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ARTICLE

AGRICULTURE OF PAKISTAN
The Backbone or the Cracked Bone

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Article Title:

Agriculture of Pakistan

Submitted By: Kashif Abbas Roll Number: Section: Semester: 38 A 5th

Business Administration Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology.

Submitted To: Sir. Faseeh Ulah Khan Faculty: Economics Of Pakistan Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology.

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ABSTRACT:

Promoting efficient and sustainable agricultural growth is a necessary condition for rural growth, employment generation, poverty reduction and social stability. Moving forward, it is imperative to maintain a comprehensive, versatile approach to agricultural and to ensure that sufficient resources are invested in the undertaking. Yet to be successful, the agricultural development effort should be strategic, highly focused and integrated. This article provides a rigorous conceptual framework and a set of strategic interventions to achieve efficient and sustainable agricultural growth. The strategic analysis of the agricultural sector in Pakistan and a prioritized set of highly - focused, integrated interventions. These interventions are designed to achieve steady, sustainable growth in the agricultural sector; raise income for small farmers; and increase employment opportunities in rural areas. GOP has set goals to maintain an annual growth rate of 4-5% up to 2015. To achieve the above said goals MINFAL has adopted the following agriculture development strategy: 1.Diversification to horticulture, livestock and fisheries 2.Enhancing productivity by narrowing yield gap, especially of small farmers 3.Demand driven research and new technologies 4.High efficiency irrigation 5.Fair price to farmers 6.Market infrastructure development 7.Compliance with international quality standards In order to implement this strategy and achieve the objectives of agricultural development, Government has placed emphasis on the following research priorities: 1. Paradigm shift from green revolution to gene revolution 2. Strategic research to explore new scientific opportunities to improve total factor productivity and profitability 3. Crop intensification and diversification 4. Integrated farming system approach for small holders 5. Sustainable use of natural resources 6. Capacity building of the national agriculture research and extension system

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INTRODUCTION:

The Agriculture sector continues to play a central role in Pakistan’s economy. It is the second largest sector, accounting for over 21 % of GDP, and remains by far the largest employer, absorbing 45% of the country’s total labor force. Nearly 62% of the country’s population resides in rural areas, and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. The Agriculture sector’s strong linkages with the rest of the economy are not fully captured in the statistics. While on the one hand, the sector is a primary supplier of raw materials to downstream industry, contributing substantially to Pakistan’s exports, on the other, it is a large market for industrial products such as fertilizer, pesticides,tractors and agricultural implements. Agricultural growth in Pakistan has been well below potential over the past several years despite an unusually favorable set of physical resources, including vast irrigated areas. In consequence, rural incomes are growing little, if at all, and poverty reduction has virtually halted. The project interventions proposed in this paper concentrate on key agricultural subsectors that comprise the bulk of the overall agricultural economy. The objective of those interventions is to accelerate growth in the targeted subsectors with a view to achieving a 5 percent overall growth rate in the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP). It is worth noting that Pakistan achieved nearly a 5 percent growth rate over a ten - year period in the 1960s (World Bank 1987). The per capita growth rate in the 1960s was 4.4 times higher than the current rate. Thus, the proposed 5 percent agricultural growth rate seems a reasonable target by international comparisons as well as from the viewpoint of Pakistan’s own resource base and demand structure. The incremental two percent growth rate is achievable because the weight of the potential fast -growth components livestock Through employment multipliers to the rural non -farm sector, that rapid acceleration in growth would lead to a rapid increase in employment and a decline in poverty.

EXPLANATIONS:

The agricultural GDP growth rate in Pakistan was only 1.5 percent in 2008, significantly lower than the population growth rate (Pakistan National Income Statistics 2009). This very low rate was due to temporary factors, including unfavorable weather conditions. The 1989-90 to 2004-05 average growth rates were 2.3 percent (Pakistan National Income Statistics 2007). Immediately following that period, the growth rate was about 3 percent a rate that can be expected from small holder - induced improvements in cultivation practices, growth in the rural labor force, and small changes in cropping intensity (FAO STAT). Thus, we have selected this rate as a base for the 2 percent increment b41ecause it is more representative than that achieved in 2007 and because it is more in line with growth rates in countries with similar characteristics in terms of rural labor force, cropping intensity and related agricultural practices.

