. many. the its whole atom is slightly dis- of the position within the solid structure the atom electron the as Then. moving passes by or replaces an electron in it. or push increased. practical uses can be electrons. you will be able to test many substances to see whether they are good conductors. made of this property of a current of A Httle later in this chapter you will be working with a flashlight bulb. the voltage behind the current. Because agitation of its atoms makes a substance hot. however. fair conductors. heating effect of an electric current. With the device you rises so will build first (see p. So. 9). high that the air loses its insulating properties and massive currents flow through it.

Cut a strip about 4 inches long and it the wire as % inch wide. find a piece of paper-backed metal foil from a cigarette package. 1-1.WHAT move IS ELECTRICITY? the insulating enamel. cut the strip down to %2 inch wide. The result which may surprise you caused by the tremendous agitation of the atoms it. which can be burned off. in the thin. narrow part of the foil as billions upon billions of electrons are forced through THE ELECTRIC CIRCUIT Because. as in Fig. hold each end in the flame of a match and then lightly scrape both ends clean with the edge of a knife. With the other hand. or with fine sandpaper. Next. 1-2. it is the movement of electrons which produces the heating or other desired effect of an FIG. 1-1 FIG. 1-2 . as in Fig. With one hand hold an end of the wire against the small metal cap on one end of a flashlight battery for 5 or 10 seconds. as we have seen. feel heats up. Hold the metal side of the foil strip against the battery for 5 or 10 seconds as you is did the wire. Near the center.

as shown in Fig. if they talk about direcwill mean the conventional direction unless they say electron current. They will be crowded from behind by the oncoming electrons and until their will be squeezed closer and closer together accumulated force of repulsion allows no more electrons to enter the wire. back to the source (the battery or generator) where they can either get another push around the loop or be absorbed. 1-3. In this book we shall talk about elec- tron flow. Scientists knew a lot about electric circuits and batteries before they knew about electrons. If electrons are forced into one end of a piece of wire. Very early they found that they needed to talk about the direction of current flow and they arbitrarily said that current flowed from the positive terminal through the circuit to the negative terminal. 8 . electrons will be is some provision the end. required to keep the electrons moving in a continuous stream. because air is an insulator. What is needed to keep the electrons flowing is a circuit a path for the electrons to get . Further flow can be produced by increasing the push from the source of electrons. but in an instant the flow will again stop. and flow will stop. When you it tion of current always read other books. Electrons flow from the negative terminal of the battery or other source around through the circuit to the positive terminal.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK electric current. displaced down the wire until some of them reach The electrons will go no farther. This arbitrary.* You can get a clear idea of an electric circuit by comparing * it to a water system. or convenof current flow is opposite to the direction of tional^ direction actual electron flow. The whole process takes a tiny fraction of a second. When the Throughout this book when we talk about the direction in which current flows we shall be talking about a current of electrons.

if the circuit is broken pressure will be built up in the line from the pump around through the turbine to the valve. water is forced around through the pipe to the turbine and then back through the valve to the pump for a second push. It is it is a device used in every electronics laboratory and use for testing factory. 1-3 pump is driven. BUILDING A CONDUCTIVITY TESTER You this can build an electric circuit that water system. but no flow will occur. You will be able to put it to good the conductivity of various substances and for testing circuits you will build later to make certain that they are very similar to called a conductivity tester. But if the valve is shut that is. Build it carefully. If you have had experience in building things and in make the conductivity using tools. and the turbine will not turn. The turbine turns and can be put to work. you may be able to 9 .output shaft FIG. and is connected correctly. paying attention to every detail given in the directions.

i . clip FIG. . Strip A inch of insulation from each end of each wire. 1-5 . lengths of bell wire. bright to I / on top of j/P a P erd 'P . one 7. If you have not. clip j ' i clean. one 3. FIG. s nail: . run a paring knife around the Bend paper like this. you all the steps that must be folFirst cut three lowed. hammer down hard hold wire. . 1-4 to 1-7 show Figs. 10" wire or j*^ more \Xr at least 7 \Wire looped around s^a ^ * na! ' : hammer down hard. and 1 one 10 inches long. To do this.Upholsterer . 1-7.. 1-4 tester by carefully following Fig.

Bend both loops of clip around tops of up slightly. 4 nails. Stretch rubber band 6. 1-6 Hold clips apart against 3. 4. FIG. 7. 1-7 .Bend these clips up. battery between. Install bulb (see text). Other clip must touch bottom their tension and slip of battery firmly. 7" wire Bend end double. FIG. Drive into 4 finishing nails 2. This clip must base and against side touch small cap firmly. of battery. place end exactly as shown. 5.

soap before Quarter-inch plywood is an excellent material for the base. in either dimension. If the wood you sample near the edge where the grain stick the nail into a cake of soft splits. When and up. Then lift the bulb by between points the glass and set the bent FIG. It inches. If the bare wire is not shiny. but should be at least 4% by 3% it. scrape it with the knife edge. because the dull oxide which forms on is a copper poor conductor. 1-8 . drive ends. installing the bulb. as shown in Fig. drive it. not to cut too deeply into the Then slide off the insulation with the knife blade held against your thumb. Select a piece of wood for the base for the tester. 1-7. It should be wood you can be larger which won't crack it when you some drive nails into a (Upholsterer's nails have to If be driven in with nails into a hammer. 1-8. being careful copper wire inside.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK insulation.) are in doubt. so that the threads on the bulb are held as in push the tip of the clip out Insert the bulb and release your finger A and B. Fig.

The part of the bulb which lights The 13 . you can see whether it is a conductor or not. The bulb will of magnet wire brightly with the long piece than with either the long piece of hook-up wire or the short piece of magnet wire. the bulb will light. All three are copper.WHAT end of the 7-inch wire under the shiny of the bulb and let go. bright spot. When you test a metal remember that rust and paint are object. You can use the conductivity tester to demonstrate an of conductors. Now test the conductivity of them both and of the 4-inch wire piece of magnet you prepared earlier. If you have When you followed the directions carefully. This explains why the paper-backed foil you tested earlier the paper at the point where it got hot enough to burn was and narrow. glow less longer the greater resistance it presents to the flow of electrons. it gets hot when current flows through it. Whenever two substances are being must be on the compared for conductivity. Now if you touch the two ends to any substance. IS ELECTRICITY? tip on the bottom have completed the conductivity tester. insulators and that you must therefore make contact good with a clean. Cut 6-foot lengths important characteristic of hook-up wire and of magnet wire and clean the ends. The and the finer a piece of conducting substance is. comparison basis of the same length and cross section. however. touch the two free ends of wire together. thin THE FLASHLIGHT BULB bulb in your conductivity tester lights up because a fine wire has a high resistance that is.

14 . but tungsten is used because it has a very high melt- a high electrical resistance ing point. for it instance. it size. The smalljected to the mechanical shocks Hooo of an inch in diameter est practical size is about too fine. wires supported on two heavy copper which bring the current in through the glass. at that resistance to light properly. the look at the bulb carefully under a magnifying glass you inch long. The tip and the metal threads are separated by an insulating material. If it were made is submight break when the bulb of normal use. (% the diameter of a hair). Tungsten also has to most metals. most metals would around it. so the wire doesn't have to be compared as fine as if it were copper. One of these wires is connected to the threaded metal part of the base. It is through these two parts that you connected the bulb in the circuit. To prevent this. But first you will want to build some useful The circuits. It very thin wire of tungsten called has to get very hot to give off light. and if there were air is a would burn to ash. You should by now be able to explain why that is necessary! battery and how it produces voltage are discussed in Chapter 3. and. the air is removed from the glass bulb. The filament is and the other to the metal tip on the bottom of the bulb. it melt.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK up the filament. To can see it. to provide enough must be almost an to concentrate the get it into the bulb and wire is wound into a fine coil. Even so. however. If you light in one spot.

or. but it can also be used for the light it gives off. principles involved in you will be able to figure out in advance how you are going to mount the parts in the toy. and design the bases on accordingly. you can install a light inside a model truck or a doll house. You can mount the components on a single base as inside the toy.CHAPTER 2 CIRCUITS The circuit of the conductivity tester last which you con- chapter is. bases. You used it as an indicator. If you did before. Then from the positions you have decided 15 . to make them fit better you can divide them between two smaller the mechanical and electrical you have mastered the design of the conductivity tester. the circuit of the ordinary flashlight. of course. structed in the ILLUMINATING A DOLL HOUSE OR A MODEL TRUCK Using a battery holder and bulb socket like those in the conductivity tester.

or the body of the truck to replace part or all of one of the wires in the circuit. If the installation is going to be permanent. Because current must be able to flow freely between the two bepoints. Line up the bottom clip as shown to act as a terminal for connecting the switch in the circuit. Put a clip over the shaft of another upholsterer's nail and drive it into the base an inch away from the center of the first nail. you will have to clean the points at which you are going to connect the wire to the metal. then a then another washer. which is hard to see in the assembled view. and then another clip over the clip. these last two terminal clips can be eliminated. for example. If the doll you will house or truck is made of metal. The wood Follow the directions in Fig. This method of saving wire is used in automobile wiring. you can use a part of its structure the wall of the house.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK for the parts. Then the cleaned end of one wire from the circuit wilL eo directly under the bottom 16 . test the conductivity to turn the light tween them with your tester. Since most paints are good insulators. Put a washer. determine the lengths of the wire need for the connections. You will also want to make a switch and off so that on you won't have to twist and untwist the free ends of the wires. base can be any size bigger than 1 by 2 inches and must be thick enough for the nails to hold. 2-1. shaft of one upholsterer's nail and hammer it into the base. Examine the truck or house to see how you can connect called a is ground return and one terminal of the battery and one wire from the bulb to it. The exploded view shows how the parts are assembled.

When turned away from will it make the other nail breaks the circuit. and the end of the other wire will go under the head of the other nail. bright paper clips r open -HI closed EXPLODED VIEW SCHEMATIC SYMBOL FIG.position of clip with switch closed (circuit completed) connections to external circuit (see text) position of clip with switch open (circuit broken) ASSEMBLED VIEW bright metal washers Bright metal upholsterer's nails: which allow clip between hammer down if it hard. 17 . them to pivot bend over point through board. The clip between the washers on one nail can turn. comes clean. 2-1 washer when the nail is driven. In one position it contact with the other nail and complete the circuit in which it is connected.

Here are some 18 when an action has taken projects some of them games.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK shows a schematic symbol of the switch a simplified picture that leaves out most of the details of Fig. all connected to a symbol for the battery and one The diagram shows the electric circuit with- the construction details. The symbol is used in schematic diagrams like the one of the doll-house light in Fig. 2-2 There out it is for the bulb. 2-2. in which the switch. and of the ordinary two wire leads are the flashlight. 2-1 also the mechanical parts. in which the "wires" are separate metal parts of the case. CIRCUITS TO INDICATE "WHEN" The stance is conductivity tester indicates whether or not a suba conductor. some . which may merely comalso the plicate You can see that it is schematic of the conductivity tester. it. battery bulb FIG. You can use the same circuit in a indicate number of ways to place.

The schematic penny touches both The conductivity tester: cover with colored paper* in Bulb should protrude through hole paper. will close the circuit and light the bulb. follow the directions Each player must throw pennies from a fixed a distance until he lights the bulb.CIRCUITS of them devices 'when. 2-3. game of penny pitch. in which the circuit is used to indicate Penny Pitch To make in Fig. 2-3 to board !4" apart. large board Paper clip over foil: hammer upholsterer's nail down hard. Cut rectangle of kitchen aluminum center foil down the and paste two halves FIG. You can see that 'when a it pieces of foil at the same time. Slip the leads from conductivity tester under paper clips. .

and hammer down hard. 2-4 The designed to test how paper clip surrounds the wire. strips wand FIG. you can run the wand from one paper clip end of the wire to the other without touch the wire. is and if you are careful. 2-2. But letting the this isn't as easy as you think unless your hand when Wrap bulb will light exceptionally steady. 2-4 of wood . \L>. in Fig. diagram is penny Steady -hand Tester The game shown steady your hand is. so you and your friends can cornis The wire around nail Pull picture nail. wire taut. .MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the same as that in Fig. with the acting as the switch. . Cleaned wire end under paper clip: hammer upholsterer's nail down hard.. the clip touches. wire through paper clip A. wrap around and hammer down hard* short section of Tape r around wire at each end tor safe area.

can also be used to indicate when a door or drawer has been opened. When door is open. clip slightly to Bend up bottom make good contact with clip on top. \ 1W up slightly. two clips must touch. Bend over points of nails where the/ come through board. 2-5 shows two switches. / ^/Bent paper clip: this is the Bend this paper clip small loop. ends of lamp cord slipped under terminals Hammer upholsterer's nails down hard. Burglar Alarm or Open-door or -drawer Indicator The special conductivity-tester circuit.CIRCUITS see pete to who can move the wand from end to end without lighting the bulb. Closed door holds this tip out. One keeps the this light on Door swings way. AFTER SWITCH FOR SIGNAL EVEN DOOR IS CLOSED AGAIN FIG. Fig. IS SWITCH FOR SIGNAL WHILE DOOR Strong black thread attached to door holds two clips apart until OPEN door pulls out thread. 2-5 . in combination with a switch.

the when the door is opened and then stays on even if the closed again. you connect the Wood door wall "* strip opens switch is when door closed. FIG. switch switch Block attached to door opens switch when door is closed* door wall blocks to hold switch off wall APPLICATION OF "WHILE-OPEN" SWITCH TO DOORS view under drawer thread APPLICATION OF EITHER SWITCH TO DRAWER WITH SPACE BEHIND view from side of drawer switch blocks - block on drawer APPLICATION OF "WHILE-OPEN" SWITCH TO DRAWER WITH SPACE BELOW Note: Get permission to attach switches to doors and furniture. 2-6 shows several methods of mounting which you can adapt to suit the details of your door is installation.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK other lights only while the door (or drawer) is open. Fig. 2-6 . You will probably want If to mount the switch free where it cannot easily be noticed.


ends of the wires on the conductivity tester (it will be the indicator) through a long pair of wires to the switch, you

can locate the indicator in another room.

It is a

best wire to use to connect the switch to the indi-

(the conductivity tester)


two-wire lamp cord.

very good conductor, it is two wires combined into one cord, and it is flexible enough to run along the walls

and under the doors from the switch to another room.
Unlike the hook-up wire, which cord is stranded that per, lamp
fine wires twisted together


solid piece of


is, it is

made from many
flexibility. Split

to give


apart for a


inches at each end and



inch of

(With stranded wire you have

to be careful not

to cut into the copper and thus cut off too




in each wire twist the strands together tightly so

you can connect

as if


were one

single strand.


probably won't have to scrape the wire to remove the oxide. The oxide usually forms on the outside of the
outer strands only, and

when you


them together you

bring a fresh surface to the outside. To join the lamp cord to the leads of the conductivity tester, make a small separate terminal block like the one


in Fig. 2-7. Slip one of the

two wires


one end


lamp cord ends and

leads from conductivity

FIG. 2-7


U P holsterer/s
nails thr




clips: hammer nails down hard.

of the lamp cord under each of the two terminals of the door switch, and run the lamp cord to the location you

have chosen for the indicator. There
wires under each of the
block. Also


one of the two

one of

two clips of the separate terminal the two leads of your conductivity
the separate terminal clips of the battery, to one clip

under each of the


The circuit, starting from the base of down one lead of the conductivity tester

on the separate terminal block, then through one wire of the lamp cord (the one slipped under the same clip) to the
switch, back through the other wire of the lamp cord to the second clip on the separate terminal block, through the second lead of the conductivity tester to the bulb, and

from the base of

the bulb

back to the battery.

schematic diagram of the circuit yourself. be sure you know how it works. It will be easy to disconnect the tester when you want it for other purposes.
Later, in Chapter 5, when you make a buzzer, use it as the indicator instead of a light.

Draw the Then you will

you can






have been learning about voltage, reand current in only a general way; we have talked

now you

about insulators of high resistance, /<9iz;-resistance metals that conduct easily, heavy currents, more push from the
battery, very hot metal
foil, etc.

But the amount of any

of the characteristics of electricity can be measured quite precisely in units, just as distance can be measured in miles

or inches, milk in quarts, or hour. The units by which

velocity in miles per electricity can be measured are




Thus, whenever a scientist or engineer talks about a volt or an ohm or an ampere, every other scientist
as precise.

and engineer knows exactly

how much



talking about.


voltage of a battery or generator




current to flow in an electrical circuit, in the same way that the water pressure produced by the pump in Fig. 1-3
forces water to flow through the pipes. The units of water pressure are pounds per square inch, and the units of electrical

pressure are volts.


flashlight batteries

you have

been working with produce an




pressure of about voltage supplied at the wall plugs in your


probably somewhere between 110 and 120

greater the voltage applied to a circuit, the better insulation the wires need to prevent a short circuit, because



being exerted. In the same way, thick pipes are required to carry water under high pressure. In automobiles the insulation is given rough use by
electrical pressure

rubbing against the frame of the automobile and by weather. One reason why automobile circuits are powered with only 6 or 12 volts is that so low a voltage presents less
danger of short circuits. Voltage can be measured with special instruments called voltmeters in the same way that your weight can be meas-

ured with

and length can be measured with a ruler. For most practical purposes it is necessary to be able to

or even 10%, and inexpensive voltmeters are adequate. When more accurate measurements are required for instance, in the manufacture of

measure voltage only within


voltinexpensive voltmeters carefully made, expensive meters are used which can measure voltage to within 1


or better. These voltmeters lose their accuracy from the shocks of use and handling and have to be adjusted and

from time

to time.


are calibrated

by com-

meter which

voltparing their readings with those of another accurate used and is handled only carefully stored and

for this purpose. Such a voltmeter, or any other measuring instrument which is treated in this manner, is called a

secondary standard. Even secondary-standard voltmeters are not accurate enough for some purposes for instance,
in the

manufacture of secondary-standard voltmeters! For

reason some primary standard of voltage is required which will always be the same and which can be duplicated anywhere in the world by a scientist. As with all primary standards of measurement, the primary standard
of voltage is accepted throughout the world as the basis of all voltage measurements. The primary standard of
voltage which

used to check secondary-standard volt-



a very special type of battery,

made from


fully selected parts and chemicals, which always produces 1.0186 volts when it is used under carefully controlled

laboratory conditions.

voltage pushes a current of electrons through a the amount of current can be measured in eleccircuit,
trons per second in the same way that the amount of water flowing out of a faucet is measured in gallons per minute.


In your conductivity tester about 1,500,000,000,000,000,-


281. As with voltmeters. there are inexpensive The ammeters like the ones in automobiles which tell if the 27 . To keep the wires from carrying excessive current. The active element of all and the fuse is a piece of special wire which will melt when the current exceeds a fixed amount.000. When the fuse wire melts. One ampere the bulb. as if it were a switch.CIRCUITS 000 electrons pass through every second. The fuse is inserted the current that flows through the wires must flow through the fuse. Because so large a number is cumbersome. it opens the circuit. in the circuit. If the house wires carry excessive current they will heat their insulation so much that its insulating properties will be damaged and a short circuit will result. the voltage from the wall plug pushes about 1 is the ampere is used. such as 15 or 30 amperes.000 electrons per second. of course.000. When you turn on a 100-watt bulb in your house. and at when the number ampere. This applies supply appliance with current as well to the conductors in the appliance. a more convenient unit called defined as 6. and you through the conductivity You will remember that the more current it that flows through a conductor.000. instrument used for measuring amperes is called an ammeter. fuses are needed.000. An ampere through electric broiler or an iron is made so that when the house voltage will push 10 to 12 amperes through it it is in use. Look back at the number of electrons the conductivity tester is turned of electrons per second in an 1 will see that very nearly A ampere flows tester bulb. per second that flow on. the hotter to the wires that an as will get.

electric iron designed to permit 12 amperes to flow it is when connected to 110 volts has much less resistance and produces much more heat than a 50-watt heating pad. there are accurate ammeters and secondary-standard ammeters. the current number depends on the resistance which flows of the conductors that form the of amperes The more resistance there is in a circuit. There is an instrument an ohmmeter for measuring ohms. which the next chapter. you will learn about in Ohms When a definite number of volts is used to push through a circuit. the -fewer An amperes of current will flow with the same voltage applied.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK battery is charging properly. circuit. of course. since as 1 ohm As is defined the resistance which will allow 1 ampere to flow when a matter of the voltage pushing the current is 1 volt. fact. The primary standard for amperes is a special laboratory setup involving electrochemistry. we need a unit. but resistance can also be measured with a volt- meter and an ammeter together. The electric iron has about 9 ohms resistance and the 100-watt bulb about 100 ohms. The unit of resistance is the ohm. is an ohmmeter 28 . which will allow only % ampere to flow. simply an ammeter and a battery in one box arranged in such a way that when the fixed voltage of the battery is applied to an unknown resistance. just as we needed units for voltage and for current. The bulb in the conductivity tester has about 6 ohms resistance. And. In order to express precisely how much resistance a circuit or circuit element has.

amperes for a circuit when two of these three values are known. Ohm's Law can be written I E = IR (IR simply means R. I will get if R doesn't change and E And. You can also see that that if E R gets bigger. These three of equation) and E/I X forms of Ohm's or volts. Check these three forms of Ohm's Law against the values of voltage. the ammeter dial is marked in ohms in accordance with Ohm's flow. in which E is the number of symbolic equation as 7 = volts. the man for whom the unit of resistance is named. and ohms. of course. resistance. You can see from your knowledge is R the doesn't change and smaller. and the more resistance in a circuit of given voltin a age the less current will flow. number of ohms. you now know that the discovered the fact which more voltage in a circuit of a given resistance the more current will flow. but the multiplication sign is not used in this type R as well as / E/R. gets bigger. discuss shortly. these I will get bigger.CIRCUITS the ammeter will indicate the current that is allowed to instead of being marked in amperes. amperes. or Law are very useful in calculating ohms. and / is the number of of fractions amperes. and current occurring in 29 . The primary standard the two standards for voltage and Ohm's Law Ohm. which we shall for ohms is really current. But Law. two statements agree with what you have learned about volts. Use your knowledge of simple arithmetic to see how E = IR and E/I = R are derived from 7 = E/R. He stated this fact E/R.

