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TEST 1 1. Heritage: (heirs, heiress, successor) Latin heirs cultural pass to future, property pass to son.

Refers to something inherited from the past. Inheritance: of what? Of physical goods after the death of an individual; of the physical or non-physical things inherited · Image: “the glory that was Greece and Rome” · Status of women. · Reality: Good (art, literature, democracy), bad( social status of women) · Applies to both individual and society . · Also neutral inheritance (anger) 2. Education: root e/ducere= “to lead out”, “to think outside the box” Girls stay at home with mother. 3. Minoan: (3000-1600) · First civilization of Greek prehistory · Based on Island of Crete. · a Bronze Age civilization · It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of the British archaeologist Arthur Evans.(1900) · Nota Bene: up to now, the story of early Minoan culture has been isolated from the rest of Greece. 4. Crete: is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits. Crete was the centre of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), the earliest "high culture" civilization in Europe, which built the first palaces in Europe. 5. King Minos of Crete: son of Zeus and Europa. Minos prays to Poseidon out of gratitude. Minos is amazed, but finds the bull too impressive to slaughter. Every year he made King Aegeus pick seven men and seven women to go to Daedalus' creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by The Minotaur. After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in Hades. 6. Queen Pasiphae: gave birth to the monster Minotaur and was also the mother of Ariadne and Phaedra. She was the daughter of the sun-god Helios and the wife of Minos king of Crete. Pasiphae is the name means 'all shining' related to Greek 7. Androgeus (Minos’ son/athlete): Minos’s son Androgeus competes and win in the Panathenaic Games. King Aegeus of Athens sends Androgeus to fight the bull of marathon- he dies. Minos demands restitution: Athens must send seven young men and seven young women every year to Minos in order to be slain by ungodly Minotaur, the tradition continued until Theseus killed the Minotaur. 8. Bull of Marathon: For the Greeks, the bull was strongly linked to the Bull of Crete: Theseus of Athens had to capture the ancient sacred bull of Marathon (the "Marathonian bull") before he faced the Bull-man, the Minotaur (Greek for "Bull of Minos"), whom the Greeks imagined as a man with the head of a bull at the center of the labyrinth. Minotaur was fabled to be born of the Queen and a bull, bringing the king to build the labyrinth to hide his family's shame. Living in solitude made the boy wild and ferocious, unable to be tamed or beaten. Earlier Minoan frescos and ceramics depict bull-leaping rituals in which participants of both sexes

vaulted over bulls by grasping their horns. Yet Walter Burkert's constant warning is, "It is hazardous to project Greek tradition directly into the Bronze age"; only one Minoan image of a bull-headed man has been found, a tiny seal currently held in the Archaeological Museum of Chania. 9. Theseus: champion of children. He was the son of the king of Athens, Aegeus and Aethra. He had been educated by his grandfather, Pittheus at Troezen, and at age sixteen, he dedicated his forelocks to the Delian Apollo. 10. Ariadne: helps Theseus defeat the Minotaur and comes with genius idea and great idea symbolize human over beast. 11. Arthur Evans: discovery of Minoan civilization (1900) 12. Heinrich shliemann: was a German businessman and amateur archaeologist, and an advocate of the historical reality of places mentioned in the works of Homer. Schliemann was an archaeological excavator of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid reflect actual historical events. 13. Linear A: one of two scripts used in ancient Crete before Mycenaean Greek Linear B; Cretan hieroglyphs is the second script. In Minoan times, before the Mycenaean Greek dominion, Linear A was the official script for the palaces and religious activities, and hieroglyphs were mainly used on seals. These three scripts were discovered and named by Arthur Evans.Linear A seems to have been used as a complete syllabary around 1900–1800 BC, although several signs appear earlier as mason marks. It is possible that the Trojan Linear A scripts that were discovered by Heinrich Schliemann and one inscription from central Crete, as well as a few similar potters' marks from Lahun, Egypt (12th dynasty), come from an earlier period, ca. 2100–1900 BC, which coincides with the construction of the first palaces. 14. Linear B: In 1952, Michael Ventris discovered that Linear B is the early form of Greek that is now known as Mycenaean. It is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, an early form of Greek.Linear B has roughly 200 signs, divided into syllabic signs with phonetic values and ideograms with semantic values. 15. Michael Ventris: was an English architect and classical scholar who, along with John Chadwick, was responsible for the decipherment of Linear B. He mentioned and decided human being. 16. Thera: is island. The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption. The eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history. The eruption devastated the island of Thera (also called Santorini), including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri, as well as communities and agricultural areas on nearby islands and on the coast of Crete. 17. Akrotiri south part of thera: is the name of an excavation site of a Minoan Bronze Age settlement on the Greek island of Santorini, associated with the Minoan civilization due to inscriptions in Linear A, and close similarities in artifact and fresco styles. The excavation is named for a modern Greek village situated on a hill nearby. The name of the site in antiquity is unknown. Akrotiri was buried by the widespread Theran eruption in the middle of the second millennium BC (during the Late Minoan IA period); as a result, like the Roman ruins of Pompeii after it, it is remarkably well-preserved.