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The 3% target used is relative to Pakistan’s resource base and demand structure as well as by international comparisons. Pakistan has the resource base for achieving a 5 percent growth rate, 2 percent higher than the base rate. Agricultural GDP growth rates in fast-growth middle- income countries average 4 to 6 percent (Mellor 1992). Pakistan has unusually favorable climate and irrigation assets, which compare favorably with those found in the best - endowed areas in India. However, current yields in Pakistan are well below yields achieved in those areas (World Bank 2007). It is worth noting that Pakistan achieved nearly a 5 percent growth rate over a ten - year period in the 1960s (World Bank 1987). The per capita growth rate in the 1960s was 4.4 times higher than the current rate. Thus, the proposed 5 percent agricultural growth rate seems a reasonable target by international comparisons as well as from the viewpoint of Pakistan’s own resource base and demand structure. The incremental 2% growth rate is achievable because the weight of the potential fast-growth components livestock and horticulture is much larger in Pakistan today than in the earlier decades, and the current growth in demand in the domestic and international markets is much more significant. Despite its critical importance to growth, exports, incomes, and food security the Agriculture sector has been suffering from secular decline (Table 2.1). Growth in the sector, particularly in the crop subpast three decades. Productivity remains low, with yield gaps rising (Table 2.2). Critical investments in new seeds, techniques and the water infrastructure are not being made. Without major new investments in Agriculture, it is unclear how to prepare Pakistan would be to tackle emerging challenges such as declining water availability and climate changes.

Over the past six years, Agriculture has grown at an average rate of 3.7% per annum. However, volatilities in the sector are high, with the range of growth varying between 6.5% and 10 percent. The fluctuations in the overall Agriculture has been largely dependent on the contribution of the major crops. The trend in the Agriculture growth since 2003-04 is reported in the Table 2.3.

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Much of what the public and private sectors do to accelerate agricultural growth is commodity specific. This is markedly true of applied research, the technical aspects of extension, and a high proportion of private sector marketing. This paper is organized largely around commodity sets, selecting those that are potentially the largest contributors to a high growth rate. The importance of specific commodity sets to future growth is a function of their agricultural GDP base weight and the growth rate that can be achieved. It follows that focusing on commodities with only a small base achieves little short-run impact on aggregate growth even if its rate of growth is high. Similarly, if the growth for a given commodity is constrained for example by shortage of land then that commodity can be important to growth only if the base weight is very high. Table 2.4 presents the base weights for eight commodity sets. It also estimates growth rates based on observation of what is actually achieved in high growth - rate strategies (Mellor 1992), which in turn are related to production and market potentials. High growth rates are more easily achieved for commodities with high value relative to the area under cultivation. Area under cultivation can increase, and elastic demand growth can support rapidly expanding markets.

TABLE 2.4: Commodity Composition, 5 Percent Growth Rate
COMMODITY LIVESTOCK WHEAT HORTICULTURE COTTON RICE SUGARCANE MISC. FORESTRY TOTAL BASE (% AGRICULTURE GDP) 46 14 5 10 6 4 11 3 100 GROWTH RATE (%) 6 3 8 4 4 3 4 2 5 INCREMENTAL GROWTH (%) 57 9 8 8 5 3 9 1 100

Note: Incremental growth for each commodity is calculated by multiplying each commodity’s share of agricultural GDP (column 2) by its corresponding growth rate (column 3), and dividing by total growth rate (last row, column 3).

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A. CROP SITUATION:

There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan, namely KHARIF, the sowing season of which begins in April-June, and harvesting during October-December, sugarcane, cotton, maize, mong mash, millet (bajra) and Indian corn (jowar) are KHARIF CROPS; and the RABI which sowed during the period of OctoberDecember and harvesting starts in April-May the main crops of RABI are wheat, gram, lentil (masoor). Tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard. Major crops, such as wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane for 82% of the value added in the major crops. The value added in major crops accounts’ for 34% of the value added in overall agriculture and 13% to GSD. The minor crops account for 11% of the value added in overall agriculture.

1. COTTON:
Cotton being a non-food cash crop contributes significantly in foreign exchange earnings. Cotton accounts for 8.6 % of the value added in agriculture and about 2% in GDP. The crop was sown on the area of 3106 thousands hectares, 10.1 % more than the last year. The production of 12.7 million bales for 2009-10. Higher by 7.4% over the last year production of 11.8 million bales. However, the production was 5 % less than the target of 13.36 million bales mainly due to shortage irrigation water, high temperature in the month of August resulting in excessive fruit shedding, flare up of sucking pest complexes and widespread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV). Area, production and yield of cotton for the last five years are given in the Table 2.5 and Figure (A) below: Figure (A)

