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Safety in LNG Regasification

SAFETY IN LNG REGASIFICATION
Presented By y

Man Mohan Ahuja
SR. Vice President (Technical), Petronet LNG Limited E-mail: ahujamm@petronetlng.com
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12th Aug, 10

Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector

Safety in LNG Regasification

SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION IN OIL & GAS INDUSTRY
A strong concern since the beginning as Oil&gas are considered as hazardous products. Nevertheless major accidents have occured: Mexico (LPG), Lyon (France, Raffinery), Sea pollution after various Oil Tankers accidents, IOC St Storage T Terminal i l Fire Fi (Jaipur) (J i )

I t International ti l regulations: l ti OMI OMI, SIGTTO SIGTTO, etc... t

National N ti l regulations: (like OISD in India)

Oil & Gas companies policies
12th Aug, 10

Insurance I requirements
Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector

Safety in LNG Regasification

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS IN LNG INDUSTRY
Since accident in Cleveland (USA) in 1942, 1942 LNG has been considered as Hazardous product, various regulations have been developped: Transport by sea: IMO rules, rules SIGTTO recommendations, OCIMF rules, Classification , Insurances requirements. Plants & Storages: g NFPA 59 A (USA) 49 CFR part 193 (USA) EN 1473 (Europe) J G A Rules

National regulations, safety and regulatory bodies, Environment protection bodies & Associations.
12th Aug, 10

Companies Policies, Engg. Standards

Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector

Safety in LNG Regasification

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS IN LNG INDUSTRY
S e y and Safety de environment v o e protection p o ec o are e considered co s de ed since s ce preliminary p e y design des g studies. Codes and regulations mainly provide: Design criterias: Seismic design design, impounding systems, etc... Minimum safety distances: considering accident scenarios and consequences: vapour clouds, fire radiation, Cold explosion, etc,...

Hazardous areas classification: fire-proof eq ipment Electric & instrumentation equipment, instr mentation equipment classification
12th Aug, 10

Design & construction rules: y systems, y , Min. Min. safety protection, Fabrication, construction and control stds.
Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector

Safety in LNG Regasification

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS IN LNG INDUSTRY Physical properties • Liquefied Natural gas: • Colourless liquid, • Mainly CH4 (>80%), • Cold: temperature ≈ -160°C, • Density at 1 bar ≈ 450 kg/m3 • Vapour V of f LNG LNG: • Odourless and colourless, • Density at 1 bar and 20°C ≈ 0.8 0 8 kg/m3 • Flamability limits LFL: 5%, UFL:15% • Vapourization of LNG • 1 m3 LNG Õ 600 m3 of gas at 20°C
12th Aug, 10

Wh t is What i LNG ?

LNG in storage tank is violently boiling liquid

Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector

vaporization flammability limits. respecti el • In a closed tank. the percentage of methane is 100%. temperature Low temperature. thus it is relatively safer as compared to other fuels LNG FILIM 6 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification Properties of LNG • Properties of LNG that have safety implications include autoignition temperature. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . temperature heat of vaporization. • Methane leaking from a tank in a well – ventilated area is likely to rapidly dissipate to less than 5% . thus it cannot ignite. heat transfer rate of boiling liquid and specific gravity • The average auto-ignition auto ignition temperature for pure methane at atmospheric pressure is 537oC. which is quite high • The lower and upper flammability limit of methane in air is 5% & 15% by b volume ol me respectively.

. • Unlike heat burns. 10 . • Tissue Ti d damage f from extreme t cold ld is i similar i il to t damage d from extreme heat. • If the skin has surface moisture on it. Flesh will be torn when the victim tries to remove the affected area from cold surface 7 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector 12th Aug. burns a cryogenic burn victim will not feel pain until the injured part has begun to thaw.Safety in LNG Regasification Properties of LNG • The most of Hazardous properties of LNG are due to extreme low temperatures • The only danger from skin contact with LNG is freezing. contact with cold objects will result in freezing of the skin to the objects. there are no poisonous or toxic effects.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification PROPERTIES OF LNG – REACTION ON WATER Un like other liquid petroleum products LNG reacts vigorously with water and vapourizes very fast (leaving nothing behind) posing minimum risk for the marine life RPT However LNG reacts violently with water and may cause explosion due to RPT 8 12th Aug.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification LNG PROPERTIES • LNG VAPOUR CLOUD DISPERSION Cloud heigth Continuous release e ease Subsidence Passive By gravity dispersion Wind i d direction di i X LNG CLOUD DISPERSION TEST Cloud radius Wind direction Instantaneous release 9 12th Aug.