ampere. the battery. If 1 gallon per minute comes out of the pump. which isn't very much compared that a long wire has resistance than a short wire of the same diameter. and /4 % M ampere must go back into the battery. 1-3. but the wires. The wires have about Hs ohm. must be added together to get the total resistance of the circuit. voltage. E is 1% volts. For and even practical purposes this is true. have some resistance too. ampere must flow in each wire. Voltage Drop The tester is current in a circuit like that of the conductivity the same in all parts of the circuit. 30 . . and the battery has about it is % ohm when to the 6 new. This is the same as the water system in Fig. If ampere % flows through the bulb. Earlier you learned ohms more a long wire is simply several short wires connected end to end. you can see that resistances connected end to end. you assumed that all of the resistance of the circuit was in the bulb. Since of the bulb.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK your conductivity ductivity tester is tester. then 1 gallon per minute must pass through the pipes and the turbine. like the resistances in the conductivity tester. then ampere must come out of the battery. and resistance of the conductivity tester against Ohm's Law. and R is 6 ohms. When you checked the current. /4 Remember that 7 in the conampere. With still 1 % volts and 6 1 /4s ohms the current is /4 but very nearly. In the conductivity tester the total resistance is about ll 6 /25 ohms (the resistance of the bulb added to the resistance of the battery and of the wires) less than.

little the bulb glow. or in other words I 3 %oo volts. with a going to the wires and the battery resistance.CIRCUITS look at the parts of the conductivity tester septhe wires there is /4 ampere and l /25 ohm and arately. itself among the bulb got dim when you tested poor conductors. in the same way that you light. is % % lost in what is called the voltage The net result is that 1% volts drop in the batminus the %o-volt drop in the battery and the Moo-volt drop along the wires. It was just as if the battery had been divided up into small pieces. When the resistance of the poor conductor was added to the resistances of the rest of the circuit. Hence %oo volt of the 1% volts Ohm's Law says E Now = from the battery is lost as the current travels through the wire. is left for the bulb. less This is why current flowed enough very brightly. or a car does work when it is driven. each connected to a resistance of the circuit. The voltage of the circuit divided largely between the bulb and the poor conductor. Since the battery has ohm and ampere flowing in it. but not current was the same in the bulb and to make each small piece being just the right size to produce the same amount of current in each of the resistances. according to Ohm's Law Vio volt of the original 1% volts tery. HOW When CIRCUITS PERFORM WORK the bulb in the conductivity tester is giving off the circuit is doing work. The voltage supplied by the battery has divided the resistances in the circuit. do work when you lift an object. In IR. The energy to do the work comes from . The in the poor conductor because only what got through one could get through the other.

but if you start the engine and leave it parked until it has used a gallon of gasoline. It also does wasted work. They would waste to they were heavier.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the battery. all the work it does can say that a car gets 12 or 15 or 35 miles to a gallon of gasoline. Because the bulb has to less if get hot enough to give off light. can do just so much work before it is battery used up. they produce very much less resistance than the little wasted heat. The If is you conductivity tester can waste work in other ways. or the gasoline. You get zero miles to that gallon. but the nitrogen would carry tected heat from the filament all to the glass. which you know produced when current flows through conductors like the bulb and the wires. And if you go 65 miles an 32 . bulb. it will wasted. but they would be harder bend and would cost more. Since the wires are fairly heavy copper. where With the air removed from the escape. The work that you want the conductivity tester to do is to give off light. the filament is the same it would insulated and loses much less heat. leaving the nitrogen from the air inside the bulb. or your food. and therefore have bulb. Just the oxygen could have been removed. in way that the contents of a thermos bottle are insulated by the vacuum in the glass walls. The filament has to be pro- from oxygen to keep it from burning up. because is it gives off heat. turn it on and don't look at it. The conductivity tester has been designed to waste as little work as practical. in the The same way that you can clean one attic on a good meal or a car can go 15 miles on a gallon of gasoline. it has been designed to lose as little heat as possible.

depending on how being used. power of the machine. The rate is how hard you have to push multiplied by how far the object goes in a given time. The rate at which you work in moving an object rate of doing work is needed.CIRCUITS hour. it it is still a 1 -horsepower engine. you will waste dust. developing -horsepower gasoline engine can do work as fast work as hard as one horse. If the engine isn't run- at any time 1 is A power it is at that ning. The rate at done in a circuit is the voltage or electrical by push multiplied by the amperes flowing. neers call the rate at Engimachine can do work the at different rates. but at 20 miles an hour it will take twice as long to do the the work as at 40 miles an same work is accomplished which the a hour. A unit of at power which you move an object is how far it goes in a given time. At the two speeds. work in making the tires hot and throwing up What Is a Watt? Whether you at drive your car at 20 miles an hour or 40 miles an hour you will use about the same amount of gasoline to go a distance of 100 miles. and 1 when running can develop anything up to it is horsepower. The useful workgetting 100 miles away will be the same in either case. The rate at which current flows in a circuit is measured in amperes the number of electrons going which work is a point in a given time. In electricity it isn't very logical to compare how fast a circuit does work to how fast a horse can do work. The volts times 33 . and the rate at which it is doing work time.

you will be able to calculate power from resistance and current. or P = PR. If a farm hand can only 1 second. the which work is being done the power being devel1 opedis 1 watt.) Now you can calculate how much power wasted developed and how fast ductivity tester. conductivity tester. When rate at ampere is pushed through a circuit by 1 volt. he at a terrific rate. then P equals 7 = = times 7 times R. The number of substances you test for conduc1 pitch 60 forks of hay per minute. since 746 watts is equal to 1 horsepower. . is The symbolic equation for power P EL Remem- bering that pushed through the conductivity tester by 1% volts. because 60 watts -rIf you apply Ohm's Law to the symbolic equation for does the work % = power. Since P El and E IR. (A horse can do work 2000 times that fast. work is wasted in the wires of the conRemember % ampere flows through wires little having %s ohm resistance very watt developed in the bulb. compared to the % Watt-hours Power thing in is the rate of doing work. only fork of hay would get into the loft and the cows would complain. but if he worked for would be working tivity with the conductivity it is tester and what you learn from 34 the really useful work of the conductivity tester. 2 (I simply means 7 times is 7. but the important life is how much work is done.) 60-watt bulb % ampere is A of giving off light 160 times as fast as the watts 160. you can see that % of a watt is developed.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the amperes in a circuit is a new unit called the watt.

it is usually written 75 kilowatt-hours. which can prowatt for about 16 hours. how much is are you paying for a kilowattit is hour? it The it price very high. % you used five 100-watt bulbs days. or 6 watthours of work. The parts of the loop are said to be in series that is. The amount of electrical work is what you pay for. before it is used up. Your local power company charges you 4 or 5 cents a kilowatt-hour.000 watt- hours of electrical energy.watt-hours. then 35 . This vide course. the current goes through first one.CIRCUITS But in terms of electrical work. If you left your conductivity tester turned on for of 2 hours and 40 minutes it would do 1 1 watt-hour work work is. switch. which means 75 thousand. you would use 5 X 100 X 5 If 5 hours a day for 30 X 30 or 75. SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS All the circuits you have worked with thus far have been a single loop consisting of battery. the watts developed multiis plied by the work flowing equals the tester. but worth because wouldn't be practical to run a wire from your wall plug to your flashlight. If a dry cell supplies 6 watt-hours and costs 18 cents. Because this is an inconveniently large number. done by the battery. of course. off and on. Watthours are calculated by multiplying the number of watts the length of time the current developed by the number of hours over which they are developed. because of % watt X 2% hours = watt-hour. This idea produced by conductivity suggests the electrical unit of work: the watt-hour. and bulb connected by wire.

the cur- rent does not go through one Connections then through the other. the circuit would be broken and the other would go out. and less. if one burned out. would light dimly. another. 2-8. you may have thought it would be nice to install two and perhaps you tried to add another bulb and lights. But with two batthey only teries and two bulbs in two batteries would the double voltage of the be divided across the double resistance series. then battery FIG. Fig. way. This happens in strings of cheap Christmas tree lights. With the two bulbs in series. 2-8 . half the voltage of the and battery being across one bulb and half across the other. But if you were to put two bulbs in series. giving each normal 1/4 volts equal to that of one battery. When you socket in series with your original loop circuit. if at all. to switch in schematics and are shown like this. In this first. Seven 16-volt bulbs are connected in series to 110 volts. the wire for the string costs An easier and better is on the parallel circuit way of getting two bulbs working to connect the extra bulb and socket in as in with the first. because 16-volt bulbs are cheaper to make.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK were putting a light in a doll house. the voltage would divide between the two bulbs. its of the two bulbs.

You can understand this easily if you re- member the same length and has twice the cross-sectional area of another conductor of that if a conductor is the same substance. circuit you can have each bulb operated In a parallel independently from its own switch by connecting them 37 . for reasons you The from great economy of central power stations results the consumer's being able to parallel two or more across lights or other appliances house can have lights. You can see that it will still draw the same current as if it were one piece. The picture would be different arate source of voltage were required for each appliance. and the battery. With two will be used up more than twice as will learn about in the next chapter. if they are both bulbs designed for the same voltage and light output the cur- rent will divide evenly between them. Now imagine the larger conductor split in half the long way with the two halves in parallel. and a toaster. the battery fast. which can be operated efficiently and if a sepeconomically. and a one voltage source. The resistance of the two bulbs in parallel will be half the resistance of each bulb. and that half the electrons will flow down one side and half down the other. bulbs in parallel. will supply twice as much current. Each set. therefore. Then hundreds upon hundreds of houses can be paralleled across a huge generator.CIRCUITS instead it goes through both at the same time. it will have half the resistance and draw twice the current of the second conductor. and a TV washing machine all operating independently in parallel from one pair of wires coming into the house. If both have the same resistance that is.

Since will less % ampere flowing through the battery resistance is 1 produce more voltage drop than A ampere. Paper clip terminals can replace wires to battery. 2-1. but many applications of such as computers. MORE COMPLEX The certain applications. radios. telephone systems. 2-9 bulbs are on and % ampere when only one bulb is on. on they will be dimmer than when only one Can you reason why? Since /4 ampere is flowing through each 1 both is bulb. economy. and phonographs require complex combinations of both series and parallel 38 .MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK as in Fig. there voltage for the bulbs when both are on. as leling of CIRCUITS single-loop series circuit can be quite useful for you have is many appliances and the simple paralessential for efficiency and seen. A flowing through the battery when ampere to battery For switch details see Fig. 2-9. electricity. You will notice that when both is bulbs are on. FIG.

You can see from the schematic in Fig. each one acting independently of the other. 2-1 clip Paper terminals can . replace wires to battery. 2-10 that with For switch details T SCHEMATIC bright m'etal upholsterer's nails far clip see Fig. The Stair Light You have probably seen a stair light that could be on or off turned by a switch at the bottom of the stairs and an- other switch at the top. 2-10 . You will conductivity tester. enough apart so never touches both at the same time SWITCH A NONSHORTING bright metal upholsterer's nails close enough together so clip always touches one or the other SWITCH 8 SHORTING FIG. Not only will the following applications of series and parallel circuits introduce the complexities of elec- trical equipment but they are a lot of fun in themselves. You can build a similar circuit and use it for a game of (also need two two-position switches called single-pole double-throw switches) and your skill.CIRCUITS circuits.

any time is use this circuit in a game. and with one up and one down down the circuit the circuit is com- Hence by the circuit can be opened or closed at a change in the position of either switch. open. On the other hand. contacts. but the rest must be of a type called double-pole double-throw (or two-circuit twoposition). One player tries to keep the light To on and the other like tries to Switch A in Fig. a how timekeeper to decide who wins by long the light remains on during A single light can also be three or are operated independently from more switches a useful arrangement where there more than two doors into a room and you want to lights be able to control the each door. You may need keeping track of one minute.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK both switches up or with both plete. from a switch on the wall at Two of the switches may be single-pole doubleas before. or make-before-break Arrange the wiring so that each player can see the light but cannot watch his opponent's handling of the switch. So he must use tacts. the player trying to keep the light on could hold Switch B simply touching both so he must use Switch A. Switch switch. Switch B. and B nonshorting. A is called a is switch. connect it to your conductivity tester so that the bulb can be lighted or turned off from either switch. keep it off. This is simply two single-pole double-throw switches connected mechanically so that they operate in 40 throw switches . the player trying to keep the light off could simply hold his switch between the conand the bulb would never light. or break-before-make called a shorting. If both switches are 2-10.

single-pole double-throw section bar of insulating material to make 2 in single-pole double-throw switches work unison single-pole double-throw section SIMPLIFIED PICTORIAL OF DOUBLE-POLE DOUBLE-THROW SWITCH For 3 switches. Construction of such a switch will be illustrated later in this chapter (Fig. 2-11. Fig. For more than 4. as in Fig. 2-11 SYMBOL unison. switches are added This in means no connection schematics. A is wired to A and B to B. SCHEMATIC SCHEMATIC OF STAIR LIGHT FIG. 2-13). like this. Then wire them together 41 . 2-1 as member of the club. stair-light circuit is wired for three or more Secret Voting Machine You can build a voting machine which only when the members of a club are favor of a motion. for each will light a bulb Make a switch like unanimously in the one in Fig. 2-11 also shows how the switches.

close the switches not in use. they can carry out arithmetical processes. no one will know who was against the motion. those members in favor secretly close their switches. to switches (see Fig. are extremely combinations of circuits which complex perform logical Most computers. or solve equations. Each member holds a switch hidden in his If lap.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK in Fig. test by having everyone close his switch. Before voting. 2-12 . Computers brains. you have more switches than members present. 2-12. When a motion is made. or leads of conductivity tester Upholsterer's nails: place wires under. For example. 2-1) any number of switches FIG. Unless all members close their switches the bulb will not light. If the bulb doesn't light. or electronic operations and arrive at conclusions.

carbohydrate. that the computer solves. and dures'. and it must be revised each day on the basis of the day's price for each can also be built to solve general classes grain. The circuits used in that computer would be found arranged in different ways in many other computers. many other electronic and electromechanical devices. Another specific problem might be how much of each of several kinds of grain should be mixed cost in an animal feed. to do any specific job. Computers can specific problems. be built to solve such it gun should be pointed and in order to hit a target that is a how when determining should be fired as moving in a certain direc- tion at a certain speed. The same problem might take a couple of hours with a pencil and paper. and the answer you was few to would be ready before the mill was ready mix the feed. or -programmed. You couldn't build a computer if it to solve the problem of the cheapest animal feed couldn't solve the problem yourself.CIRCUITS draw conclusions from sets of conditions. possible The mix must be the lowest mix and still contain the advertised propor- tions of protein. but its the logic that a computer uses to do built into its work is always This means that the people who designed the computer must be able to solve the problem circuits. Computers use vacuum tubes and motors. it could solve the problem every morning in a minutes on the basis of the day's prices of grain. such as a wide variety of accounting proce- These machines must be temporarily wired. and fat. and relays and keyboards. Computers of problems. basic Here are some simple computers employing com43 . But when built.

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK puter circuits and electrical components learned about. 2-1). . 2-1. Paper clip terminals can replace wires. clips placed so attach 2 clips like this I they contact upholsterer's nails on wood strip in the ' same way as in Fig. . More-or-less Computer you have already You can build a more-or-less computer to test whether more or less suited to people are more or less athletic. or more or is of the simplest sort. but the more complicated computers used to solve very intricate problems consist essentially bright metal \ \ \ upholsterer's nails and washers (see Fig. . . This computer space travel. bar of insulating material (wood First strip) \ 4 paper . less anything else. 2-1 See Fig. then turn over and attach like this.

2-11 and 2-13 make three single-pole double-throw switches joined gether so that they operate in unison. This J loop. 2-14 . you will understand the techniques involved in using the giant computers. Its construction is shown in Fig. 2-14. paper clip terminals. 2-13. even though you have neither the advanced technical skill nor the very refined components with to build one. One switch will be a three-pole double-throw or three-circuit two-position (3PDT) switch. bright metal upholsterer's nail SCHEMATIC SYMBOL FIG. Construction details for these switches are given in Fig. The remaining one will be a push. will be double-pole doublethrow (DPDT) switches like the one illustrated in Fig. which switches of four different types. switch which conducts only while you hold it down. Press down here to make contact. Wires can replace Bent paper * the large clip.CIRCUITS of a great many variations of circuits like the one you are going to build. Once you understand this circuit. or momentary-contact. six You will need Two Two 2-11. 2-10. will be single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches like the one in Fig. It is made to to- by extending the principles of Figs.

suitability for travel. is designed to flash at least three of the five answers indicate The schematic in Fig. If the answer to any one of the if first three questions indicated "less" question were answered "yes" switch would come into play. if the three questions have question answered "no" and the second and third are answered "yes" the circuit will be completed to the "more" bulb. If the "more" answers that is. nourishing food? Do you prefer baseball to a tramp in the woods? Do you get good marks in mathematics? "no" answer to the first and fourth questions and a "yes" answer to the second." "no" circuit the fourth question were answered the score would again be three "more's. which will light pressed. rather than less. rather than by 2. 4. Do you prefer the wide-open spaces? Do you like simple. The computer must be "more" when more. LESS SUITED TO SPACE TRAVEL? Do you like yourself? to be with groups of people.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK The computer scores an examination like this: ARE YOU MORE OR 1. Go 46 through Fig. 2-15 shows first first how the computer is designed to do this. They is when the "result" switch No cannot feed current to the "less" bulb nor can they break the circuit to the "more" bulb. if would again be completed to the "more" bulb. If it were set to indicate the first for example then the fourth "more. 3." and the that is. and fifth questions A would space all indicate more. 5. 2-15 step by step and see for each . third. position of the fourth or fifth switch can affect this result.

which might also give could tailor his away the logic. You can see that if the examination were reworded to have "yes" answers always indicate "more. 47 . and three or more "less" answers always light the "less" bulb.yes more FIG. 2-15 the circuit is completed to position of each switch how either the "more" or the "less" bulb. The push while the switches are being set." the computer would give away its logic and the person being examined answers to give the result he wanted to switch prevents either bulb from lighting get. Three or more "more" answers always light the "more" bulb. Tally each result against the questions in the examination.

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK further protect the computer's secrets. the "yes" of the five switches must be in the same physical position direction. The revised schematic in Fig. 2-16 shows the To first and fourth switches rearranged to achieve this. but some of the wires are rearranged. 2-16 . The bulb sockets and battery holder are the same as the ones you have made to Make up sure previously. Examine the revised schematic carefully to see how to wire the computer. to Be "more" Perhaps you are wondering why it was necessary to yes yes FIG. observe the relationship of "yes" answers as built into the computer. 2-15. additional examinations on other subjects. The circuit is identical with that of the schematic in Fig.

You will have to discover the pattern in Fig. 2-15) of each switch must be labeled "for. Of they also have a very serious purpose. 2-15 can be used as a secret is voting machine to tell when a majority of voters in favor of The up position (in Fig. By tracing the schematic and examining the logic you can or if see what would happen if there were four voters his one of the voters did not close switch either way. The circuit in Fig. such games are fun." The circuit works for five voters." a motion. because the result is available to you the instant that the last question is answered." and the down position "against. See if you can figure out what additional switches and what wiring additions would be required to make the machine work for seven voters. of Black The Game Match like to design Computer engineers puters to play games. and there is no need for you to score the answers afterward. and program comcourse.CIRCUITS build this computer in order to get the results of a series of questions that could easily be scored "by hand. The "more" bulb must be labeled "passed" and the "less" bulb "defeated. But actually you do save time in scoring the questions. but three can vote if one unused switch is set at "for" and the other at "against" and the other three are used for voting. but The engineers want 49 . 2-15 and extend the principles which you have learned about the design." The answer stand its is that you were building it in order to under- principles rather than to save time in scoring the questions.

but in spite of its huge computing it a dull game and is easily beaten by all plays but beginners. but it does it by logical processes built. Each player's object is to up matches in such a way that at the end only the You pick black match remains for his opponent to take. can build a computer to play the game of black match against your friends. into its circuits. the pile. your left right as follows: hand plays against . computer has been pro- Game A grammed capacity to play chess. how to learn playing helps computer engineers to build such circuits. can never be beaten the it grammed. ever played. one of the IBM office Since computers has been programmed to play checkers. taking players in turn pull the matches out of from one to four at each turn. This is a machine that can learn by exor properience. In your 50 the sample. for itself if it is science and business with A computer can do more in it that can figure designed with circuits out which operations it should perform to solve a prob- lem. it same way twice. checkers is a simpler game than chess. the engineers were able to program it to remember every game and although it can be beaten.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK to be able to design new computers to solve more and more complicated problems in less and less help from people. First you had better take 25 matches or other markers and play a sample game against yourself. Two pile of 22 to 25 matches. This game is played with a one of which is black. because you must understand the game and the logic for winning before you can understand how a computer can play the game and win. On the other hand.

2.. 3.CIRCUITS LEFT HAND TAKES LEFT HAND LEAVES 21 RIGHT HAND RIGHT HAND LEAVES 20 16 11 TAKES 1 826 2431 1 4 2 3 19 3 3 14 1 Your right hand won to take the last match. It because your left hand was forced was forced to because your right hand followed the logic for winning. is Here how the logic works starting from the end of the game: If the one who 2 to 7 to he can be sure of 5 knows is the logic faced with 10 leaving " 1* 6* 11* 16* 12 to 15 17 to 20 " " 22 to 25 * because " 21* he may take 1. 51 . 2. . 3. If he 1 he can be sure of . or 4.. facing 12 to 15* facing 17 to 20* or 4.winning* " leaves 6 11 facing facing 2 to 5* 7 to 10* 16 21 * because his must take opponent " " 1.

of course. At the moment 19. In its first turn it couldn't leave 2 1 because it was faced with 21 and it must take at least 1 according to the rules of the game. 6 last. it could have left 21 the first time and only a mistake on its part would permit your left hand to win. 1. Each nail is connected to a bulb marked or 4. 2-17 and 2-18 and the schematic in Fig. because the logic for winning will built into its circuits. representing the computer's choice. 3. Had it left 16. it could have been the winner. 2-19. 2. on the next and the winning 1 on the There was nothing your left hand could do to prethis vent once it had left 19. leaving 20 in order to have the best possible chance of leaving 16 in its next turn. If your right hand had started the game. your left hand took 1 7 it Now leaving because hand could now leave game your right 16 with absolute assurance of being able to leave 11 on lost the the next turn. and therefore the nail to the bulb marked 25 is connected game has been decided to play the with 25 matches (instead of 24. The how points of the 25 upholsterer's nails in the front view represent the 25 matches. If it if . or 22 as allowed 4. First you will The need to know the game so you the circuits are designed to play won't make mistakes in building it. construction of the computer is shown in Figs. leave 21. Your computer will always win if makes be will always it win if it plays first and plays second provided its opponent one is marked by 52 the rules) and decided that the computer shall . If there are 25 in the the computer must take 4 to pile. 23. So it took 1.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK look back at the sample game to see how your right hand won.