Table 2.5 Area, Production and Yield of Cotton

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During this 2009-10 Kharif. An important development was the increasing usage of Bt: cotton ny farmers. In Sind, it was observed almost 80% of cotton growing area has become under Bt: cotton (Australian Bt) with high incidence (60-100%) of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus infection. In Punjab, Bt Cotton is grown on almost 80% areas with different names, i.e. Bt‐121 and Bt‐131 with a range of segregation (10-20%) in the fields of Bt cotton. MinFa has finalized and got approved from ECC an LOI & MoU with action plan to introduce Bt cotton Bt Hybrid variety of cotton in Pakistan in collaboration with M/s Monsanto. 1.Bt cotton is developed by Genetic Engineering (Biotechnology). Bt cotton contains Genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). 2.Eight countries commercially grew Bt cotton (USA, Australia, China, India Etc.). Protein of this gene is highly deadly for the Chewing Pests i.e. American, Army, Pink and Spotted worm but not for Sucking Pests like Mealy Bug etc. 3.There may be 30% increase in cotton yield due to resistance against chewing pest and hence additional income to the poor farmers in Pakistan. 4.The Bt. Cotton varieties including Bt hybrids currently grown in Pakistan are from exotic sources which are given to farmers for cultivation without validating its performance and without providing production technologies based on research conducted according to local environment. 5.None of these planting materials have been imported legally and have not been tested so far according to rules and regulations set by government agencies at Federal and Provincial levels.

2. SUGARCANE:
Sugarcane is one the major crops of Pakistan, grown in Kharif season. It provides raw material to sugar and sugar related products. It generates income and employment for the farming community. It helps in value addition to essential items for industries like sugar, chip board and paper. Its share in value added of agriculture & GDP are 3.5% and 0.8% respectively. For 2009-10 sugarcane has been sown in the area of 943 thousands hectors, 8.4% lower than last year (1029 thousands hectors). Sugarcane production for the year 2009-10 is estimated at 49.4 million tons, against 50 million tons last year. This indicates a decline of 1.3% over the production of the last year. Main factors contributing for lesser production are maximum area under wheat crop during last year 2008-2009 restricted the sugarcane acreage, shortage of canal water, load shedding of electricity, realization of lower prices in the preceding season and high rate of inputs also discouraged the farmers to grow more sugarcane crop. The area, production and yield per hectare for the last five years are given in the Table and Figure (B): Figure (B)

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Table 2.6: Area Production and Yield Of Sugarcane

3. RICE:
Rice is an essential cash crop and one of the main export items of the country. It accounts for 6.4% of the value added in agriculture and 1.4% in GDP. Pakistan grows high quality Rice to meet both domestic demand and export demand. Area sown for Rice is estimated at 2883 thousands hectares 2.7%Less than last year. The size of the crop is estimated at 6883 thousands tons 1.0% less than last year. In the Punjab sugarcane area was also to shifted to Rice crop, as the growers were discouraged due to non-payement of their dues in time by the sugar industeries. The area, production and yield of Rice for the last five Years are given in Table 2.7 and Fig (C): Figure (C)

Table 2.7: Area Productivity And Yield of Rice

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4. WHEAT:
Wheat is the leading food grain of Pakistan and being staple diet of the peoplre of Pakistan. It occupies a central position in formulation of agricultural policies. It contributes 14.4% to the value added in agriculture and 3.1% of total GDP. Area and production target of wheat for the year 2009-10 had set at 9045 thousand hectares and 25 million tons respectively. Wheat was cultivated on an area of 9024 thousand hectares, showing a decrease of 0.04% over last years area of 6046 thousand hectares. The impact of water shortages nad the lower rainfall the sowing period has been the main reason for lesser acreage under wheat crop. The size of weat crop is provisionally estimated at 23864 million tons, 0.7% less than last year. The prospect for wheat harvest is improved somewhat healthy fertilizer off take and reasonable rainfall in preharvesting period. However, the impact of lower acreage and water shortage is likely take its total and wheat harvest is estimated to be lower than the 2009-10 targets of 25.0 million tons. The area, Production and Yield per hectare of wheat for the last five years are given in Fig: (D) and Table 2.8: Figure (D)

Table 2.8: The Area, Production and Yield per Hectare of Wheat

6. OTHER MAJOR CROPS:
During the year 2009-10, the production of only rapeseeds and mustard increased by 7.4%. Garm, the largest Rabi pules crop in Pakistan, stood at 5.7 million tons against 7.4 million tons of last year showing a significant decrease of 23% during 2009-10 due to reduction in area cultivated and unfavourable climate change. The production of Jawar, barley, Maize, Bajra and tobbaco decraesed by 6.7, 4.9, 3.0, 1.0 and 1.0 percent respectively during 2009-10. The area and production of major crops are given in Table 2.9:

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Table 2.9: The Area, Production of Other Major Crops of Kharif and Rabi

7. OTHER MINOR CROPS:
The oilseeds crops include cottonseeds, rapeseed/mustard, sunflower and canola etc. The total availiblity of edible oil in 2008-09 was 2.821 million tons. Local production of the edible stood at 684 thousands tons during 2008-09, which is the 24% of the total availiblity in the country. While the remaining 76% was made available through imports. During 2009-10 (July- March) 1.246 million tons edilble oil which amounted to Rs. 77.78 billions has been imported. The local production during 2009-10 (July-March) is estimated at 0.689 million tons. Total availibility from all sources is provisionaly estimated at 1.749 million tons during 2009-10 (July-March). The area and production of oilseeds crops during 2008-09 is given in Table 2.10 Table 2.10: Area and Production of Minor Crops

Similarly the production of Lentils (mong, masor, mash, millet ) and onion and potato increased by 1.4%, 9.0% and 15.9%% respectively. Timely rain supplemented to some extent for increasing production of mong, mash and chillis decreased by 24.6%, 20.6% and 0.5% respectively. The decreased in these crops ins mainly due to reduction of area under such crops as the area of mong, mash and chillies decreased by 16.6%, 12.7% nad 22.2% respectively. The area nad production of minor crops are given in Table 2.11:

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Table 2.11: Area and Production of Other Minor Crops

B. FARM INPUTS:

1. FERTILIZERS:
The Government has taken several significant steps to boost agricultural production over the last five years. The domestic peoduction of fertilizer during the first nine months (July- March, 2009-10) of the current fiscal year was up by 4.5%. the import of fertilizer increased by 133%: hence, the availibilty of fertilizer surged by 23.8% (Table 2.12) due to a subsidy of Rs. 500 per Bag of Sulphate of Potash (SOP)/ Muriate of potash (MOP) has been announced. Nitrogen off-take increased by 15.4% while that of phosphate by 66.2%. Main reason for the increased off-take of fertilizers were affordable price of DAP and higher suppory price of wheat. Average retails price of nitrogenous fertilizers increased while phosphate decreased considerably. Table 2.12: Production and Off-take Fertilizer

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2. IMPROVED SEEDS:
Improved high quality seeds of planting material is the desirable input for improving crop yield. Seed is an important component in agriculture productivity system. Seed has the basic position among various agriculture inputs because the effectivness of all other inputs mainlly depends on the potential of seed. Seed is high technology product and is an innovation msot raedily adapted. Improving access to good quality of seeds is a critical requirement for sustainable agriculture growth and food security. Effcetive use of imporved seed can result in higher agricultural porduction and increase net income of farming personals, which has a positive impact on rural poverty. Hence, availibilty of quality seeds of improved varieities is essential to achieve the production target. During 2009-10 (July-March), about 305.82 thousand tons of improved seed of various Kharif/Rabi/ Spring/Winter season was distributed. The procurement and distribution of seeds of various Kharif Crops (cotton, paddy, maize etc) is under progress. The Federal Seed Certification & Registration Dept. (FSC&RD) is engaged in providing seed certification coverage to public & private sector seed companies in Pakistan along with Seed quality control service through its 28 seed testing labs and monitoring of seed quality in the market as well. The activities of that departmnet during year 2009-10 are discussed below; 1. During the year 2009‐10, nineteen new seed companies were registered raising the total number of registered seed companies to 611 in the country including four public sector seed companies. 2. Fifteen crop varieties were approved (wheat‐4, cotton‐4, oilseed‐4, pulses‐3, fodder‐1, and vegetable ‐1) and thirty seven crop varieties were evaluated for registration. 3. During the period under report, a total of 523.14 thousand acres of different crops offered by the various seed agencies were inspected for certification purposes. 4. A total quantity of 305.82 thousand MT sedds of various crops were supplied and tested for purity. Germination and seed health purpoeses. 5. Pre and Post Control Trials of all pre‐basic, basic seed lots and 20% of certified seed lots were carried out in the field to determine the quality of seed distributed by various seed agencies. 6. Under the provision of seed act enforcement, 33 caese were filed in the different Courts of Law against the dealers of seeds found that selling lower standard seed. 7. Imported seed of various crops/hybrids at the tune of 17.55 thousand MT with a total value of Rs. 3140.0 million was tested undre labeling seed (Truth-In- Labeling) Rules, 1991 during the year so faat the port of entries i.e. Lahore and Karachi. 8. Almost 1004 seed samples of various crops/vegetables and fruits were tested at the Central Seed Haelth Laboratory, Islamabad for detection of Fungul or viral diseases by using latest diagnosis techniques and protocols. 9. Federal Seed Certification & Registration Department (FSC&RD) with the collaboration of Ministry of Food & Agriculture and all the stakeholders prepare the Standards operating Procedures (SOPs) for evaluation, release and registration of candidates biotech crop varieties in Pakistan.

