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2R-97

(Reapproved 2002)

**Embedment Design Examples
**

Reported by ACI Committee 349

Charles A. Zalesiak Chairman Hans G. Ashar Ranjit Bandyopadhyay * Ronald A. Cook* Jack M. Daly Arobindo Dutt Branko Galunic Dwaine A. Godfrey Herman L. Graves III

* Major contributor to the report † Deceased

Gunnar A. Harstead Christopher Heinz Charles J. Hookham Richard E. Klingner Timothy J. Lynch Frederick L. Moreadith Dragos A. Nuta

Richard S. Orr* Robert B. Pan Julius V. Rotz † Robert W. Talmadge Chen P. Tan Richard E. Toland Donald T. Ward Albert Y. C. Wong

Appendix B of ACI 349 was developed to better define the design requirements for steel embedmnts revisions are periodically made to the code as a result of on-going research and testing. As with other concretebuilding codes, the design of embedments attempts to assure a ductile failure mode so that the reinforcement yields before the concrete fails. In embedments designed for direct loading, the concrete pullout strength must be greater than the tensile strength of the steel. This report presents a series of design examples of ductile steel embedments. These examples have been updated to include the revision incorparated in Appendix B of ACI 349-97. Keywords: Anchorage (structural); anchor bolts; anchors (fasteners); embedment; inserts; loads (forces); load transfer; moments; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; shear strength; structural design; studs; tension.

PART A—Examples: Ductile single embedded element in semi-in nite concrete. . . .p. 349.2R-3 Example A1 Single stud, tension only Example A2 Single stud, shear only Example A3 Single stud, combined tension and shear Example A4 Anchor bolt, combined tension and shear Example A5 Single rebar, combined tension and shear PART B—Examples: Ductile multiple embedded elements in semi-in nite concrete. .p. 349.2R-10 Example B1 Four-stud rigid embedded plate, tension only Example B2(a) Four-stud rigid embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(b) Four-stud flexible embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(c) Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B3(a) Four-stud rigid embedded plate, combined tension, shear, and uniaxial moment Example B3(b) Four-stud flexible embedded plate, combined tension, shear, and uniaxial moment Example B4 Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab, tension only APPENDIX A—Projected area (Acp) for four studs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 349.2R-26

ACI 349.2R-97 became effective October 16, 1997. Copyright © 2002, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 349.2R-2 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 349.2R-2

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This document is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom. Reference to this document shall not be made in contract documents. If items found in this document are desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/ Engineer.

349.2R-1

349.2R-2

MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION This report has been prepared by members of the ACI 349 Sub-Committee on Steel Embedments to provide examples of the application of the ACI 349 Code to the design of steel embedments. The ACI 349 Committee was charged in 1973 with preparation of the code covering concrete structures in nuclear power plants. At that time, it was recognized that design requirements for steel embedments were not well defined and a special working group was established to develop code requirements. After much discussion and many drafts, Appendix B was approved and issued in the 1978 Supplement of ACI 349 covering the design of steel embedments. Subsequently, the Sub-Committee has continued to monitor on-going research and testing and to incorporate experience of applying the Code. Periodic revisions have been made to the Code and Appendix B. The underlying philosophy in the design of embedments is to attempt to assure a ductile failure mode. This is similar to the philosophy of the rest of the concrete building codes wherein, for example, flexural steel for a beam is limited to assure that the reinforcement steel yields before the concrete crushes. In the design of an embedment for direct loading, the philosophy leads to the requirement that the concrete pull-out strength must be greater than the tensile strength of the steel. This report includes a series of design examples starting with simple cases and extending to more complex cases for ductile embedments. The format for each example follows the format of the Strength Design Handbook, SP-17, and provides a reference back to the code paragraph for each calculation procedure. NOTATION depth of equivalent stress block, in. effective stress area deﬁned by the projected area of the 45 degree stress cone radiating towards the attachment from the bearing edge of the anchor, sq. in. effective stress area of anchor, sq. in. area of anchor head, sq. in. area of steel, sq. in. area of steel required to resist tension, sq. in. area of steel required to resist shear, sq. in.

Ar = A vf = b =

B c C db dh ds Fy fc ′ f ut fy h k tr ld Ld Mn Mu My n Pd Pn Pu R S t T Th Vn Vu α β γ µ φ

