You are on page 1of 16


A brand is not a name. A brand is not a positioning statement. It is not a marketing message. It is a promise made by a company to its customers and supported by that company. If that promise is kept, it creates a consumer preference. A brand is more than just an icon, a logo, a mission statement, an advertisement. Branding is a system of visuals and words that combine to represent a product, service, or organization in the mind of a consumer. A brand is something like a flag, you see the flag of a familiar nation and you immediately associate it with that nation. The same happens with brand markings; every time you see the familiar symbols and words that make up the brand identities of Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Apple, Sony, IBM, etc., they trigger responses based on all the experiences you have had with the products and companies that display these marks. A company may be armed with all the statistics and facts as to why their product or service is superior - but if it doesn’t have an image, a personality for the audience to connect with - their message falls flat. What you are selling is always more than the product/service. It's a personality, a face with which your target customers want to do business. Thus, the success of branding lies in truly understanding who you are and who your target audience is. The word "brand", when used as a noun, can refer to a company name, a product name, or a unique identifier such as a logo or trademark. Brands are often expressed in the form of logos, graphic representations of the brand. In computers, a recent example of widespread brand application was the "Intel Inside" label provided to manufacturers that use Intel's microchips. Today's modern concept of branding grew out of the consumer packaged goods industry and the process of branding has come to include much, much more than just creating a way to identify a product or company. Branding today is used to create emotional attachment to products and companies. Branding efforts create a feeling of involvement, a sense of higher quality, and an aura of intangible qualities that surround the brand name, mark, or symbol. “A brand is an identifiable entity that makes specific promises of value.”

Often.“ A brand is a symbol. They have built their brand on this name. Why do brands have different colour schemes? It‟s because the marketers try to communicate different messages to their target customers. Symbols work by stimulating the cognitive process. “A brand is a proprietary visual. The package design was intended to strike a cord with young customers who identified with „freedom‟. Symbolism is. an object. What is a symbol? A symbol is a sign that stands for something in a prospects mind. Any product or service associated with this particular name has immediate recognition. they say “can I have a Cadbury. It carries a meaning behind it. Marketers use “slender tall” bottles to communicate feminine qualities. designs etc are signs that the marketers use to communicate their intensions to the customers. The cigarette brand Charms‟ pack has a unique indigo blue print. emotional and cultural image surrounding a company or its products”. It has been a recognized and accepted brand for the chocolates. How often do we actually ask for Bottled water? . It gives the people a sense of familiarity and trust. A brand promises to deliver value upon which consumers and prospective purchasers can rely to be consistent over long periods of time. Company’s brand awareness in public is often used in evaluating a company. A chocolate associated with the name Cadbury‟s would gain much acceptance in the market alone because of its name. The name Coca-Cola is the main asset of the firm. the practice of conveying notions.” A brand is a symbol. It can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and services. logos. ideas and concepts with the help of symbols. like faded jeans fabric. when people ask for a chocolate. Branding is a process of creating and spreading the brand name. they don‟t say “can I have a chocolate”. Thus we can say that. Brands are usually protected by companies as their is all about winning and action.” The same applies for Bisleri. A brand‟s figurative aspects like packaging. and a concept – all at one and the same time. Brands create a perception in the mind of the customer that there is no other product or service on the market that is quite like yours. The consumer‟s perceptual process is nothing but making sense out of those symbols present all around. because jeans symbolized freedom. colours. What is an athletic shoe with a „swoosh‟ logo on it? „Swoosh‟ is a concept. a word. infact.

