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# Appendix

1. Sample drag coefficient, lift cofficient Calculation: Clark Y β6Β° angle of attack case is calculated. The characterisitic area of airfoil can be expressed as planform area(frontal area for spheres): π΄ = ππΏ = 10 ππ Γ 3.5 ππ = 35 ππ2 , 2 β 144

where in general, W=wingspan [in], L=chord length [in]. The velocity can be calculated through dynamic pressure: π = οΏ½ 2 β π =οΏ½ π πππ ππ2 β 0.097 2 2 ππ‘ ππ‘ ππ = 110 , π ππ’π π  0.00233 3 ππ‘

where P=dynamic pressure [psig], Ο=density [slug/ft^3]. The Reynoldβs number can thus be calculated by:

where, Β΅=dynamic viscosity [ft^2/s]. Experimentally, the axial force FA and normal force FN on the sting balance are directly measured, thus the drag force FD and lift force FL can be correlated using the following formla: πΉπΏ = πΉπ cos(πΌ ) β πΉπ΄ sin(πΌ ). πΉπ· = πΉπ sin(Ξ±) + πΉπ΄ cos (Ξ±). where Ξ±=angle of attack. For the specified case, we have: πΉπ = 0.02lbf. πΉπ΄ = 0.07lbf. πΌ = β6Β° . ππ

= πππΏ

π

=

0.00233 π ππ’π

ππ‘ β110 π  β0.292 ππ‘ ππ‘3 πππ βπ  3.8Γ10β7 2 ππ‘

= 1.96 Γ 105 ,

The corresponding forces are:

The corresponding lift and drag coefficients are: πΆπΏ = πΆπ· = 2πΉπΏ = ππ 2 π΄ πΉπ·

= πΉπ sin(Ξ±) + πΉπ΄ cos(Ξ±) = 0.03lbf β sinοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ + 0.09lbf β cosοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ = β0.09lbf 2 β 0.03 πππ = 0.008 π ππ’π ππ‘ 0.00233 3 β (110 )2 β 0.24ππ‘ 2 π  ππ‘ πΉπΏ

= πΉπ cos(πΌ ) β πΉπ΄ sin(πΌ ) = 0.03lbf β cosοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ + 0.09lbf β sinοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ = 0.02lbf.

2πΉπ· = ππ 2 π΄

2 β 0.07πππ = 0.020 π ππ’π ππ‘ 0.00233 3 β (110 )2 β 0.24ππ‘ 2 π  ππ‘

a numerical calculation will be presented as well.516 The uncertainty of a drag coefficient is: UCD = οΏ½οΏ½ β’ β’ β’ The derivatives are as follows: βCD βFD βV βCD βCD βA 2 2 2 βCD βCD βCD UFD οΏ½ + οΏ½ UV οΏ½ + οΏ½ UA οΏ½ βFD βV βA 2 2 = = = ΟV2 A β4FD ΟV3 A β2FD = = slug ft 2 οΏ½0.00233 3 οΏ½ οΏ½75.00233 3 οΏ½οΏ½75.03 lbf . Sample Calculation: Uncertainty of a Drag Coefficient In order to illustrate how this calculation was performed. The sample calculation is performed for a 4 inch sphere at a velocity of 75.31lbf ) slug ft 3 οΏ½0.4 s οΏ½ (0.31 lbf sin(0) = β0.4 s οΏ½ (0.03 lbf cos(0) β 0.00233 3 οΏ½οΏ½75.091 ft2 ) ft = 1.652 2 ΟV2 A2 = The uncertainties within are defined as follows: β’ UFD = οΏ½οΏ½ o o o βFD β2(0.4 s οΏ½ (0.00233 3 οΏ½οΏ½75.091 ft2 ) ft β4(0.091 ft2 )2 ft The derivatives are as follows: βFN βFD βFD βΞ± βFA βFD βFN UFN οΏ½ + οΏ½ 2 βFD βFA UFA οΏ½ + οΏ½ 2 βFD βΞ± UΞ± οΏ½ = cos(Ξ±) = cos(0) = 1 = sin(Ξ±) = sin(0) = 0 The uncertainties are all from the instrumentation in the experiment. as each equation is presented.659 = β0.4 ft/s.2.0136 = β5.31lbf ) slug ft 2 οΏ½0.4 s οΏ½ (0. = FN cos(Ξ±) β FA sin(Ξ±) = β0. The equation for a drag coefficient is as follows: CD = 2FD = ΟV 2 A slug ft 2 οΏ½0.091 ft 2 ) ft 2(0.31lbf ) = 0.

499 Β± 0.496 Β± 0. πππ(π. β’ β’ Thus.57 x 105 1.02 141.486 Β± 0.0117 0.473 Β± 0.534 ft Finally.0070 0.0056 0. ππππ) = π. Velocity (ft/s) 75.0167 0.0095 . ππππ(π.00233 2 slugs οΏ½ ft3 =68. πππ) = π.340 ft) 2 = 0. β’ Thus.75 x 105 2. πππππ))π = π. ππππ All of the drag coefficients and their uncertainties for a smooth four inch sphere are recorded in Table 1. πππ))π + (βπ. ππ(π. Table 1. ππ)π + (βπ. πππ(π.96 x 105 Drag Coefficient 0. ππππ βV βP β’ The derivatives are as follows: o βV βP UV = UP The uncertainty from the pressure is from the instrumentation in the experiment.94 Reynolds Number 1. πππ)(π. πππ = οΏ½(π. ππ = (ππ. ππππππ = ΟD 2 = Ο(0.88 x 105 2.470 Β± 0.This means the uncertainty is: o πππ = οΏ½(π)π + (π.29 117. πππ UA = o βD βA = οΏ½ = οΏ½ 2 PΟ 2 1 2 1 (0.32 104. πππ)(π.45 x 105 2. π))π = π. ππππ))π + (βπ. ππ = (π.301 The derivatives are as follows: βD βA UD The uncertainty in the diameter is from the micrometer.046 psi)οΏ½0.40 90.0867 0.516 Β± 0. This table shows the Reynolds numbers and drag coefficients with calculated uncertainties for different velocities on a smooth sphere.66 132.17 x 105 2.