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

a = Acp =

Ac = Ah = As = Ast = Asv =

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

reduction in effective stress area to account for limited depth of concrete beyond the bearing surface of the embedment, sq. in. area of shear friction reinforcement, sq. in. width of embedded or surface mounted plate, or width of an anchor group, measured out to out of bearing edges of the outermost anchor heads, in. overlapping stress cone factor (see Appendix A) spacing or cover dimension, in. compressive reaction nominal diameter of reinforcing bar, in. diameter of anchor head or reinforcing bar, in. diameter of tensile stress component, in. speciﬁed yield strength of steel plate, psi speciﬁed compressive strength of concrete, psi speciﬁed tensile strength of steel, psi speciﬁed yield strength of steel, psi overall thickness of concrete member, in. transverse reinforcement index development length, in. embedment depth of anchor head measured from attachment of anchor head to tensile stress component, to the concrete surface, in. nominal moment strength factored moment load on embedment elastic moment capacity of steel plate number of threads per inch design pullout strength of concrete in tension nominal axial strength factored external axial load on the anchorage radius of 45 degree stress cone, in. (see A cp ) spacing between anchors, in. thickness of plate, in. tension force thickness of anchor head, in. nominal shear strength factored shear load on embedments reinforcement location factor coating factor reinforcement size factor coefﬁcient of friction strength reduction factor

shear only Single stud.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. combined tension and shear Single rebar. combined tension and shear .2R-3 PART A EXAMPLES: Ductile single embedded element in semi-inﬁnite concrete Example A1 Example A2 Example A3 Example A4 Example A5 Single stud. tension only Single stud. combined tension and shear Anchor bolt.

30 in. d h = 1 in.312 > 0.8 Pd = φ 4 f c ′ Acp Acp = π [(Ld + dh /2)2 – ( dh /2) 2] Compute Ld from the equation: π [Ld + dh /2)2 – ( dh /2) 2]φ4 f c ′ ≥ As fut L d + Ld – 22.25 in.8 ≥ 0 Ld ≥ 4.18 in.25 in.87 in. tension only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate. Use 1/2 in.5 OK Th = 0.4.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud. Pd > Asfut As fut = 0.1 B. Pu = φ P n = φ Asfy As = 8/ [(0. Th = 0.1(a) B.38 = 5.5 2]0.000 psi f ut = 60. which has an effective length of 4. long. diameter stud 1-5/16 in.4. OK STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B. × 3 in.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric. × 3/8 in. has been established by requirements of the attachment. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.5.312 in.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi (see Note 2) π [(Ld + 0. CALCULATION B.2 of the Code.79 / 0.5. giving Ld = 4. Ah = π (d h /2 )2 = 0.5)2 – 0.165 ≥ 11. must exceed the minimum speciﬁed tensile strength (As fut ) of the tensile stress component.2R-4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A1—Single stud. 2 . diameter stud.0) ≥ 22.1.2 Use one 1/2 in.2 a) Area of the anchor head (Ah) (including the area of the tensile stress component) is at least 2.5 times the area of the tensile stress component.000 psi Pu = 8 kips where Pu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9.196 × 60 = 11. CODE SECTION P u = 8 kips DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud Assume that the load is applied directly over the stud and that a plate size of 3 in.196 = 4 > 2.6.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B.8 Ld (Ld + 1.2 > 0. c) Bearing area of head is approximately evenly distributed around the perimeter of the tensile stress component.18 in.8 kips φ4 f c ′ = 0. Pd .79 in. dh Th Ld Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.) Ah / As = 0.87 + 0.0 times the greatest dimension from the outer most bearing edge of the anchor head to the face of the tensile stress component.196 in.5.349.2 The design pullout strength of the concrete.2 (per manufacturer’s data.1.5.9)(50)] = 0. As = 0. b) Thickness of the anchor heat (Th) is at least 1.

diameter studs is acceptable on 3/8 in. the strength reduction factor φ for concrete pullout is taken as 0. then the embedment length would exclude the thickness of the embedded plate. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Check plate thickness Since the load is applied directly over the stud. the only requirement on plate thickness is that it satisfy the minimum thickness required for stud welding. . OK CALCULATION 1) In the above example.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.4. NOTE: Stud welding of 1/2 in.65 per Category (d) of Section B. thick plate per manufacturer.2. 2) In all design examples. the embedment length Ld is taken to the face of the concrete. If the plate were larger than the stress cone.2R-5 Example A1.

3. Shear loads at this interface are carried by local bearing and wedge action as described in commentary Section B.2R-6 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A2—Single stud.5. NOTE: The provisions of Section 11.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 since tensile capacity of the stud must be developed.2 Use one 1/2 in. (per manufacturer’s data) (d h – ds )/2 = 0.7. AISC Engineering Journal.312 > 0.16 in. G.2 of the Code.196 = 4 > 2.2 B. “Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections. As = 0.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0.85.5 OK Th = 0.4.196 in.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric.7 = 0. April.1.9 × 50) = 0.5.79 / 0. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.000 psi f ut = 60. STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing Vu = φVn = φµ A vf f y A vf = Vu /(φµ f y ) A vf = 6/(0.349.7 with φ = 0.2 Use the shear friction provision of Section 11. * Ref. diameter stud.185 3/8 in.2 > 0.6.5. Goble.5/2.5 on shear strength are not applicable at the surface between the steel plate and the concrete. thick plate is OK.312 in.9.2 OK B. long (see calculation in Example A1) t > 0.4.000 psi Vu = 6 kips where Vu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9. shear only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate. Th = 0. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud.” G. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50. 1968. µ = 0.2.85 × 0.4.25 in. diameter stud 5-3/16 in.5.: . Th Ld dh V u = 6 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.7* Use 1/2 in.16 in. STEP 4: Check plate thickness Select plate thickness such that ds / t < 2.

Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50. thick plate is OK 8 The provisions of Section 11. µ = 0.7 Eq.5/2.5. Total Area As = Ast + Asv STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y A st = 4/(0.5.2 B.: t > 0.4. Shear loads at this interface are carried by local bearing and wedge action as described in commentary Section B.4.312 in.312 > 0. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.7 = 0. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.25 in.5 on shear strength are not applicable at the surface between the steel plate and the concrete.9.14 in.000 psi f ut = 60.2 11. . As = 0.05 in.9 × 50) = 0.2.7 with φ = 0. long (see calculation in Example A1) STEP 4: Calculate minimum plate thickness Select plate thickness such that ds / t < 2. diameter stud.7* NOTE: * Ref. (11-26) B.14 in.5. diameter stud 5-3/16 in. Goble.2 B. G. Th Ld dh P u = 4 kips V u = 2 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B. 1968.1.3.09 in.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Use 1/2 in.” G.05 = 0.5.6.09 + 0.6.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.2 OK B. April.85 × 0.7.2 of the Code.000 psi Pu = 4 kips Vu = 2 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.85. Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0.79 / 0.9 × 50) = 0.5.5 OK Th = 0. Th = 0. AISC Engineering Journal.196 in.2 As = 0.2 Vu = φVn = φµ Asv fy Asv = Vu /(φµ f y ) Asv = 2/(0.3.4.2 Use one 1/2 in.196 = 4 > 2.2 > 0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) tension forces and solve for the required steel area for tension. Use the shear friction provision of Section 11. “Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections.185 3/ in. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.2R-7 Example A3—Single stud. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.6.

125 + ( 1.1.2 Ah / As = 3.2 Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.46 / 0.4. diameter bolt width across ﬂats = 2.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi [(Ld + 1.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 A s fut = 0.5.125 2 ]0.85 × 81) = 0. thickness = 0.95 in.97 in.5.2 B.55 + 0..6. Total Area As = Ast + Asv As = 0. φ = 0.2.78 in.000 psi f ut = 105.5.2 B.6.0)2 × 2 × 3 = 3. OK OK OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the bolt to prevent concrete cone failure B.1 B.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 A 325 Heavy Hex Head for 1-1/4 in.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B.97 in.46 in.5 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 (dh – ds )/2 = (2 × 2 3 – 1.349.25) ≥ 196.2 Vu = φ Vn = φ (0. Ah = (1.41= 0.8 ) = 12.000 psi Pu = 40 kips Vu = 20 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.3.5.53 in. 2 .6.57 > 2.25)/2 = 0. Use provision for contact surface of the base plate ﬂush with the surface of the concrete. Th = 0. P u = 40 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.7 × 0.2 As = 0. diameter bolt. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.78 > 0.97 × 105 = 102 kips φ 4 f c′ = 0.55 in. Tensile stress area = 0.96 in.2 Use one 1-1/4 in.53 Head and tensile stress component are concentric. Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y A st = 40/(0.125) 2 – 1.7)(φ f y )] A sv = 20/(0.97 = 3.8 Ld ≥ –1. 7 threads per inch. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a high strength bolt (A 325).96 in.165 ≥ 102 Ld (Ld + 2.2 > 0.7 f y A sv ) A sv = Vu / [(0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) tension forces and solve for the required steel area for tension. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 81.125 + 196.0 in.41 in.5.2 of the Code.9 × 81) = 0.2R-8 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A4—Single bolt.4.85.

39 in.2 > 0.6. 6 bar (γ = 0.9.11 in.39 in.28 in.2 in.0).1(b) 12.28 + 0.6.).5. STEP 3: Calculate minimum plate thickness Select the plate thickness as shown for Example A2.3. of fresh concrete to be cast below the anchor (α = 1.2 11. No. Use the shear friction provision of Section 11.2 OK B.3.5.7 Eq.14.3 12.11 = 0. 6 Grade 60 reinforcing bar.6.2.9 × 60) = 0.-----------------------------------db 40 f ′ [ ( c + k tr ) ⁄ d b ] c Assume no transverse reinforcement (k tr = 0). more than 12 in.---------.3 × 1.3) f ut = 90.2 Provide full penetration weld between bar and plate per AWS D1. max. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.85 × 0.3. Use 5/16 in.7 = 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. (11-26) B.9 × 60) = 0.000 psi ( ≤ 60. uncoated anchor (β = 1. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a straight reinforcing bar welded to an embedment plate. µ = 0.= ----.28 in.2 of the Code.4 ld 3 fy αβγ ----.2.5. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 60.2 B.5.2 Vu = φVn = φ µ A sv f y Asv = Vu /(φµ f y ) Asv = 5/(0. STEP 4: Connection of reinforcing bar to plate l d = [ ( 3 ⁄ 40 ) ] × [ ( 60000 ⁄ 4000 ) ] × [ ( 1.75 = 22. Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.2R-9 Example A5—Single rebar.5. based on attachment conﬁguration and welding requirements.7 with φ = 0. CODE SECTION P u = 15 kips V u = 5 kips DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.0 × 0.2 As = 0.8).000 psi (based on typical test results) Pu = 15 kips Vu = 5 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.8 ) ⁄ ( 2.5 ) ] × 0. Total Area As = Ast + Asv STEP 2: Calculate required embedment length Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y Ast = 15/(0.5.85.000 OK per Code Section 3.3).1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for tension. no adjacent anchors or edges ([c + k tr ]/db = 2. As = 0.4 . thick plate 12.2. Use ld = 24 inches t ≥ 0.44 in.1.75/2.2 Use No.

combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate. combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-stud rigid embedded plate. and uniaxial moment Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate. combined tension. tension only . tension only Four-stud rigid embedded plate. shear.349. shear. and uniaxial moment Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab. combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate.2R-10 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE PART B EXAMPLES: Ductile multiple embedded element in semi-inﬁnite concrete Example B1 Example B2(a) Example B2(b) Example B2(c) Example B3(a) Example B3(b) Example B4 Four-stud rigid embedded plate. combined tension.

4.2R-11 Example B1—Four-stud rigid embedded plate.6. Th = 0. As = 0.000 psi (plate) Pu = 18 kips where Pu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9.196 = 4 > 2.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B.40 in. Pd ≥ As fut As fut = 4 × 0.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric. A cp min = As fut /( φ 4 f c′ ) = 26.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0. P u = 18 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.40 in.312 > 0.79 / 0. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required stud spacing and embedment length to prevent concrete pullout B.5 OK Th = 0.1.6 in. must exceed the minimum speciﬁed tensile strength of the tensile stress components. Pu = φ Pn = φµ A s f y As = 18 /45 = 0.5.442 in. tension only Design an embedment with four welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 3/16 in.2 .2 > 0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud.4 kips φ4 f c′ = 0. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.1 The design pullout strength of the concrete.000 psi Fy = 36.400 /165 = 160.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi Pd = φ 4 f c′ Acp Where Acp = the projected area of the 45 deg stress cones radiating toward the attachment from the bearing edge of the anchors.5. A 501 structural tube attachment.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.110 × 60 = 26.2 Use four 3/8 in.312 in.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.25 in.5.2 of the Code. diameter studs. Pd . This area must be limited by overlapping stress cones and by the bearing area of the anchor heads.

at 6 in. Select 3/8 in.2R-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B1. For the stud conﬁguration selected above (R = 4.09 ′′ R 6′′ R Table B1-1—Projected areas (Acp ) for varying Ld and S Development length Ld.2 290.2 324. 175.09 + π × 4.2 6 in.5 in.2 calculated in Table B1-1 R 4. the approximate method would give: R 6′′ Acp = 6 × 6 + 4 × 6 × 4.09 2 = 4 × π × 0.2 7 in.2 6. S = 6 in. × 4-1/8 in.4 in.09 in.4 in. In many cases.9 in. Such a method is used in Example B2. Conservatively neglect the thickness of the plate t. S (see Table B1-1).2 258.0 in.8 in. 152.0 in. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: (continued) For a four-stud plate with studs at spacing S and radius R of the projected stress cone.2 5 in.2 226. 195.09 in. All values greater than: CALCULATION Acp = (4π – 2B )R 2 – 4 Ah Acp = (3π – B)R 2 + S 2 – 4 Ah (2R > S > 2 R) ( 2 R > S) Acp min = As fut /(φ 4 f c′ ) are then satisfactory.2 This compares with the exact value of 175. the projected area is (see Appendix A) The projected area of the stress cones may be calculated for each standard stud length (Ld) and a range of stud spacings.09 in. NOTE: The above calculation utilizes an exact calculation of the projected area. inches 4. The radius of the projected stress cone is Ld + dh /2 at the underside of the embedded plate.). spacing.2 4 in.349.71 5.4 in.2 .375 2 = 184. inches 3.2 in.71 Spacing S Radius R. stud with effective length of 3.71 in. 129.. and Ld + dh /2 + t at the outer surface of the concrete and plate.4 in. an approximate calculation is sufﬁcient.