said: “Simply put.McDonalds has a certain symbol associated with it. or company.” TYPES OF BRAND   Functional dimension Symbolic dimension The functional dimension is the product‟s attributes and benefits or the tangible properties while the symbolic dimensions are the intangible aspects of the brand. intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of the competitor. A marketer can combine these two elements to create the „right‟ appeal for customers. its reputation. The golden arches are synonymous with the McDonalds outlet. sign. an web site usability expert.” Kotler defines brands as “ A brand is a name. says. or relief) that customers form with the product.” Jared Spool.” The Dictionary of Business and Management defines a brand as: “A name. By identifying and authenticating a product or service it delivers a pledge of satisfaction and quality. sign or symbol used to identify items or services of the seller(s) and to differentiate them from goods of competitors. service. Or for that matter Nike. Even if it doesn‟t have a McDonalds sign attached. and price. The logo is the brand. symbol. Here are a few of the many definitions of the word “BRAND”: David Ogilvy defines brands as “ the intangible sum of a product’s attributes: its name. It no longer needs to write Nike under the swoosh for people to realize it‟s a Nike product. its history. term. happiness. "Branding means creating an emotional association (such as the feeling of success. packaging." Walter Landor. or design or a combination of them. In consumer behavior the rational and emotional perspectives are two models that explain . a brand is a promise. The kids recognize McDonalds is a km away with one look at the arches. and the way it’s advertised. one of the greats of the advertising industry.

Pressure to compete on price.g. For instance. “relieves pain faster. apparels. The temptation to change identity/executions. The brand builder can be inhibited by substantial pressures and barriers. Functional brand consumers make purchase decisions. 3..e. . the brand essence should revolve around „reasons‟ demonstrating product superiority in terms of its ingredients and efficiency of its pain relieving process (e. The brand must be emotions dominated in order to be consistent with the consumer‟s state of mind. Fragmenting markets and media. toys. the brands competing in this category need to capture the heart of the customer. chocolates. In the circumstances where consumer buying is emotions driven. Complex branding strategies and brand relationships. the product “dissolves faster in water” and therefore. There are 8 different factors that make it difficult to build brands: 1.g. 5. therefore. both internal and external. depends on combining the rational and emotional components of a brand in a manner that it becomes consistent with the consumer‟s frame of mind. Successful branding. What implications does one have for marketers of Aspirin. etc.” Symbolic brand Here. Aspro. 4. While buying greeting cards. For. Proliferation of competitors. That is. the brand must accordingly focus on symbolic or emotional aspects. left brain driven activity. the symbolic or emotional dimension is more prevalent than the functional dimension. buying of a painkiller would be by and large a rational. 2. the functional dimension of the brand is far more visible and appealing than the emotional or symbolic dimension. Anacin? Here the brand should be functions driven. WHY IS BRAND BUILDING DIFFICULT? It is difficult to build a strong brand in today's environment. The decisions would be based on more of the emotional aspect than that of rational aspect.

Price competition is at center stage. Orange versus BPL mobile services . Whereas a year ago information was largely controlled by the manufacturer retailers are now collecting vast amounts of information and developing models to use it. One key to successful brand building is to understand how to develop brand identities. Pressures for short-term results. Pressure to invest elsewhere. to know what the brand stands for. 7. Organizational. BUILDING BRANDS         Pressure to compete on price Short Term Pressures Pressure To Invest Elsewhere Bias Against Innovation Bias Towards Changing Strategies Complex Branding Strategies And Relationships Proliferation Of competitors Fragmentation Markets and Media Lets look at each of these factors in detail: Pressure to compete on price There are enormous pressures on all firms to compete on price. and how to most effectively express that identity. reduced capacity growth and overcapacity. 8. driven by powers of strong retailers. Retailers have become stronger and use their powers to put pressures on prices. value sensitive customers.6. As a result there is an increasing focus on margins and efficient use of space.