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10. Various Seed Development Projects are being run during 2009-10 while three projects namely “Establishment of National Variety Data Bank” , “Up-Gradation of Seed Testing Laboratories to Meet WTO Requirements” and “Establishmnet of Sedd Testing Laboratories and Rehabiltaion of Existing Laboratories” ahve been successfully completed.

3. MECHANIZATION:
A demogarpic change towrds urbanization reduces the size of rural workforce, agricuture will also need to adopt new forms of mechanisim & shift to land use intensifications, with all of its connotation. High agriculturalproduction assures food security and agriculture surpluses for export at competitive prices requires eficient development nad utilization of agriculture resources. Cost effectivness in the production of various crops brings built-inn competitive edge to low productivity attribited farmers. Farm operations being time specific, demand precision to optimize the efficiencies of agricultural input for the higher productivity. The future changes of market economy & faster globalization have furthur necessitated modernization of agriculture machinery through transfer of latest, efficient and cost effective technologies to the farmers. Efficient use of sacrce agriculture resources and accelarted agricultural mechanism are, theefore, vital to meet the challenges of the future scenario that need a comprehensive startegic loading for future. Furthur, to promote use of efficeint and quality machinery & equipment etc, the Federal Government has allowed import of agricultural machinery not being manufuctured locally, at zero tariffs. Other intervantions like use of laser land leveler, ridge and broad bed farming system are being encouraged in the country at concessional rates to the farmers. To bring more land under cultivation a project titled “ Land and Water Resoureces Development Project for Poverty Reductiopn in Pakistan” envisaging providing 300 bulldozers (200 bulldozers Balochistan and 100 Units in KP) is under implemention.

4. PLANT PROTECTION:
Plant Protection is an important agriculture input as it effectively contributes in achieving higher production by saving it from ravages of pests. In this regard, the Departement of Plant Protection (DPP) provides facilitiessuch as Locust Survey and Cantrol, Plant Quarantine Services, Aerial Pest Control, Pesticide Registration, Testing and Managemnet.

5. IRRIGATION:
The canal head withdrawals in Khrif 2009 (April- September) have increased by 1.0% and stood at 67.3 Million Acre Feet, as Compared to 66.93 MAF during the same period last year. During the Rabi season 2009-10 (October-March), the canal head withdrwals sows a slight change. As it remained at 25.02 MAF compared to 24.9 MAF during the same period last year. Province-wise details are given below in Table 2.13 Table 2.13: Canal Head Withdrawals (Below Rim Station)

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The Government of Pakistan’s Vision for the welafre, poverty alleviation and well being og people is being come through GDP enhancement. Water is a key source for GDP growth and poverty alleviation; therefore, the water sector gained mojor focus throughout the last decades. Per capita water availibility ids diminishing as Pakistan’s population is increasing. In this context, the challeges will be the formulation and effective implementation of a comprehensive measures for the development and management of awter resources. The main areas of investements in water sectors were: a. Augmentation of water resources b. Conservation measures c. Protection of infrastructure from onslaught of floods d. Significantly enhanced public sector investment e. Construction of small & medium dams, lining of irrigation channels, rehabilitation of irrigation system, surface and sub‐surface drainage, lining of watercourses. The startegy is inline with the Medium Term Development Farmework (MTDF) Program 2005-2010 and also provides a benchmark for moving forward in the next five years. Water being sa critical input to agriculture in arid and semi arid climate zone has been provided financial resource amounting to Rs.59.92 billion including water management programe (during 2009-10), despite economic and financial recession and transition economy in Pakistan.