5′′ b Calculate the bending strength of the plate based on the yield moment capacity using yield stress. × 5/8 in.2 ) = 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.56 in.2t 2 t min = ( 9. a CALCULATION B.5 = 13.2 t 2 t min = ( 13.2 ) = 0.2 b a 1.2R-13 Example B1. plate The plate must transmit to the studs all loads used in the design of the attachment.5 × 1. × 8 in.6.5 2 = 9. embedded plate .9 × 36 = 43.50 in. Evaluate plate sections to determine minimum load capacity. Use 8 in.9 × My = 1/6 × 8 × t 2 × 0. × 8 in. The design strength for embedments shall be based on a maximum steel stress of φf y .1 B.5 ⁄ 43.9 × 36 = 38. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Calculate required plate thickness Try an 8 in.5 in. At face of tube (a-a): M = 9 × 1.3.5 in.-kips My = 1/6 × 5 2 × t 2 × 0. On diagonal (b-b): M = 4.-kips 0.5 ⁄ 38.5′′ 1.

2 Shear-friction coefﬁcient Nominal shear strength B.2R-14 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(a)—Four-stud rigid embedded plate. plate with 5 in. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear Mu = φ Mn 70.196) A sv = 0.000 psi Fy = 36.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.508 in.90Av f f y V n = 0.6.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.90 (0.508)(50) V n = 22.196 in.9 kips) φV n = 19. CODE SECTION 7 ′′ V u = 12.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment Try a 7 in.2 Ae /stud = 0.2 of the Code.2.2 Ae /stud = 0.5. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.10Ae /2) Ae = 0.7 Assume a uniform stress block for concrete compression zone and the two top studs as the tension components. Ae per stud is: Try 1/2 in.2.138 in. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.85 f c′ a M u = 70 9.3.-kips Vu = 12.5.10Ae Equate the external (required strength) and internal moment (design strength) and solve the resulting quadratic equation for Ae : For 2 studs in tension.85 (22.2 Since this is an embedded base plate.2 9.90 V n = 0. Section B. A 501 structural tube attachment.5.138) + 2 (0. × 5 in.6.2 9.4 kips OK B.4 kips 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.85 φV n = 0.6.85 f c′ b ) a = Ae 50 / [ 0.1 Equate the internal forces and solve for a : 0.2.2 is applicable.2 B. × 7 in.275 in.9 kips φ = 0. 6 ′′ C 0.0 = 0.2. The stud area not used for moment is available for shear transfer by shear friction.85 (4)(7)] a = 2. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 10.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9. A sv = 2 (0.5 > 12.85f c′ ab = Ae f y a = Ae f y /(0.349.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength .9 Ae (50)(6 – 2.196 – 0.6.2 0.2 9.

9 is used in calculating the required area of the anchor in Step 1 .. use 3/4 in. both the moment on the tension side and the moment on the compression side need to be determined. This general procedure is shown in this example. Nominal moment capacity of base plate Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2/6) = (36)(7)t 2 /6 Mn = 42t 2 42 t 2 = 23. it is essential that the base plate not yield on either the compression or tension side of the connection. Note that the plate thickness is calculated using the nominal strength of the anchors.0) M = 13. The moment in the plate at the edge of the attached member is used for sizing the base plate thickness.275 (50)[ 2 – 2.1(0.g.5 t = 0.-kips M = Cd c M = A e f y dc M = (0.275)(50)(6 – 4 – a /2) M = 0. plate Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent yielding of plate. CALCULATION T = Aefy dt No Yield dc c t Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding. it is only necessary to show that d c is greater than d t . a middle row of anchors). The φ factor is not included since the calculation of plate thickness should be based on the maximum nominal tensile force in the anchor rather than the design force.275)(50)(1. Moment on tension side a /2 M = Tdt or M = Cd c whichever is greater M = Tdt M = Ae fy dt M = (0. NOTE: For this example.2R-15 Example B2(a).5 in. With multiple rows of anchors in tension (e. and then calculate the moment as M = (d c)(C ). The larger of the moment on the tension side or the compression side will control the design of the base plate.75 in.-kips ← controls Moment on compression side Note that C = T . continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: Design for rigid base plate In order to ensure rigid base plate behavior. A φ factor of 0.75 in.275)/2 ] M = 23.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.

1 Calculate design load assuming all studs may resist concurrent tensile loads.0 kips .94) 2 π – 4(0.2R-16 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(a).0 kips See Example A1 Pd = φ 4 ( f c′ ) Acp where: φ = 0. If the designer can assure that such a tensile condition cannot occur.79) = 312. particularly those in the “rigid” plate category. NOTE: Although slightly unconservative.300 lb Pd = 51. the embedment radius will usually exceed the anchor spacing. R = Ld stud + plate thickness + stud head radius = 5.0 in.75 + 0. long having an effective length.69 + 0.2 Therefore. the assumption above is reasonable for embedments where the embedment radius (R ) exceeds the spacing between individual anchors.196)(60) = 47.69 in. diameter stud 6-1/8 in.94 in.94) + (6.349. This assumption of all four studs in tension assures ductility even in the event of a pure tension load.4.2 Calculate capacity of concrete CALCULATION Put = As f ut = 4(0. Acp = 5 (5) + 4 (5)(6.65 Acp = projected area of concrete R = radius of projected cones Try 1/2 in.1.3 kips > 47. For most embedments. Ld = 5.0) = 51.65)* ( 4000 ) (312. it is sufﬁcient only to develop two of the studs at a time since the other two studs are in compression. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Embedment length B. Assume the outer boundaries of the stress cones are connected by tangents.5 = 6. Check bearing requirements of stud head B.5. Pd = 4(0.

