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R. A.

Cook

ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic

APPLICATIONS
ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE - SELECTION AND DESIGN
Ronald A. Cook, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Department of Civil Engineering University of Florida

• Fasten an Attachment (Concrete, Steel, or Timber Element) to Concrete, e.g. – Precast element to precast element – Roof truss to tilt-up concrete wall – Steel column to concrete footing – Wood frame to concrete – Connections to concrete in general
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University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering

University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering

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General Types of Anchors
Covered by ACI 318-05 Not Covered by ACI 318-05

Overview:
• How today’s codes and standards work together for selection of anchors: – Design – Product Approval • Design and product approval considerations – Cast-in-Place – Post-Installed Mechanical – Bonded

Cast-in-Place

Mechanical Undercut Expansion Screw

Bonded Grouted Adhesive

University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering

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University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering

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What “Design” and “Product Approval” Mean in Today’s Codes and Standards for Anchorage to Concrete • Design:
– Based on Strength (LRFD) design concepts – No more “Allowable Load” Tables – Requires the expertise of a Professional Engineer

How Today’s Codes and Standards Work for Selection of Anchors: Design and Product Approval • Cast-in-place anchors • Post-installed mechanical anchors • Screw anchors • Bonded anchors – Adhesive anchors – Grouted anchors
University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering

• Product Approval
– Must be based on criteria that are “in-sync” with the design provisions
University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering

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1.2.3 ACI 318-05 Appendix D 8 IBC– IBC–2006 Provisions ACI 318318-05 Provisions • Appendices are generally not mandatory • ACI 318 Chapter 8 “Analysis and Design – General Considerations” §8.3 ACI 318-06 Appendix D §D. Anchoring to Concrete. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic CastCast-inin-Place Anchors Design of CastCast-inin-Place Anchors hef hef = Effective Embedment Depth University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering IBC 2006 §1912 7 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering ACI 318-05 §8. University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 9 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 10 Product Approval for CastCast-inin-Place Anchors Product Approval for CastCast-inin-Place Anchors – ACI 318318-06 Appendix D … IBC 2006 §1912 ACI 318-05 §8. installed in concrete to transfer loads between connected elements shall be designed using Appendix D.3 — Anchors within the scope of Appendix D.1.R. A.3 11 … Lot’s of text but basically any standard headed anchor or hooked anchor will meet these requirements University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 12 2 .3 makes Appendix D mandatory: 8.1.1.

R. A.3 ACI 318-05 Appendix D 17 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 18 3 . Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic CastCast-inin-Place Anchors: Effects of Cracking PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors: Undercut Anchors Tensile Force Headed Anchors Curves in uncracked and cracked concrete Pre-Drilled Undercut University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Cone Anchor Sleeve 13 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 14 PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors: TorqueTorque-Controlled Expansion Anchors PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors: DisplacementDisplacement-Controlled Expansion Anchors (1) Heavy Duty Sleeve Fastener (2) Wedge Fastener (3) Sleeve Fastener (1) Drop-In Fastener (2) Self-Drilling Fastener (3) Stud Fastener University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 15 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 16 Design of PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors IBC– IBC–2006 Provisions IBC 2006 §1912 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering ACI 318-05 §8.1.

6 makes ACI 355.3 — Headed ….2.3 — … Post-installed anchors that meet the assessment requirements of ACI 355.8.2 are included.8. for the purpose cited in Appendix D. ACI 355.2 are included.6 ACI 318-06 Appendix D §D.2-04 mandatory: 3.11 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering ICC ES AC193 ACI 318-05 Appendix D 24 23 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 4 . IBC 2006 §1912 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering ACI 318-05 §3.2-04 21 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 22 PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors: Screw Anchors (not specifically covered by ACI 318318-05) Design of PostPost-Installed Screw Anchors IBC 2006 §104.R. The suitability of the post-installed anchor for use in concrete shall have been demonstrated by the ACI 355. D.3 19 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 20 Product Approval for PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors: ACI 318318-06 Appendix D D.2. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic Product Approval for PostPostInstalled Mechanical Anchors ACI 318318-05 Appendix D • ACI 318 Chapter 3 “Materials” §3.2.2 prequalification tests.2 prequalification tests.204)” is declared to be part of this code as if fully set forth herein. The suitability of the post-installed anchor for use in concrete shall have been demonstrated by the ACI 355. A.8. Post-installed anchors that meet the assessment requirements of ACI 355.2-04 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Product Approval for PostPostInstalled Mechanical Anchors: How this is currently implemented ICC ES Evaluation Report ICC ES AC193 ACI 355.6 — “Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors in Concrete (ACI 355.