6. WATER SECTOR FISCAL PROGRAMMES DURING (2009-10):
1.Works on gomal Zam Dam project is Tribal/KP area continues despite of law and other situation 2.A sum of Rs.5.71 billion was spent for lining of irrigation channels in Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 3.An amount of Rs.16.067 billion was spent for the improvement/remodeling of existing irrigating system. Table 2.14: Major Water Sector Projects under Implementation

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7. AGRICULTURAL CREDIT:
In order to cope with the increasing demand for agriculture credit, institutional credit, to the farners is being provided through Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited, Punjab Prvincial Co-operative Bank Limited. Five big Commercial Bank and Domestic Private Banks. Adequate availibilty and access to institutional credit is essential for accelarating the pace of agrricultural development and ensuring Food Security in the country. The Agricultural Credit Advisory Commitee (ACAC) has allocated Rs. 260 billion for the year 2009-10 as compared to Rs. 250 fixed for the last year which indicates an increase of 11.6% over the disburesmnet of Rs. 233 billion during the year 2008-09 for details see Table 2.15 below: Table 2.15: Supply of Agricultural Credit By Institutions

C. FORESTRY:

Forests are crucial for the well being of humanity. They provide foundations of life on earth through tecological functions, by regulating the climate and water resources and by serving as habitats for plants and animals. Forests also furnish a wide range of essential goods such as wood, food fodder and medicines in addition to opportunities for recreation, and other services. Forests are under pressure for expanding human and livestock populations with frequently leads to conversion or degradations of forests into unsustainable forms of land use. When forests are lost or severely degraded, their capacity to function as regulators of the environment is also lost, increasing floods and erosion hazards, reducing soil fertility and contributing to the loss of plant and animal life. Under Millennium Development Goals of Forestry sector, Pakistan is committed to increase forest cover from existing 5.2 percent to 5.7 percent by the year 2011 and 6 percent by the year 2015. An increase of 1 percent implies that an additional 1.051 million hectares area has to be brought under forest cover by 2015. Measures to enhance forest cover: 1. Mass Afforestation and Tree Planting Campaigns: In order to enhance tree cover in the country, tree planting campaigns are held each year. During the tree planting campaigns all the Government Departments, Private organizations, Defence organizations and NGOs were involved in planting activities.

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2. By 2030, Pakistan will be managing all types of forests on ecosystem approach, enabling them to perform potential functions of conserving biodiversity, providing sustainable livelihood to dependent communities, meeting national demands for wood and contributing positively to mitigate global environmental problems. 3. Pakistan has set a new Guinness World Record in maximum tree planting during 24 hours on July 15, 2009, three hundred planters form the local communities planted 541,176 propagules of mangrove tree on 796 acres on an island at Keti Bundar in the Indus Delta. This event was organized by the Forestry Wing of Ministry of Environment in collaboration with the Sindh Forest Department and National Bank of Pakistan. 4. Prime Minister of Pakistan declared 18th August as National Tree Planting Day (NTPD). Underlying objective of celebration of NTPD is to address deforestation and associated environmental problems being faced by the nation through motivation and involvement of all segments of the society in tree plantation campaign. This was to be achieved by inducing a culture and sense of ownership among the public for forest conservation and trees cultivation through an extensive but systematic and organized awareness campaign involving print and electronic media. On 18 August 2009 massive plantation was carried out throughout Pakistan with the help of Provincial Forest Departments and Federal line Ministries/agencies. 5. Mangroves for the Future (MFF) initiative focus on the countries worst affected by the tsunami. However, MFF will also include other countries of the Region that face similar issues, with an overall aim to promote an integrated ocean wide approach to coastal zone management. Pakistan joined MFF as dialogue country in 2008. Subsequently, in October 2009 Pakistan’s National Coordinating Body for the MFF was decided that Pakistan will prepare its draft National Strategy & Action Plan (NSAP) as per requirements of Regional Steering Committee of MFF hosted by IUCN and UNDP to become regular member of this regional programme. During the year 2009-10 forests have contributed 93 thousand cubic meters of timber and 263 thousand cubic meters of firewood as compared to 89 thousand cubic meters timber and 258 thousand cubic meters firewood in 2008-09. In order to enhance tree cover in the country, tree planting campaigns are held each year.

D. LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY:

1. LIVESTOCK:
The overall thrust of Government livestock policy is to foster “private sector held development with public sector providing enabling enviroment through policy interventions and play capacity building role for improved livestock husbandry practices”. The emphasis will be on imp orving per unit animal productivity and moving from subsistence to market oriented and then commercial livestock farming in the country to meet the domestic demand nad surplus for the export.