often reaching them with specialized media and distribution channels. which has to be different from the rest and thus cater to a particular segment of the population. If Orange is cutting its deposit amount. Although it is tempting to develop separate brand identity for each of these target segments it presents problems for both the brand and the customer. customers are likely to be exposed to more than one identity relating to the same brand. Coordinating messages across these media without weakening a brand is a major challenge. <!--[endif]-->Complex Branding Strategies And Relationships . Proliferation of competitors New. but also make it harder to gain and hold a position. Coordination is all the more difficult because different brand support activities are often handled by different organizations and individuals with varying perspectives and goals. <!--[if !supportLists]-->4. event sponsorship and more are being invented daily. Additional competitors not only contribute to price pressures and brand complexity. The Coca-Cola ad featuring Aamir Khan is targeted at the retailers and the rural market while the ad featuring Aishwarya Rai is targeted at the urban consumers. They leave fewer holes in the market to exploit and fewer implementation vehicles to own. herbal pastes and striped paste – the market is quite clustered. Since media audiences invariably overlap. One of these is toothpaste. With products ranging from gel. the target market becomes smaller and no target market becomes larger. or reducing the general rent or tariff or airtime charges. As both these ads are going on simultaneously the consumers tend to be exposed to both the rural as well as the urban face of the brand. tooth powder. However the bewildering array of media options today includes interactive television. BPL has to follow the suit. vigorous competitors come from a variety of sources.What these cellular service providers are doing is to compete with each other mainly on the basis of price. direct marketing. In addition companies are dividing the population into smaller and more refined target markets. Like Close-up toothpaste which is positioned on the fact that it has mouthwash for fresh breath and Colgate which stresses on its calcium content for stronger teeth. Each brand tends to be positioned more narrowly. The market is so much saturated with different players in these markets that they keep competing on the positioning of their brands. <!--[if !supportLists]-->3. advertising on the internet. <!--[endif]-->Fragmentation Markets and Media At one time being consistent across media and markets was easy as there were a limited number of media options and only a few national media vehicles. There are innumerous players in various product categories.

Ironically the diversification that attracts these resources is often flawed . By ignoring or minimizing fundamental changes in the competitive situation or potential breakthroughs. Iodex became blinded and redundant after achieving the position of market leader and preferred to rest on its laurels rather than go in for product innovations and line extensions. A new competitor is thus often the source and beneficiary of true innovation. There is a tendency to use established brands in different contexts and roles because establishing a totally new brand is very expensive. There is an often mistaken belief that the brand will not be damaged by sharp reductions in support and that the other investment opportunities are more attractive. In addition to knowing its identity each brand needs to understand its role in each context in which it is involved. <!--[endif]-->Pressure To Invest Elsewhere When a brand is strong there is a temptation to reduce investment in the core business area in order to improve short-term performance or to fund new business diversifications. Promise toothpaste tried to change its well set positioning and went in to emphasize the freshness aspect of its paste rather than the well-established clove oil aspect.Different identities of brands and their extensions make both brand building and managing it difficult. The resulting new levels of complexity often are not anticipated or even acknowledged until there is a substantial problem. This is because the line extension and the relationship of one product with another in this strategy are not considered. which positioned itself as a remedy for backache and converted all the weaknesses of Iodex into its strengths. As a result its sales went down. <!--[endif]-->Bias Towards Changing Strategies There are sometimes overwhelming internal pressures to change a brand identity and/or its execution while it is still effective or even before it achieves its potential. Although this is a line extension finding difference between both these products is not easy. Henko Compact and Henko Stain Champion both belong to the German firm Henkal. The resulting changes can undercut brand equity or prevent it from being established. that they become blind to competitive situations. <!--[if !supportLists]-->7. managers leave their brands vulnerable and risk missing opportunities. As a result its leadership position was lost to Moov. <!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[if !supportLists]-->6. and so preoccupied with day to day problems. <!--[endif]-->Bias Against Innovation Companies managing a established brand can be so pleased with past and current success. A number of questions like “Does the name „stain champion‟ mean Henko Compact does not remove stains? Or does it mean that Stain Champion is a technologically inferior product?” often cross the consumers mind when they consider these brands for purchase.