2 0 0 20 40 Distance (m) 60 80 100 120 Calculation tools : •Integral Model : EVANUM 3D: MERCURE HEAVY •3D: GAS 10 12th Aug.2 1 0.8 0. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .6 04 0.Safety in LNG Regasification LNG PROPERTIES • HEAVY GAS CLOUD DISPERSION FC TANKS Molar r concentra ation 1.4 0.

Safety in LNG Regasification Example of vapors dispersion 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Example of LNG vaporization 12th Aug.

Safety in LNG Regasification Example of LNG pool fire 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification LNG RECEIVING TERMINAL 14 12th Aug.

HW PUMP UNLOADING/ VAPOR RETURN ARMS SHIP 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification LNG TERMINAL DAHEJ AIR HEATER Metering GW PUMP STV WATER PUMP SCV BOG COMP. 10 LP PUMP LNG TANK R E C O N D E N S O R GTG HP PUMP 15 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

118 & 194 12th Aug. ENSURED IF THE APPLICABLE CODES & STANDARDS ARE FOLLOWED IN TRUE SENSE.SPECIAL CODES & STANDARDS A SAFE & SMOOTHLY OPERATING FACILITY CAN BE GENERALLY ENSURED. Some of the special codes followed for LNG terminals are •National Fire Protection Association ( NFPA-59 A ) •British Standard ( BS 7777 ) •European Committee for Standardization ( EN 1473 ) : •OCIMF (Oil Companies International Marine Forum): •SIGTTO (Society International Gas Tanker & Terminal Operators): •OISD STDS 116. 10 16 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification DESIGN HELP .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification ISO ACCREDITATION Certified by DNV on 21st Jan-05 ISO 9001: 2001 QMS ISO 14001: 1996 EMS OSHAS 18001: 1999 12th Aug.

flooding. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . roll over are not included as these are covered under ESD system 18 12th Aug. Flare stack • Process upsets like equipment failure. Spill from un-loading arms o Failure of transfer line. utility failure. wind. Send out pump failure • Release of NG o Tank safety valves. typhoons and lighting) • Non Natural Risks (from other industry. Vapouriser safety valves.Safety in LNG Regasification IDENTIFICATION OF RISKS • External Origin • Natural Risks (Earthquakes. Aircraft crash) • Internal Origin • Release of LNG o Release from tanker. line Inner / outer tank failure o Overfilling of storage tanks. Marine traffic.

leak size. temperature. release height) ™Different types of releases ¾Low p pressure →Liquid q release ¾High pressure →Gas release 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Two phase releases ™Phenomena in case of LNG release ¾Fraction of LNG will flash (vapors) ¾A fraction of liquid stays in suspension (aerosol) ¾The other part of liquid falls on the ground(rainout) ¾Proportions depend of jet characteristics (pressure.

flow rate ¾Thermodynamic state of LNG ¾Pressure ¾Temperature ¾Overheated or not 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification LNG leaks: main parameters ™Release Characteristics ¾Upstream Conditions ¾Pressure. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Example of LNG release 12th Aug.

if it happens Keep the spill volume minimum Control the Vapours Detect the fire quickly. if it happens Control the fire immediately.Safety in LNG Regasification RISK / HAZARD CONTROL • M Measures to t avoid id the th cause of f release l • Measures to reduce the consequence of a release. if it is detected Protect the other facilities Extinguish the fire 22 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . • LNG Spill Action Plan • • • • • • • • Prevent spill Detect spill.

Safety in LNG Regasification FACILITIES : UNLOADING ARMS Unloading Arms designed following OCIMF guidelines. which i ensures compatibility i i i with i most of the ships & safe operation One of the significant feature is installation of PERC 23 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

Safety in LNG Regasification Un-loading Arm – During Testing 24 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification PERC REACTIVATION – DURING TESTING BACK 25 12th Aug.

API 620. . Height g – 55 m 26 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification FACILITIES : LNG TANKS Two nos. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . NFPA 59A Dia: 81 m.000 m3 capacity Type: Full Containment Design codes: BS 7777. – 160. EN 1473.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification LNG STORAGES TANK-PLL BOG pipe Concrete roof Roof insulation (glass wool) Suspended deck Insulation (Perlite) LNG filling pipes Prestressed concrete outer shell Inner Tank 9% Nickel Steel Low pressure submerged pump (removable) Resilient blancket Bottom insulation (foam glass) Cryogenic Liner Concrete slab Air heating Full containment above ground LNG Tank Boil Off rate: 0.08% capacity/day Piles Ground level 27 12th Aug.