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The livestock development strategy revoles around the following: 1. Public Private Partnership led development. 2. National Economic growth. 3. Poverty Alleviation. 4. Food Security. 5. Improve Livestock service delivery. 6. Expand opportunities for livelihood needs of farmers. 7. Enhance Foreign Exchange Earnings. Livestock plays an important role in the economy of the country. Livestock sector contributed approximately 53.2 percent of the agriculture value added and 11.4 percent to national GDP during 2009-10. While other development sector experienced saturation and decline there has been an increase in livestock sector in 2009-10. Gross value addition of livestock at current factor cost has increased from Rs. 1304.6 billion (2008-09) to Rs. 1537.5 billion (2009-10) showing an increase of 17.8% as compared to previous year. The population growth, increase in per capita income and export revenue is fueling the demand of livestock & livestock products. In order to speed up the pace of development in livestock sector, The Ministry ofLivestock&Dairy Development was created as a part of Reform Agenda and political commitment of present Government to improve service delivery, reduce poverty, achieve sustainable economic growth and expand opportunities to address the needs of livestock rural farmers and to protect the livelihood concerns of rural community. The major products of livestock are milk and meat, the production of which for last three years is given in Table 2.16: Table 2.16: Milk And Meat Production

Note: 1. The figures for milk and meat production for the years 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 are calculated by
applying milk production parameters to the projected population of 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 based on the inter census growth rate of livestock census 1996-2006.

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2. The figures for the Milk production for the year 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 are calculated after adding the production of milk from camel and sheep to the figures reported in the livestock census 2006. 3. Milk for human consumption is derived by subtracting 20% (15% wastage in transportation and 5% in calving) of the gross milk production of cows and Buffalo. 4. The figures for meat production are of red meat and do not include the edible offal’s.

B. POULTRY:
Poultry sector is one of the organized and vibrant segments of agriculture industry of Pakistan. This sector generates employment (direct/indirect) and income for about 1.5 million people. Poultry meat contributes 23.8% of the total meat production in the country. Poultry Development Policy visions sustainable supply of wholesome poultry meat; eggs and value added products to the local and international markets at competitive prices and aimed at facilitating and support private sector-led development for sustainable poultry production. The strategy revolves around Improving regulatory framework; disease control and genetic improvement in rural poultry; hi-tech poultry production under environmentally–controlled housing; processing and value addition; Improving bio-security; need based research and development and farmers training & education. It envisages poultry sectors growth of 15-20% per annum.

E. FISHERIES:

Fishery plays an important role in Pakistan’s economy and is considered to be a source of livelihood for the coastal inhabitants. A part from marine fisheries, inland fisheries (based in river, lakes, ponds, dams etc.) is also very important activity through out the country. Fisheries share in GDP although very little but it adds substantially to the national income through export earnings. During the year 2008-09, a total of 134,000 million tons of fish and fishery products were exported earning US$ 236 million. Government of Pakistan is taking a number of fruitful steps to improve fisheries sector which include inter alia strengthening of extension services, introduction of new fishing methodologies, increased production through aquaculture, development of value added products, enhancement of per capita consumption of fish, up-gradation of socioeconomic conditions of the fishermen’s community. Marine Fisheries Department is executing two developmen t projects i.e. the project “Stock assessment survey programme in EEZ of Pakistan through chartering Research vessel and capacity building of Marine Fisheries Department”, is aimed to charter a suitable vessel of conducting stock assessment resource surveys in the coastal and offshore waters of Pakistan, including Exclusive Economic Zone. The project is also aimed to strengthen Marine Fisheries Department by capacity building to conduct resource survey and stock assessment on regular basis and to develop management strategy for the fish exploitation and utilization. For this purposes Iranian research vessel was chartered and first trip of stock assessment survey was undertaken during 30th October to 7th November 2009. The data collected during the survey have been analyzed and cruise report has been prepared and submitted to concerned agencies. Two other projects i.e. “Accreditations of quality control laboratories of Marine Fisheries Department” and Establishment of Integrated National Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (NAPHIS) (MFD component), are also being implemented to provide improved quality control services to the seafood export industry. These two projects are aimed to get the laboratories of the Marine Fisheries Department accredited with international bodies and meet the requirements of ISO 17025. It also aimed to improve the human resources capabilities of the department by inducting trained manpower and also to provide training to existing staff and officers. Microbiological and Chemical Laboratories were Accredited by the Norwegian Accreditation Agency under ISO/IEC-17025 will now be got accredited from P.N.A.C .

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A hatchery complex was established under the auspices of a development project entitled “Established of hatchery complex for production of seeds of fish and shrimps” in 2001 is being renovated from funds provided by Fisheries Development Board. The renovation work will be completed by December 2010. During the period July-March 2009-10 the total marine and inland fish production was estimated 952,735 Million tons out which 667,762 Million tons was marine production and the remaining catch come from inland waters. Whereas the Production for the July-March 2008-09 was estimated to be 914,141 Million tons in which 660,141 Million tons was for marine and the remaining was produced by inland fishery sector. There is an increase of 1.3% in the quantity compared to the last year.