icc-es. The approval decision lies with the AHJ. The Subtleties. A.Adhesive and Grouted (not covered by ACI 318318-05) Adhesive Hole diameter ≤ 1.11 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering IBC-ES AC308 Design and Product Approval 29 §104 §104.11 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 30 5 .” Ref.R.5 times anchor diameter 27 28 Design and Product Approval of PostPost-Installed Adhesive Anchors Design and Product Approval of PostPost-Installed Grouted Anchors Currently not covered by ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria IBC 2006 §104. The Basics. and The Abuses www. on the job site. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic IBCIBC-2006 Provisions Product Approval of PostPostInstalled Screw Anchors ICC ES Evaluation Report IBC 2006 §104.: “Code Approval”.5 anchor diameter University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Grouted Unheaded Headed Hole diameter > 1. it is used within the report conditions.11 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering ICC ES AC193 26 25 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering ICCICC-ES Evaluation Reports “…having an evaluation report does not obligate the AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction) to approve the evaluated product.org University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Bonded AnchorsAnchors. The report is simply technical evidence upon which the AHJ can approve the product if.

A. 349.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS • Code formulas are valid for: – fc′ ≤ 10.2-04 for Product Approval – Previously presented by John Silva University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 33 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 34 What is included and not included in ACI 318318-05 Appendix D D.R. University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Design and Product Approval Considerations • Cast-in-place anchors • Post-installed mechanical anchors • Screw anchors • Bonded anchors – Adhesive anchors – Grouted anchors University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 31 32 Design and Product Approval of CastCast-inin-Place and PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors • ACI 318-05 Appendix D for Design – Basic design considerations ACI 318318-05 APPENDIX D – ANCHORING TO CONCRETE • Introduced in ACI 318-02 • Developed by three ACI Committees (318.2. and 355) over more than ten years • Applies to cast-in-place and postinstalled mechanical anchors (some limitations) • ACI 355. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic ACI Consensus Standard Status on Bonded Anchors • Adhesive anchor design provisions have been balloted by ACI 318 Sub B • An adhesive anchor product approval standard is in the ACI 355 balloting process • Grouted anchors need to be included • The goal is to have ACI consensus standards issued by 2011.SCOPE • Included: – Cast-in-Place Anchors – Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors • Excluded: – Specialty Inserts – Through Bolts – Multiple Anchors Connected to Single Plate at the Embedded End of the Anchors – Adhesive & Grouted Anchors – Powder/Pneumatic Actuated Nails or Bolts University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering D.5 .000 psi for cast-in anchors – fc′ ≤ 8000 psi for post-Installed • Post-installed anchors in concrete with fc′ > 8000 psi must be tested 35 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 36 6 .2 .3.

5.000 psi University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 41 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 42 7 .5.5.R.STEEL STRENGTH (TENSION) Nn Nsa = nAsefuta where futa ≤ 1.4 – Concrete Side-Face Blowout Strength of a Headed Anchor Tested Capacity University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 39 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 40 D.4.STRENGTH OF ANCHORS φNn ≥ Nua φVn ≥ Vua (D-1) (D-2) D.1 . Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic D4.CONCRETE BREAKOUT (TENSION) Nn Nn ≤ 125.5.2 .1 .DESIGN FOR TENSILE LOADING • D.5. A.NOMINAL STRENGTH • Design models in agreement with Test Results • Based on 5% fractile of basic individual anchor strength – 90% confidence that 95% of actual strengths will exceed nominal strength • Lowest φNn and φVn from applicable failure modes • Interaction for combinations of Nua and Vua University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 37 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 38 Lower Fractile Design Approach Average (Mean) Statistical parameters •Average (mean) Frequency •Standard deviation 5 % Fractile •Coefficient of variation •Number of samples D.1.3 – Pullout Strength • D.5 .2 – Concrete Breakout Strength • D.1 – Steel Strength • D.2 .9 fya (D-3) D.5.