10 28 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .2 Kw/m2 ) Containment Type Double Acceptable ( nil ) Acceptable (0.Safety in LNG Regasification TANK SAFETY Results of Consequence Modeling Single g Heat flux due to LNG Fire At Luvara At GCPTCL Acceptable (0.9 Kw/m2) Acceptable (1.1 Kw/m2) Remarks Full NFPA 59 A Criteria is 5 KW/m2 Flux causing structural damage estimate is 25 Kw/m2 Minimum distance to property line No affect outside plant No affect outside plant 5 Kw/m2 distance 3 Kw/m2 distance Hazardous Vapour Cloud Spread 700 m 1200 m 300 m 700 m 77 m 88 m Acceptable (57 m) Unacceptable Unacceptable (2500 m to (1100 m to 5600 m) 1200 m) LEL not to spread outside battery limit *** PLL has selected fully contained tanks to ensure MAXIMUM SAFETY 12th Aug.

Safety in LNG Regasification LNG Regasification g For ORVs Sea water characteristics not t acceptable t bl For SCVs high operating cost & high exhaust gas mission Open p Rack Vapourizer (ORV) Submerged Combustion Vapourizer (SCV) 29 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 LNG 30 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification LNG REGASIFICATION RLNG Air Heater GW Pump Water Collection STV Water to different users Water Pump Glycol Water Circulation 12th Aug.

Safety in LNG Regasification FACILITIES : AIR HEATERS & STVs 7 STVs / Air Heaters with 112 fans-16. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .4 MW each Close loop system with no exhaust Only ambient air heat No external firing Most environment friendly system STV 31 12th Aug.

Safety in LNG Regasification SAFETY ISSUES PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Safety studies HAZID H Hazard d Identification Id tifi ti Project Technical reviews HAZAN Hazard Analysis: Potential Hazards & consequences SAFETY CONCEPT HAZOP Hazard and operability analysis: Systematic approach to identify hazards and operability problems QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment Q Numerical calculation of Risk level 32 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

Dedicated team to ensure adherence to safety measures.Safety in LNG Regasification SAFETY MEASURES INCORPORATED IN THE DESIGN • State-of-the-Art Technology. Safety Audits & Mock Drills Regular Safety Trainings (Internal & External) Incedent Reporting & Analysis 33 12th Aug. • Automatic Safety Shutdown System. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . • System for early detection of leakage / spillage of LNG • • • • • or regasified LNG. Plant Design and Equipment Layout as per International & Domestic Safety y Standards.

Safety in LNG Regasification EQUIPMENT LAYOUT 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

• Hazardous area classification may be decided based on dispersion i i calculation i from f possible i spills. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . i 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification REGASIFICATION TERMINAL EQUIPMENT LAYOUT • EN 1473 & NFPA 59 A provides guideline • Layout to ensure LNG piping is minimezed • Layout to ensure risk does not extend beyond the plot • Main M i Control C t l room to t be b in i non-hazardous h d area.

Safety in LNG Regasification Safety Distance – Dahej LNG Plant The required safety distance form leakage point for HP & LP source are 190m and 168m which could be accommodated within the Allocated plot 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

Safety in LNG Regasification Safety Distance – Kochi LNG Plant The required safe distances from leakage point from HP & LP source are 141 & 105 m. PLL had to use water curtains to resolve this problem 12th Aug. which could not be accommodated within the allotted plot. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

low temperature detectors. metallurgy.) make the failure chance almost rare. earthquake. equipment fall by design features & mostly being welded pipes Design Features (e.Disconnect the NG / LNG un-loading Arms Failure of both the steps only can cause the LNG spill. 38 12th Aug. earthquake factor. overpressure. Pre-stressed concrete outer tank designed to with stand cold LNG & external aggression due to LNG leak. 10 • • • LNG Transfer T f Lines Li • Inner Tank Failure • • Outer Tank Failure • Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . projectile attack etc. Pipes are protected against corrosion. Vehicle crash.g.Close the NG / LNG valves o Step 2: .Safety in LNG Regasification LNG Spill Prevention Methods • Release From Un-loading Arms • Powered Emergency Release Coupling with two step ESD System o Step 1: . p provision of VRV etc. no nozzle on side or bottom of tank. welding procedures.

spool pieces & Hoses for LNG has been (practically y zero). are properly vented Leaks resulting in the release of cold gas can occur in the piping associated with the vaporization of natural gas. ) minimized (p Future connections (or other tapings). This area is provided with extra instrumentation 39 12th Aug. where flange connections are necessary.Safety in LNG Regasification LNG Spill Prevention Methods • Release From Valve Packing • • • Extended Bonnet Valves Have been used Packing leak can be predicted by early accumulation of frost Early detection & tightening procedures are developed to prevent liquid p q escape p Use of flanges. 10 • Release from piping flanges. Spool Pieces & Hoses • • • Leaks In Gas Phase Piping p g • • Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

Safety in LNG Regasification HANDLING OF LNG LEAKS & SPILLS • Elaborate Leak detection system y • Thermal Sensors • Gas Detectors • p procedures to protect p personnel p from contract with leaking g liquid q or cold vapor and minimize the chance for vapor contact with potential source of ignition • Equipment q p such as barricades. Warning g signs g and combustible gas g indicators are available at the plant • Elaborate Emergency Shut Down (ESD) system & System isolation • ESD1: . .Stop Complete facility 40 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Stop Send out system • ESD3: .Stop p Ship p Un-loading g • ESD2: .