R. × 5 in. E. A 501 structural tube attachment.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.2R-17 Example B2(b)—Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate.4/ Ae (50) c = 0.7 Determine the amount of tensile steel required for the applied moment. a hinge will form on the compression side of the base plate at the edge of the attached member. R. thick base plate and determine yield capacity Mn of plate. × 7 in. plate with 5 in. A. This will cause the compressive resultant to move inward toward the attached member.000 psi Fy = 36. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50. Physically. 1992. 6. pp. NOTE: From summation of forces T = C = Ae f y .2 of the Code. 4 ′′ If the base plate is not stiff enough to obtain rigid base plate behavior. American Society of Civil Engineers.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. it may also be assumed that the compressive reaction is located at the edge of the attached member.” Journal of Structural Engineering.. CODE SECTION 7 ′′ V u = 12. No.-kips c = Mn / C c = F y S / Ae f y c = 16. June.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment Try a 7 in.4 in. and Klingner.-kips Vu = 12.328 / Ae Determine c. Assume a 5/8 in. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a flexible embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 10. “Ductile Multiple-Anchor Steel-to-Concrete Connections. 1645-1665.625)2 /6 Mn = 16.2.4 kips 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in. NOTE: For simplicity.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external oads as defined in Section 9. V.. the nearest the compressive reaction can be to the edge of the attached member is a distance “c ” equal to the yield moment of the plate divided by the compressive reaction. Mn = F y S Mn = (36)(7)(0. C c M u = 70 Reference: Cook. 118.

2.85(21.5.6.2R-18 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(b).35 in.90 (0. M = Td t M = Ae f y d t M = (0.9 Ae (50)(4 + c ) 70.5.307)(50)(1. T = Aefy dt No Yield Yield OK C t Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding and possible prying action on tension side.6.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength STEP 3: Design for ﬂexible base plate In order to ensure that prying action does not occur on the tension side of the base plate.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) moment and solve the resulting linear equation for Ae : CALCULATION Mu = φ Mn 70.-kips > 15.153) + 2 (0.349.6.0 = 0.5. Section B.2 Since this is an embedded base plate.5 kips) φ Vn = 18. Note that a φ = 0.6.85 φ Vn = 0.90 Asv f y Vn = 0.2 9. plate is OK 8 Nominal moment capacity of base plate.2 9.0) M = 15.478 in.307 in.-kips Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2 /6) Mn = (36)(7)(0.478) (50) Vn = 21.196 in.2 is applicable.0 = 0.328) Ae = 0.3 B.5 kips φ = 0.2 Ae /stud . diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear B.4 in.90 Vn = 0. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: continued 9.196) Asv = 0. . it is essential that the base plate not yield on the tension side of the connection.6.5.4 kips OK B.3.328/Ae ) 70.90 is already included.2. Ae per stud is: Try 1/2 in. Shear-friction coefﬁcient Nominal shear strength Asv = 2 (0.196 – 0.625) 2/6 Mn = 16.35 in.-kips 5/ in.0.2 0.153 in. The stud area not used for moment is available for shear transfer by shear friction.9 Ae (50)(4 + 0.2.0 = 45 (4 Ae + 0.3 kips > 12.2 For 2 studs in tension.2 9.2 B.2 Ae /stud = 0.

The real advantages of flexible base plate analysis become apparent with multiple rows of anchors. there is very little difference between the two analyses for a typical two row connection. For multiple row connections.2R-19 Example B2(b). CALCULATION . the compressive reaction becomes so large that the assumption of rigid base plate behavior results in excessively thick plates. base plate) and Example B2(a) with a rigid base plate (3/4 in.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Embedment length See Example B2(a) NOTE: As can be seen from this flexible base plate example (5/8 in. the flexible base plate procedure will result in more reasonable base plate thicknesses. base plate). In the case of multiple rows of anchors.

0 = 0. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using cast-in-place bolts and a rigid surface-mounted plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.2 Since this is a surface mounted plate.7 Try a 7 in.2 A e / bolt = 0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) moments and solve the resulting quadratic equation for A e : For 2 bolts in tension. × 7 in. T = Aefy 6 ′′ a C 0. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 105.85 f c′ ab = A e f y a = A e f y /(0. Assume standard concrete beam compression block. diameter bolts (for 3/8 in.2 B.5.2 ) STEP 2: Design for shear B. Section B.2.2R-20 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(c)—Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in. × 5 in.-kips Vu = 12.6.000 psi (bolts) Fy = 36.85 f c′ b ) a = A e 105 / [0.85 f c′ M u = 70 Equate the internal forces and solve for a : 0.41A e /2 ) A e = 0.2 9.000 psi (bolts) f ut = 125. A e per bolt is: Try 3/8 in. 7 ′′ V u = 12.5.70 A vs f y + 0.065 in.2 of the Code. bolt spacing Determine the amount of tensile steel required for the applied moment. plate with 5 in.5.130 in.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment CALCULATION 10.349.078 in.6.2.6.85 (4)(7) ] a = 4.078 in.2 A e / bolt = 0. taken as 0.40 C . The nominal shear strength is the sum of the shear strength provided by the anchors and the friction force between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction.9 A e (105)(6 – 4.1 Vn = 0.4 kips 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.41A e 9. threaded bolts A e = 0.2. Mu = φ Mn 70. A 501 structural tube attachment.3.1 is applicable.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.4 in this example.