CONCLUSION:

This paper has argued that promoting efficient and sustainable agricultural growth is a necessary condition for rural growth, poverty reduction and social stability in Pakistan. Using a comprehensive and multifaceted approach to agricultural development, the paper outlined an agricultural development strategy based on a limited set of strategically selected, highly focused and w ell integrated interventions. Those interventions have been designed to raise income for small farmers and increase employment opportunities in rural areas. Pakistan has the resource base for achieving a 5 percent growth rate, a full 2 percent higher than the current 3 percent. The difference between a 3 percent and 5 percent growth rate in agriculture represents the difference between (a) a significant increase in employment and substantial downward trend in poverty and (b) stagnation in employment and wag e rates, and concomitant stagnation in poverty levels. Such a difference would have direct consequences on the welfare of millions of Pakistanis, with critical implications on national and regional stability. However, this result cannot be achieved without acceleration of each of the three major agricultural commodity groups (dairy, horticulture and wheat), which comprise three -quarters of the increase in agricultural production under a strategy designed to reach the 5 percent growth - rate target. Constraints to, and opportunities for, growth in the three subsectors were identified using a value chain approa ch extending from farm to market. Applied research and extension have been emphasized to reflect the consensus that, due to severe land and water constraints, agricultural growth in Pakistan will not materialize without substantial increases in productivity. Creation of an agricultural policy research institute i s suggested due to the current lack of high -quality agricultural policy analysis to guide decision-making. Smallscale irrigation systems to stimulate rural growth and promote employment opportunities in the barani areas are also recommended. The strategy described in this paper has both a short-and longer-term impact. The short-term impact on poverty and employment will be a direct result of a public-works initiative largely based on small scale irrigation, associated road building, and rehabilitation of irrigation channels in selected areas. Since 40 percent of dam construction costs are allocated to labor, dam construction yields immediate and substantial increments in employment. It is estimated that for each $100 million spent on small and mini-dam construction, over 13 million labor days or 50,000 labor years (full - time jobs for a year) will be created. The irrigation departments and related authorities are ready to go, with engineering plans in hand. It is critical, however, that attention be given to the long-term impact of project activities. Our long-term strategy involves enforceable requirements that well-operating water- user associations are in place to guarantee payment for maintenance costs, and to ensure equitable and rational distribution of water.

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The comprehensive applied research and extension projects in dairy, horticulture and wheat production can have substantial impact on production, income and employment starting with the end of the first year of implementation with that impact increasing over the following four yea rs. Results in the first year may be possible because many research-based packages are on the shelf or close to fruition. It is estimated that with a 5 percent agricultural growth rate and 8 percent in the urban sector, employment will grow by annual incr ements of three million jobs per year one million more than labor force growth. Fully 80 percent of that employment growth would be generated by agriculture and its employment multipliers to the rural non farm sector. The impact on poverty will come most rapidly from the dairy sector for two reasons. First, ongoing technical assistance models can rapidly expand. Second, dairy production activities are carried out disproportionately by some of the lowest- income groups, particularly women. The upstream aspe cts of research, particularly biotech nology , will lay the groundwork for the short - term impact to continue well into the life of the project and the more distant future. Similarly, the agricultural policy research institute could have an impact on production, incomes and poverty reduction within a year of establishment, as it builds upon existing research to remove major policy constraints to a more vigorous agricultural sector. The long -term impact of the agricultural policy research institute is likely to be considerable as its research, dissemination and advocacy initiatives expand into other policy areas related to agricultural strategy and priorities, trade, production, consumption and nutrition, marketing and agribusiness development, and monitoring a nd evaluation. The expected benefits from project interventions in each sector are substantial. For instance, in dairy it is expected that: • The incomes of 1.5 million participating women will increase significantly on an annual-compounding basis • On averag e, incomes of participating women would be raised by $250 per year i.e., that much is added each year, cumulatively • Total annual increase in income would be $375 million i.e., that much would be added each year, cumulatively • Per capita milk consumption wo uld rise by about 2 liters per year with a major impact on nutrition, also compound ed annually Similarly, expected benefits in the horticultural sector are that: • 300,000 participating farmers would have incomes signi ficantly increased on an annual-compounding basis • I ncomes of participating farmers would be raised by $ 89 per year on average i.e., that much i s added each year, cumulatively

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RESOURCES:

Pakistan Agriculture Research Council Agriculture Activities in Pakistan Agriculture in Pakistan on Country Studies The Future of Pakistan Agriculture Pakissan.com Connecting Agri community for better farming Agriculture Economic Survey of Pakistan

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