For bulb sockets see Figs. 2-17 . 4- 3 For details of push switch -THE BUCK MATCH see Fig. %" board -^ FRONT FIG. 2-1 4.BLACK MATCH COMPUTER Place rules here. COMPUTER'S CHOICE 7 Same / b holes / bulbs and as in back sockets ir view. 1-5 to 1-7.

Bright metal upholsterer's nails: leave points straight side. up on opposite wires through holes in board BACK FIG. 1-4 to 1-7. 2-18 .For details of battery holder see Figs.

All the other nail FIG. the computer's operator subtracts 4 from 25 and gets 21.CIRCUITS start. From the bulb through the wire connected to the threaded goes all parts of 4 bulbs to the push switch and back to the battery. from 21. Current flows from the battery through the free wire to the point of the nail marked 25. and through the series of wires it to the tip of the bulb marked 4. With the bulb marked 4 lit. He moves the free end of the wire to the nail point marked 18 and presses the push switch. then the computer's operator touches the free wire marked 25 and presses the push switch. This time the bulb marked 2 lights. He subtracts the opponent's choice. through the nail to the point of the nail to the wire under its head. He then releases the push switch and allows the opponent to select 1 to 4 matches. getting 18. Trace out the wiring on the back view and the schematic to see why. say 3. Volt- age can't get to the tips of the other 3 bulbs to light them. 2-19 .

the computer takes 1 that is.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK points except 1. 11. so see Figs. the nail When down the free ends are under each head. If you want to start. or 6 in the pile. It should be er's nails to start /4 with a board it at least inch thick so will be strong but thin enough for the points of the 25 upholster- come through. Wires between adjacent nails don't The bulb sockets and battery holder are your conductivity details. 11. need insulation. but instead is it takes 2 to help hide its logic. and at inch apart. 6. 16. lights the bulb it's beaten. 23. When 1. 7 by 14 inches. or 21. 2. the computer is wired to light the bulb marked 1 to give its opponent the best chance for error. Quarter-inch plywood nails is best. Hamin almost all the way in a row. 16. 24. 6. and paste or 25 Decide if you want to start with 22. 4 numbers 56 to indicate move the pointer down 1 to the number of matches you are . It should take 1 if it is left with 16. 1-4 through 1-7 for the like the one in Fig. Copy out the following them on the front of the computer: 1. just like the ones in tester. 2-14. If the opponent starts and his choices leave 21. and hold the pointer against that number. it marked In building the computer. matches. the to computer left with show that it knows 1. 11. The push all switch is just Mark the front of the board with the lettering and rules numbers shown. and 21 are wired to light the difference between their number and 1. drive hard. Use upholsterer's mer 25 of them least % with conducting metal heads. Then start cutting and stripping the all ends of bell wire to connect the heads of the nails as shown.

4. you will always win if you start and the computer will always win if you that Now you know let it start. and for the com- hold the pointer where it was puter's subsequent turns. If you want the computer to start. 3. the logic. explain the principles 57 . there isn't much point in your playing against the computer. as the computer chose. and move the pointer down as many numbers 5. Reduce the number in the pile by your next choice. Release the switch.CIRCUITS taking and hold it there. and press the "computer's choice" switch to see how many matches the computer has decided to take. But you and your computer can beat your friends until they make you to them. You must take at least 1 but not more than 4 matches. and continue in this manner until you or the computer loses by being left with only the last match to take.

because they involve the complexities of atomic structure.CHAPTER 3 WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM have been working with a current of electrons flowing through conductors and through circuits made up of conductors. have made your own will understand one of 58 . The explanations will have to be followed very carefully. or to look at it in another way which converted the energy of chemical reactions into electrical energy. In each case we used a battery far Thus we which produced our stream of electrons. but after you battery you the most important methods of making and storing electricity. In this chapter you will get a basic understanding of the chemistry of electricity and thus learn how chemicals can be used to produce a current of electrons and also how a current of electrons can be used to produce chemical reactions.

Hydrogen. it makes a different substance. nucleus is balanced. has a different fixed attracts a number of positive charges and therefore different number of electrons. The but each positive charge on the charges are still there. has 8 electrons 59 has in its neutral state. you will need to chemalready know about 1 You will remember from Chapter that the nu- cleus of each different basic substance. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS COMBINE understand how a battery review some things you may works. and many other chemical reactions can be made to take a flow of current. or neutralized. reaction involves electrically charged Many chemical reactions can produce electricity. the simplest chemical element. or. When around said to it the nucleus of an that it atom has all of the electrons it is be in its can attract by its positive charge. has combines with hydrogen to form water. normal or electrically neutral state. It is this number its of electrons (negative) that trical nucleus can attract by elec- of each element its charge which gives the atom distinctive chemical characteristics. . by the negative charge of 1 electron. cheap materials are purified. electrically only 1 electron 2.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM Every chemical particles. Metals are chemicals are manufactured. which Helium. in other words. Oxygen. HOW To istry. with thin coatings of gold and silver. and many plated other useful results are obtained through electrochemical means. or element. a light gas used in balloons. The storage battery in an place by automobile works by a chemical reaction.

atoms will be illustrated in sche- matic drawings. and 16 electrons. and elements electrons have been produced by cyclotrons and other means. is are elements that have 10. Electron Patterns numhaving even more The atom electrons are arranged around the nucleus of the in shells or layers called rings. 4. Fig. In between there 3. 5. 3-1 is a suggestion of what an atom of oxygen you could see it. 7. except in hydrogen. The outermost ring always consists of 8 or fewer electrons. Rings between the inner and outermost ring can contain up to 32 electrons. Actually. 14. There a natural element for each ber of electrons up to 92. which you have seen in Chapter 2. Below the pictorial suggestions of the oxygen atom are 60 . which only has 1 electron. a metal that active. chapter. 6. 12. The ring nearest the nucleus always consists of 2 electrons. 13. with sodium to form Chlorine. are simplified pictures of the circuits. Sodium.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK in orbits about its nucleus when it is in its electrically neutral state. 9. has is chemically very 11 electrons. a gas that combines table salt. of course. or any other atom. 15. has 17. Schematic drawings of electrical circuits. like if might look looks like. but in all its it chemical and electrical reactions oxygen acts as if this Throughout looked like the pictorial suggestion. nobody knows what the oxygen atom. and schematic drawings of atoms are simplified pictures of the atoms showing the charge on the nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons in the rings.

or 2 in the single case of helium. 3-1 schematic drawings of atoms of hydrogen. it is chemically inert that is. outermost ring that determines the way an element reacts chemically. it will combine with other 61 .oxygen pictorial suggestion hydrogen oxygen sodium electron chlorine (negative FIG. and chlorine. so- dium. If the neutral atom (one with as many electrons in orbit as there are positive charges on its nucleus) has 8 electrons in its outermost ring. This tenda ency has nothing to do with electrical charge but seems to depend on some natural tendency toward symmetry. oxygen. For some obscure reason there It is the is tendency for an atom to complete its outer ring to 8 electronsor 2 in the single case of hydrogen.

The two hydrogen atoms. Fig. 2 hydrogen atoms ring to 8. When water is formed. Oxygen. shows schematic pictures of atoms of three inert elements: elements helium. In the water molecule. Here's outermost ring. neon. oxygen has trons in why. In other elements. the tendency to complete the outermost ring determines the kind of chemical combinations the element will form.helium neon FIG. and argon. completing 2 its outer ring to 8. and 2 For example. 3-2 argon 3-2 only under the rarest conditions. with 6 elecneeds 2 more to complete the negative charges because it has a total of 10 electrons and only 8 positive charges on its nucleus. 3-3 . give up an electron each to an oxygen atom. each now lacking an electron. an atom of oxygen atoms of hydrogen combine to form what is called its a molecule of water. together have two are attracted to the negatively charged positive charges and water molecule FIG.

but it does reduce the chemical activity of the individual hydrogen atoms. 3-4 oxygen molecule oxygen. Release of Energy Whenever chemical released or absorbed. as in 2 Fig. 3-4. called the bond. The molecule is neutral because it contains equal is numbers of electrons and 3-3 positive charges.hydrogen molecule FIG. as in Fig. atoms form a molecule of oxygen with 4 shared electrons completing both outer rings of 8. is weak. The hold that the two atoms on each other. Two hydrogen atoms almost always form a hydrogen molecule in which each shares the other's electron. 3-4. Hydrogen and oxygen as separate neutral see in a atoms which they rarely are. Fig. The same is true of oxygen. as we shall moment are very active chemically. elements combine. including themselves. so that they each have an outer ring of 2 elechave trons. because the bond must be broken before the hydrogen can combine with other elements. energy is either When molehydrogen and oxygen 63 . This means that they combine readily with atoms of other elements. a schematic of the water molecule. Hydrogen and oxygen do not combine simply because they are mixed together.

When you light an oven. Otherwise the gas. two atoms of hydrogen to one of oxygen. Don't try to make a cell for breaking up water yourself. and therefore a good deal of energy must be supplied to separate them. HYDROLYSIS The arate it molecular bonds of water can be broken to sepinto hydrogen and oxygen by means of a current of electricity. because the lye required in the water like other useful chemicals can burn many 64 . The energy can be so rapid and violent that an explosion occurs. for example. and the process continues until all of either the hydrogen or the oxygen has been combined into water.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK takes something like a spark or flame to break the molecular bonds. Then the atoms rearrange cules are mixed. and if you then put in the match you can be burned by the explosion. called the electrolyte. which breaks the bonds of more gas molecules. together with some light and even sound) is released when hydrogen and oxygen combine into water. it themselves into water molecules. All cells consist of two conductors. This is another way of saying that the molecular bonds of water are strong. To do this an electrolytic cell one of many possible types is required (see Fig. 3-5). will mix with oxygen air in the oven. immersed in a liquid. you must hold the lighted match to the jets release of heat before you turn on the gas. The combining process releases energy in the form of heat. from the A good deal of energy (in the form of heat. called the electrodes. which contains hydrogen and similar gases.

Hydrogen displaces electrolyte and collects here. here. it con- tains lye dissolved in water as shown When 65 . the explanation that follows will prepare you to understand the battery. Glasses filled under Oxygen collects water and turned upside down remain filled. First let us see how the cell would work if it contained only water. Then we shall see how it works when in the figure. however. nail polish all exposed copper Mz teaspoon of lye dissolved in water 2 batteries series: in 3 volts FIG. clothing and can even ask an adult teacher or parent to help you You might make one. He can provide the lye and supervise your use of it. Even if you don't make one. wire wrapped around on nails. 3-5 you and your blind you.

The At the negative electrode of the water molecule cell. 3-6 . so that its outer ring retains the complete shell of eight electrons. and it hydrogen has a negative charge because it has an extra electron.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK flowing to the cell. Count them. as in Fig.) FIG. the oxygen atom keeps one hydrogen atom and the electron it borrowed from the other. When they do. and hydrogen at the electrode connected to the negative current is terminal. oxygen is formed at the electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery. a very quite few molecules break apart spontaneously.) more electron than positive charges. off The hydrogen atom which came condition is without its electron. 3-6. even is though the bond between hydrogen and oxygen strong. called a ion. hydrogen ions hydroxyl ion hydrogen ion ( sign outside ion indicates one (+ one sign outside ion indicates positive charge. has a positive charge and in this charged remaining oxygenhydrogen is called a combination hydroxyl ion. The reason for this is that in all water.

3-7 receive from the electric current one electron each. the positive electrode. Electrons going into one side of the cell are taken up 67 . hydroxyl ions give their extra electron. as in Fig. 3-7. forming water and a free oxygen atom. The free two by two into molecular oxygen oxygen atoms combine and bubble up from the positive electrode. They combine two by two into hydrogen molecules and bubble up to the surface of the water. and when two hydroxyl ions do At up this near each other. one oxygen atom snatches a hydroa molecule of gen atom from the other oxygen.4- + 2 hydroxyl Ions losing electrode electrons FIG. which makes them hydrogen atoms.

so there is an actual flow of ions distant more through the water. to the electrode at the other side of the The effect the same as if an electric current were passing through the cell and completing the circuit to the battery. Action of Lye in Hydrolysis only water it would be ineffective. because very few molecules of water ionize spontaneously If the cell contained sodium atom oxygen atom hydrogen atom sodium hydroxide molecule FIG. The battery returns to the atoms the same amount of energy that was released when the oxygen and hydrogen comare formed. and hydroxyl ions give up electrons cell. the battery to the electrodes is attracts hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. hydrogen ions to the negative terminal and hydroxyl ions to the positive terminal. As hydrogen and oxygen ions in the water near the electrodes of the cell Then the charge provided by depleted. the supply of bined into water. 3-8 .MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK by hydrogen is ions.

and those that do ionize to varying degrees. it is unlike water in sodium hydroxide ionizes heavily that is. All strong alkalies lye sodium hydroxide molecule sodium ion . The reason lye will burn you is that it ionizes so readily. you must understand what lye is like is chemically. Its molecule consists of an hydrogen atom. When hydroxyl ions. a sodium atom. and a sodium atom. as in Fig. It hydroxyl accord into hydrogen and would take hours to collect a little own hydrogen and oxygen. separate Sodium hydroxide is like water but has a hydrogen atom. Lye dissolved in the water solves the problem. 3-8. and dissolved in water. the water gets into most of the molecules and splits them up into sodium ions (sodium atoms without outer electrons). but to see how. separate of their ions. 3-9. which are positive.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM that is. The atoms and the molecule are shown in Fig. all Some chemicals don't dissolve at in water. a atom replaced by other respects. Lye oxygen sodium hydroxide. which are negative.

hydroxyl ions their extra electron. it just received from the Hydrogen bubbles ions. All of the energy from the battery which had gone into separating the water into the two gases would be available almost instantly if is a spark started hydrogen 70 produced at them combining. displacing a hydrogen atom from a water molecule. because a sodium ion would be up an electron and become a sodium atom. But now there are many more hydroxyl ions from the sodium hydroxide. So many ions are present that there is never any depletion of ions near the electrodes. up. Since the the negative electrode and the . 3-10. Its ready ionization is one reason why lye is used in the hydrolysis of water.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK is one and all strong acids are strong because they ionize readily. thus make contact and give up forming water and oxygen as before when plain water was broken up by a current. and the new sodium hydroxide molecule formed ionizes into sodium ions and hydroxyl At the positive electrode. In doing so the sodium atom provides for the negative electrode it hydrogen atom the electron electrode. as in Fig. the result would be a highly explosive mixture of the two gases. You can see that if the hydrogen and oxygen were allowed to bubble up into one container. but as sodium is formed at the able to pick immediately reacts with water. This actually happens. You might think that with lye in the cell sodium metal would be formed at the negative electrode. and current therefore flows heavily.

3-10 .sodium ion hydrogen atom sodium hydroxide molecule sodium ion hydroxyl ion FIG.

and experience are recell. the smoothness and other qualities of the electrodes. 3-5. The voltage required also depends on the substance from which the electrodes are made.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK oxygen at the positive electrode. cell will A great deal of thought. the two it gases can be col- lected in separate containers as in Fig. in a About 2% volts is a satisfactory working voltage hydrogen- oxygen cell. you see being done back voltage applied to the cell has to be sufficient to overcome the natural tendency of the ions to retain their ionic state The and remain in the solution. ingenuity. The preceding discussion of the hydrolysis of water will make it easier for you to understand the chemistry of the electric battery. MAKING A BATTERY Any trical battery is a source of free electrons under elec- pressure and a place to absorb the electrons after they have passed through the circuit. The careful selection of materials and conditions of operation of any forces are at work in determine which forces are given play and which are counteracted to produce only the desired results. It should also bring out an important point: many different an electrolytic cell. Each different kind of ion has this tendency to a different degree and requires a different voltage to make it give up or receive electrons. and many other factors. quired in the design of any working it A flashlight battery does its job as well as does because of the in- genuity which has gone into its many years of development. The forces at work inside the battery were not 72 .

but usage has made it correct to call them batteries. You probably cannot buy the very specialized materials to make one just like your flashlight battery. as in Fig. The electrodes of your cells will be copper and aluminum. Fold one end it of each piece and crumple the rest of loosely. could not explain the basis for the improvement. Construction Steps Start by about 4 aluminum foil cutting two strips of household inches wide and 12 inches long. chlorite. Flashlight batteries are technically called cells because they have two electrodes and a liquid between them. Over the years new materials were added by trial and error and were retained if they improved the battery. The (sold household bleach electrolyte will be a mixture of liquid specify Clorox and Rose-X) and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) The label of the bleach should that it contains approximately 5% sodium hypo- under such names as . 73 . can build a battery which will work it will light the bulb of your conductivity tester and then you can You why.nfou need a battery of two order produce enough voltage to light the bulb. Subsequently scientists found out many of scientists even though the reasons why.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM clearly understood when the first batteries were made. but you can make one that works in much the same way from materials that you can easily pick up around the find out house. popular A battery to is more than one will cell connected in series to cells in give more voltage .

Cut two double-thick 4inch squares of paper towel and stuff one of these down on 3-11. the flashlight battery from your conductivity . 2 inches of insulation from one end of Strip each piece and 12 inches from the other end.FIG. 3-13. 3-11 FIG. proceed to make. The paper towel will keep the aluminum electrode from shortcircuiting to the copper electrode. 3-12 each one into the botton of a separate 6-ounce jelly glass or tumbler. Place one ball on top of the paper towel in each cell. 3-12. which you can the now two Cut a piece of lamp cord 2 feet long and strip wires apart. sniff Then top of the aluminum foil in each cell. Join the 2-inch end of one copper electrode to the end of the aluminum electrode of the other cell Remove 74 by twisting them together as in Fig. Separate the many strands of the 12-inch ends and crumple them into a loose ball about 1 inch in diameter. as in Fig.

^-o kulb fn conductivity tester. Fill each cell with liquid household bleach until the ball of copper wire is covered. 3-13 . FIG. and the end of the free slip tester. copper wire of your battery under the paper the threaded part of the bulb. clip that holds threaded part of \ . of soda on of the ball of teaspoonful baking right top Now copper in each cell.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM Join the wire coming from the base of the bulb to the free aluminum electrode. clip that holds now ready for the electrolyte. After a few moments the filament of nearly The cell is the bulb should begin to add a level glow faintly. In the course of about 15 minutes the bulb will gradually dim. can You revive it the leads to the get by jiggling copper electrodes so Connect wire here from bulb in as to agitate the electrolyte and bring tip of Slip ends of this wire under paper conductivity tester. The bulb should flash very brightly for a moment and then settle down to burn normally.

The cells finally stop when the aluminum is eaten through and breaks near the surface of the electrolyte. copper aluminum FIG. Aluminum has 13 electrons. forces at work your cells. with 1 in the outermost ring and 18 in the next ring. It can lose the outer one and one of the 18 but the other 17 only easily. When a piece of aluminum is placed the some aluminum atoms go 3 into solution as ions. 3-14. between the electrodes and the the forces. Toward the end you can improve the results by adding two tablespoons of bleach and % teaspoon of baking soda. in the outermost ring. Some action them produce against the useful current of electrons and some work The forces come from chemical electrolyte. The atoms of aluminum and copper are shown in Fig. difficulty. 3-14 . Copper has 29. which it can lose easily. You can keep the battery going this way for several hours. HOW YOUR HOMEMADE There of are BATTERY WORKS inside many it.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK fresh electrolyte in contact with the copper. with great in water. each leaving the electrons free in the piece that is. with 3. To understand you have to know what the electrodes and electrolyte are like chemically.

and the electrode becomes negatively charged because it retains the electrons lost by The the ions. ions are positively charged because they have lost electrons.) electrode in Fig.force of attraction force tending to form ions tending to pull ion back into electrode 4-4-4- - force of repulsion tending to restrain more ions from forming 4-4- aluminum electrode aluminum ion (+ + + 3 excess FIG. 3-15. As a cloud of its aluminum ions forms in the water near the electrode. is force which makes the ions go into solution one of the main forces that produce the current in your The cell. The attraction between aluminum ions formed and the negatively charged electrode is a force which works against the current. positive charge tends to restrain more 77 . 3-15 signs outside ion indicate positive charges. tending to pull the ions back into the electrode.

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK ions by forming. 3-16. Bleach chlorite a some chemistry of water solution of sodium hypo- and sodium chloride. Copper leaves two free electrons. Action of the Chloride Ions There is another force helping to make the aluminum under- and copper form ions and give up stand this force electrons. The sodium chloride mole- cule consists of one atom of sodium and one chlorine. each atom leaving one or more electrons free in the piece. rent. like charges of the ions from repulsion of the This is another force working against the cur- Many other metals act in the same way as aluminum. 3-16 . but to you have is to understand the electrolyte. In solution the water ionizes sodium chloride chloride ion sodium ion FIG. as in Fig. atom of The sodium has given up one electron to the chlorine and they are then held together by their opposite charges.

this attraction is reduced and more aluminum ions can form." on the copper electrode. ions (positive) and chloride ions (negative) The chloride ions are very corrosive. called continues until all the copper ions are back "plating out. This means that the force generat- in the aluminum is greater than that in ing free electrons the copper. up the cell a current in 79 . This corrosive force thus helps to produce current in your cells. nothing the tendency of aluminum to ionize in water is greater than the tendency of copper to ionize. This process. you might since there are excess electrons in both metals. As electrons enter the copper electrode this attraction is increased. and they have a of aluminum and copper to ionize and give up way helping electrons to the solid pieces of metal. and in the presence of the corrosive chloride ions the dif- When would happen. each does so and becoming a copper atom. 3-17. as in Fig. and some copper ions are drawn back out of solution onto the ion taking up two electrons as it copper electrode. As electrons leave the alu- minum electrode via the external circuit. You remember ionization that one of the forces acting against was the attraction of the free electrons in the metal electrode toward the positive ions which have left it and entered into the solution. and electrons are driven from the aluminum to the copper. produces Already you can see how that all the copper time the to least at one direction. But ference is even greater. through the external wire. the copper and aluminum are connected by think that.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM almost all of the molecules of sodium chloride into sodium . touching or by an external wire.