5 hef .PULLOUT STRENGTH Npn Npn = ψc.5hef 1. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic D.5.5 N b = k f c' hef c1 ≤ 1.CONCRETE BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR GROUP (TENSION) N cbg = ANc ψ ec .5 hef s1 ≤ 1.2 .4hef ) eh N sb = 160ca1 Abrg f c' (D-17) • For post-installed mechanical anchors. N ψ ed .2.PROJECTED AREA AN c1 s1 1.3 .k = 24 for cast-in anchors .2.5 hef s2 ≤ 1.R.2. Np must be based on results of tests performed and evaluated per ACI 355.5 hef ANc ≤ nANco 1.5hef 1.5.k =17 for post-installed anchors (or higher value from ACI 355.PNp • Headed Stud/Bolt Np = 8Abrgfc’ • J-Bolt or L-Bolt Np = 0.1 . N N b ANco ( D − 5) D.5.SIDESIDE-FACE BLOWOUT Nn • Headed anchor with deep embedment.4 .PROJECTED AREA ANo Nn 1.2.5hef 1.5hef D.5hef 1. close to edge (ca1 < 0.1 .1 .BASIC CONCRETE BREAKOUT • Single Anchor in Tension in Cracked Concrete 1.5.9fc’ehdo where 3d0 ≤ eh ≤ 4.5hef Basic single anchor strength Accounts for post-installed anchor Accounts for cracking Accounts for edge effects Accounts for eccentricity Accounts for projected area of failure surface ≈350 hef 1.5d0 (D-16) (D-15) (D-14) D.5. Nψ c .5hef s2 c2 (D-7) c2 ≤ 1.2 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 47 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 48 8 .5.2) University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 45 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 46 D. A.5hef Elevation ANco = 9hef 2 Plan View (D-6) Consider Only Anchors in Tension University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 43 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 44 D. Nψ cp .

2 .5ca1 35o Plan view Vn If ha < 1.6.5ca1 1.6futa) (D-20) where futa ≤ 1.6.5ca1 53 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 54 9 .8Vsa 50 Vn University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 49 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering D.5ca1 s1 1.5ca1 + s1)ha Vn AVco = 2 (1.Vψ ed .000 psi With built-up grout pads.5(ca1)2 (D-23) 1.5ca1) = 4.1(b) .CONCRETE BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR GROUP (SHEAR) Vcbg = AVc ψ ec .3 – Concrete Pryout Strength D.6.1 – Steel Strength • D.5ca1 and s1 < 3ca1 AVc = (2 x 1. A.6.9fya ≤ 125.STEEL STRENGTH (SHEAR) (a) Cast-in Headed Stud Anchors Vsa = nAsefuta (D-19) (b) Cast-in Headed and Hooked Bolts.5ca1 Side section hef 1.V Vb AVco ( D − 22) Basic single anchor strength Accounts for cracking Accounts for edge effects Accounts for eccentricity Accounts for projected area of failure surface University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 51 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 52 ca1 1.5ca1 1.R.2 – Concrete Breakout Strength • D.6 . use 0.DESIGN FOR SHEAR LOADING • D.CONCRETE BREAKOUT (SHEAR) Vn D.2.5ca1 Edge of concrete Vn ha AVc ca1 AVco Front view University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 1.6.1 .5ca1) (1. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic D. and Post-Installed Anchors Vsa = nAse (0.Vψ c .6.

3 .BASIC CONC. and in Cracked Concrete – Identification Tests – Reference Tests – Reliability Tests – Service-Condition Tests ACI 355.8 .2 • At Design Stage.8 Sets Minimum Cover.7 TENSION/SHEAR INTERACTION Nu 5 5 φ Nn ⎛ N ua ⎞ 3 ⎛ V ua ⎞ 3 ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = 1 . Specific Products May not be Known • In Absence of Reinforcement for Crack Control. (D-5) University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 55 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 56 D.2 • If anchors are rigidly welded to attachment ⎛A ⎞ Vb = 8 ⎜ e ⎟ ⎝ do ⎠ do f ' c ( ca1 ) 1.0 for hef < 2. (D-4) • Ncbg computed from Eq.2 0.2-04 • Testing Requirements in Uncracked Concrete.2355.2 D. • Ncb computed from Eq.6. Spacings.2 . do f ' c ( ca1 ) 1.2φVn University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Nn Nn Nn Nn φVn Vu 57 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 58 Product Approval for PostPost-Installed Mechanical Anchors ACI 355. A. D.2 Sample Format University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 59 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 60 10 .0 for hef ≥ 2.0 ⎝ φVn ⎠ ⎝ φN n ⎠ N ua φN n + V ua φV n = 1 .CONCRETE PRYOUT Single Anchor Vcp = kcpNcb Vcpg = kcpNcbg (D-29) (D-30) Group of Anchors where • kcp = 1.5 (D-24) Vn 0.PRECLUDE SPLITTING FAILURE D.R. BREAKOUT (SHEAR) • Single anchor in shear in cracked concrete ⎛A ⎞ Vb = 7 ⎜ e ⎟ ⎝ do ⎠ 0.6. Member Thickness • Lesser Values are Permitted per ACI 355.5 (D-25) • kcp = 2.2φNn 0.5 in. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic D.5 in.