18. West house: the mansion known as west house or house of admiral at Akrotiri, thera, was excavated by spirydon marinatos. It is unique painting. 19. Miniature fresco: one of the important monuments of Aegean art found, decorate room 5. 20. Anemospilia (Minoan site of human sacrifice) the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan temple on Crete.Anemospilia means 'caves of the wind'. It is in the foot hills of Mount Juktas, the legendary birthplace of Zeus. Anemospilia was first excavated in 1979 by J. Sakellarakis. The temple was destroyed by a volcanic eruption from Thera and the resulting earthquakes. The temple was found in a ruined state with stone walls only reaching hip height. Traces of ash and charcoal were found on the ground, and from this, one can postulate that the building was burnt down. the reason for the dead man on the altar was probably for human sacrifice. The priest and townsfolk would have noticed the increased activity of Mount Thera, and decided that to please the gods, they must perform a human sacrifice, and this also tells us why the victim was somewhat young, because an older sacrifice would not have been as pleasing to the gods as a younger one. The fact that the temple was burned shows that during the ceremony, an earthquake struck and knocked candles over, making the wooden walls catch alight, the blood from the body was half drained, and so when the body caught fire, half of the bones turned black, and the other half turned white. 21. Mycenaean: ● as with minoan civilization, a political culture. ● the mycenaean aslso had language, called linear B. ● Also relegated to administrative affairs: indecipherable until 1950s, Michael Ventris deciphered linear B in 1953 age 30. ● So here, too we must reply on picture. ● but they are different in this case. ● in general more war-oriented ● Mycenaean age (1600-1150) ● people ruled by powerful kings ● build strongly fortified palaces. ● stereotype ● mycenaean = belligerent , minoan = peaceful. 22. Dark Age: almost completely ignore it The Greek Dark Age or Ages (ca. 1200 BC–800 BC) are terms which have regularly been used to refer to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean Palatial civilization around 1200 BC, to the first signs of the Greek city-states in the 9th century BC. These terms are gradually going out of use, since the former lack of archaeological evidence in a period that was mute in its lack of inscriptions (thus "dark") has been shown to be an accident of discovery rather than a fact of history. The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned. Around this time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed. Following the collapse, fewer