3-17 .electrolyte out here. / electron flow electrolyte out here. FIG.

and it pro- duces hydrogen gas. and it should bubble out of the electrolyte and take them away. But the current doesn't stop then because of the sodium ions in the electro- positively charged. But some of these bubbles would stick to the surface of a layer which would keep the elecand stop the proctrolyte away from the copper electrode cell. they are turned into sodium atoms. When they do. During the provides the electron necessary to complete a atom. but the coating would re-form as fast as you broke it. The sodium hypochlorite molecule consists of one atom of sodium. ions help make the cell produce electrons to make room for more But you long enough to break up a water molecule. 3-10) that sodium atoms react with water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. where the sodium bicarbonate and the sodium hypochlorite do their work. This process does two things. like copper ions.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM ions are back on the copper electrode. The sodium atom holds its electron only the external circuit will by taking up come over through electrode. and. Action of Sodium Compounds In this way sodium current to minum from the aluremember (Fig. can plate out on and take electrons from the copper lyte. Sodium ions are electrode. You could ess. gas ends up with the electrons. This is called keep polarization of the The hydrogen the copper and form shaking the electrode to remove some hydrogen. one atom of This is 81 . It adds a hydrogen process it great many hydroxyl ions to the electrolyte.

sodium hypochlorite sodium ion FIG. Nevertheless the oxygen its is easily separated by other is forces. 3-19. and a carbonate . a good many of the molecules ionize 82 . 3-18 chlorine. 3-18. but the oxygen sharing is held to the by two of its electrons to complete the In water many of the sodium oxygen's outermost ring. A carbonate ion is a carbon atom and three with two oxygen atoms combined during manufacture extra electrons. Baking soda sodium bicarbonate. and one atom of oxygen combined as in Fig. which give it two negative charges. The sodium and chlorine are held together in the same manner chlorine as sodium chloride. and molecule was formed in the ion (positive). ion (negative) manufacturing process out of a hydrogen a sodium ion (positive). ionize into sodium ions (positive) hypochlorite molecules and hypochlorite ions (negative) composed of chlorine and oxygen. The water does not tend to get between the chlorine and oxygen. These are all shown in Fig. When bicarbonate of soda is dissolved in water.

3-19 .carbon atom 3 oxygen atoms 2 electrons carbonate ion sodium bicarbonate molecule FIG.

the bicarbonate ion helps the process. The sodium bicarbonate and sodium hypochlorite add plenty of sodium ions to the electrolyte to take up electrons and become sodium atoms. The hypochlorite ions alone would do ions together These two giving up their oxygen to form water with the hydrogen as in Fig. remove the atoms of hydrogen and prevent them from forming a coating on the copper electrode. 3-20. The bicarbonate ion has one negative charge because it is a combination of a hydrogen ion with one positive charge and a carbonate ion with two negative charges. leaving chloride ions which help make the aluminum ionize.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK into sodium ions (positive) and bicarbonate ions in which the hydrogen ions remain attached to the carbonate ions. which then break up water into hydrogen gas and hydroxyl ions. 3-20 . But. as you saw when added the it by you sodium bicarbonate. But the sodium compounds also add bicarbonate ions and hypochlorite ions. You know that sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acids in hydrogen atoms chloride ion water molecule FIG.

(Don't wash out your old cells and try to re-use them. the assumption as to how is sodium bicarbonate helps the cell is probably true. Hydroxyl ions and aluminum ions together combine to 85 . There is probably some acid secondary reactions in the cell. make two fresh cells. the electrolyte near the aluminum might easily beso charged with the positive ions that it would exert a force to prevent more from forming. 3-10) that. as the must be removed. because you are sure to leave behind some bleach in the washing process. When the bicarbonate ion neutralizes an acid. 3-15. They do drift away by you will also remember (Fig. Aluminum Ions so important reaction goes on in the cells. By neutralizing the acid. Since the gas which bubbles up from your cell is carbon dioxide. the bicarbonate ion would help the cell produce current. If the cell is to work well.) You will find that these cells are not able to light the bulb. these ions diffusion. To demonstrate that sodium bicarbonate does not contribute directly to the current production of the cell. hydroxyl ions are formed. as you will remem- One more come ber from Fig. The reasoning in this paragraph should give you an insight into the way theories right or wrong Excess are developed from facts which are known. using water and soda as the elec- only baking trolyte. With aluminum atoms going into solution as aluminum many ions.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM people's stomachs. But sodium atoms break up water molecules. carbon dioxide gas always formed. This acid feres formed by probably interwith the transfer of from the oxygen hypochlorite ions to the hydrogen atoms.

The oxide which stays on the wire doesn't seem to interfere with conduction. is bottom of the copper oxide. shown it in Fig. This chemical. Copper chloride is blue and colors the aluminum hydroxide molecule FIG. comes out of solution forming as You can see your cell gets old. being insoluble in water. Secondary Reactions There are many secondary reactions in your cell. 3-21. The brown which coating that forms on the copper wire. 3-21 . some of stays on the wire and some of which falls to the cell. The moleas a jelly like substance. which gets its oxygen from the hypochlorite ions. probably because it is porous.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK form a chemical cule is called aluminum hydroxide. Copper chloride and copper hydroxide are also formed. This disposes of the excess aluminum ions.

HOW FLASHLIGHT BATTERIES WORK Except to demonstrate and help you understand battery action and its complexity. greatly reduces the life of the cell. the local action at the aluminum electrode. 3-21). One secondary reaction. your homemade cells cannot 87 . Sodium ions formed and then break water molecules into hydrogen gas and hydroxyl ions (Fig. one aluminum is more aluminum ion can go into solution. Each time three water molecules are broken up. Finally the hydroxyl ions remove aluminum ions (Fig. copper atoms leave the wire to form these copper compounds they leave behind electrons. Copper hydroxand can be seen floating in the surface blue-green when the cells are scum of the jelly like aluminum hydroxide as the cell gets old. Then oxygen from the are hypochlorite ions forms water with the hydrogen (Fig. Both are floated by entrapped carbon dioxide. 3-20). being drawn from the is Near the surface of the electrolyte the process oxygen from the air. continues whether or not current cell.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM electrolyte ide is first started. The is dissolved much more rapidly than if this reacand it tion did not occur. This is why the aluminum electrode cuts through near the surface of the electrolyte. This action also continues whether or not current is being drawn from the cell. Oil floated on the surface of the electrolyte reduces cutting by keeping air away. gen from the hypochlorite speeded up by the presence of which acts like and adds to the oxyions. 3-10). of the All of these secondary reactions reduce the efficiency because as cell. It is the same reaction that occurs at the copper electrode.

the materials of your cell were selected because they are safe and times called dry available. is the electrolyte Battery Materials negative electrode of the flashlight cell is zinc formed into a cylindrical cup so that it serves as a container for the whole cell. The difference lies in the materials and the methods of manufacture which work in almost exactly the give commercial flashlight batteries their long life and compact size. they have two electrodes and an electrolyte. Carbon can conduct electricity. All through the porous mass and in a thin layer between 88 . But both same way. held in a mixture of solids instead of being in pure liquid form. as shown in Fig. but cells. Together the two chemicals form a porous mass around the carbon rod. Like your cells. Their materials are selected to give these results. and manganese dioxide dissolves only slightly. of a central carbon rod surrounded mixture of powdered carbon and a chemical called manganese dioxide. Flashlight batteries are some- though they might more accurately be called "damp" cells. fills The The by a positive electrode It consists almost all the space inside the zinc cup. All through the porous mass the carbon particles touch and form a conducting network so that each manganese dioxide particle is electrically connected to the central carbon rod and its metal cap.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK compete with commercial flashlight batteries. 3-22. Carbon does not dissolve in water.

electrode The from thin layer is jellied and keeps the positive short-circuiting to the zinc electrode.paper between cap and jacket steel cap jellied sea electrolyte zinc cup paper steel jacket paper between manganese dioxide and powdered carbon impregnated with electrolyte insulator steel bottom and jacket bottom FIG. jell. 3-22 it and the zinc is the electrolyte. The electrolyte is a chemical called ammonium layer to starch is chloride with it some starch added in the thin see in a make a jelly. You will moment how the helped to 89 .

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK The cell. gen Product of reaction at Sodium atoms break water into Ammonia gas breaks up water. sodium ions Oxygen gen gas water. Chloride ions. num ions. top is sealed with pitch or plastic to make the it a "dry" as in The your reactions that take place are much same cell: REACTION Metal atoms in the negative electrode lose YOUR CELL FLASHLIGHT CELL Zinc Aluminum atoms become alumi- atoms be- come zinc ions. Ammonium gas ions become ammonia and hydrogas. Sodium atoms become again. Chloride ions. Corrosive ions help ionization of metal at negative electrode. Positive ions electrons take up from the posi- Sodium ions become sodium atoms. hydrogen gas (supplying electron needed) forming hydroxyl ions and am- monium again. tive electrode. Manganese dioxide. from ready Sodium hypochlorite. positive electrode breaks up water. source removes hydro- by forming 90 . ions and hydroxyl ions. and go into solution as positive electrons ions.

zinc. Mostly zinc oxide. which reac- helps the tions of this cell. The zinc chloride also helps make the starch gel. The zinc electrode has a to help prevent ammonium ions mercury on its surface from taking electrons from the electrode. of the positive electrode have together a huge surface area. Here are a few of little them. bonate maintains zinc chlorides low acidity. so that their concentration won't change during the early life of the cell with accompanying changes in internal resistance.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM REACTION Chemicals YOUR CELL elec- FLASHLIGHT CELL keep Sodium bicar- Ammonium and trolye at correct acidity to aid reactions. electrode are re- moved from as insoluble electrolyte compound. This provides plenty of zinc ions when the cell is new. The cell so differences between your it is cell and the flashlight cell are in details but the details which make a flashlight much more efficient than yours. ammonium ions The which would waste zinc and keep some from doing their main work at the positive happy from taking effect of also helping to prevent starch in the jellied part of the electrolyte has the ammonium ions electrons from the zinc. maintain high acidity. Electrons stream The tiny particles in the porous mass 91 . Metal ions from negative Aluminum hydroxide. which helps the reactions of this cell. The jelly has some zinc chloride dissolved in it.

through very Gases and Corrosion A freak cell can drive 4 or 5 One problem with of hydrogen gas and the cell is ammonia that very small quantities gas are given off. it must be made in two insulated pieces so that 92 is it . The zinc does not dissolve perfectly evenly. which can be thinner. amperes an external circuit of low resistance. the flashlight. hence today most cells are covered with a protective steel or plastic jacket. these gases would burst the seal. the highly corrosive electrolyte will leak out and damage You would be wasteful and not a positive protection. with a layer of paper between the and the zinc. The central carbon rod is made porous so that the gases can leak out through it past the seal. If the cell were sealed tightly. Thickening the zinc and by preventing damage to flashlights. The seal is tight near the zinc so that no air can get to the top of the electrolyte next to the zinc. can see that because the zinc acts as a container there needs to be more zinc than will dissolve during the life of the cell. the electrolyte is contained. If the jacket steel. This has the effect of producing They few low internal resistance.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK in through the carbon to billions of parallel-connected points where they are taken up by the ammonium ions. The jacket is for partly paid by a saving in zinc. If the zinc is jacket eaten through. This prevents accelerated eating away of the zinc caused atoms and by the presence of hydrogen oxygen there together. don't have to wait their turn to be taken up a million at a time. and if it is not thick holes will form and some of enough.

Not just any manganese size and crystal structure. inside the and some of them interfere Some of these undesirable reactions occur most readily when heavy currents are drawn. the cell and used will up nearly probably be disposed of before is the jacket eaten through. and forms of powdered carbon must be graphite and other 93 . (Unfortunately a little w ater evaporates. Even it is at % ampere the works used for only a few hours at a time. long history of practical experience lies behind the when no current A modern select flashlight cell. Other undesirable reactions is being drawn.) Since the jacket would is also be eaten through in time. are other reactions which take place with its life. or cell life selected for particle will suffer. It must be life. They reduce the voltage of the cell tem- porarily and increase its internal resistance permanently. Once the zinc is eaten through. the zinc still has to be the container. and this is another reason why cells go dead without being used. This is one reason why a cell goes dead in a few years even if it isn't used. too. During the rest periods the zinc ions have a chance to diffuse when through the go on even jellied electrolyte. For this reason ampere the current used by a flashlight % bulb is the most that should be a drawn from a cell for cell more than better few minutes. Just the right starch must be chosen. Manufacturers have learned how to and process their materials carefully to produce long dioxide will do. The insulation is slightly po- rous to allow the gases to escape.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM won't short-circuit the r cell. Other Reactions There cell.

Every substance used is subject to this kind of in careful selection. 6's in series in one steel a 6-volt "hot-shot" to run the lights on quire a age at vacuum-tube radios relow voltage at about % ampere and a high volta few hundredths of an ampere. however. A No. which are 6 inches tall and 2 % in diameter. and the battery contains 45 1 %-volt cells in series.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK mixed will proper proportions or the internal resistance be too high. Other sizes teries of cells in series are and shapes of cells and batmade for the wide range of flashlights and for other container is uses. Portable batteries are called A batteries. but it can supply is a few amperes for its several hours and gives more watt-hours over useful life. They can be two or more regular flashlight cells in series or several similar cells in series in one package. 1% volts at up to is A battery just % ampere for several hours at a time. called B batteries. and up to 4 amperes for a few moments. as you know. there are kinds for special uses. For big hand lanterns. The low-voltage a small boat. A common B battery voltage is 67%. They inches often use No. Because D cells won't serve every purpose. The high-voltage batteries. consist of many tiny cells in series in one package. A and B batteries come 94 . OTHER KINDS OF BATTERIES about the only voltage source you can put in your pocket. Four No. The flashlight batteries you have been working with give. 6 cell nothing more than a bigger version of a D cell. 6 cells. It also gives 1% volts. They are called D cells. current is many other much more required to give the greater light output.

the elec- trode energy is converted to chemical energy. for example. During becomes weak again by reacting with both electrodes. to mon mercury battery gives more watt-hours than a zinc-manganese dioxide battery of the same size. But storage times. Dry cells. trons Since a weak acid is less dense than a strong acid. Their disadvantages are that they are heavier and cost more per watt-hour. the 95 . or wet cells. can be recharged from a generator tery is an automobile storage batdischarged. produce the required current. During charge. batteries and other chemicals. a tiny A mercury batteries being the most com- mercury battery will outlast a tiny zinc-manganese dioxide battery. The other electrode is converted from lead sulfate to lead oxide and becomes the positive electrode. the lead giving up elec- the electrolyte discharge the sulfuric acid make and the lead oxide taking up electrons. This means that in a hearing aid.WHERE ELECTRONS COME FROM in many in series. There are other kinds of batteries which are made with of these. One elecis converted from lead sulfate to lead and becomes the negative electrode. and shapes but all consist of 1%-volt enough of them to add up to the required sizes cells voltage and each big enough different materials. At discharge. hence they are used only where small size and long are very important. life tery. once their internal resistance has risen owing to the deposit of zinc oxide are useless. both electrodes are lead sulfate and the many is When electrolyte trical weak sulfuric acid. The released sulfate ions strong sulfuric acid. are another kind of batStorage batteries. the sulfuric acid is weak and at full charge it is strong. which become lead sulfate again.

is not a chemical cell but consists of certain carefully prepared materials cell. the solar battery. is the current that needed when The battery supplies the engine is idling or stopped. and of course none when it is stopped. Most electrical energy is produced by generators. barely enough when it is idling and the headlights are off. When the engine is running fast the generator supplies the needs of the car and also charges the storage battery. But all batteries together provide only a very small proportion of the kilowatt-hours of electrical energy that are used throughout the world. Another kind of which convert strong light directly into electrical energy.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK garage man can test the state of a battery's charge by measuring the density of the acid with a hydrometer. 96 . and much of it is used in motors. which the subject of the next chapter. In an automobile the generator produces more current than is immediately needed when the engine is running fast. but in order to understand them is we shall have to know about magnetism. up These will be discussed in Chapter 5.

Magnetism is not electricity. Greek 97 . the modern electric system of generating and distributing countless electrical appliances power. and indeed many already netism. WHAT ARE MAGNETS? Like the phenomenon of static electricity.CHAPTER 4 THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM Many of the practical and familiar tricity to work today would devices that put elecnot exist were it not for mag- Other means of doing the things now done with exist. and. and basic principles will be examined in this chapter. but it is television as they now to closely related its it. radio and function would not be a part of our lives today. But motors in their present compact form. It is interesting in its own right. natural magnetism has been known for more than 2500 years. magnetism might be found. for that matter.

that the Chinese began using natural magnets.C.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK philosophers in the sixth century B. retain some magnetism. in contact magnet and It Whatever explana- tion of magnetism. home of a the Magnetes. will not become a magnet itself. Some Greek philosophers thought that these chunks of stone had magical properties. the Greeks was not 1000 later until some practical use for it. others explained their magnetic effect by assuming that the magnets had invisible hooks which attached themselves to invisible rings on the surface of the small pieces of iron iron. sixteen centuries later around saw no A. electricity began Pure iron. This didn't explain why some why became magnets with a their themselves when they were brought others did not. Iron containing 1 or 2% of carbon combined in it is called steel and will. as and magnetized pieces of iron. The Greeks type called these stones magnets because were found most they plentifully in the people called Greek province of Magnesia. It was another three hundred years before the important applications of magnetism to to be made. although it is attracted by a magnet. magnets stones that pointed the way. were the the reason why certain pieces of stone first to seek actually a special of iron ore had the ability to attract iron. studied magnets and wrote his classic work On magnetism in great detail and the Magnet. This accounts for the fact that some small pieces of ironthose that contained carbon 98 .D. In the following centuries the magnetic compass and came opened up the entire globe to to be known as loadstones explorers. In the sixteenth century an English physician. William Gilbert. compasses for navi- gation. when magnetized.

Magnetic poles might have been arbitrarily designated positive and negative. will swing around with one pole. and that the two ends are different. is ends of a magnet are called its poles. but it was discovered that a magnet. Today special very strong magnets called alnico magnets. MAGNETIC POLES You in a are probably familiar with the fact that magnetism magnet usually appears concentrated at its ends. for identifying the poles of a magnet was established long ways before the reason was north and the other is known why one end always pointed south when free to do so. up north near the geocalled the South graphic North Pole. One called the north pole and the other the south pole. The reason huge magnet running North Magnetic Pole. called the that the earth itself has magnetism. nickel. or and the other. being nearly pure iron. ural magnet steels made by combining iron with aluminum. and cobalt are used to make did not. and the other pole. One end of a magnet will attract it one end of another magnet and repel the other end. Turn around and it will repel the first end and attract the second end. Like The magnetic poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other. always the same one. That pole is called the north pole. as if there were a bar through the earth with one pole. 99 . pointing north.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM became magnets when brought into contact with a natmagnet and that some pieces. This convention points south. which al(rarely) the north-seeking pole. if suspended so that it can rotate freely in a horizontal plane. is called the south pole.

Although the early compasses Cut a piece of coffee can with tin snips. '/a- the center like Cut a 2" square of cardboard. snip from low end until it balances. and then like this. you can see that according to the con- North Magnetic Pole vention for identifying the poles of a magnet the North Magnetic Pole of the earth is magnetically a south pole. Put a tiny drop of oil in the dent. will come to rest pointing toward the of the earth. tiny dent for the pivot. magnetism was the were not very Balance pointer on point of pin. Hit it lightly with a hammer and nail to make Cover head with a piece of Scotch Tape. pin.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK Magnetic Pole. 4-1 . down south near the geographic South Pole. u Bend this . . FIG. MAKING A COMPASS The first practical application of compass. r in . Since the north pole of a magnet. and since unlike poles attract each other. suspended so it can turn freely. If pointer tilts down.

3. not 2. 4-1. 4-2 . When with flat. cut off top and bottom rims soldered joint of can tin snips. they a made great by r night. you will have to magnetize difficult. but be careful of the sharp edges. Cut along here with tin snips. and lift out.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM improvement in the art of navigation. they had no means of telling which w ay they were headed. Grab twist. After you have constructed the parts. Fig. inner rim with pliers. Cut out bottom with rotary can opener. 1 . You can make a compass by following Fig. this is With a good pair of tin snips. 4-2 shows how to cut up a coffee can to get sheet steel for the pointer and for later projects. When the weather was overcast. and flatten. Before the compass was invented navigators reckoned their direction from the sun by day and the stars accurate. 4. as it often is for days at a time at sea. FIG.

Mark and one end of the pointer of the one end of compass. they are restrained from moving by the rigid structure of the solid 102 . Then balance in a nearly pointer will line up north-south direction. Any piece of iron or steel is made up of billions of natural magnets which need no magnetizing. separate the two. If the north pole. where the sun rises. which are almost atomic in size. but. If they were free to move. If you don't already know which pin. since they are individually very weak magnets. 4-3. several times.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the pointer with your alnico magnet. they would arrange themselves north pole to south pole throughout the piece of substance. each magnetic particle has its magnetism neutralized or cancelled by one or more other elemental magnets. As a result. and return the marked end of the magnet to the marked end of the the pointer pointer. At the same time you will be able to identify the poles of your magnet. the marked end of your magnet north is on your left. Draw pointer and the magnet the magnet down the length of the pointer. these magnets. are arranged with their north and south poles in a random fashion. marked end of your is a compass points north. Hold your magnet the two marked ends together with the at right angles as in Fig. In an unrnagnetized piece of iron or steel. on the The end points north and which south. you can refer to a map or simply realize that when you face east. always in the Repeat the stroking operation same direction. HOW The is A MAGNET GETS MAGNETISM reason that the pointer became magnetized as it did as follows.

4-3 .marked ends of pointer magnet and magnet FIG.

the pointer you permanently some of the rearranged magnetic particles. the south poles of in the steel many of the magnetic particles were pulled around to point toward your mag- net by its very strong magnetism. is because magnetism carried easily through iron and steel. It is the nature of steel. and each successive time you permanently rearranged some more. pure iron cannot be used to make permanent steel magnets. As you moved your magnet down the length of the pointer away from the magnetic particles in the tip of the marked end. In only some of them spring back. 104 . causes them to spring back into place when the force is removed. as in Fig. that when the mag- owing netic particles are rearranged by a strong magnetic force some of them remain rearranged. in the pointer Some of the magnetic particles would become permanently rearranged. they began to rotate so that their south poles continued to point toward the north pole of your magnet. In pieces of iron that contain very little carbon. As you stroked on down the pointer. You have might simply touched the south pole of your magnet to the end of the pointer that you wanted to make the first The time you stroked north pole of the compass. this left many of the magnetic particles with their south poles pointing away from the marked end.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK piece. carbon atoms among to the arrangement of the the iron atoms. the magnetic particles are ar- ranged in a structure which. For this reason. 4-3. pole As you placed a pole of your magnet say the north at the marked end of the steel compass pointer. although it permits them to become rearranged under the influence of magnetic force.