2004 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 63 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 64 Bond Failure at Steel/Mortar Interface (Grout or Adhesive) Bond Strength of Single Bonded Anchor Uniform Bond Stress Model Nbond hef τ d N bond = τ π d hef The presence of the shallow cone has been shown to be secondary. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic Today’s Design and Product Approval of Bonded Anchors • ICC-ES AC308 for Design – Adhesive anchor design considerations Background on Behavior. and Product Approval of Bonded Anchors • The following presents background information on behavior.. design and product approval of bonded anchors • Specific design requirements for adhesive anchors are now in ICC-ES AC308 and being balloted by ACI 318 • Specific product approval requirements for adhesive anchors are in ICC-ES AC308 and being balloted by ACI 355 • Grouted anchors are currently not covered by ICC-ES AC308 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering • ICC-ES AC308 for Product Approval – Adhesive anchor product approval tests • Grouted anchors are currently not covered by ICC-ES AC308 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 61 62 How Bonded Anchors Transfer Tension Loads N N Potential Embedment Failure Modes of Bonded Anchors τ τ0 hef Threaded Rod Mortar Concrete Cook et al. the strength is dependent on bond University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 65 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 66 11 . Design. A. 1998 Eligehausen et.R. al.

A. the bond strength can be based the nominal bond stress relative to the anchor diameter (τ) • For grouted anchors (d>1. • Strength is limited to the concrete breakout strength as provided in ACI 318-05 Appendix D Behavior of Bonded Anchors Bond failure Concrete breakout failure Tension Load N = τ π d hef N =k Anchor diameter (d) 1.uniform bond model 400 Load (KN) 300 200 100 Only 17 of 891 data points below 5% fractile (1. the bons strength needs to consider both the nominal bond stress at the anchor/grout interface (τ) and at the grout/concrete interface (τ0) h ef τ d hefef τ τ0 0 d00 d Bond failure at steel/grout interface University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Bond failure at grout/concrete interface 69 Zamora et al 2003 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 70 Design of Bonded Anchors • Bond strength can be based on the uniform bond stress model up to hef/d of ~20.R.9%) Cook et al.5d0).uniform bond model 5% fractile . Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic Comparison of loads with the uniform bond model (data set average bond stress normalized to 10 MPa) MPa) 600 Grouted Anchor Failure Modes 500 measured loads mean .5 f c' hef University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 71 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 72 12 .5d0). 1998 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Bond Area (A b ) (mm2) 67 Bond Failure at Grout/Concrete Interface (withofor without head) University Florida Department of Civil Engineering Concrete Breakout Failure Zamora et al 2003 68 Bond Strength Considerations for Grouted Anchors Bonded Strength Considerations for Bonded Anchors • For adhesive anchors (d≤1.