and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceases. 23. Sea peoples: The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between approximately 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt. The nationality of the Sea Peoples remains a mystery as the only records we have of their activities are mainly Egyptian sources who only describe them in terms of battle (such as the record from the Stele at Tanis which reads, in part, “They came from the sea in their war ships and none could stand against them”). Names of what may have been the tribes which comprised the Sea Peoples have been recorded as the Sherden, the Sheklesh, Lukka, Tursha and Akawasha. Outside Egypt, they also frequently assaulted the coastal regions of the Hittite Empire, the Levant and other areas around the Mediterranean coast. Their origin and identity has been suggested (and debated) to be Etruscan/Trojan to Italian, Philistine, Mycenaen and even Minoan but, as no accounts discovered thus far shed any more light on the question than what is presently known, any such claims must remain mere conjecture. 24. Lion Gate: The Lion Gate of Mycenae was the entrance to the city. Atop the gate, two lions rampant are carved in stone relief. Similar bas-reliefs of two lions rampant facing each other are found in a number of places in Phrygia in Asia Minor. 25. Cyclopean walls: protection from enemies. The characteristic of the Mycenaean walls is that they are made of huge limestone boulders, which have been fitted together rather roughly. As these boulders are very big in size, the ancient people believed that it was the Cyclops who built these gates, as the thought it impossible for men to move such big rocks. That is why these walls were named Cyclopean Walls. 26. Daedalus: meaning "cunning worker". He was a skillful craftsman and artisan. Daedalus is first mentioned by Homer as the creator of a wide dancing-ground for Ariadne. He also created the Labyrinth on Crete, in which the Minotaur (part man, part bull) was kept. 27. Minotaur: as the Greeks imagined him, was a creature with the head of a bull on the body of a man[1] or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, "part man and part bull".[2] He dwelt at the center of the Cretan Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze-like construction[3] designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus, on the command of King Minos of Crete The Minotaur was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. Named “bull of Minos” 28. Ladyrinth: was an elaborate structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos. Its function was to hold the Minotaur, a mythical creature that was half man and half bull and was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. Daedalus had made the Labyrinth so cunningly that he himself could barely escape it after he built it.[1] Theseus was aided by Ariadne, who provided him with a skein of thread, literally the "clew", or "clue", so he could find his way out again. labyrinth is generally synonymous with maze, but many contemporary scholars observe a distinction between the two: maze refers to a complex branching (multicursal) puzzle with choices of path and direction; while a single-path (unicursal) labyrinth has only a single, nonbranching path, which leads to the center. A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and is not designed to be difficult to navigate.

29. Zeus: fall in love with Europa, despite marriage to Hera. He kidnaps her in the form of a bull. Grudge against Zeus: apportionment of duties lottery, this is his way to punish Zeus for dissing Hera. 30. Poseidon: God of the sea. He sends the bull from sea. Poseidon is angry that Minos hadn’t sacrified the bull. Poseidon’s punishment: Minos’ wife Pasiphae falls for it. 31. Hades: meaning "the unseen" was the ancient Greek god of the underworld. is the oldest male child of Cronus and Rhea. According to myth, he and his brothers Zeus and Poseidon defeated the Titans and claimed rulership over the cosmos, ruling the underworld, air, and sea, respectively; the solid earth, long the province of Gaia, was available to all three concurrently. Because of his association with the underworld, Hades is often interpreted in modern times as the personification of death[citation needed], even though he was not. Hades was also called "Plouton" Symbols associated with him are the Helm of Darkness and the three-headed dog, Cerberus. 32. Homer: ● blind, illiterate bard, performed his epics within an aristocratic, palatial setting (people with a power) singing about heroes. the way he speaks that intend norms/reflect the heroes. ● the most admired and emulated poet of the ancient world ● learning his poetry by heart was a staple of classical education. ● greatest influence on later writers (tragedians) ● his poetry originally composed orally rather than written down different characters have different nicknames. ● Put into written form in the middle of the 8th century BC line by line. ● Created the first two extant western epics narratives, the Iliad and the Odyssey. ● as first tragedian. 33. Iliad: ● mythical background of the Iliad.: marriages of Peleus and thetis. all deities except strife invited. strife thrown golden apple that reads “to the fairest” into the crowd of attendees. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite claim the apple Zeus arranges a contest, Paris decides: Hera offers political power. Hera is a queen of humanity. Athena offer military supremacy. Aphrodite offers the most beautiful women in the world: Helen. ● Paris abducts Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. ● Menelaus persuades his brother Agamemnon and other Greek king to join in an expedition against troy to retrieve Helen and punish the Trojans. ● two main types of characters of the Iliad: immortals (Olympian deities) and mortals (crucial dichotomy) 34. Odyssey: is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus. and his long journey home following the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War.In his absence, it is assumed he has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage. 35. Peleus: was a hero whose myth was already known to the hearers of Homer in the late 8th century BCE.Peleus was the son of Aeacus, king of the island of Aegina, and Endeïs, the oread