This results in debilitating bias towards short-term results. brand loyalty and brand association. <!--[if !vml]--> <!--[endif]--> Short-term focus is created by performance measures available. perceived quality. COCA COLA. CADBURY’S etc. <!--[endif]-->Short-term pressures: Pressures for short-term results generally undermine investments in brands. <!--[if !supportLists]-->8.because an acquired business was overvalued or because the organization‟s ability to manage a different business area was overestimated. information technology or people are elusive at best. managing and maintaining the four assets that underlie brand equity-awareness. Measurements of intangible assets such as brand equity. <!--[if !vml]--> <!--[endif]--> Management style itself is dominated by a short-term orientation. It is true that that building brands is difficult. As a result brand-building programs are often sacrificed in order to meet those targets. We can thus see that it is possible to build strong brands by building. costs and profits. Also long term value of activities that will enhance or erode brand equity is difficult to demonstrate whereas short-term performances like impact of promotions can be tabulated easily. The greatest examples of this are brands like TITAN. There are several reasons for this: <!--[if !vml]--> <!--[endif]--> There is wide acceptance that maximization of stockholder value should be the overriding objective of the firm. ELEMENTS OF A BRAND Brand name: Selecting A Brand Name Certain factors to be considered before selecting a brand name: distinguish the product from competitive brands . But it is doable as is evident by those who have done so. Annual budgeting systems usually emphasize short-term sales.

some amount of uniqueness.if your target market is partial to blue then it doesn't matter that you're not. . Conversely. translate well in other languages too. It is distinct . or special characteristics in a positive way negative or offensive references should be avoided. spell and pronounce it should allude to the product’s uses.memorable and easy to pronounce easy to say.trendy logos don't hold up over time. Logo The company logo is the cornerstone of the firm's branding elements. is valuable. it plays a vital role in representing it. benefits. For many firms the logo is the visual reminder of everything that the firm stands for. Elements of a Good Logo It has a lasting value . While a great logo won't necessarily build the firm. a weak or confusing logo can detract from the value that the firm brings. Appeals to your target market . as long as it doesn't confuse. evoke positive mental image evoke positive emotional reaction suggest product function or benefits simple sound appropriate be registrable (unique) possibly.

Generic marks are not protectable.If you are trying to communicate your low low prices then your logo should support that image Legible . slogan. Your logo should clearly identify your company and it can't do that if people don't understand it. Combine prefixes and suffixes.Supports your USP . Ask yourself if the mark could be interpreted as immoral or scandalous. . Is it arbitrary or fanciful? Arbitrary or fanciful marks are more protectable than those which are suggestive. If no inherent problems pop up.(celebrity)   THE PROCESS OF BUILDING A BRAND: (THE STARTING POINT) Selecting a brand name involves a mix of business. Characters. are similar in appearance. characteristic or feature of the product or service? If so. examine a hypothetical brand character to determine its effectiveness in enhancing brand awareness. and package design for a brand. Slogans. the "look and feel. Doodh Doodh Ad. Try different word combinations. legal and creative issues. or components. Jingles. The next question is whether any of the brands. you are ready for a search. sound or meaning to those of another company. For example. which in turn are more protectable than those which are descriptive. character. Is a possible mark descriptive of a quality. Does it contain a flag or national symbol? These types of marks can be problematic. and Packaging  recognize the benefits of an effective jingle. Use a slogan or jingle that ie edible to the hear and one which is hummable. Do the marks convey the commercial impression.This seems pretty obvious but many people use typefaces and images that can't be printed or carried to a large sign. come up with one or more possibilities for use as a brand. distinguishes you as the source of the product or service and does not infringe on another's rights. The optimal brand creates a commercial impression in the marketplace. protection might not be easily obtainable. Then give them the "see and hear" test." that your company wants? When a few marks filter to the top.