5 • loading after short term cure • Improperly cleaned holes But not greater than the concrete breakout strength calculated by ACI 318-05 Appendix D Eq.5 scr 0. Nψ g .5 scr Critical spacing and edge distance Cast-in-place and post-installed mechanical anchors: 0.5 scr)(ca2 + s2 + 0.5 scr and s1 and s2 < scr b) Four anchor group with close spacing and located near a corner ⎛ τ ⎞ scr = 2ccr = 20d ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1450 ⎠ Why the difference? 0. group = Nc ψ ec .5 scr) if ca1 and ca2 < 0. A.5 scr scr = 2ccr = 3. bond strength has a significant influence on critical spacing hef=10d τ = 1390 psi [9. embedment length does not have the same effect as that for postpost-installed mechanical anchors N For bond failure. (D-5) Eligehausen et al 2006 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering • cracked concrete • mixing method (bulk products) • etc.6 MPa] Appl and Eligehausen 2005 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 75 76 Strength of Bonded Anchors: A N bond .5 Eligehausen et al 2006 a) Single anchor away from edges and other anchors University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 73 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 74 For bond failure. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic Critical Spacing and Edge Distance for Bonded Anchors 0. University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 77 78 13 .R.5 scr s2 ca2 2 AN 0 = scr AN = (ca1 + s1 + 0. N N bond ANc 0 Product Approval Standard: Factors Influencing Bonded Anchor Strength • basic bond strength • temperature • long term strength (creep) • damp hole installation • submerged installation • hole orientation • freeze/thaw • fire resistance • durability N bond = τ π d hef ⎛ τ ⎞ scr = 2ccr = 20d ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1450 ⎠ 0.9 MPa] N hef =20d Appl and Eligehausen 2005 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering τ = 2850 psi [19.0 hef Bonded anchors: ACI 318-05 Appendix D 0.5 scr ca1 s1 0..5 scr 0. etc….

R. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic Example: Relative Bond Stress Comparison Adhesive and Grouted 4000 Example: Influence of Hole Moisture 35 DRY HOLE (BASELINE) 30 Grouted τ mean = 2594 psi Average Uniform Bond Strength. (2001) University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 81 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 82 Summary: How today’s codes and standards work together for selection of anchors: • Cast-in-place ƒ Design: IBC 2006 – ACI 318-05 ƒ Product Approval: ACI 318-05 • Post-Installed Mechanical ƒ Design: IBC 2006 – ACI 318-05 ƒ Product Approval: IBC 2006 – ACI 31805 – ACI 355. A. MPa Average Uniform Bond Stress. J.2-04 via ICC-ES AC193 Summary: How today’s codes and standards work together for selection of anchors (continued): • Post-Installed Screw Anchors ƒ Design: IBC 2006 – ICC-ES AC193 – ACI 318-05 ƒ Product Approval: IBC 2006 – ICC-ES AC193 • Adhesive Bonded Anchors ƒ Design: IBC 2006 – ICC-ES AC308 ƒ Product Approval: IBC 2006 – ICC-ES AC308 • Grouted Anchors ƒ IBC 2006 – Tests must be performed University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 83 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 84 14 . [psi] Adhesive τ mean = 1850 psi 3055 3040 2901 2946 2850 2663 2872 2564 2579 2586 3000 2342 2259 DAMP HOLE WET HOLE 25 2314 2480 2227 2013 2104 2306 20 1800 1659 1780 1631 1450 1627 2000 1656 15 793 1063 1000 447 10 334 5 0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Product University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 79 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering Cook and Konz 2001 80 Example: Influence of Cracked Concrete ICC-ES AC308 Sample Format Meszaros.

University of Texas • Basile Rabbat – PCA • Don Meinheit . and Jörg Appl . Werner Fuchs. A.SELECTION AND DESIGN The End University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 87 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 88 15 . Inc. Janney.R..2-04 • Grouted bonded anchors ƒ Covered indirectly by IBC 2006 but need to addressed by ACI 318 and ACI 355 • Post-Installed screw anchors ƒ Covered by IBC 2006 via ICC-ES AC193 but needs to be addressed by ACI 318 and ACI 355 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering • Bottom Line on Bonded Anchors ƒ All glues are not created equal 85 University of Florida Department of Civil Engineering 86 Acknowledgements • Richard Klingner . Elstner Associates.University of Stuttgart • John Silva and Richard Wollmershauser – Hilti • ACI 355 and ACI 318 Sub B ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE . • Rolf Eligehausen.Wiss. Cook ACI Atlanta 2007 Hot Topic Summary: Design and Product Approval Considerations • Cast-in-place anchors ƒ Covered by ACI 318-05 Summary: Design and Product Approval Considerations (continued) • Adhesive bonded anchors ƒ Covered by IBC 2006 via ICC-ES AC308 and now being addressed by ACI 318 and ACI 355 • Post-installed mechanical anchors ƒ Covered by ACI 318-05 and ACI 355.