of Mount Pelion in Thessaly; he was the father of Achilles. He and his brother Telamon were friends of Heracles, serving in his expedition against the Amazons, his war against King Laomedon, and with him in the quest for the Golden Fleece. Though there were no further kings in Aegina, the kings of Epirus claimed descent from Peleus in the historic period. 36. Thetis: Silver-footed Thetis disposer or "placer" (the one who places), is encountered in Greek mythology mostly as a sea nymph or known as the goddess of water, one of the fifty Nereids, daughters of the ancient one of the seas with shape-shifting abilities who survives in the historical vestiges of most later Greek myths as Proteus (whose name suggests the "first", the "primordial" or the "firstborn"). Most extant material about Thetis concerns her role as mother of Achilles, but there is some evidence that as the sea-goddess she played a more central role in the religious beliefs and practices of Archaic Greece. 37. Strife: ERIS was the goddess or spirit (daimona) of strife, discord, contention and rivalry. She was often represented specifically as the daimon of the strife of war, who haunted the battlefield and delighted in human bloodshed. Her Greek opposite is Harmonia, whose Latin counterpart is Concordia. Homer equated her with the war-goddess Enyo, whose Roman counterpart is Bellona. The dwarf planet Eris is named after the goddess. 38. Golden apple: ● is an element that appears in various national and ethnic folk legends or fairy tales. Recurring themes depict a hero (e.g., Hercules or Făt-Frumos) retrieving the golden apples hidden or stolen by a monstrous antagonist. Alternatively, they are depicted as divine food and the source of immortality in Norse mythology. ● The first case concerns a hunter named Atalanta who raced against a suitor named Hippomenes. Hippomenes used golden apples to distract Atalanta so that he could win the race: 39. Hera: was the wife and one of three sisters of Zeus in the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology. Her chief function was as the goddess of women and marriage. In Roman mythology, Juno was the equivalent mythical character. The cow, and later, the peacock were sacred to her. Hera's mother was Rhea and her father, Cronus. 40. Athena:is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, warfare, strength, strategy, female arts, crafts, justice, and skill. Minerva, Athena's Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes. Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and is the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patron of Athens. The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honour. 41. Aphrodite:is the Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus. Historically, her cult in Greece was imported from, or influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia 42. Paris:the son of Priam, king of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends. Probably the best-known was his elopement with Helen, queen of Sparta, this being one of the immediate causes of the Trojan War. Later in the war, he fatally wounds Achilles in the heel with an arrow, as foretold by Achilles's mother, Thetis. 43. Helen: also known as Helen of Sparta, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda (or Nemesis), step-daughter of King Tyndareus, wife of Menelaus and sister of Castor, Polydeuces and Clytemnestra. Her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. 44. Menelaus:was a legendary king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and a central figure in the Trojan War. He was the son of Atreus and Aerope, and brother of Agamemnon king of Mycenae and, according to the Iliad, leader of the Spartan contingent of

the Greek army during the War. Prominent in both the Iliad and Odyssey, Menelaus was also popular in Greek vase painting and Greek tragedy; the latter more as a hero of the Trojan War than as a member of the doomed House of Atreus. 45. Agamemnon:was the son of King Atreus of Mycenae and Queen Aerope; the brother of Menelaus and the husband of Clytemnestra; mythical legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area. When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was abducted by Paris of Troy, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War.Upon Agamemnon's return from Troy he was murdered by Aegisthus, the lover of his wife Clytemnestra. In old versions of the story: "The scene of the murder, when it is specified, is usually the house of Aegisthus, who has not taken up residence in Agamemnon's palace, and it involves an ambush and the deaths of Agamemnon's followers too".In some later versions Clytemnestra herself does the killing, or they do it together, in his own home. 46. Achilles: was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.Achilles was named the most handsome of the heroes assembled against Troy by Plato.Later legends (beginning with a poem by Statius in the 1st century AD) state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. As he died because of a small wound on his heel, the term "Achilles' heel" has come to mean a person's principal weakness. 47. Odysseus: as a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in the Epic Cycle. King of Ithaca, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus, and son of Laërtes and Anticlea, Odysseus is renowned for his guile and resourcefulness, and is hence known by the epithet Odysseus the Cunning ("cunning intelligence"). He is most famous for the ten eventful years he took to return home after the ten-year Trojan War and his famous Trojan Horse trick. 48. Troy: was a city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida. It is best known for being the focus of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey seems to show that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with a digamma: Ἴίλιον (Wilion). This was later supported by the Hittite form Wilusa. 49. Trojan war: ● greek allies: ○ hera (bitterness about golden apple) ○ athena (bitterness about golden apple) ○ poseidon (help apollo build trojan walls, king refused to pay) ● trojan allies: ○ apollo (his priest disobeyed by greeks) ○ artemis (loyal to apollo, helps aeneas) ○ aphrodite (golden apple, trojan son aeneas) 50. Briseis: was a mythical queen in Asia Minor at the time of the Trojan War. Her character lies at the center of a dispute between Achilles and Agamemnon that drives the plot of Homer's Iliad.Briseis, a daughter of Briseus was a princess of Lyrnessus. When Achilles led the assault on that city during the Trojan War, her family died at his hands; she was subsequently given to Achilles as a war prize.