40 T = 0. This general procedure is shown in this example.85 φVn = 0.70(0.130)(105)(1.41(0. NOTE: For this example. A vs = 0. the actual design values used should be based on the appropriate structural steel code.46) Vn = 18. Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding.2 Shear contribution from friction between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction. Although the design procedure shown is appropriate for base plate design. The moment in the plate at the edge of the attached member is used for sizing the base plate thickness.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength.-kips ← controls Moment on compression side: Note that C = T.8 kips) φ Vn = 16. a middle row of anchors).078 – 0.8 kips φ = 0..130 (105)[ 2 – 4. Actual design of the base plate is not covered by ACI 349 Appendix B. STEP 3: Design for rigid base plate In order to ensure rigid base plate behavior.130)(105)(6 – 4 – a /2) M = 0. and then calculate the moment as M = (dc )(C). Assume threads in shear plane.065) + 2(0. Moment on tension side T = Aefy dt No Yield dc C a /2 M = Tdt or M = Cd c whichever is greater M = Td t M = Ae fy dt M = (0.6.5.-kips M = Cd c M = A e f y dc M = (0. it is only necessary to show that d c is greater than dt . . NOTE: This step in the example is for information only.3 The anchor area not used for moment is available A vs = 2(0.4 kips OK B.0) M = 13.2.40(0.2 9.40( A e f y ) = 0. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 2: continued B.40 C Vn = 0. Nominal shear strength from anchors and friction between the base plate and concrete 0.4 in.85(18.078) for shear transfer.g.7 in. With multiple rows of anchors in tension (e.2R-21 Example B2(c).70 A vs f y + 0.182)(105) + (5.130)/2 ] M = 23. it is essential that the base plate not yield on either the compression or tension side of the connection.40 C = 0.40 C = 5. both the moment on the tension side and the moment on the compression side need to be determined. The larger of the moment on the tension side or the compression side will control the design of the base plate.182 in.46 kips CALCULATION Vn = 0.2 9.6.0 kips > 12.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.130)(105) 0.

.349. Note that the plate thickness is calculated using the nominal strength of the anchors. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: continued Nominal moment capacity of base plate CALCULATION Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2 /6) = (36)(7)t 2 /6 Mn = 42 t 2 42 t 2 = 23.2R-22 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(c). It is not necessary to include a φ factor in this calculation of plate thickness.74 in. STEP 4: Embedment length The calculation of the required embedment length is similar to that in Example B2(a).9 is used in calculating the required area of the anchor in Step 1. use 3/4 in.4 t = 0. A φ factor of 0. plate Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent yielding of plate.

85(4)(2.3) = 28.5 – 0. A 501 structural tube attachment.7 Assume a uniform stress block for concrete compression zone and the top two studs as the tension components.85(33. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear Assume the total stud area not used for moment and tension is available for shear transfer by shear friction.4 kips P u = 11.30) = 0.23) + 2(0.2 of the Code. φ = 0.9) = 33.3 Shear capacity φ = 0.1 Sum external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces.9 for ﬂexure M u = 70 50A e – 0.30 – 0. the attachment plate is assumed rigid.2 A e = 0.74)(0. plate with 5 in.5(2.1 kips where Mu .78 = 50 A e (2. combined tension.2 9.3 kips φ V n = 0.4 kips. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy P u = 11.2 0.466) × (7)[6 – 2.2R-23 Example B3(a)—Four-stud rigid embedded plate.23 in.9[50A e (2. and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.1 A e – 0.-kips Vu = 12.46 in.000 psi Fy = 36.85(4)(a )(7) = 11. × 5 in.85 f c′ ab ( d – 2.1A e – 0. Sum moments about the center line of base plate (line of axial load).5) + 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.0 = 0.5) + 0. × 7 in. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.85 f c′ See Example B2(a). OK .5 –a /2)] 77. CODE SECTION 7 ′′ V u = 12.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.2.85 STEP 3 and STEP 4 See Example B2(a) A e = 0.4 kips Pu = 11. and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.3 kips > 12.30 in.466 70.2 A sv = 2(0.2 V n = 50(0. Pu .1 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.1 A e – 0.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment and tension Try a 7 in.3.9 9. 9.1 a = 2.2 9. C a 0.46/2 = 0. Nominal shear capacity µ = 0.74 in.466)] Solving the quadratic equation: Steel / Stud Provide 5/8 in.1 6 ′′ 10. shear.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.