Cut one of the halves two again. Remagnetize the . You will find that the ends of the two halves on in either side of the cut will attract each other and repel the opposite end of the other piece. you place the pointer back on the pin. its atoms are so agitated that the steel will lose any magnetism it may have had.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM but the pointer would not have been quite so strongly magnetized by that method. and its halves will act in the same way but less strongly. Straighten a paper clip and magnetize it with one end of your alnico in two at about magnet. Magnetism and Heat Since the rigid structure of an unmagnetized piece of steel prevents the magnetic particles from lining themselves up. Testing the Theory simple experiment can demonstrate the fact that a magnet is made up of many magnets end to end. why when it is The does not remain magreason is that when steel is it heated to very high temperatures but still well below its melting point. Cut the magnetized paper clip A the center. grip your compass pointer and hold the pointer over a gas flame until it is red hot. wipe it clean. the tip of a pair of at a point near its pivot pliers. you may wonder why molten steel does not a strong become netized magnet and cooled. With Dip that it When and relubricate the pivot. You can demonstrate this fact. you will find in water. when you and is spin the pointer it will stop at any random 105 position no longer a compass.

One reason is that the magnetic poles of the earth are not located at the which the geographic poles. pointing at the North Magnetic Pole also point true north. Because the locations of the magnetic poles are gradually shifting. The declination cannot be 106 . determined by comparing the reading of an accurate compass with the direction of true north as indicated by sightings on certain stars. In New York compasses point to the North Magnetic Pole. but there they point about 1 1 degrees to the west of true north.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK pointer with your magnet and it will once again be a compass. If you look it up on a large-scale map of you can see where it is in relation to the geographic North Pole. is The It is magnetic declination earth's surface known is places on the and accurately for most often recorded on maps. TRUE NORTH AND MAGNETIC NORTH Magnetic compasses do not point exactly toward the geographic North and South poles of the earth. the world. The North Magnetic Pole is located in northern Canada. west decimation when points west. when the compass points it east of true north. Indiana. the declination changes slowly over the years. This difference between true north and magnetic north east declination is called the decimation of magnetic north. and in San Francisco they point about 18 degrees east of true north. which are the ends of the axis on earth rotates. Compasses in Fort Wayne. and wanders between about 70 and 76 degrees north latitude and 95 and 102 degrees west longitude.

If it were magnetized. A compass magnetic is deflected by other things besides the earth's field. Iron and steel in the hull of a ship. it as you did your Straighten a paper clip and magnetize the magnetized Identify the poles of compass pointer. You will find that some spot on the bend attract either end of the compass pointer. com- And a steel wrench can see in false reading. for instance. Hold an un- can for inmagnetized piece of steel the lid of a coffee stancenear each tip of your compass pointer. paper clip. unlike unmagnetized iron and steel. Hold the clip double into the shape of a the bend near each end of the compass clip the two ends of the pointer with held away from the will compass. one of the would be sure to attract one end of the pointer spots chosen and repel the other. because local disturbances in the earth's magnetic field contribute to the declination at many places. but. A magnet will also deflect the compass pointer. necessitate corrections in the reading of a pass.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM determined solely by geometry and the known location of the magnetic poles. You your pocket can produce a how this works. repel the unmake or obtain. The north poles of the elemental magnets in the clip that face the pointer on one side of the neutral spot just balance the south poles 107 . of piece of steel is any magnet you if A magnetized several spots on it will attract either end of the compass pointer. Each will be attracted to the steel in turn. Now bend hairpin. each pole of a magnet will attract the unlike pole of the compass pointer and In this way you can identify the poles like pole.

An unusual arrangement of poles can be produced. a force of Magnetic poles. for example. of course. as in Fig. The force of gravity is is exerted radially out from the center of the earth. Straighten a paper clip and check with your compass to make sure that it is unmagnetized. somewhere on the clip. 4-4. THE MAGNETIC FIELD In your compass you have seen the force of a magnet exerted at a distance without the magnet's to touch having the object a piece of iron or another magnet on which it exerting the force. In much the same way the earth exerts its force of gravity on an object that is not touching the earth an airplane. always occur in pairs. There attraction. is one end of each natural magnetic particle is a north pole and the other is a south pole. Poles Can Be Anywhere poles of a The magnet are not always at its ends. The earth. 4-5. without sliding it clip along the clip. This pattern of . has magnetic poles. The force of attraction be- tween them 108 is distributed as in Fig. Bring the south pole of your alnico magnet straight down onto the center of the straightened and remove by lifting it straight up. You will discover that both ends of the clip are south poles! The north pole is.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK that face the pointer on the other can't test a side of the neutral spot. however. This explains why you only one spot on a piece of steel to see whether it is magnet. which doesn't have any ends except poeti- cally. only one kind of gravity. Find it with your compass.

FIG. 4-5 . 4-4 FIG.

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK force is called the magnetic field of the magnetic particle. 4-6 . as indicated the density of the lines. 4-5 are closest strongest. Notice that the total field is stronger. the of two magnetic particles opposite poles are near each other. Where the field is lines in Fig. the distribution of their fields changes together. 4-6. and also that the When by \ FIG. to that in Fig.

Since a magnet is composed of billions of magnetic particles arranged end to end. 4-7 .THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM pattern of the lines beyond the magnetic particles is much the same shape as for a single magnetic particle. The field in Fig. very similar to the pattern in Fig. is 4-6. as in Fig. 4-7. is it follows that the field out- side it. 4-7 much stronger than that in FIG.

but Fig.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK Fig. have to be solid black. a compass placed at various points in the this pattern You can with your magnet and compass. 4-7 if would the same scale of line density were used. The arrows in Figs. 4-6. Fig. 4-7 also shows how test the force of the field around a on magnet would act field. 4-8 . 4-5 to 4-8 show the direction along each FIG.

Magnetic Puppet Show and some paper puppets like the ones in Figs. When like poles of two magnets are brought end to end. Scotch Tape paper of head. clip to back FIG. When you hold an alnico magnet against the back of the stage it will Make a pasteboard stage be able to hold one of the puppets against the front of the Cut a box like this. or your mother.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM line in which the north pole of a compass would point if it were placed on the line. SOME PROJECTS INVOLVING MAGNETS Here are some things you can do with strong magnets sister to entertain a to please younger brother or and their friends. FIG. 4-9 Cut out paper figures. Decorate front. 4-10 . Cut out stage area and paste paper over opening from the back. the distribution pattern 4-8. is see rearranged as you it in Fig. Paint curtains and decorations around opening. 4-9 and 4-10 and decorate them.

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK stage by magnetic attraction for the paper clip at the pup- head. Make a race track and horses like the ones in Figs. 4-12 . etc. FIG. At the starting sigaround the track to the nal each tries to drag his horse finish line first. 4-11 Cut top view of horse out of paper and decorate. trees. grandstand. Magnetic Pot Holders and Notice Board can sew a tiny magnet into a pot holder and it will stick to a convenient spot on the side of the stove. 4-1 1 and 4-12. Decorate inside and outside of track with top views of people. Hold paper clip under head with Scotch Tape. But You Draw large sheet of poster board oval track. Each player holds and puts his starting gate his magnet under the track at the horse on top. pet's You can then move puppet will move with it magnet around. FIG. the Horse Race The same principle can be applied to a horse-race game. and the to act out a play.

ELECTROMAGNETISM An electric current flowing in a wire will deflect a nearby compass. Magnetism goes wire is insulation. This means that a current produces a magnetic field. because the bat- tery will be used up very rapidly. 4-13 is placed under the compass end of the pointer will swing east as in pointer.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM perhaps place! this A where you got your magnet in the first magnet will hold a shopping list or other paper is to the door of a steel kitchen cabinet. but. the north 115 . near and parallel to it. It doesn't matter if the wire is insulated. scrape it bare where you connect right through tant. if it is. side of the with the magnet's poles placed on either in Fig. 4-13. the will be pointing north and the wire will be run- compass ning north-south. Before you start. Keep the circuit closed for only a moment. 4-14. With the electrons flowing south in the wire. just A magnetic field is created around the wire as if the current produced a magnet around the wire. It is the internal resistance of the battery how much current flows about 4 amps. for a new cell. and then run- ning a current through the wire as in Fig. pass pointer as If the com- wire in Fig. it to the battery. the north end of the pointer will swing around to point west. The size of the unimpor- A short piece of any of the wire you have used will which will determine have almost no resistance compared to the internal resistance of the battery. you will remember. You can see this by holding a wire above your compass pointer.

If we employ the convention that was used in Figs. This is really another way of saying that with electrons flowing in a wire a cir- had been created with produced around the wire. 4-13 electron flow N FIG.electron flow north FIG. the arrows on the circular cular magnetic field is 116 . 4-16. 4-14 Fig. A magnetic field its is produced just as if a magnet poles located on either side of the compass pointer as in Fig. 4-15. 4-4 to 4-8 for drawing magnetic fields.

If you point the thumb of your 117 . 4-15 electron flow FIG. 4-16 field would point in a clockwise direction if the electrons in the wire flow toward you. The Left-hand Rule of the can remember the position of the poles created around the wire by using what imaginary magnet You is called the left-hand rule.north FIG.


FIG. 4-17


hand along the wire

in the direction of electron flow,

the tips of your fingers will represent the north pole and the heel of your hand the south pole of the magnet created.



illustrated in Fig. 4-17.

Turns of Wire Carrying Current

The magnetic


created around a wire carrying a



not very strong even when a heavy current, 4 amperes, is flowing. Since there are weak imagiall

nary magnets created

along the length of the wire, the


electron flow

FIG. 4-18

field can be concentrated in one place to make a stronger magnet by looping the wire into a turn as in Fig. 4-18. Then the magnets formed around each small


section of the turn combine to


a single stronger



Fig. 4-18 against the left-hand rule to see that

the magnets have been



The Left-hand Rule


applies to finding the poles of the


left-hand rule

magnet formed by
electron flow

a turn of wire, but there



FIG. 4-19

version of the rule which


easier to use.


the fingers

of your left hand pointed around the turn in the direction of electron flow, the tip of your thumb represents the

north pole of the magnet created. This
Fig. 4-19.


illustrated in




version of the left-hand rule

against Fig. 4-18.

The Size

of the


strength of the magnetic field formed by a turn of wire carrying a given current is the same regardless of



the size of the turn. Since there are

more inches of wire
and since each inch

in a larger turn than in a smaller turn,

amount of magnetism, there is more magnetism produced in the larger turn, but the magnetism produced is more spread out. You can see this idea
of wire produces the same

one-pound weights spread out on a floor. Suppose you have 100 of them spread out evenly on a 10-foot-square floor and another 25 of them


you imagine

a lot of

spread out evenly on a 5-f oot-square floor. In each case you would have a load on the floor of 1 pound per square foot,

even though you had four times


much weight on

the 10-

foot-square floor as on the 5 -foot-square floor. In this example the total weight is like the amount of magnetism,

and the weight per square foot


like the strength of the


The magnetic


generated in air

produced by a turn of wire carrying without any iron's being present.

placed inside the turn, however, the magnetic field becomes much stronger, for reasons that will become

If iron is

moment. The magnetic field around a turn of not moving, but there is a parallel between it and a current in a It circuit. is almost as if the flowing magnetic
clear in a


force around the turn were a voltage and the air in which it exists were a conducting path of high resistance. When
a piece of iron is placed inside the turn, it is as if part of the highly magnetic-resistant air were replaced with a good conductor of magnetism. If a conductor is



poor conductor in an electric good



more current

flows. In a magnetic circuit

more magnetism



The more of the






iron, the


produced. Fig. 4-20 shows



better magnetic circuits around a turn. The equivalent of resistance in an electric circuit is called reluctance in a

FIG. 4-20

the strength of your electromagnet when current is flowing in the coil will be much than when the current is turned off.. BUILDING AN ELECTROMAGNET can build an electromagnet with a core similar to the one in Fig. the more magnetism produced. in a magnetic circuit. Ampere-turns is the number of amperes flowing multiplied flow. the more magnetism produced. as the current flows Still around each turn of the coil. 4-20B. and E> a low-reluctance magnetic circuit. 122 . 4-20. by the number of turns through which they ampere-turns applied to a given magnetic circuit.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK In Fig. Finally squeeze the bends tight with the pliers. A shows a high-reluctance magnetic circuit. Also. The last You can % two bends are made all the way with the pliers. the more iron The more and the less air in a magnetic circuit. Make the core from a strip of coffee inch wide and 7 inches long. using a pair of pliers to start the bends straight along the bend lines. greater Bend the strip as in Fig. 4-21. being careful of the sharp edges. Ampere-turns more magnetic force is produced if more turns of wire are added to form a coil. The equivalent of voltage in an electric circuit is called ampereturns. which is the unit of magnetic force. Then fold the bend the rest of the way by hand. the magnetism produced is added to the magnetism produced in the other turns. Although coffee-can steel does retain some permanent magnetism. Then. magnetic circuit.

4. . 4A.Fold in painted side. Same as 4 but showing actual appearance after all bends are squeezed flat.

the tips the iron it is make good magnetic contact with going to attract. FIG. 4-22 flat surface Place the core with see that both its tips touching a flat surface. 4-23 so none of edges will cut into the enamel on the magnet wire will the core bare so that when you wind the coil. along their edges as in Fig. in Fig. 4-23 . 4-2 2B.core core flat surface FIG. twist the core until they do. and 4-2 2 A tips rest flat all as If they do not. Leave the of tips when the core is a magnet. Wrap that the core with Scotch its Tape as in Fig.

unwind the wire a turn at a time from the chair. 20 turns (600 di- vided feet. Count FIG. 4-24 until 2 feet of wire is left. As you wind your magnet.) Start with 2 feet of wire free for making the connection to the batteries. Since there are 600 inches in 50 feet. Suppose you measure 30 inches. The best way is to measure with a tape measure how long a piece will go once around the back of a chair. hence you will have to handle it carefully. and then wind the wire around it. (If you pull the wire from either the coil or the chair back. and wind as in Fig. 4-24 . magnet o Ahmet o wire kinks easily because very thin. by 30) around the back of the chair will be 50 Attach one end of your magnet wire to the back of the chair first.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM Measure off 50 feet of it is wire. you will kink it.

USING THE ELECTROMAGNET slide each end of the operate your electromagnet. you did FIG. with your electromagnet. (Turns it is are easier to count you use counters pennies or paper clips to keep track of the hundreds. wire under one of the paper clips that hold the battery in your conductivity tester so that each wire is held in good To contact with one of the terminals of the battery. Test your conclusion with your compass. Remember that electrons come out of the bottom of your battery and go back into the small cap. While . Then it by a wrap from coming undone. 4-25 Fig. Otherwise whole hundred. It shows the schematic symbol for the electrois the symbol for a coil combined with a sym- bol to indicate that the coil has a core. Figure out which end of your electromagnet is the north pole by applying the left-hand rule. such as an empty Band-Aid box. Try 126 picking up an iron or steel object. Clean in Chapter core 1.) You to keep tape around the coil both ends of the wire as easy to miscount should get about 400. 4-25 magnet.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the if number of turns you make.

Magnet wire. there would be fewer the same logic. Since very in the core. the box will fall. If more than 50 feet had been used. so the result would have been about the same number of ampere-turns. magnetism remains Why the Coil Was Made as It Was Here is how the coil of the electromagnet was designed. fewer feet would have 6 ohms resistance. a heavier. ampere available for the 30. almost every manufac- 127 . your electromagnet will have about 100 (% AWG ampere times 400 turns) ampere-turns of magnetic force. It was decided that the magnet should draw only /4 ampere so that it could be operated continously from one battery. disconnect one wire of little the electromagnet. Fifty feet of it has 6 ohms resistance. Since the current would still ampere-turns. with its very thin insulation.) battery will force /4 ampere through 6 ohms. longer wire is % would have given more ampere-turns.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM the box is suspended in the air. so there would have been fewer have been turns. If a finer wire had been used. (You will remember from Chapter 3 why /4 will permit continuous operation. This the kind of logical process that is used in the design of every piece of electrical apparatus indeed. Since this much 30 wire will give about 400 turns around your core. By ampere. which has a 1% volt The wire coil is American Wire Gauge Number resistance of little more than %o ohm A per foot. was used because 50 feet give more turns than would 50 feet of wire with thicker insulation. there sistance and would have been more turns but more reless current.

Measuring the Lifting Force of Your Electromagnet You will until can measure how much weight your lift by adding pennies to electromagnet an empty Band-Aid box your electromagnet just can't lift it. A small BandAid box weighs very roughly 2 ounces. However. to install the batteries with the cap of one against the base of the other. You will need 4 nails 1-7. because you will be drawing about % ampere. You can nearly double the lift of the electromagnet by connecting it to two batteries in connected very long. 5-33 and the principles used in the construcseries. and 9 pennies weigh about an ounce. don't leave it tion of the battery part of the conductivity tester. and the base of the first and the cap of the second against the bent paper clips. The two clips used to make contact with the ends of the bat1 tery in Fig. Magnetic Lift for a Crane can attach your electromagnet to the hook of a crane and wire it to a toy battery holder inside the body of the crane. Then you can turn the electromagnet . You can make a two-battery holder for this and later uses by following Fig. Be sure and a rubber band to hold each battery as in Fig. Mount a switch on the outside of the You body and wire 128 it in series.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK tured article is designed in the same thoughtful way to take best advantage of existing materials and get optimum the most effective combination of sevperformance by eral variables. 1-4 should be held down with nails 6 /* inches apart instead of 3% inches as in the figure.

and you can turn it off when you the pieces. In the next chapter other applications of electromagnets are examined to see uses.THE NATURE OF MAGNETISM on when you have the magnet touching pieces of iron or steel and you want to lift them and the magnet towant to drop gether. how they are put to many important 129 . Steel mills and junk yards use huge magnets on cranes in this manner. They make it much easier to lift odd or sizes and lots of small pieces without attaching hooks first loading them into large containers.

Modern lanterns burning kerosene and gasoline give excellent light. practical need. and to play have seen how it can manufacture chemicals. to do computations. Most of the chemicals manufactured by electrical means can be manudicators factured by other processes as well. there is some other means available to accomplish the same purpose. Electricity is used for these purposes it to serve some case. we lift produce magnetism which can hold things them. used because better- ISO . Heat can be pro- In each duced by burning coal and oil. games. how and We can be used to produce have seen it used to indicate when electricity We We have seen while events have occurred. Mechanical inand computers are widely used.CHAPTER 5 MOTORS AND GENERATORS We light have seen heat. it is When electricity it is is used to do practical jobs. however.

Electricity is because it is best. or Is cleaner. r means the least manpower. and the hands of a clock. and by no clothes in a washing machine.MOTORS AND GENERATORS cheaper. But electricity can provide the 131 . or clean is If another means better in a chimney. often chosen to do a job. and the and a phonograph record. Electric heaters don't use oxygen. or more convenient. faster. There are many sources of power for making things move. and it is chosen but first there is always some practical job to be done. mixer. Steam engines. or without byproducts for which there may be no market. water pow er. adjust burners. Electric computers can do their work faster than mechanical ones. It produces light and heat without your having to handle fuel. and the car of an elevator. You will remember that a magnetic crane doesn't require a hook to be attached to its load nor do small pieces have to be loaded into large^ containers. electricity electricity is often best. and the lever on a We move the rotor of a water pump. trim a wick. or safer. it necessary to keep a window open and which absorbs much of the output of the heater. A kerosene heater uses up oxygen in a room. One is of the most important kinds of things. let in making cold air. We move the beaters of a kitchen food moving switch. and furniture. light it with a match. work in the world We move trains. or enough of these ways. gasoline engines. Electricity may produce a chemical at a lower cost or of a greater purity than by other means. not but used.

by the sun. Potential energy is the energy stored in an object being at a converted height. like all en- ergy. and coal and oil were formed from plants which converted sunlight into chemical energy. This energy of motion. which came like the clouds.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK power see to move things. The potential energy in the book was from the kinetic energy of the arms of the person who by virtue of its put the book on the table. The energy in water held in a dam potential energy on the from table. work is is an important source of energy for water power. and it is often the best choice. Let's why.) The chemical energy stored in food ical was converted by given off the sun. The water is energy in the book accumulated rain. (You have seen chem- energy converted directly to electrical energy in the battery you made. which were formed by evaporation of water (Atomic fuels are radioactive elements which 132 . SOME KINDS OF ENERGY An in object in motion has energy stored it in a form called kinetic energy. In addition to practical fuels. which was stored in the book while it was on the table. All our fuels got their is energyenergy from and natural of Wood a plant. has to in a come from somewhere. gas plants from light a form by the sun. The kinetic energy in the person's arms was converted by his muscles from chemical energy stored in the food he ate. The is kinetic energy book falling off a table converted from another form of energy called potential energy.

Or your 133 . In a flour mill the drive shaft of the water wheel can be con- steam engine can turn nected directly to the grindstone. on ditioner. The output of these engines is kinetic energy in their moving drive shafts. hand or a food mixer. which another form of energy. But imagine a gasoline or steam engine in place of the electric motor in an air conimagine a the clock long thin shaft from a dam 10 miles away to wall. Fuels are usually burned.) ENERGY AND WORK In order to do the practical work of moving things. down- next problem is to get the kinetic energy of the drive shafts of the steam or diesel engine or the water The wheel transferred to the thing we want to move. their chemical energy thus being converted into heat. a long shaft to which many machines in a factory can be A connected by gears or belts. we have to convert the chemical energy stored in fuels or the potential energy stored in water into kinetic energy in the thing we want to move. formed the planets. and the hair drier. as a result. or a drill. or it can expand gases (the is chemical products of the burned fuel) to operate gasoline or diesel engines.MOTORS AND GENERATORS probably came from another ploded billions of years star like the sun which ex- ago and. The heat can boil water to operate a steam engine. We can also produce wheel from kinetic energy in the drive shaft of a water the potential energy of water by running the water stream or through a pipe from a dam. There are the oil burner.

and the sewing machine. There are the coffee grinder.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK and the movie projector. where the water stored or the fuel is burned. they waste much of the stored energy of fuel in converting it to kinetic energy. is desired do the The an electric motor large enough energy can come through wires from is is a distant place. and the electric refrigerator. The central electric power station offers another great advantage. you would have to go through life without many day. And 134 . All that is needed at the place where the to movement job. Small gasoline and diesel engines and small steam boilers are less efficient than large ones. and the knife sharpener. There is even an electric motor in some toasters to raise and lower the bread. of the conveniences that you take for granted every is can see that one of the big advantages of electricity that there need be no shaft between the thing we want You to move and the machine which converts the chemical energy of fuel or the potential energy of stored water into kinetic energy. and the washing electric fan. even though the kinetic energy produced in the engines has to be changed to electrical energy by means of generators and back to kinetic energy by motors. Instead of converting its drive its machines. and the blender. There are the machine. If kinetic energy could be produced only by gasoline or steam engines or by water wheels or by your own physical efforts. a small factory can own fuels to buy energy for much less money from a large and efficient central power station.

the same force of attraction between unlike charges is used to cut down the smoke of factory chimneys by moving the smoke air particles out of the exhaust gases and thus reducing pollution. But inventors discovered that for most practical purposes motion could best be produced by electricity as it works through the medium of electromag- netism. You can't simply an on one side of a room and a put electromagnet piece of steel on the other and expect them to fly together when the current is turned on. So before we see how magnetism put to work inside a motor. the force of electric it sufficient. is from the only practical means of transa dam to the place where work has Even before there were electric motors. We have through seen this move ions around inside an electrolyte. lift your force hair will A comb charged by running tiny scraps of paper. If it is to produce motion efficiently. The question \vas how to make electricity produce motion.MOTORS AND GENERATORS the electric current ferring energy to be done. small objects. magnetism must be applied in carefully arranged ways. in which electromagnetism produces motion. let's look at an important but simpler device called a relay. inventors envi- sioned these advantages of using electricity to move things. is THE RELAY A relay not by nothing more than a switch which your hand but by an electric current. To move charge is very light. is is operated A simplified 135 .