Safety in LNG Regasification ACTIVE EMERGENCY / FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES AS S • Fire Fi Water W t System: S t Ring Ri Main. 10 Monitors. Remote / manual operated spray system. Water Curtain High Expansion Foam System Clean Agent (Inergen) system P t bl Fire Potable Fi Extinguisher E ti i h Mobile Fire Fighting triple purpose (Water/Foam/DCP) Tender Personal Protection Gears & Breathing Apparatus Oil Spill Handling Equipment 41 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . M i Hydrants. H d t Tower T • • • • • • 12th Aug.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification AN ACTIVE MEAN OF PROTECTION : THE WATER CURTAIN 12th Aug.

dilution) Chemical dilution (absorption) Thermal radiation mitigation 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Mitigation effects of a water curtain Mechanical Dispersion (heating.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Mitigation effects of a water curtain Example of nozzles ramps ™Nozzles characteristics ¾Diameter ¾Size of sprays ¾Momentum of sprays ™Curtain geometry ¾Number of nozzles per linear meter of curtain ¾Spacing between the nozzles ¾Distance between the nozzles ramps Downward curtain (full cone nozzles) Upward curtain (peacock tail) 12th Aug.

p g on the water curtain characteristics depending 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Mitigation effects of a water curtain Field tests (pool fire) –Gaz de France Significant thermal radiation mitigation.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification REDUCING THE FLAMES : USE OF FOAM 12th Aug.

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification SAFETY ISSUES: Foam generation system • Physical foam effects: • Before ignition: • Isolate LNG layer from ambiant air • • Reduce the vaporization Warm-up LNG G vapours • • • • • Increase the dispersion Air Nozzle • After ignition: g Reduce heat exchanges between the LNG layer and the flame Produce steam which reduce the fl flame Reduce combustion ratio Reduce fire radiation Foam Pre-mix = Water + Emulsifier ≈3% vol 47 12th Aug.

Safety in LNG Regasification Reduction of fire with foam ¾Evolution of the received flux during the phases of foam discharging and destruction (50 m² m circular LNG pool fire) 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . 100kg powder extinguisher • Hand extinguisher: 9kg • Extensive training g of Operators • safety teams 49 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification SAFETY ISSUES •FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS • E Extinguishing ti i hi agent: t Chemical powder • Fixed systems: y Powder g guns • Mobile systems: Trucks.

forming a pool ¾LNG continues to cool down ground ¾Temperature differential between ground and LNG decreases. and thus heat exchange 12th Aug. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .Safety in LNG Regasification Spreading and vaporization of pools ™Spreading of an LNG pool ¾Low pressure LNG spills from a pipeline or a vessel ¾LNG comes into contact with ground ¾LNG gains some heat from ground ¾Increase I of f vaporization i i ¾Ground is cooled down ¾LNG spreads.

Safety in LNG Regasification SAFETY . Safety and Environment (HSE) Maintenance of Tugs g and Support pp Craft & Jetty y Training Terminal Information & Regulations & Operation Books 51 12th Aug. Port Administration Port Operations Health.DOCUMENTATION • A Comprehensive p set of Documentation is in Place for Safe & Reliable Operation: • • • • • • • • Disaster Management Plan Oil Spill Contingency Plani. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

t during d i • the design phase help in ensuring the safety during construction & operation. SIL Risk Ri k Analysis A l i etc. QRA SIL.Safety in LNG Regasification Concluding Remarks • Follow the Codes & Standards leads to safe design & operation • Studies St di like lik HAZOP. 10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector . For Key to Success remember • • • Engineering is easy Environmental issues. public safety & public perception are difficult Carryout detailed modeling studies to establish compliance with environmental / regulatory requirements in project development process from the very beginning 52 12th Aug. HAZOP QRA.

Safety in LNG Regasification REDUCING THE RISKS AT DAHEJ TERMINAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION Full containment Storage Tanks Some examples E Emergency Release R l Coupling C li : Lay-out: safety distances 12th Aug. 10 Cold and Gas Detection Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .

10 Petrofed – Seminar on Safety in Hydrocarbon Sector .000 m3 LNG tanks under construction Petronet LNG Ltd LNG Terminal Kochi 12th Aug.Safety in LNG Regasification LNG IS A MATURE INDUSTRY ENJOYING A VERY HIGH LEVEL SAFETY RECORD WORLDWIDE THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 182.