building a brand image. A search might pick up marks which could present problems. Also after this process of selecting a brand name. Ideally. and all symbols in connection with it. have as complete a picture as possible. Once the decision is made to use a particular brand.A search can give you a better grasp on who is in the market with potentially conflicting marks which could affect the use and registrability of your brands. Before spending money and resources on a branding strategy. You might want to eliminate some of the brands being considered if you can't obtain a matching domain name. it continues with the different aspects of managing a brand by way of having a brand identity. having large awareness. Before conducting a professional search. should make clear you consider a particular mark to be your property. conduct a professional search to determine if another company might have conflicting rights and the scope of protection likely obtainable for the brand. The mark should be used in connection with a description of the goods or services to which it relates. all of which forms the part of brand management. such as a Xerox® copier. conduct your search before promoting or building customer awareness of the mark. use it properly. but be aware that searches do have limitations. etc. "SM" for unregistered service marks and an encircled "R" should be placed adjacent to a federally registered brand. Not all marks are registered on the federal or state level. If your proposed brand still looks viable. and it is best to know about any potential risks as early as possible. Branding is a long-term process. also linking it to the exact target audience. Check the search engines and other online databases to see what is picked up for the brands under consideration. A symbol should be used next to the mark: "TM" for unregistered trademarks. positioning the brand. Your use of it. its slogan and logo is done. this is not the end of the branding process. find out if anyone has already registered a same or similar name which is the same or similar to the marks you are considering.  SOLUTIONS o For Brands o For Agencies o For You o Do It Yourself o We'll Do it For You o Full-Service Mr WHY AYTM? o Overview  . and some that are might be missed. Your brand should identify you as the source of your goods or services. It goes on till the life cycle of the brand. Once this stage is passed.

Faster. If you can make the distinction between the following differences.      o Best Survey Tools o 20+ Million Panel o Expert Studies o Better. . I’ll teach you how to name a brand or product. you’re on your way to understanding brands vs. but first. products. In upcoming posts here on the AYTM blog. Cheaper OUR CLIENTS o Testimonials o Press PRICING o Pricing o AYTM vs. Competitors ABOUT o The team o The board o Our Story CONTACTS REGISTER LOGIN Brand or Product – What Is the Difference? Posted by Susan Gunelius How do you name a brand or product? How do you market a brand or product? You can’t answer those questions until you understand the difference between a brand and product. let’s analyze the differences between them. There are several fundamental differences between a brand and a product (or a service).

Products with low emotional involvement are typically easily replaced. While it can get a bit confusing. However. most people buy their music in digital format and listen to it on their iPods. The Elvis Presley brand is timeless. Similarly. the fundamental differences between products and brands identified below should help you clear up some of that confusion. there is no need for a brand. expectations. For example. Toyota’s product is cars. expectations. and experiences with all products or services under a brand umbrella. it didn’t take long for competitors to come out with their own branded versions of an e-reader product. the brand associated with each e-reader device offers unique value based on the perceptions. . vinyl records. When Amazon launched the Kindle e-reader device. Today. For example.Of course. Companies Make Products and Consumers Make Brands A product is made by a company and can be purchased by a consumer in exchange for money while brands are built through consumer perceptions. and emotions that consumers develop for those brands through previous experiences with them. VHS players have become obsolete. and CDs. it’s important to understand that popular products can become brands unto themselves and brand names can be used to refer to products. a product can be replaced with a competitor’s product if consumers believe the two products offer the same features and benefits. Its umbrella brand is Toyota and each product has its own more specific brand name to distinguish the various Toyota-manufactured product lines from one another. Without a product. Products Can Be Copied and Replaced but Brands Are Unique A product can be copied by competitors at anytime. do you really care what brand of milk you buy or do you primarily just care that the milk you buy is fresh and includes the fat percentage that you want? Products Can Become Obsolete but Brands Can Be Timeless Remember VHS players? With the introduction of DVD players and more recently DVR devices and streaming video services. cassettes. The same thing happened to 8-track tapes. but no one buys Elvis music on cassettes anymore.