) When the current flows through the electromagnet.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK relay ates.) off. the magnetic force closes the switch. 5-1 so you can symbol see how it oper- (Note that the schematic consists of a com- bination of the symbol for an electromagnet and the symbol for a switch. 5-1 . (This is indicated in the schematic symbol by the broken wire to circuit switch contacts closed spring attached electromagnet / to relay frame iron or steel wire to circuit CURRENT IN ELECTROMAGNET (Switch is NO CURRENT (Switch is IN ELECTROMAGNET on.) O- SCHEMATIC SYMBOL FIG. is shown in Fig.

For these reasons.MOTORS AND GENERATORS line. much Before we build a relay. Moreover. big relays are used to do the switching. a spring pulls the switch back to the off position. which would be costly and dangerous. the switch can be built to be used close circuits carrying much greater currents greater voltages. This means that the magnet open or requires only enough current and voltage to itself move to at the switch.) When the current is turned off. The generators produce huge currents The mammoth switches required are too high big and heavy. but to prevent switching mistakes. First. as 137 . To understand the operation of the relay. to permit them to be operated by hand. voltages. and the voltages they handle are too high. Remote S witchi?ig r erators In every central power station there are many genwhich must be switched onto and off the power lines as the use of current increases and decreases during at the day. it is important that all switching be controlled from one central location. you must note two important points. these switches must be placed at widely separated places around the power station. let us look at some specific applications. the switch which supthe electromagnet can be at a distance from plies power to the relay. Second. the circuit of the electromagnet and the circuit of the switch are not connected electrically. These will illustrate several general situations in which relays can be used today in industry or in the home.

5-2 in Fig.power . Instead a relay is placed at the motor. 5-2. The motor requires heavy wiring. smaller than the first ones. your own house is turned off and on by a thermostat that is. Then light wires to carry the current to operate the relay are run to a small switch at the control point. Because of their size. even their magnets re- not nearly so heavy as quire heavy currents although their switch contacts can handleand fairly big switches are needed to operate the relays themselves. It would be expensive and cumbersome to detour these heavy wires to a point from which it would be convenient to control the operation of the motor. and then install a heavy switch at that point. fit on the The same sort of use for relays is found at the other end of the power line wherever large motors are employed. The switches to operate these smaller relays do control panel. The thermostat 138 . You can see how important this is if many motors oil are to The burner in be controlled from one point. are used. and the heavy wires are run direct.1 FIG. Because even these switches are too big to fit on the control panel. lines f 4 control panel . additional relays. a temperature-operated switch located in some part of the living area.

The whose contacts larger relay. When it is it stopped and only then- has to run a motor to open its own When the passenger is inside. and then back to the basement. It employs a number of complex must be possible to call the elevator from each stop itself floor. he presses a button to send the car to a new floor. in turn. Simplifying Complex Circuits A self-service elevator control circuits. One kind of photoelectric cell produces a small Another voltage when light by the cell can be falls on made small current generated to operate a very sensitive relay it. and it can be made inconspicuous. are many has to stop for him. but the car cannot door.MOTORS AND GENERATORS much operates a relay which switches on the oil burner. say. are big enough to close the circuit of a which can. The use of the relay also saves running heavy wires from the basement to the thermostat in. If. there a waiting passenger. move is until it has closed its own door. operate other electrical equipment in response to changes in light. smaller thermostat can operate the relay than would be required to operate the oil A burner directly. on its way. For example. Tiny Currents to Control Large Ones application of the relay permits a very weak source of power to be used to start or stop a heavy current. The it when elevator has to trip a switch and arrives at the right floor. street lights can be turned on automatically is when the sensitive photoelectric cell "sees" that it getting dark. it And there 139 . the living room. other functions.

the bend tight Finally squeeze with pliers (C) The second and third bends (D and ) . . being careful not to cut yourself. when a person rings for the elevator. using a pair of pliers to start the first bend straight along the bend line. you can build one which you can put to still other uses. 5~3A. he doesn't want to have to course. and the heavy power cables would have to be routed down the car's supporting cables to each of the buttons inside the car and around the building to the switches on each floor. you will learn how to make "remember. first bend the rest of the way by hand are made all the is way with pliers. there is Of a lot keep the button pressed until the car relay "remembers" where the car was arrives. The last two bends (G and H) 140 made by hand. like the first. Then fold the (B). Bend number four (F). more to controlling an elevator than turning the motor on and off. Start by cutting a strip of coffee can (see Fig. and finally squeezed tight with are completed by hand. When the car finally arrives. the relay is made to "forget" and is readied to "remember" a new call. started with pliers.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK each button or trip switch had to turn the elevator motor on or off. Bend that Now the strip as in Fig. each would have to be very large to If handle the heavy current. Instead a called. pliers. 4-2) for the core H inch wide by 11 inches long. you build your When it relay. For instance. The use of relays permits these switches and wires to be conveniently small." BUILDING A RELAY you understand some of the many uses for relays.

with pliers Start with pliers. by hand by hand FIG. 5-3 H .by hand with pliers Squeeze. Squeeze with pliers. Finish by hand.

5-5 . way in at the points shown Then slide one end of upholsterer's nails or more FIG. 5-5. Drive two upholsterer's nails nearly all the in Fig. to hold the layers together. up start -inch-long 4-layer-thick part as indicated in the figure. 5-4 so edges will cut into the enamel insulation on the magnet wire when you wind the coil. 5-4 Wrap none of the core with Scotch its Tape as in that Fig. Select a piece of wood at least 1 2 inches A inch with a piece around the 1 by by 3 inches. Since the springiness of the steel tends to make the core open tape start FIG.

upper end of the core. it as wire around and wrap the bell shown.FIG. Now its cut a piece of bell wire 4 inches long and remove insulation. Lift the longer. 5-6 the core under the nail heads as drive the nails feet of all shown in Fig. leaving 1-foot ends. which will be the moving arm. FIG. as you did in making the electromagnet. 5-7 . Wind magnet wire on the core. following the directions on page 125. 5-6 and 50 the way in to hold the core. The wire will be the common as in Fig. 5-7.

twist the arm so that the sides of the gap are parallel Drive an upholsterer's nail over a paper clip as shown in Fig.upholsterer's nail common-contact terminal FIG. To press hard enough at the point shown so that after the upper end do this you will have to you let go and the moving arm springs back. like the moving paper clip in the single-pole double-throw switch in Fig. as in Fig. If not. a Crush the turns electrical tight to the core with pliers to insure good and mechanical connection. 5-8 to make a terminal for the common tester to see that this (Use your conductivity terminal and the commonpaper clip contact. it leaves a gap of %2 Make sure that the arm is Ys2 inch away all along the upper edge of the core. Bend the it is moving arm up until %2 inch from of the core. inch. 144 . 5-8 contact of the switch part of the relay. 2-10. 5-8.

clips. 5-9. Bend two paper clips and. Add a third nail and a paper terminal clip 4" plus thickness of base separate terminal FIG. Start % with a piece of wood at least inch by 3 by 5 inches.MOTORS AND GENERATORS contact wire on the electrically moving arm are actually connected ready to make the other contacts of the switch part of the relay. using mount them together with two other as shown in Fig. upholsterer's nails. Your relay is going to be a singledouble-throw pole type-that is. 5-9 .) are you one circuit to another. it will switch a wire from Now through the moving arm.

and it will also serve another common contact on pulled over by the electromagnet. The contact on called the normally it open contact because the common contact will touch only when current is flow- ing through the coil. Since the relay core is 146 . bend the normally contact until it touches the common contact on the Now open moving the arm.) The common contact and the normally closed contact are held together their so as to make a firm connection. and then bend it a little farther so that when moving arm the is normally open contact will be bent slightly against their springiness. bend it back and start over. both the moving arm and the purpose. (If you bend the contact too far. press the moving over. without bending it permanently.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK clip to be used as a separate terminal for later work. by springiness To arm adjust the normally open contact. 5-10.) Bend space between the upper end of the core and the moving arm after you let go is reduced by half. until it touches the upper end of the core. (In schematic diagrams the common contact is always shown touching the normally closed the normally closed contact so that it presses against the common contact on the moving arm and pushes it toward the core until the %2-inch contact. This will make for good electrical contact. The contact on the right in Fig. 5-10 is called the normally closed contact because the common contact will touch it when no the left is current is flowing in the coil. Adjustments The contacts must now be carefully adjusted. Finally join the two pieces of wood together as in Fig.

normally closed normally contact open contact V nails common contact N \ \ FIG. 5-10 ..

tiny sparks jump between the contacts as they are opened. do a research project on why this is If Commercial alloy which relays usually have contacts of a special does not oxidize and hence never needs cleaning or they clean themselves by rubbing together. we might have arm longer so that it could act as the made the moving contact common instead of the copper wire.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK weak permanent magnet once the coil is energized. silver you study metallurgy in college. its will exert a force on the moving arm which will aid own tact springiness in overcoming the permanent magnetism. light. (You will have to clean the condevelop high resistance tacts carefully when they from time to time with fine sandpaper. and these sparks cause the contact surfaces to oxidize and should be making good low-resistance contact. it will become a the core when current is turned off in the coil. you may want true. This extra force is exerted only until the common con- and normally open contact it separate.) The oxidation process seems to progress clips paper more slowly with wire than with paper clips touching copper to touching coffee can. Its permanent magnetism may be strong enough to hold the moving arm to made of coffee-can steel. between the normally closed contact terminal and the common terminal The tester bulb 148 . Test your relay by connecting your conductivity tester should. of course. In designing the relay. When you have it adjusted the normally open contact properly. It doesn't work to against the electromagnet when we air don't want it when is first is turned on the magnet's pull on the moving arm weakest because the gap is at its largest. But when the relay is operated.

you can connect it to the open-door indicator you that the circuit will "remember" made in Chapter 2 so door has been opened. moving arm to the normally closed USING YOUR RELAY Now that your relay is working. When and "forget" when the you understand the circuit 149 . Your relay was designed as it was is to use available materials. thus will have 100 ampere-turns producing magnetism (see page 122) when you use your 1%-volt flashlight battery. Shift the lead of the conductivity tester from the normally closed contact terminal to the normally open contact terminal. and netism. and the tester bulb will go out. bigger relays could have many thousands of ampere turns and a much thicker iron or steel path for the magness in the moving arm. Now disconnect the coil from the separate battery. fulfills You can see that the relay design efficient two of is the requirements for as that of magnetism. examine the relay carefully and readjust the contacts and moving arm if necessary. You also have a low-resistance path for the magnetism: four thicknesses of coffee can through the coil and the two legs. Of course. a thick- a very small air gap. and therefore you don't need a separate spring to return the contact. steel is One advantage of the design that coffee-can springy.MOTORS AND GENERATORS Then connect moving arm a separate battery to the relay coil. The will be attracted to the magnet. The you coil the same your electromagnet. If all these actions do not occur. and the bulb will again light. and the bulb should again go out.

2-5). this time through the relay contacts. You can turn off the light by opening the "forget" switch. 150 . 5-11 you will be able to see that it has advantages over your previous open-door indicators. But since the coil of your relay will also be energized. The intruder can do nothing to turn off the light unless he sabotages the relay or opens the "forget" switch. which are hidden in your room. Trace through the schematic to see how the current flows the relay will close.door switch p*^* long wires conductivity rela / > tester "forget switch FIG. 5-1 1 shown in Fig. the common contact and the normally open contact of closed again the bulb will remain lit. Trace the schematic and you will see that when the contacts on the door switch are closed because the door has been opened the bulb will light. The circuit includes your signal-while-door-is-open switch (Fig. if is Now the door to keep the coil energized.

circuits in Information tained until: re- Light is seen and is "forget" switch opened. Method of retain- ing information: Lighted bulb. When remain you close the "forget" switch again. Waiting passenger pushed button. permit waiting passenger to release button. the bulb will off until the door switch is closed by the door's being is this circuit opened again. Complex elevator. Reason for retain- ing information: Door can be To closed again. Perhaps most common one of all is the ordinary doorbell or are 151 .MOTORS AND GENERATORS which de-energizes both the bulb and the relay. you can reset it without approaching the door and attention to the door switch. Another advantage of that calling This "memory" circuit and the one in the elevator do much the same thing. Car is ready to act on information and approaches floor and operates trip switch. self-service OUR CIRCUIT ELEVATOR CIRCUIT Information tained: re- Door was opened. THE BUZZER There the many other applications of relays.

the moving arm begins to disconnect the common contact from the closed contact. As soon as it is energized. You is can see from the schematic that when the switch closed. The arm has normally to move some small distance before the contacts separate. 5-12 buzzer. 5-12. 152 . You it can convert your relay into a buzzer by con- necting as shown in Fig.SCHEMATIC to two-battery holder FIG. the relay coil is energized.

The cycle from moving whole framework of the buzzer and all of these moving parts create vibrationsthat is. occurring at the rate of about 300 times second. sound waves vibrates the closed to open to closed again is very rapid. by changing the tension on can estimate the vibration of your buzzer by trying to match its pitch with that of a particular piano note. The number of times per secand therefore the ond. where the contacts again close and the whole cycle is repeated. the time. and because Because the buzzer circuit remains closed only part of it takes a tiny but measurable frac- tion of a second for the current to build the average current is less than the magnetism is weaker than when the relay % up in the coil. but it is no longer attracted by the electro- magnet because the electromagnet has been de-energized. can be adjusted. as in all buzzers. It will You probably be close to the pitch of one of the fol- lowing notes: Note: Vibrations Middle C D E F 349 G 392 A B C 524 same per second: 262 294 330 440 494 Each note in the scale has twice the vibrations of the note in the octave below. The moving arm under its continues to move a further small distance own momentum. The arm per in the surrounding air. the circuit is broken. the contacts. For this reason is operated 153 .MOTORS AND GENERATORS but when they do. pitch of the buzzer's sound. The springiness of the moving arm soon stops it and returns it to the starting position. ampere.

the sound will be amplified. 5-13 on steady current. A you one way of using relay doesn't produce 154 . chine. The magnetism is also weaker because the air gap between the moving arm and the magnetic loop is almost never closed. Then you won't have to keep your eye on the bulb. hence two is batteries (see Fig. 5-13. MOTORS Building the relay has shown electricity to produce motion. the buzzer will and the unanimous voting magive you an audible instead of a visual indication as in Fig. the game with the stair-light circuit.' to switch to switch ^fi v_x ' THE BUZZER THE CONDUCTIVITY TESTER FIG. In the penny-pitch. You can use the battery and buzzer combination in place of the conductivity tester in some of the circuits you constructed in Chapter 2. If you place the buzzer on top of an empty coffee can. 5-33) are needed to make a sound that adequately loud.

To get motion along a line from magnetism. can lift an elevator around a drum. we would have to design a much more intricate arrangement. and. But a motor. Suppose you wanted to move a small car along a track. as the car approached. In this way only one man working if the car wasn't too steadily would be required. could station a man and each trip. as in an elevator or an electric train. is produced is useful many Many other practical purre- poses require considerably more motion. man would work for only a few moments each Now suppose you had a rope running along the track. 155 . You would need 50 men for every 100 feet the car traveled. For the same reason we can't expect a magnet in Chicago lift to pull a train in New York. as in an electric fan. could give it a push.MOTORS AND GENERATORS much for motion. or can drive a train Let's see by winding its cables by turning its wheels. as in fans is much more suitable for producing motion along a line than some intricate arrangement for producing it directly. which produces directly rotary motion. You every 2 feet along the track who. and one man on the car pulled himself and the car along by pulling on the rope. why a rotary motor in addition to being obvi- ously suitable for rotary motion. Six floors of gap in the magnetic circuit would have so much reluctance that the magnet would have to be impossibly powerful to a tiny elevator. or for that matter even a paper clip. The motion be rotary. but the motion that practical purposes. Obviously we can't put an electromagnet at the top of an elevator quired may shaft and expect the steel elevator to rise to the is top of air the shaft when the magnet turned on. or along a line.

5-14 shows a highly simplified picture of a motor. You will see that the upper end of the rotor (the part that turns) would be a north pole. twisting the lead wires as it does so. the left-hand end of the stator (the part that stands can rotate. the in ported at the ends so that move left any to be supit could only rotate and not the but shaft direction. (In a working motor. as you know from your everyday experience. In order to see why. scheme would work well. HOW A MOTOR WORKS Fig. observing the way the coils are wound and the battery is connected. But when by the ends of the rotor pass the center of the poles of the 156 . then we will build one. along the railroad tracks or along the sides of an elevator shaft would be impractical. When the rotor is lined up with the poles of the stator. it will continue to move its own momentum. let us first see how they work. 4-19). magnetic attraction Since the shaft (of unlike poles) and repulsion (of like poles) will swing the rotor around so that it will line up horizontally between the two poles of the stator. as would still) . rotary motors are both practical and economical. to rotary movement of his hands essentially similar being motion. because there would have to be so many magnets Any scheme with magnets all that the cost would be prohibitive.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the heavy and the wheels had easy-to-turn bearings. supports have been shaft would have out so that we can see the workings more clearly.) Apply the left-hand rule (see Fig. Note that he would have to the pull hand-over-hand in a constantly repeating pattern. But.

and eventually come to rest lined up horiProviding. attracted by the magnetism of the stator. this is motor obviously more motor The Commutator What is it is needed to make the shaft rotate continuously to disconnect the coil of the rotor is some arrangement when nearly lined up horizontally.rotor stator FIG. does. 5-14 stator. and then reconnect it so that current flows in the opposite direction through the coil soon after it has swung beyond the horizontal posi- 157 . useful in teaching principles than in producing rotation. only a quarter turn of rotation. as it zontally. they will swing back.

no electron flow

FIG. 5-15

This reversal of current will reverse the poles of the rotor. The end of the rotor near the right-hand end of

the stator



will continue to

move by mo-

mentum and by its new repulsion for that end of the stator. The arrangement must then re-reverse the rotor connections


the rotor


again nearly horizontal.

shows such an arrangement, which is called a commutator and brushes. When the rotor is spun to start it, the uppermost end will always be a north pole
Fig. 5-15

the coil except for the period during which the ends of have left the brushes and are moving around toward the

rotor pass the poles opposite brushes as the ends of the of the stator.


just this


can build a motor that will operate in


by cutting strips of coffee-can steel as shown in Fig. 5-16. (Refer to Fig. 4-2 to remind yourself how to cut



1= /


total length





of needle (see Fig. 5-17)

(2 required)




at x's

and dotted


FIG. 5-16



end of eye

FIG. 5-17


length of the shaft support in Fig. 5-16 will depend on the length of the darning needle you will use for the shaft of the motor. Find one at least 2
a coffee can.)


inches long and measure from its point to the spot near the eye where the shaft of the needle stops being smooth and round, as shown in Fig. 5-17. Add 1% inches to this

measured length, and that


the length

you should cut

the shaft support. Mark all the pieces at the lines indicated in Fig. 5-16. Lay the shaft support and the stator base, unpainted side



piece of scrap

upholsterer's nail

wood and puncture them with an and hammer at the six places marked X.


pair of pliers,

Using a

bend the

shaft support at the lines

you have marked on it to the shape shown in Fig. 5-18. The end marked "thrust bearing" in Fig. 5-18 must be
bent quite carefully.
inch must be at right angles to a line through the two holes, one in each shaft support. To see that it is, slip the needle through the two



holes so that the point comes thrust bearing, and check


against the inside of the

by eye

that the needle



thrust bearing are at right angles to each other. mount the shaft support with upholsterer's nails

on a


base as


in Fig. 5-18.

Find a small

bead that the darning needle will

at least as far as the eye. pass through


hole in the

bead should not be very much larger than the needle, but it does not have to be a tight fit. Pass the needle, point

through the hole in the straight shaft support, then through the bead, and then through the hole in the shaft




FIG. 5-18

Making piece of Scotch Tape sure that the needle point is touching the inside of the thrust bearing. 5-19. 5-22. 5-20. slide the bead up against the straight shaft of tape around the needle up support and wrap the piece to hold it against the straight shaft supagainst the bead the shaft (darning needle) cannot move forport. 1 inch long and Vs inch wide.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK as in Fig. One butt up against the piece holding piece should the bead. Bend up the ends of the two rotor-core pieces at right angles as point of needle shown in Fig. Cut two pieces of touching inside of thrust Scotch Tape around needle bead eye end of needle bearing FIG. Cut a support with the thrust bearing. (Don't apart against bend them so hard that they stay bent. Remove the shaft by bending the two shaft supports their own springiness as in Fig. 5-19 . Now ward or backward but can only rotate. 5-21.) Cut a piece of Scotch it Tape 1 inch long and % inch wide and wrap edge of this around the shaft as in Fig.

5-22 of tape .FIG. center line marked on rotor core piece third piece of tape around shaft first piece marked center line along needle FIG. 5-20 tape bead tape holding bead at r '9^t angles Squeeze ends of core pieces together and apply second piece of tape.

another piece of tape 1 The Rotor Coil Now you of can begin to wind the rotor coil. In addition holding the core pieces together around the shaft. if some of the turns will oppose the magnetism of the 5-2 3C shows how not to wind the wire. End up symmetrically near the shaft with at least a 1-inch end (). Cut inch long and % inch wide and wrap this third piece around the shaft next to the rotorcore pieces. the tape will prevent the core from cutting into the enamel insulation on the wire when you wind the rotor coil. 5-16) must be lined up along the shaft so that piece of tape first. to one shown in Fig. Wind .) (Fig.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK inches long and inch wide and use them to tape the rotor-core pieces together. the magnetism of others. Do you pass the shaft. The line you marked on the center of each core piece (see Fig. Cut a piece magnet wire 10 feet long. Cut two 164 pieces of Scotch Tape 2 inches long and % . the two opposite ends of the core pieces will be held apart. Squeeze them to Scotch Tape 1% % the rotor will be balanced. as in Fig. Hold 1 inch of the end against the last piece of tape applied. and begin to wind as follows. evenly end (A) and then work back to the shaft (B) and Work down cross over to the other side. 5-22. because of the thickness of the shaft. the other side and back to the shaft again (D) Distribute what wire is left on either side of down the shaft. Apply one together and apply the second piece of tape. as 5-23. tion as not change winding direcyou do.

start Don't reverse direction this way. { finish FIG 5-23 .

