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1. Sample drag coefficient, lift cofficient Calculation: Clark Y β6Β° angle of attack case is calculated. The characterisitic area of airfoil can be expressed as planform area(frontal area for spheres): π΄ = ππΏ = 10 ππ Γ 3.5 ππ = 35 ππ2 , 2 β 144

where in general, W=wingspan [in], L=chord length [in]. The velocity can be calculated through dynamic pressure: π = οΏ½ 2 β π =οΏ½ π πππ ππ2 β 0.097 2 2 ππ‘ ππ‘ ππ = 110 , π ππ’π π 0.00233 3 ππ‘

where P=dynamic pressure [psig], Ο=density [slug/ft^3]. The Reynoldβs number can thus be calculated by:

where, Β΅=dynamic viscosity [ft^2/s]. Experimentally, the axial force FA and normal force FN on the sting balance are directly measured, thus the drag force FD and lift force FL can be correlated using the following formla: πΉπΏ = πΉπ cos(πΌ ) β πΉπ΄ sin(πΌ ). πΉπ· = πΉπ sin(Ξ±) + πΉπ΄ cos (Ξ±). where Ξ±=angle of attack. For the specified case, we have: πΉπ = 0.02lbf. πΉπ΄ = 0.07lbf. πΌ = β6Β° . π π

= πππΏ

π

=

0.00233 π ππ’π

ππ‘ β110 π β0.292 ππ‘ ππ‘3 πππ βπ 3.8Γ10β7 2 ππ‘

= 1.96 Γ 105 ,

The corresponding forces are:

The corresponding lift and drag coefficients are: πΆπΏ = πΆπ· = 2πΉπΏ = ππ 2 π΄ πΉπ·

= πΉπ sin(Ξ±) + πΉπ΄ cos(Ξ±) = 0.03lbf β sinοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ + 0.09lbf β cosοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ = β0.09lbf 2 β 0.03 πππ = 0.008 π ππ’π ππ‘ 0.00233 3 β (110 )2 β 0.24ππ‘ 2 π ππ‘ πΉπΏ

= πΉπ cos(πΌ ) β πΉπ΄ sin(πΌ ) = 0.03lbf β cosοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ + 0.09lbf β sinοΏ½β6Β° οΏ½ = 0.02lbf.

2πΉπ· = ππ 2 π΄

2 β 0.07πππ = 0.020 π ππ’π ππ‘ 0.00233 3 β (110 )2 β 0.24ππ‘ 2 π ππ‘

a numerical calculation will be presented as well.516 The uncertainty of a drag coefficient is: UCD = οΏ½οΏ½ β’ β’ β’ The derivatives are as follows: βCD βFD βV βCD βCD βA 2 2 2 βCD βCD βCD UFD οΏ½ + οΏ½ UV οΏ½ + οΏ½ UA οΏ½ βFD βV βA 2 2 = = = ΟV2 A β4FD ΟV3 A β2FD = = slug ft 2 οΏ½0.00233 3 οΏ½ οΏ½75.00233 3 οΏ½οΏ½75.03 lbf . Sample Calculation: Uncertainty of a Drag Coefficient In order to illustrate how this calculation was performed. The sample calculation is performed for a 4 inch sphere at a velocity of 75.31lbf ) slug ft 3 οΏ½0.4 s οΏ½ (0.31 lbf sin(0) = β0.4 s οΏ½ (0.03 lbf cos(0) β 0.00233 3 οΏ½οΏ½75.091 ft2 ) ft = 1.652 2 ΟV2 A2 = The uncertainties within are defined as follows: β’ UFD = οΏ½οΏ½ o o o βFD β2(0.4 s οΏ½ (0.00233 3 οΏ½οΏ½75.091 ft2 ) ft β4(0.091 ft2 )2 ft The derivatives are as follows: βFN βFD βFD βΞ± βFA βFD βFN UFN οΏ½ + οΏ½ 2 βFD βFA UFA οΏ½ + οΏ½ 2 βFD βΞ± UΞ± οΏ½ = cos(Ξ±) = cos(0) = 1 = sin(Ξ±) = sin(0) = 0 The uncertainties are all from the instrumentation in the experiment. as each equation is presented.659 = β0.4 ft/s.2.0136 = β5.31lbf ) slug ft 2 οΏ½0.4 s οΏ½ (0. = FN cos(Ξ±) β FA sin(Ξ±) = β0. The equation for a drag coefficient is as follows: CD = 2FD = ΟV 2 A slug ft 2 οΏ½0.091 ft 2 ) ft 2(0.31lbf ) = 0.

499 Β± 0.496 Β± 0. πππ(π. β’ β’ Thus.57 x 105 1.02 141.486 Β± 0.0117 0.473 Β± 0.534 ft Finally.0070 0.0056 0. ππππ) = π. Velocity (ft/s) 75.0167 0.0095 . ππππ(π.00233 2 slugs οΏ½ ft3 =68. πππ) = π.340 ft) 2 = 0. β’ Thus.75 x 105 2. πππππ))π = π. ππππ All of the drag coefficients and their uncertainties for a smooth four inch sphere are recorded in Table 1. πππ))π + (βπ. ππ(π. Table 1. ππ)π + (βπ. πππ(π.96 x 105 Drag Coefficient 0. ππππ βV βP β’ The derivatives are as follows: o βV βP UV = UP The uncertainty from the pressure is from the instrumentation in the experiment.94 Reynolds Number 1. πππ)(π. πππ = οΏ½(π. ππ = (ππ. ππππππ = ΟD 2 = Ο(0.88 x 105 2.470 Β± 0.This means the uncertainty is: o ππ π = οΏ½(π)π + (π.29 117. πππ UA = o βD βA = οΏ½ = οΏ½ 2 PΟ 2 1 2 1 (0.32 104. πππ)(π.45 x 105 2. π))π = π. ππππ))π + (βπ. ππ = (π.301 The derivatives are as follows: βD βA UD The uncertainty in the diameter is from the micrometer.046 psi)οΏ½0.40 90.0867 0.516 Β± 0. This table shows the Reynolds numbers and drag coefficients with calculated uncertainties for different velocities on a smooth sphere.66 132.17 x 105 2.

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