That product was instantly meaningful to consumers because it helped them find information online quickly. Consider Google as an example.Products Are Instantly Meaningful but Brands Become Meaningful over Time. That’s why the 3 steps to brand building include consistency. a brand is meaningless until consumers have a chance to experience it. when Google launches a new product (like Google+ recently). 00602776573189 FORID:10 UTF-8 Search w w w . It takes time and effort to convince consumers to believe in your brand. Now that you understand the differences between a brand and a product. However. build trust with it. and restraint. stay tuned for my upcoming articles on        Home Tutorials Stories Terms Book Links Lists KNOWTHIS. consumers began to trust that the Google brand could deliver faster and better information online. Through those experiences. When Google first hit the Internet scene it offered a simple product — a search engine. it’s easy to make that product instantly meaningful and useful to consumers because it serves a specific function for them.c w w w .  o o o Marketing Basics What is Marketing?Marketing Research Marketing ResearchPlanning for Marketing ResearchData Collection: Primary Research MethodsData Collection: Low-Cost Secondary ResearchData Collection: High-Cost Secondary ResearchCustomers & Markets Managing CustomersConsumer Buying BehaviorBusiness Buying BehaviorTargeting MarketsProduct . and believe in persistence. When you launch a new product. people are quick to try those products because they trust the Google brand.know this. the Google brand didn’t become meaningful to consumers until people had a chance to use the Google search engine product and see for themselves that it really was a better search engine. Today.

. Clorox).com is now posting to Twitter. the brand may have attained a significant competitive advantage. Cultivating brand loyalty among customers is the ultimate reward for successful marketers since these customers are far less likely to be enticed to switch to other brands compared to non-loyal customers. Aids in Introduction of New Products . through strong branding efforts Company A achieves a large financial gain by simply signing over the rights to the name. 2013 KnowThis. It can also be recognizable via sound.. Company A simply sells the legal rights to the Brand X name but retains all other parts of Brand X.Strong brands can lead to financial advantages through the concept of Brand Equity in which the brand itself becomes valuable. In these situations the customer who recognizes he needs a solution to a problem (e. The reverse is even better. Builds Brand Equity . needs to bleach clothes) may automatically think of one brand that offers the solution to the problem (e.Brands provide multiple sensory stimuli to enhance customer recognition. For example. ADVANTAGES OF BRANDS A strong brand offers many advantages for marketers including:      Enhances Product Recognition . Helps Build Brand Loyalty . a brand can be visually recognizable from its packaging.g. If circumstances are right Company A could sell to Company B the rights to use the Brand X name without selling any other part of the company. When customers associate benefits with a particular brand. But why would Company B seek to purchase a brand for such a high price tag? Because by buying the brand Company B has already achieved an important marketing goal – building awareness within the target market.Well-developed and promoted brands make product positioning efforts more effective.g. Thus. etc. such as hearing the name on a radio advertisement or talking with someone who mentions the product. For example. The result is that upon exposure to a brand (e. seeing it) customers conjure up mental images or feelings of the benefits they receive from using that brand.. hearing it.Firms that establish a successful brand can extend the brand by adding new products under the same “family” brand. logo. Company B is looking to enter the same market as Brand X. .g. Helps With Product Positioning . shape. Such gains can be realized through the out-right sale of a brand or through licensing arrangements. In cases of well developed brands such a transaction may carry a very large price tag. That is. This “benefit = brand” association provides a significant advantage for the brand that the customer associates with the benefit sought.o o o o o Product DecisionsManaging ProductsDistribution Distribution DecisionsRetailingWholesalingManaging Product MovementAdvertising & Promotion Promotion DecisionsTypes of PromotionAdvertisingManaging the Advertising CampaignTypes of Advertising MediaSales PromotionTypes of Sales PromotionPublic RelationsTypes of Public Relations ToolsPersonal SellingTypes of Selling RolesThe Selling ProcessPricing Pricing DecisionsSetting Price: Part 1Setting Price: Part 2Managing & Planning Managing External ForcesMarketing Planning and StrategyPlanning with the Product Life CycleHow to Write a Marketing PlanPreparing a Market StudyStarting March 1.Customers who are frequent and enthusiastic purchasers of a particular brand are likely to become Brand Loyal. such as the production facilities and employees. The fact the market is already be familiar with the brand allows the Company B to concentrate on other marketing decisions. Such branding may allow companies to introduce new products more easily since the brand is already recognized within the market. Company A may have a well-recognized brand (Brand X) within a market but for some reason they are looking to concentrate their efforts in other markets.

  Brand Names and Brand Marks :BACK .We provide more detail on branding in the Managing Products tutorial with a special emphasis on the strategies marketers follow in order to build a strong brand.