0 kips A e . × 5 in.2 A e provided = 0. OK .4) = 27.2.9 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be equal to or greater than the required strength.3 The stud area not used for moment and tension is available for shear transfer by shear friction.1 kips where Mu .24 in. it is assumed that the compressive reaction is located at the edge of the attached member.-kips Vu = 12.1 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in. shear.2R-24 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B3(b)—Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Tension in top studs Try a 7 in. Nominal shear strength µ = 0. Pu .5.2 V n = 0. A 501 structural tube attachment. STEP 3 and STEP 4 See Example B2(b) A e = 12. and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a flexible embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.85 f c′ a M u = 70 For simplicity.3 B.9(0.4 kips P u = 11. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 6 ′′ P u = 11.7 kips T = 24.2.30 – 0.5.30 in.4 kips Pu = 11.85(32.0 kips 24.2 9. Lever arm for moment = 4 in.2 A v f = 2 (0.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60. plate with 5 in.349. combined tension.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.1 C 0.30) = 0..000 psi Fy = 36. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.5 kips > 12. area for each stud Try 5/8 in.40 kips φ = 0. 7 ′′ V u = 12. × 7 in.6.24) + 2 (0.2 B.1(1.72)(50) = 32. φ = 0. diameter stud STEP 2: Design for shear B.2 of the Code.2 9. and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.4 kips.72 in.6.6.9 Tension in each stud φ T = 70/4 + 11.85 φ V n = 0.3 9.0 / 2 = 12.0 / 50 = 0.5)/4 φ T = 21.

42 ′′ b + 2 (L d + t – h ) b = 6.2. all sides of the rectangular stress reduction area are equal and.8 sq.625) – 2(6.71 in. OK Ductility requirements met. conservatively neglects the thickness of the plate and uses L d = 3.2 Total stress reduction area = (b + 2 L d + 2 t – 2 h ) 2 = [ 6. available for reduction in projected area before the minimum requirements for concrete strength are no longer met.000 psi h = 6 ′′ 5/ ′′ 8 thick plate Thickness of concrete slab = 6 in. COMMENT: Example B1 describes an embedment assembly with a projected area of 175. .75 + 2 ( 3. this leaves approximately 14.2R-25 Example B4—Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab. rather than the length of 4. tension only Determine the reduction of projected stress area due to limited concrete thickness for the embedment of Example B1. in.4 sq. Due to biaxial symmetry of the assembly in Example B1. when there was a minimum required area of 160.5)] 2 = 5.71) + 2 (0. therefore.33 in. L d = 3.75 ′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine area available for stress reduction CALCULATION B.000 psi (studs) 60. Note that the projected area calculated in Example B1.2 area still available for stress reduction.86 in.6 in. in.8 in.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.2 < 14. to the face of concrete. P u = 18 kips Given: fc ′ = fy = f ut = 4000 psi 50.4. only one side needs to be found.71 ′′ 3.

CASE I A cp2 = S x S y + (4)( 3/4 ) π R 2 – (α x – sin α x) R 2 – (α y – sin α y ) R 2 – 4 A h SUMMARY R Sx A cp1 = (4 π – 2 B ) R 2 – 4 A h A cp2 = (3 π – B ) R 2 + S x S y – 4 A h where B = (α x – sin α x ) + (α y – sin α y ) αx = 2cos –1 (S x Sy / 2R) α y = 2cos –1 (S y /2 R ) CASE II . In Case II. There are two cases of overlapping stress cones. all four stress cones overlap.2R-26 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE APPENDIX A—Projected area (Acp ) for four studs This appendix develops the projected area of four stress cones at the surface of the concrete. The projected area for the two cases is formulated below. In Case I. there is no overlap at the center of the rectangle since R < 1 / 2 ( S x 2 + S y 2 ) 1/2 . For two overlapping stress cones of radius R and spacing S.349. The radius of the projected stress cones (45 deg cone angle) is R = L d + d h / 2 . R A cp1 = 4πR 2 – 2(αx – sinαx )R 2 – 2(α y – sin α y)R 2 – 4 A h Sx Sy CASE II The projected area is equal to the area of the central rectangle plus the area of the four three quarter cones minus the area of the four overlapping portions outside the rectangle minus the area of the four heads. The studs are located at the corners of a rectangle with spacing S x and S y in each direction. the angle α of the common segment is given by: cos(1/2 α) = S /(2 R ) α = 2cos –1 [ S /(2 R )] The area of the common segment A seg equals the area of the two sectors minus the area of the triangles: R α A seg = 2 [ α R 2 /2 – R 2 sin(α /2) cos(α /2)] = (α – sin α ) R 2 S /2 CASE I The projected area is equal to the area of four full cones minus the area of the four overlapping portions minus the area of the four heads.

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