Wrap one strip of tape around the two wires and shaft right next to the coil. as in Fig. Vz" wide tape to hold doubled wire ends doubled wire on side when rotor is vertical 1" ends bent double laid and along tape on shaft. % inch from its end. 5-24. bend each wire back double.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK inch wide and wrap them around the winding 5-24. Then. Cut two Tape inch long and Vs inch wide. 5-24 also tator. Trim the two wires both off 1 inch from the edge of the coil nearest the pointed end of the shaft. shows the construction of the commuthe coil along the shaft toward Run the two ends of the pointed end. one on each side 14" wide tape around END VIEW FIG. so that when the rotor coil is vertical each strips doubled wire of Scotch is on one 1 side of the shaft. Line up each doubled wire carefully as in Fig. The Commutator Fig. 5-24 .

following the reverse of the procedure shown in Fig. This will add friction and make the shaft hard to turn.MOTORS AND GENERATORS Then. steps This free movement of the shaft along its length is called end play. If there shaft supports slightly apart. The two shaft sup- that the straight one ports should not be so close together the bead. Replace shaft and check its end play again. The way to check this is to touch your finger against the eye end of the needle. wrap the second strip of tape around the two wires and shaft at the bend in the wires. which in turn pushes the point presses against of the shaft against the inside of the thrust bearing. Place the rotor back in the shaft supports. Now put a tiny drop of light oil on the bead where it touches the shaft suplet 167 . With fine sandpaper. don't need to see You two happening. The rotor must be able to rotate freely. The point of pull lightly the needle should move away from what is the thrust bearing before the bead touches the straight shaft support. There must be some. 5-20. remove is when you the go they stay slightly closer together. but the less the better. clean off the enamel from the part of each double wire which is exposed between the two %-inch-wide strips of tape. Then on the eye end of the needle. bend the there is too much. The bead should move very slightly away from the straight shaft support before the point of the needle touches the inside of the thrust bearing. If the shaft and then bend the shaft supports so that no end play. %2 inch or less is good. if you do the in rapid succession you can feel and hear the results. right at the end of the tape they are resting on (which you wrapped around the shaft earlier).

Cut 10 more feet of magnet wire. Cut two of Scotch pieces Tape 1% inches long and inch wide to tape the stator core to the stator base. Spin the rotor several more times. The Stator Bend shown the stator base and the stator core to the shapes in Fig. and on the shaft where it passes through each shaft support. start winding the stator coil. Cut 3 inches of magnet wire and wrap it on top of the coil near the end of the rotor which repeatedly stopped uppermost.stator core FIG. One edge of each piece of tape must extend % beyond the two mating parts of the core and base. foot of wire free. Spin the rotor several times with your finger. and add another piece of wire or remove some of the 3 inches until the rotor is balanced. A slight unbalance will not matter. (You Leaving 1 you can see 168 this in Fig. that end is too heavy. 5-26. as shown in the figure. End up with at least 3 inches of wire free on the same side of the coil as the free end started with. 5-25. 5-25 \ / stator base port. If the rotor repeatedly stops with the same end down.) Cut a piece of Scotch Tape .

Hold any point. with the free ends of the coil toward the pointed end of Slip the shaft. Then mount the stator on the wooden base two upholsterer's nails through the holes in the stator base. long and % inch wide. Drive two more upholsterer's nails part way into the FIG. 5-26 . check once again to make sure that the rotor turns without touching the stator. Line up the stator with the rotor in the direction that the shaft runs. After mounting.MOTORS AND GENERATORS 2 inches coil. If it touches on one side. shift the stator. 5-26. bend the stator core open with slightly. If the rotor touches on both sides. and wrap it around the the assembled stator under the rotor as in Fig. and then center the stator on the stator in place and spin the rotor to see that the rotor does not touch the stator at either side of the rotor.

Repeat the process until the wires are bright copper all around. Drive the nail part way in. Wrap one turn of the 3 -inch end of the stator coil around one of the nails and drive the nail all the way in. Cut a piece of magnet wire 14 inches long. sand side in. clear of the shaft take a turn of wire around the nail. With the wire held in position as in Fig. it is Draw the 1-foot end of the stator coil out so that support and both brushes. 5-27. fold a small piece of sandpaper in half. and far enough out to the side so that the heads won't touch the bottom of the shaft support later when they are driven all the way in. and drive it all the 170 . 5-27 wooden base as in Fig.FIG. Line them up with the enamel-free part of the wires on the commutator. and pull upward. upholsterer's nail. Bend them out away from the shaft and sandpaper the as enamel insulation off the last inch. These two cleaned wires are the brushes. and 3 inches from one end take a turn around the other Now the way in. place an upholsterer's nail touching it and near the motor. hold it around the wire. To do this. 5-27. squeeze. Then drive that nail all bend the 3 -inch ends up along the side of the com- mutator shown and cut them off % inch above the shaft.




Sandpaper the enamel from the ends of the two

long lead wires for connection to the battery.



will have to

make some




amount of end play

in the shaft.


adjust the

brushes. This


very delicate operation. First bend them

over until they touch the commutator but not each other as in Fig. 5 -28 A, Then hold the rotor vertical and squeeze
the brushes together around the shaft with your thumb and index finger (B). This will curve the brushes to the



in C.


the rotor turns, the wires of the


will touch the brushes for a longer time than

they were straight. With the rotor vertical, each brush should touch one of the doubled commutator wires. If not
(D), pull up on the end of the offending brush () to partly straighten the part of the brush between the com-

mutator and the upholsterer's nail. Then press just heavily enough on the brush near the upholsterer's nail (F) to
bring the brush in contact with the commutator.






ready to run




you connect


leads to the battery of

your two-battery holder.


the rotor so that

vertical. If the brushes are

the rotor will make contacting the commutator properly, a fraction of a turn under magnetic power in one direction.



a flick with

your finger

in that direction


will go.


built a

you have

motor and understand the

basic principles of

will be able to underoperation, you stand one of the main reasons why rotary motors can put

magnetism to practical






it is



the magnetism in

them strong because the design


magnetic path
of stator coil

magnetic path
of rotor coil

FIG. 5-29

provides magnetic circuits of low reluctance. The magnetic circuit of the stator of your motor runs, as in Fig.
5-29, through the coil,
a relatively small

up the

side of the stator,


to the relatively constant air gap rotor core, through another air gap, and down the other side of the stator. The magnetic circuit of the rotor runs



and through either all or part of the stator core. More powerful motors are designed, as in Fig. 5-30,


with very low and constant reluctance paths so that the
magnetic force

flywheel, so that,

The heavy rotor acts as a even when the brushes are switching,
it is

the motor* provides a constant force to whatever



and rotor of


motor can have more than

very small air gap
rotor coil in slots

stator coil

magnetic path
of stator coil

magnetic path
of rotor coil

FIG. 5-30

two magnetic

poles. Multipole

motors give more power

slow speeds than

a 4-pole



of simplified sketch -pole motors. shown in Fig. 5-31. You can see how


alternate north

and south poles are formed by the four Other motors have 6, 8, 10, or 12 poles.

Speed Regulation
Perhaps you
of the

may be wondering what regulates the


motor and

why the motor
it flies

doesn't keep going faster


faster until
it is


probably seems obvious true) that bearing friction and air resistance get

stronger as the speed increases. These help to control the

FIG. 5-31

So withtoo. but by simply recalling that a wire carrying current across a 175 . the wire on the left-hand side of the rotor coil moves up. In Fig. voltage it generates. // there were no rotor coil. 5-32. and the faster the motor goes. and the stator coil produces a north pole at the left. as in it would move up it rent in the other direction. If it out considering that the rotor coil forms a magnet. The reason is that the motor is a generator at the same time that that it The voltage the counteracts generates partly voltage from the battery.movement speed. Since these poles repel. Fig. 5-14 the rotor coil produces a north pole at the top. this load keeps the speed down. were carrying curwould move down. we have to look from another point of How view at the way motion is produced in a motor. does the motor generate this counter voltage? To understand how. But there is another im- portant reason why the motor reaches and does not exceed a certain constant speed. but just one wire carrying current between the ends of the stator. And of course if the motor is driving something. the rotor turns clockwise. the more counterit is a motor. As it does so.

MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK magnetic field will move. You can demonstrate. the motor action in Fig. Cut a 2-foot piece of magnet wire and mount it as shown. in slightly different terms. Sandpaper the ends of the wire. and clip one end as shown to the negative (base) terminal of battery holder. % your twoinch under When you touch the other end of the wire to the positive terminal (cap) of the battery holder. Place your alnico magnet the wire with the poles arranged as shown. that this really works. 5-14. the wire will snap down electron flow . 5-33. we have now explained. as in Fig.

MOTORS AND GENERATORS Repeat the process with the poles of and the terminals of the battery reversed. 177 . the stronger of tending to move the wire. The or stronger the magnetic field at right angles to the wire. the stronger the force will be. important in motor action for the wire to be carrying current across the magnetic field. The wire. but less than when they are at right angles. And the longer the piece wire that is in the field. is arranged perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The direc- is from the north pole to the south pole direction the that north of a compass will point. is perpendicular to both the field and the direction of electron flow tion of the field as shown. more the for a magnetic field of given strength nearly it will be the force is at right angles to the wire. This slight movement results because the as the wire. The force exerted on the wire. If you turn your alnico magnet so that its poles and there- You can see that it is fore its magnetic field are lined up in the same direction only a slight motion will result when you make current flow. the wire will jump up from the magnet and vibrate against its own away springiness. only the terminals reversed. (the pole the direction of the arrows in the field-pattern illustra- tions) . If the wire is at an acute angle to the field there will be some force. magnet Again the wire will snap down. Part of the field pattern of the magnet has been shown in Fig. Try the experiment with the magnet at several angles to the wire. 5-33. wire and field are not perfectly parallel. and therefore the direction of elec- tron flow. With only the poles or the against the magnet. and therefore its movement.

But a motor can never turn fast enough solely will supplied current the electrical resistance of the wire. of a wire across a magnetic field will to make a current flow in the wire? The development which is of a force tending to move a wire is called carrying current across a magnetic field motor action. in turn. will allow a current to flow that is just sufficient 178 . you were to hold back the rotor of your motorno voltage opis posing the current is be limited only by The faster the wire moves under the force of motor action. to move the wire moved Motor across (motor action) This movement. If a that the movement produce a voltage The answer is yes. produced. generate a voltage which will oppose the current. The by reason of motor action to generate enough countervoltage to stop the flow of supplied current altogether. If the wire prevented from movingas if. a force will be exerted on the wire tending. for example.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK which why we wound many turns on the rotor. From this new point of view on how a motor is made to turn over. Now you can see that a motor will settle down to a speed that will produce an opposing voltage. which. can it be erator. and generator action are closely related. makes the wire . the more opposing voltage will be generated. If a wire carries current across a magnetic field. we can examine how it also acts as a genis wire carrying current across a magnetic field will produce a force to make the wire move. in turn. The development of a voltage tending to produce a current in a wire which is being action a magnetic field is called generator action. as we have seen.

GENERATORS And now you can see how a generator works. 5-15 and you will see battery. by air resistance. The make the motor speed great enough so that engine could the generated voltage would stop the current from the the circuit in Fig. Trace that is it would not current to the stator coil stop the which producing the magnetism. was being driven by something say a gasoline or steam engine. 5-34 . Now imagine (Fig.MOTORS AND GENERATORS to supply the energy used up by friction. 5-34) FIG. Suppose. heat loss due to the electrical resistance of the motor by wires. and by whatever the motor is driving. it instead of the motor's driving something.

But the stator core has magnetism from the last time it some permanent was used. (Some small generators and some small motors for that matter are built with permanent magnets in place of the stator coil. If the generator to a load lights or something else it would still generate voltage. If it did actually prevent the generator from turning. and this is enough to get things started. no current would be generated and there would be no motor action to oppose the engine. You might think that the generator would never start producing voltage.) In a generator. With no current to oppose. because when we began to turn it with the engine there would be no current for field as it when the stator coil. Notice that it continues to produce a current in the same direction through the stator coil. the generated voltage produces a current in the opposite direction. but no current would flow. which will therefore produce the same magnetic was receiving current from the battery. The force produced by the motor action depends on the were not connected which draws current current flowing through the generator. But this generated current produces force which works toward preventing the generator from turning. The engine would have 180 . Generator action causes a current to flow through a wire passing across a magnetic field. New generators are given some permanent magnetism by connecting a battery to the stator coil for a few minutes. and therefore there would be no motor action to oppose the engine.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK taking away the battery and replacing it with a light bulb. motor action the force on a wire carrying current in a magnetic field opposes the generator action.

As more and more lights or other loads were switched on. tle to supply energy to overcome and to provide power for the The operator would have to cut back the throt- on the engine to keep the speed from increasing. produces a counteracting voltage. relay employs a coil of wire with a current flowthe current is flowing. which. we shall now INDUCTION Induction takes place is the term used to describe the action that a current or voltage causes when or induces another current to flow or another voltage to exist. there is a magnetic ing in it. The action in a motor is a special case of induction current in the rotor produces motion. a bulb. allowing the generator voltage to drive current through them. The mechanical construction of your motor will not permit you to drive generator. in turn. is The important thing to see energy output an increase in requires energy input. with your relay. and its it that the energy used by the load comes from the engine the driving generator. and an increase in with an engine and thus use it it as a You it can't turn would take fast enough by hand to light a sensitive voltmeter to measure output. In big generators there are automatic controls to operate the engine throttle. motor action would begin to oppose the engine and the operator would have to advance the throttle to make the engine produce more power or the generator would slow down.MOTORS AND GENERATORS to work only hard enough friction in the generator stator coil. But you can as easily produce generator action see. Your When 181 .

5-35 shows how the field forms when you connect a battery to a coil and current starts to flow. the current is flowing in the opposite direction. up rapidly but not in proportion to the weakness of the field. to magnetic force in the successive views move out through the coil from the core like waves from a pebble thrown in still water (except that they move out lines of The in all of a and not only in one plane) In a fraction second the field and current both build up to maximum directions . Fig. make it easier to see the action. the magnetic field would be weak and would induce very little . the field becoming stationary and the current its constant. would show the formation of the field coil. The core in Fig. 5-35 is a simpler one than your relay A motion picture better. The magnetic field moves across the core. hence the induced voltage opposes the current there too.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK field through and around the coil. The weak182 form and the moving field is inducing the voltage. strengths. a magnetic field moving across a wire has the same effect as a wire moving across a magnetic field. At the other side of the coil. the current which is causing the moving field The induced there opposing hence the current would build voltage. where the field is moving in field the opposite direction. The moving induces in the wire of the coil a voltage which opposes the current that is causing the field to move. because to it is voltage can't stop the current. Since all wires of the coil as it moves out from the motion is relative. Why action is doesn't the current reach maximum value in- stantly instead of taking a fraction of a second? Generator the reason. If were no iron core in the coil.

5-35 .electron flow N N N FIG.

it. having immediately begins to collapse in the reverse of the it way it formed in Fig. 5-35. You can see that there is a nice balance among (which determines the final current for a given applied voltage). that the field moves fast in A fast-moving field generates more voltage than coil resistance a slow-moving field of the same strength cutting across a wire of the same length. but it cannot maintain the current because there is no circuit since the switch is open for the current flow as it could. and the induced voltage (which determines the speed with which the current attains its final value) . The moment you open the switch. If current could example.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK ness of the field allows the current to build rapidly. forming to its up which means full value. the current stops because there is no no longer a circuit. The field. magnetic reluctance (which determines how much magnetic field strength the ampere-turns of the coil will produce). and it therefore induces a it from it that voltage of op- posite polarity to the voltage induced when formed. The Field Reversed circuit Now let us see what happens when you open the of the coil after the steady current has been established. if you had short-circuited the battery to the stop original current instead of opening the switch the induced current would tend to maintain the 184 . for to flow through. current to maintain Now moves when This across the wires in the opposite direction it formed. voltage works toward producing a current in the same direction as the current which was new flowing just before the switch was opened.

As a result the inis very much higher than the induced volt- age which opposed the current as the field formed. But since you did open the switch and current cannot flow.MOTORS AND GENERATORS and. Touch NC NC normally closed normally open tNO O NO = C = common separate ^H terminal FIG. the collapse of the field would be slowed down to approxifield. 5-36. As you open the switch in the circuit speed of your relay coil. although it could not completely maintain it. You will remember that the number of volts induced when a wire and a magnetic field relative to each other is determined in part by the of movement. Connect induced when your relay your relay and two-battery holder free lead as in Fig. mately the speed at which it formed originally. the speed with which the collapsing field moves across the wire is far greater than the speed move with which it duced voltage moved while forming. the field collapses with great rapidity. High-voltage Demonstration You is can see and feel the effects of this coil circuit is high voltage that opened. 5-36 .

The spark lasts for only an instant. Press the index finger of your left hand firmly against the separate terminal (see Fig. Even the slight rent you do draw is enough to reduce the induced voltage 186 .MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the free lead of the two-battery holder to the normally closed contact terminal Make the touch squarely and without firmly making and then breaking the circuit. high is the voltage that is induced as apart. the collapse of the field is greatly slowed down and the induced voltage falls to a low value. jump insufficient to maintain the spark. Now touch the free battery lead firmly and squarely to the normally closed contact terminal. The shock is harmless because you draw curvery little current. The make a you open the coil circuit of your relay? Try another test. because as soon as current flows. The spark forces current to the gap between the lead and the terminal. Now remove the lead and you will see a bright spark as the lead separates from the terminal. and the thumb of your left hand firmly against the normally closed contact terminal to which the other end of the coil is connected. 5-37) to which one end of the coil is connected. The voltage induced by the field becomes so high so quickly that it rapidly collapsing current of electricity flowing through the doesn't start until after the circuit has air. Remove the lead and should feel a distinct shock. you wet the skin between your thumb and index finger to make it a better conductor. If not. Of course a spark is a actually been broken and the current has stopped. And of course the dis- tance between the lead and the terminal keeps increasing as you move them is spark How voltage required to greater the farther a spark has to jump.

They may jump is or be frightharmless. So Now duced. ened and get hurt even though the current don't shock friends. let us get some that idea of how many volts are in- We know we cannot get a shock from the 187 . 5-37 the collapse of the field-to less than enough to maintain the sensation of shock.lead from relay coil free lead from two-battery holder lead from two-battery holder lead from relay coil FIG. It is never a good idea by slowing to shock people by surprise.

3-2) at low pressure. Because they use very as little current. the positive wire pulls an the how electron off each of many neon atoms. the atom gives off light.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK 3 volts of our two-battery holder. 5-38 to the points at which you held your thumb and index finger when you shocked yourself. about 55 volts will maintain conduction. more accurately by means of a neon The Neon Glow Bulb A two neon glow bulb can be used it as a crude voltmeter because requires about 70 volts to light. each ion gets back an electron. neon bulbs are used pilot lights where it is important to save power. This shows that 70 volts is induced. neon glow bulb works. can measure the and a lot We voltage somewhat glow bulb. Touch the free battery lead briefly to the normally closed contact terminal. It takes something like 35 volts to produce the sensation of shock. as we shall see even though the original current was produced by only 3 volts. one wire inside the neon bulb will at least flash. Once current has begun to flow through the neon bulb. by the posi- When it hits the negative wire. When the electron moves into its orbit in the neon atom. They 188 . as you remove Here 70 volts is it. The atoms become positively charged neon ions and are repelled tive wire and attracted by the negative wire. It consists of wires leading into a glass bulb containing neon gas (see Fig. With about between the two wires. The collapse field as the of the current stopped produced at least 3 5 volts more. Connect it as in Fig.

lead from relay coil free lead from two-battery holder neon bulb lead from two-battery holder lead from relay coil FIG. because when they are built into an insulated holder with test leads. excellent Indicators for wire that glowed inside must have been connected to that end of the coil in which a negative voltage was induced. because the neon glows only The when neon ions re- 189 . they fit easily into an electrician's pocket. 5-38 make checking for voltage over 70 volts.

polarity of the voltage across neon bulb has Now touch the free battery lead to the common terminal relay. Fig. The unfamiliar symbol is the neon bulb.) The first anything schematic shows the electron flow and polarity before The second shows the conditions after the switch is Note the that the direction of current is you opened the switch. 5-39 ceive electrons. 5-39 shows why. (In any symbol of a bulb a solid black dot not connected to means that the bulb is gas-filled. The relay will act as a buzzer. that this is You will notice when you light the bulb the wire connected not to the negative side (base terminal) of the battery. and the wire you touched is represented as a switch. Only the coil of the relay is shown in Fig. and each time the contacts open the neon bulb will light. 539. but to the positive side. the same opened.-f- JL SWITCH CLOSED more than 70 volts negative 3 volts positive SWITCH OPENED FIG. through the coil in both cases but that the reversed. Your eye gives of the 190 .

is There capacitor in a circuit acts like a reservoir in a water supply system which in the rainy season collects excess rainfall A son. The bigger the sheets and the closer they are together.MOTORS AND GENERATORS you the impression that the bulb because your eye cannot lighted continuously respond to such very rapid is changes. The positive metal ions formed in the positive sheet by removal of electrons will attract electrons into the negative sheet. A dry seacapacitor can be charged with electrons and then and maintains the supply of water in the act as a battery. A some electrons will move out and some to the into the sheet connected to the negative terminal electrons will be removed from the sheet connected But if positive terminal. a condenser. If two sheets of metal are connected to the terminals of a battery. the more electrons will crowd into the negative sheet. or. capacitor consists of two sheets of metal or other conducting material separated by a very thin piece of insulating material. the electrons entering the negative sheet will repel and drive out electrons from the positive sheet. Cut two sheets of aluminum inches. foil and two sheets of together as Saran Wrap each 12 by 16 Lay them 191 . You can make a capacitor and use it in one of its common applicationsthe suppression of sparks in relay contacts. less commonly today. the two sheets are very close to- gether. CAPACITORS another very important electronic component called a capacitor.