51. Dipylon Artist: was an ancient Greek vase painter who was active from around 760-750 BCE. He worked in Athens, where he and his workshop produced large funerary vessels for those interred in the Dipylon cemetery, whence his name comes. His work belongs to the very Late stage of the Geometric Style, his vases served as grave markers and libation receptacles for aristocratic graves and as such are decorated with a depiction of the prothesis scene representing the mourning of the deceased. Almost 50 vases have been attributed to the Dipylon Master and his workshop. His works are among the first figural scenes to be found on vases in Greece since the collapse of the Mycenean palace culture. 52. Patroclus: was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus, and was Achilles' beloved comrade and brother-in-arms.Patroclus accidentally killed his friend, Clysonymus, during an argument over a game of dice. 53. Hector: is a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. As the firstborn son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, a descendant of Dardanus, who lived under Mount Ida, and of Tros, the founder of Troy, he was a prince of the royal house and the heir apparent to his father's throne. He was married to Andromache, with whom he had an infant son, Astyanax. He acts as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defence of Troy, killing 31 Greek fighters in all.In the European Middle Ages, Hector figures as one of the Nine Worthies noted by Jacques de Longuyon, known not only for his courage but also for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed Homer places Hector as the very noblest of all the heroes in the Iliad: he is both peace-loving and brave, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son, husband and father, and without darker motives. When the Trojans are disputing whether the omens are favourable, he retorts: "One omen is best: defending the fatherland" (this is the motto of the Greek Armed Forces to this day). 54. Andromache: was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, and sister to Podes. She was born and raised in the city of Cilician Thebe, over which her father ruled. The name means "battle of a man", from Ἴνδρός (andros) "of a man" and μάχη (machē) "battle".During the Trojan War, Hector was killed by Achilles, and their son Astyanax was thrown from the city walls by the Greek Herald Talthybius. Neoptolemus took Andromache as a concubine and Hector's brother, Helenus, as a slave. By Neoptolemus, she was the mother of Molossus, and according to Pausanias, of Pielus and Pergamus. When Neoptolemus died, Andromache married Helenus and became Queen of Epirus. Pausanias also implies that Helenus' son, Cestrinus, was by Andromache. Andromache eventually went to live with Pergamus in Pergamum, where she died of old age. 55. Priam: was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son of Laomedon. Modern scholars derive his name from the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous. 56. Ajax: was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. He plays an important role in Homer's Iliad and in the Epic Cycle, a series of epic poems about the Trojan War. To distinguish him from Ajax, son of Oileus (Ajax the Lesser), he is called "Telamonian Ajax," "Greater Ajax," or "Ajax the Great". In Etruscan mythology, he is known as Aivas Tlamunus. 57. Muse: in Greek mythology, poetry, and literature, are the goddesses who inspire the creation of literature and the arts. They were considered the source of the knowledge, related orally for centuries in the ancient culture, that was contained in poetic lyrics and myths. The compliment to a real woman who inspires creative endeavor is a later idea 58. Anger:

59. Hesiod: was a Greek oral poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC. Hesiod and Homer have generally been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived, and they are often paired. Scholars disagree about who lived first, and the fourth-century BC sophist Alcidamas' Mouseion even brought them together in an imagined poetic agon, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. Aristarchus first argued for Homer's priority, a claim that was generally accepted by later antiquity.Hesiod's writings serve as a major source on Greek mythology, farming techniques, early economic thought (he is sometimes identified as the first economist) archaic Greek astronomy and ancient time-keeping. 60. Theogony: "the birth of the gods" is a poem by Hesiod (8th-7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. It is written in the Epic dialect of Ancient Greek used by Homer. 61. Works and Days: is a didactic poem of some 800 verses written by the ancient Greek poet Hesiod around 700 BC. At its center, the Works and Days is a farmer's almanac in which Hesiod instructs his brother Perses in the agricultural arts. Scholars have seen this work against a background of agrarian crisis in mainland Greece, which inspired a wave of colonial expeditions in search of new land. In the poem Hesiod also offers his brother extensive moralizing advice on how he should live his life. The Works and Days is perhaps best known for its two mythological aetiologies for the toil and pain that define the human condition: the story of Prometheus & Pandora and the so-called Myth of Five Ages. 62. Chaos: “gaping void” geneto. The children of chaos: gaea, tartarus, eros, erebos, night. Remind living in nature. tress, water, mountains are always prominent natural nomenon. 63. Gaea: brought forth by herself. Uranus=sky. Pontus= sea. Ourea = mountains. Brough forth with ouranos 1) six titans: occeanus, coeus, crius, hyperion, iapetus, cronus. 2) six titanesses: mnemosyne “ memory”, rhea flow, themis “justic” 64. Uranus: hide his children in Gaea’s depths. This causes Gaea pain. Gaea invents the sickle. Gaea plots with her children to multilate Uranus. 65. Cronus: againsst uranus. Cronus alone agree to conspire with her. When uranus approach gaea to make love with her, cronus castrates him. Cronus throws his father’s genitals over his shoulder. They land on gaea and produce the giants. 66. Rheia: was the Titaness daughter of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth, in Greek mythology. She was known as "the mother of gods". In earlier traditions, she was strongly associated with Gaia and Cybele, the Great Goddess, and was later seen by the classical Greeks as the mother of the Olympian gods and goddesses, though never dwelling permanently among them on Mount Olympus. The Romans identified Rhea with the Goddess Ops. venus is roman name. In flar of his children, cronus swallows them as quickly as they are born. Rheia consults uranus and gaea. they advise her to travel to crete and give the birth to her youngest child zeus. Cronus ask rheia for zus . she hand him a large stone and wrappped in baby cloth.

67. Succession myth: zeus marries the oceanid metis = “mind”. He discovers that metis is pregnant with athena, the deity who is like ly to depose him. He swallows metis to prevent athena from being born, symbolically embodying reason. Hephaestus cuts open zeus’ head. Athena spring from it, born only to him (not to metis in the natural manner). Thus the succession myth ends with zeus. 68. Titanomachy: now zeus is king of immorals. He joins his brothers and sisters on mount. 69. Giants: were the children of Gaia, who was fertilized by the blood of Uranus, after Uranus was castrated by his son Cronus. Some depictions stated that these Giants had snake-like tails. 70. Apollo: god of light/reason 71. Ares: god of belligerence 72. Hephaestus: craftman god 73. Hermes: messenger god 74. Dionysus: god of wine/intoxication 75. Demeter: goddess of the grain 76. Artemis: goddess of Hunting 77. Hades: god of the Underworld. 78. Underworld: was made up of various realms believed to lie beneath the earth or at its farthest reaches. This includes: ● The great pit of Tartarus, originally the exclusive prison of the old Titan gods, it later came to be the dungeon home of damned souls. ● The land of the dead ruled by the god Hades, which is variously called the house or domain of Hades (domos Aidaou), Hades, Erebus, the Asphodel Meadows (where the neutral souls are sent), Stygia and Acheron. ● The Isles of the Blessed or Elysian Fields ruled by Cronus (According to Pindar in his descriptions), where the great heroes of myth resided after death. ● The Elysian Fields ruled by Rhadamanthys, where the virtuous dead and initiates in the ancient Mysteries were sent to dwell. The five rivers of Hades are Acheron (the river of sorrow), Cocytus (the river of lamentation), Phlegethon (the river of fire), Lethe (the river of forgetfulness) and Styx (the river of hate), which forms the boundary between upper and lower worlds. The ancient Greek concept of the underworld evolved considerably over time. 79. Divine myth: features supernatural being rather than human being. Can take on human or animal shape at will, their own form is too overwhelming (Horus) Control natural forces (Poseidon) can represent personified abstractions (Nike=victory) can represent personality. 80. Legend: focus on hero. Central characters are human being rather than deities (eg Achilles). Legend is similar to history in its attempt to explain the past. 81. Folktale: focus on ordinary people. Similarity to legend: central characters are people. Differences from legend: human characters are ordinary rather than extraordinary as in legend. Folktale types (eg Cinderella type = abuse younger sister/divine helper/appears at ball in the dress/separated from prince/marries prince.) folktale motifs (eg Cinderella - type elements listed above) 82. Colonization:

● over population ● exploration (corresponding ethos, of Homer’s odsey) 83. Polis (emergence of polis city state): literally means city in Greek. It could also mean
citizenship and body of citizens. In modern historiography "polis" is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, so polis is often translated as "city-state."

● athens ● sparta 84. Athens:is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica periphery and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state. A centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent.Today a cosmopolitan metropolis, modern Athens is central to economic, financial, industrial, political and cultural life in Greece and it is rated as an Alpha world city. In 2008, Athens was ranked the world's 32nd richest city by purchasing power and the 25th most expensive in a UBS study. 85. Sparta: was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From c. 650 BC it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. 86. Epic:is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details
of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.

87. Lyric: 88. Papyrus: early form of paper made from the pith located in the center of the stem or root of the papyrus. 89. Archilochus (early 7th century): is the oldest from Paros. 1st extant post epic poet. Turbulent life - mercenary soldier. Embittered adventure. 90. Callinus (middle 7th century): From ephesus. Creator of political and warlike elegy. Primary themes: courage and patriotism. 91. Tyrtaeus (middle 7th century): From sparta. Wrote in elegaic couplets. Sappho (late 7th century): From lesbos. New poetry of love and hate. Had own meter called Sapphic meter 92. Solon: came along in the late Archaic age to appease the poor and prevent the emergence of tyranny. He was a politician poet (all literature was still verse). Propagandistic poetry through which he defends his political reforms. His poems indicated his roles as a mediator between rich and poor. Solon’s success only lasted awhile: The poor demanded one of their own to rule “a tyrant.” 93. Alcaeus: late 7th century. ● also from lesbos ● part of the aristocratic ruling class of mytilence where he experienced much political strife. ● he sides with the aristocrats over tyrant

94. Hoplite: new type of warrior called the hoplite (each soldier carried a shield called a hoplon that covered his own left side and the right side of the man to his left). Hoplite fought in shieldto-shield formation with the rest of infantry called a phalanx. 95. Hoplon: A hoplon shield was a deeply-dished shield made of wood. Some shields had a
thin sheet of bronze on the outer face, often just around the rim. In some periods, the convention was to decorate the aspis; in others, it was usually left plain. Probably the most famous aspis decoration is that of Sparta: a capital lambda (Λ). From the late 5th century BC, Athenian hoplites commonly used the Little Owl, while the shields of Theban hoplites were sometimes decorated with a sphinx, or the club of Heracles.

96. Phalanx: is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare, although the ancient Greek writers used it to also describe any massed infantry formation, regardless of its equipment, as does Arrian in his Array against the Allans when he refers to his legions. In Greek texts, the phalanx may be deployed for battle, on the march, even camped, thus describing the mass of infantry or cavalry that would deploy in line during battle. They used shields to block others from getting in. They marched forward as one entity, crushing opponents. The word phalanx is derived from the Greek word phalanx, meaning the finger. 97. Draco: law code 621 bc was the first legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court. Because of its harshness, this code also gave rise to the term "draconian" 99. Peisistratus: seized power. Members the “hill men”. 100. Hipparchus: was a Greek astrologer, astronomer, geographer, and mathematician of the Hellenistic period. He is considered the founder of trigonometry. 101. Hippias :was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens in the 6th century BC. Hippias succeeded Peisistratus in 527 BC, and in 525 BC he introduced a new system of coinage in Athens. His brother Hipparchus, who may have ruled jointly with him, was murdered by Harmodius and Aristogeiton (the Tyrannicides) in 514 BC. Hippias executed the Tyrannicides and became a bitter and cruel ruler. 102. Cleisthenes: Power vacuum filled by cleisthenes in 508 BC. He is father of philosophy. Institutes new geographically rather than family or wealth based constitution. This along with ostracism lead to first democratic society “father of democracy.”