5-38. know that this is the result of the induced voltage as the a capacitor is connected field collapses around the coil. Touch the second foil lead of the capacitor to the normally closed contact terminal. the collapsing field will be able to produce some flow of electrons into the capacitor and the collapse will be slower. If in parallel with the contacts. of your capacitor to the common contact terminal of your buzzer without the neon bulb Connect one foil lead connected. 5-38. the contacts spark as they are opened. Then as in them up as in C and fold the D. Touch the free battery lead to the normally closed contact ter- 192 .MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK in Fig. When the capacitor is connected. Tape the capacitor together with Scotch Tape in. The induced voltage will then be lower and sparking will be reduced. The Capacitor and the Neon Bulb Connect your neon bulb and your capacitor in series in place of the neon bulb in Fig. Start the buzzer and observe the contact sparks in a very dimly lit room. Spark Suppression You may have noticed that when your buzzer is oper- You now ating. The lead of the neon bulb and the foil lead of the capacitor can be joined by folding and squeezing the foil around the wire. Repeat the process with the neon bulb connected as in Fig. 5-40 A and B and smooth the roll air out from beroll as tween them. the neon bulb will not light. You will notice that the sparking is is reduced when the capacitor connected.

5-40 .aluminum B tape 10" p T 2" FIG.

it. 5-41) sheet or plate of the capacitor is FIG. but with a Now the flash of light around both wires inside the bulb. charging it to the more than 70 volts.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK minal and remove difference. The neon bulb will is light. 5-41 is shows why. lapsing field induces its When the contacts open. Fig. The field finishes collapsing and now full the top (in Fig. the colvolts. The new symbol in the schematic the capacitor symbol. 5-41 . more than 70 One wire of the neon bulb flashes and a great surge of electrons flows through the bulb into the capacitor.

C. cannot be used in all Alternating current.C. OR A. or D. In A. and electrons have always the negative terminal and returned to the there is another important positive terminal.C. built to that motors designed to operate on A. Up to ALTERNATING CURRENT.C now we have been working with what Our source is called direct current. As you know. current and can be converted into direct current when that is is needed. can be 195 . One important advantage of A. come to a stop.C. can see operate in a more spectacular manner connect the free battery lead to the commonthis You if you contact terminal of the buzzer.C. repeating this reversing process many times each second. where the current came to a complete stop and then surged back through the neon bulb. or A.MOTORS AND GENERATORS The electrons surge back through the neon bulb in the opposite direction and produce a new flash of of electrons. although it has many advantages over direct applications of electricity. a battery or a gen- eratorhas produced voltage which is positive at one terminal and negative at the other. You have seen something like A. The process will be re- peated each time the contacts open. kind of current called alternating current. and then surge through the circuit in the other direction. come out of the electrons surge through the circuit in one direction. when the induced voltage in your relay coil drove current through the neon bulb into the capacitor. and both wires in the bulb will appear to remain lit.C.C. over D. light on the other wire.

over D. 110 volts for lights and applivolts for the electric stove When we and 220 we don't need several power lines from the power company. 5-42 is a graph of the voltage of a battery supplying current to a bulb over a period of 4 hours.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK operate for years without requiring any repairs.C. The amount of voltthe height of the voltage curve above the horizontal line at the bottom of the graph.C. voltage drops as age is indicated by 196 . voltages a to get the idea of how graph works. But there is another reason uting electric power. need several different voltages work a door bell. (We shall build a transformer later in this chapter. is to look at its graph. 6 volts to ances. First way the voltage changes as time look at two graphs of D. The which best is way to understand A. that the voltage at which it is generated can be changed By to a higher or a lower voltage very easily with very little loss of power by means of an electrical component called a trans-former. The voltage curve is the heavy black line across the running figure.C. Fig.C.C. You will understand you know more about A. com- why when being able to change voltage reduces the cost of distribthis. far the is most important advantage of A. we can use and a variety of transformers.) This is an imline one power portant advantage because power lines are expensive pared to transformers. Along the left-hand edge of the is a scale graph against which you can read the amount of Since voltage. you will why.C. too. a picture of the let's progresses. and how see it works. When you know more about A.

and any time in between. and 3 hours. 2.2 i V o I f s 2 hours FIG. 5-42 time progresses. when 1% 1%- 1% 1% volts. shown by the curve was between 1% and 197 the voltage as volts. You can see that the battery started supplying current. it gave volts because the curve starts at zero time and at the volt mark. At the end of 4 hours the voltage was down to At 1. the voltage curve is not always the same distance above the zero-voltage line. .

The curve voltage drops below the zero-voltage line in this graph because when the direction of electron flow reverses. 5-43 the first %o second first shows the voltage of the same battery during of operation.V/4- V o f s y J_ 240 -L 120 -L 80 JL 60 seconds FIG. The "curve" is a changed only imperceptiis straight line because the voltage bly during the %o second. the polarity of the voltage reverses too.C. Now look at Fig. 5-43 Fig. Here positive and negative mean the polarity of 198 . Positive voltage is shown above the zero-voltage line and negative voltage below. 5-44. This a graph of the voltage power line during %o second. of a 110-volt A.

after which they begin to move in the opposite direction. By the time %2o second has elapsed. After %4o second the electron flow and the volt- age have reached a maximum. After Vso second. (You will remember that in a battery both electrodes have excess electrons. and after that they begin to decrease. flow is at a maximum again and the voltage has 199 . the electrons are again standing still and the voltage is zero. the electrode with the most excess elecarbitrarily selected trons being the negative electrode.) In drawing the graph.200 one wire with respect to the other. zero time is taken as the time when the electrons are stand- ing still.

In the next %o second the same pattern repeats again (but that fact isn't shown by the graph) reached a maximum . An A.C. 156 volts (positive and negative) and not 110. The curve in Fig. generator. You may wonder why 5-44 is maximum voltage in Fig.C. that shape.C. 5-45 is a simplified picture of an A. the voltage by which is designated for example. the current is said to be 60-cycle current. You will notice that it looks almost exactly the same as 200 . 110.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK negative value.000 always what is known as the effective voltage. voltage it is always changing. The number of cycles per second is current probably has a frequency of 60 cycles. 11. Frequencies of 50 and even 25 cycles are sometimes used in supplying electric power. 220.C. but in supplying power every effort is made to produce A. hence the light output is constant. Since is an A.C. When mum. also called the frequency. and again back to zero is %o second. A. the flicker at 25 cycles. to maximum in the other direction.C. GENERATORS Fig. and a noticeable slight flicker at 50 cycles. Your house 60 cycles the filament of a light bulb doesn't cool off very much during the two times in each cycle that the current is On There is some near zero. and by %o second it is again at zero.C. voltage whose maximum or peak voltage is 156 has an effective voltage of 110 because it will produce the same heating effect in a resistor as will 110 volts D. 5-44 is A. a picture of what is called the wave shape of doesn't always have such a smooth wave shape. a complete cycle of change zero flow to maxiback to zero.

5-45 .no voltage FIG.

C. quarter turn the angle changes from a right angle to zero. If the shaft is the frequency produced made is to rotate 60 times a second. is produced at the terminals of the generator. But 60 revolutions per second is 3600 revolutions per minute. 5-15 except for the very important fact that there is no commutator. Big ones usually have many pairs. So far this action is represented by the first the next quarter of the curve in Fig. the wires cut through the magnetic the wires are in the position field of the stator. which is very fast for even a medium-size generator. but this time they are crossing the field in the opposite direction and voltage of opposite polarity is induced. the ends of the rotor coil are brought to what are called slip rings. 60 cycles. they are field moving is in the direction of the magnetic and no voltage induced in them. and the voltage drops from maximum During the next half turn the wires repeat the same action. 5-46. and the induced voltage increases to the maximum. During to zero. A.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK the motor in Fig. As the shaft of the rotor is turned at high speed. Generators. from which brushes lead the electricity. 12-pole generator one with 6 north poles and 6 south poles has to be driven at only A 202 . Since there is no commutator to re-reverse the voltage. away When shown in the lower view. In between. Instead. The speed with which the shaft is driven determines the frequency. When in the upper view. like motors. they get to the position shown they are cutting across the field at right angles and the maximum voltage is induced in them. can have more than one pair of poles. the wires move at a constantly increasing angle to the direction of the magnetic field.

TRANSFORMERS In order to get the many advantages of being able to change the voltage of A. and the current in your relay when you operate it as a buzzer: both currents fluctuate rapidly. Since the D. When the magnetic field would induce a 203 . the field collapses and voltage.C. because a cycle is generated each time a rotor wire passes a single pair of poles. If there again cuts through the wires and were a second coil (with its leads not connected to anything) around the first. There is an important similarity A.C. the design of big generators is turned inside out.C. must be provided. plied The D. Because there is no direct current produced to supply the requirement of the stator coil. like the battery in Fig.C. In such a design the brushes and slip rings are required to carry only the small current for the magnetic field instead of the heavy generated current. produced the generator. it cuts through the wires of the coil and induces a you open the circuit. When you turn on the current to your relay and the magnetic field forms. we can readily underneed a device called a transformer.MOTORS AND GENERATORS 10 revolutions a second to produce 60 cycles. 5-45. with the coils to produce the magnetic field on by the rotor and the wires in is which the alternating current induced distributed around the stator. induces a voltage. for the stator is often sup- by a small generator on the same shaft. a separate source. required by the stator is much less than the A. easily and economically. We stand how a transformer works if we first examine our between relay once again.C.

each turn uses up more wire. with your relay. Note that there is no electrical con- nectiononly a magnetic one between the battery and the neon bulb.C. the coil would act as a voltage source to supply current to this second circuit. The coils act as though they were tiny batteries or generators in series. Each turn of a coil contributes its bit to the voltage of the coil. Tape the ends of the first coil and you Now the new coil to the around the bulb neon bulb. leaving the new coil disconnected. With the neon bulb and capacitor in series. too.) Operate the relay as a buzzer and one wire inside the neon bulb will light.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK voltage in it. Try the relay to make sure it still operates as a buzzer. you can into the spaces at will get more turns. This time you should get about 500 turns. (You won't get so many turns per foot because. 204 . on of the first being top coil. Pry the two wooden parts apart and remove the vertical one.) Wind as much wire as the coil to keep it from unwinding. of the Cut a piece of magnet wire 80 feet long and wind it around the first coil. connect lights. Sandpaper the leads of the new coil. Bend the moving arm out Try it way so that you can wind a second coil over the first. Connect it as in Fig. see that the bulb and remove them. 5-36. (Twisting the coil leads leads makes an adequate connection. If the second coil were connected in a circuit. Reassemble your relay and readjust the contacts as before. The direction of winding doesn't matter since we are dealing with A. both wires will light. Tag the two leads of the relay coil with tape so you won't get them mixed up with the leads of the new coil. leaving 1-foot leads. Connect the neon bulb and capacitor in series as before.

Now you can how transformers save millions of 205 .C. in formers change the voltage of A. to of Since the second coil is outside the first. the induced voltage will be half the applied voltage. voltage induced in the secondary will be within a fraction of a percent of twice the voltage applied to the primary. of the is is same voltage induced in the other coil. If A. And this. If the second coil first (called the secondary} has twice as coil (called the many turns as the primary) the A. is how trans- Another very important fact about a transformerwhich you must understand before we can see how they save millions of dollars every year is that the power supis equal (except for very small losses) plied to the primary to the secsupplied by the secondary coil to the ondary circuit. and if both windings have the same number of turns the same voltage is induced in the second voltage coil as is applied to the first.C. Commercial transformers are wound so that almost all of the field cuts through both windings.C. of a given connected to one of these coils.MOTORS AND GENERATORS You had to wind about 500 turns in the second coil get as much voltage as was induced in the 400 turns the first coil.C. If the secondary has half as many turns as the primary. brief. If the secondary of a transformer is left unconnected. not all the magnetic field cuts the second coil. If the turns and by this it is meant that the secondary primary voltage the current in the current secondary with a load connected will be twice the voltage half the in the primary. A. the current flowing in the primary will be power very small ratio is just 2 to 1 is enough to magnetize the core. Twice see the current times half the voltage means equal power.

is lost in the wires alone equals 10.C. A. the magnetic polarities of 206 . In fact it makes it eco- nomically possible to supply power to users considerable distances who are at from the power stations or in sparsely populated areas. This difference pays for a lot of transformers.000 amperes at an average distance of 10 miles cable has from the generator. and put transformers near its customers which stepped the power line voltage down to 110. MOTORS There Fig. If the same company generated its power at 1 1. customers. the turns ratio of the transformers would be 1 to 100. motors. to its Suppose a power company supplies 110-volt D. who use 10. Since a kilowatt-hour sells for about 4 cents.C.000 kilowatt-hours every hour. When the line customers used 10.000 X %o or 10.000 volts A.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK dollars. would be loss is The 24 kilowatt-hours at a cost of 96 cents each day. the current in the power between the generator and the transformers would be line only 100 amperes. That much wire 3 inches in diameter has Vw of an ohm resistance. The motor in will work on A. one the positive and the other the negative lead. The current passes through 20 miles of wire out and back. 5-15 are many kinds of A. The loss in the power 100 X 100 X %o or 1000 watts per hour.C. the power X 10.000 P = PR. the total loss due to resistance in the wires amounts to $9.000.C.000 watts.C. or 10.000 amperes. Since a formula for power. Suppose the power two wires 3 inches in diameter. as we found in Chapter 2.600 a day. As the direction of the cur- rent changes during each cycle.

Be- useful when the motor is cause of the changing field.C. a coil draws less current on A.C. There net. if the generator the clock will always tell the right speed is held constant 207 . Simpler motors can be designed for use on A. and there are other types named in accordance with the kind of circuitry used to start them. Its rotor Its is synchronous direct current through with supplied is called the slip rings. Instead of using brushes and commutators or slip rings to get current into the rotor to make it a mag- can be induced in the rotor by the stator. speed is constant. Induction motors must have some special provision for starting them because no force is exerted on the rotor when it is standing still. Another kind of A. If the line frequency does not change that is. require repair more often than any other induction motors require little service. You have seen the effect when you operated your relay as a buzzer. motor motor.C.C. modified form of the synchronous motor called the it is salient-pole induction motor is used in electric clocks. split-field induction motors.C. than on D.C. This kind of motor is called an induction motor. or D. but certain further refinements are required. the current are a variety of types.. by taking advantage of trans- former action. governed by the frequency of the A.C.MOTORS AND GENERATORS both the rotor and the stator change at the same time and the driving force stays in the same direction. This design is to be operated on either A. Since the commutator and brushes part of a motor. or shaded-pole induction motors. Self -starting induction motors are called capacitor-induction motors (or condenser-induction motors). and A used where speed must not change.

the automatic coffee maker. And there are many other electrical components which we have not mentioned in this book. and batteries in the flashlight and the portable radio. the sewing machine. 208 . the refrigerator. There are as many kinds of electric motors as there are uses for them. the blender. the power company will speed little than 60 cycles until the clocks higher frequency catch up. The television set and the radio-phonograph use transformers to give voltages higher and lower than 110 volts. and they use capacitors and resistors and coils. and the The toaster employs resistance and so movie projector. the electric clock. do the heater. the air conditioner. the mixer. and the light bulbs. We hope you will want to go on and learn the details of them for yourself. the elevator. the electric fan. And there are many other uses for this all the components you have learned about in book. and there is a buzzer or bell that operates exactly like the one you made. There are transformers to step down 110 volts for your door bell so that lightly insulated wire can be safely used. and a buzzer in the electric alarm clock. the all electric blanket. Look around your house.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK time. If the engine driving the generator slows down it up to give a slightly. There are coils in the fluorescent light fixture. Motors are everywhere in the phonograph.

59-63 hy- drolysis. 191 chemical energy. 152-153 209 . black-match game. of. 122 atom. 158 of burglar alarm. atom ammeter. 132 chemistry: of batteries. 49-57 schematic for. 21-24 buzzer. 152 ampere-turn. 64 charge. 207 cell (see also battery). 7-9. 94-96 black-match 52-54 computer. 15-57 of alternating-current generator. 76 burglar alarm. 2 of oxygen. 22-24 of buzzer. 206- bulb: construction of. 204 capacitor-induction motor.INDEX A battery.. 78 of copper. 99 alternating current. 58-96 circuit. see alternating current alnico magnet. 83 of sodium. battery: 94-95 73-76 construction flashlight. motor. types of. 32 3 1 resistance of. 76 of carbon. 191-195 (see also and transformer. of electricity. 195-200 alternating-current motor. 78. 76-94 B battery. nucleus). 151-154 schematic of. electrical (see also ion- ization). 55 brushes. for electrons. 208 aluminum.C. structure of of aluminum. 13-14 design of. 76 capacitor. 27-28 ampere. 83 and capacitor. 94-95 A. 83 of chlorine. 60. 26-28 of. 82. 200-203 of 87-94 76-87 homemade.

73. 179-180 to illuminate models. electric. flashlight electric clock. 79 210 . 15- 18 for stair light. flashlight in homemade battery. 135-137 relay to simplify. see capacitor conductivity. 35-38 of alternating current. 3-9 contacts. 106 doll house. 58-96 elevator circuit.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK circuit (cont. 178 crane. 139-140 series. 38- complex 57 countervoltage (see also generator action). 44-49 electromagnet: in buzzer." 18-24 current. see electrons. 1-9 sources of. 153 construction of. 139-140. 3-9 electromagnetism. 165-168 doorbell. see hydrolysis 100-102 115- electrolyte. 131-135 chemical. computer conductivity tester. electrolysis. 60-63 and electricity. in atomic structure. 63-64 see battery. illumination of. of buzzer. 127-128 in relay. electromagnetic. 156-159 35-38 parallel. 153 declination. see buzzer dry cell. 15-18 to indicate "when. 48 condenser. 122-126 design of. 195-200 measurement cycle: of. 42-49 for black-match game. 136-137 schematic for. 75 computer. adjustment of. 39-40 voltage drop in. 32 conductors. 207-208 commutator. relay. 30-31 clock. see battery. 151 of generator. 9-14 to check relay. 128-129 of computer. in flashlight battery. 151 146-148 cori|psion: energy. 139-140. 157-159. 202-203 200. 24-3 1 "memory/' 149-151 of motor. 47. 116 tery. 207-208 compass: construction of. for homemade bat- and electromagnetism. 49-57 more-or-less. 46 of elevator. of relay.) applications of. 3-9 alternating. 144-145 design of. 91-92 flashlight battery. 115-129 electronic brain.

108 magnetism (see also electro- geographic pole. see bulb lye. 113115 in relay. 133 1 mercury battery. 16 heat: electricity and. 207 in. see wire left-hand rule. 179-181 alternating current. 181-185 106- generator action: in motor. 159-172 generator action induction. 15-18 horsepower. 132. magnetic. 207 speed of. 97-99 "memory" energy. 117-119 in motors. 135. 35. 205 kinetic energy. 204 nichrome. 175-178 principles of. 156-159 relay as switch for. 182 magnetic poles. 175-178 in relay. 132 see bulb light bulb. 211 . 192-195 and transformer.INDEX flashlight bulb. 174-179 split-field. 95 models. see magnetic poles magnetism). 5 energy. 207 synchronous. 14 motion motor: (see also energy). 154-156 alternating current. 108-112 electromagnetism. 116 relay. 1 1 capacitor-induction. in hydrolysis. 133-134 shaded-pole. 178 neon glow bulb. 6263 hydrolysis. 5-6 ions. see bulb lamp cord. 99-100 and geographic poles. 27 generator. 66-67 of. 68-70 "forget" switch. 147 circuit. 137-138 magnetic in in field. 64-72 tricity and. removal insulators. structure of. 200-203 relay as switch for. as motor action. 138 salient-pole. 33 horse race. 76-94 kilowatt-hour. 149-151 ground return. 207 insulation. 102-106 constructions involving. 6-7 as magnets. 150 fuse. illumination of. 181-191 induction motor. 188-191 capacitor and. 7. 207 lamp. elec- hydrogen. 205-208 induction. 207 in battery action. 155 light. 59. 207 construction of.

relay 1 as. 21-24 oxidation. 39-40 three-pole double-throw. 204 truck. structure of. 15-18 turns ratio. see magnetic poles notice 115 board. 148 shaded-pole motor. 154 pitch. in battery. 149 reluctance. 41-42. 15-18 construction of. 140-149 transformer. 193. 153 plating out. 203-206 construction of." 150-1 51 potential energy. conductivity. 22-23 for computer. of buzzer. measurement of. 207 sodium.MAKING ELECTRICITY WORK north pole. 59-60. 207 stair light. magnetic. 49 series circuit. 9-14 applications of. 26 puppet show. 207 tester. 135-151 205 113- synchronous motor. 21-24 open-drawer indicator. 145-146 power (see also energy). 26 secret voting machine. south pole. 96 of relay contacts. 29-30 open-door indicator. 35-38 penny pitch game. illumination of. 35-38 ohm. see magnetic poles double-pole double-throw. 45 construction of. 28 Ohm's Law. 16-18 polarization. 46 spark suppression. 149151 toys. 24-26 29 212 . 205 design of. 137-140 14-115 in relay. 19-20 tester. 45 for voting machine. 41-42 primary primary standard. steady-hand parallel circuit. 28volt. 20-21 storage battery. magnetic. 79 for burglar alarm. 114 relay. 34 coil. 207 schematic diagram. 28-29 ohmmeter. 192 split-field motor. illumination of. 120-122 resistance. see magnetic poles space-travel computer. 205 secondary standard. 60 solar battery. 39-40 oxygen. 2 secondary coil. 132 pot holder. magnetic. 18 nucleus (see also electrons). 114- salient-pole motor. 62-63 structure of. 95-96 switch: buzzer in. 137-140. 40 "forget. for stair light. 8 1 pole.

28 for battery. 30-31 voltmeter. 72 in parallel circuit. 33-34 for hydrolysis. 25-26 effective. 200 water.INDEX voltage. 64-72 high. demonstration of. 31-35 213 . 132 watt. 34-35 wave shape. 36-37 in series circuit. 49 buzzer in. 133-135 electricity and. 200 wire (see also insulation). 74 wiring diagram. 185188 water power. see schematic voting machine. 1 54 diagram work. 41-42. electrical decomposition of. 196-198 voltage drop. 23 voltage curve. 25-26. 36 watt-hour.

and he and his wife and daughter live in New York City. It soared out of sight but failed to go into orbit. 1751-4 . communications and commanding an air training troops base north of the Arctic Circle in Greenland. After the war he spent two years in China with an oil company. accounts for his interest in science at least in part. John M. Kennedy was born within this and perhaps During World in War II John Kennedy was a paratrooper. Mr. Kennedy is an electronics engineer. He tells us that at fourteen he made and launched his own rocket.ABOUT THE AUTHOR sight of the Bronx Zoo.






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