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PASOC : A Gender Approach

PASOC : A GENDER APPROACH

Les Cahiers du PASOC N°12

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PASOC : A Gender Approach

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Report of Study on the Approach to Gender Equality in the Activities of CSOs in the Context of PASOC
TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ACRONYMS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Methodology used Recommendations for next steps

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INTRODUCTION CHAPITRE 1 : UNDERSTANDING GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Key Terms and Concepts
1.1. Gender 1.2. Sex 1.3. Gender Equality 1.4. Gender Equity 1.5. Gender Mainstreaming

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CHAPITRE 2 : METHODOLOGY USED CHAPITRE 3 : GENDER IN THE WORK OF PASOC
1. Trainings 2. Direct support 3. Subvention funds – through Tenders 4. Gender in PASOC - Administration
4.1. The Programme Management Unit of PASOC 4.2. The Steering Committee 4.3. The Scientific Committee

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CHAPITRE 4 : RESULTS OBTAINED FROM DOCUMENTS REVIEWED
1. Project Support within DP1 – Call for Tenders 2. Project Support within DP1 – Direct support DP1 3. Project Support within DP2 – Direct support 4. Project Support within DP2 – Call for Tenders

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CHAPITRE 5 : RESULTS FROM FIELD WORK
1. Extreme Nord Region
1.1. Tokombere Farmer’s house project - Report of Tuesday 05 May 2009 1.2. CADEPI consultation report 1.3. AGIR consultation report 1.4. ADEN Network Cameroon

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1.5. CDD (Relay Organisation) and WESDE 1.6. CDD – (Maroua) Extrême Nord 1.7. FORMDY - Fédération des organisations du Maya Danay a Yagoua 1.8. Fondation Action Généralisées pour l’Intervention Rurale

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2. South West Region – Reach Out

2.1. Audit reports for Partners of Productivity Foundation (PFPF) BANGEM 18th - 24th MAY 2009. 20 tH th 2.2. Proximity consultation of ATEM Ebako Center for Health and Development 25 -30 may 2009 20 th th 2.3. Auditing report Achev Kumba 15 -18 June 2009 20 2.4. Report on Internal Audit of Earth Wide 20 2.5. Report on Action of Nkong Hill Top Common Initiative Group (NCIG) 21 2.6. Global Net Work for Good Governance (GNGG) 21 2.7. Changing Mentalities and Empowering Groups (CHAMEG) 21 2.8. Report of EU Model Project Proposal Writing (Alliance Franco-camerounaise – AFC Buéa, March 08th th 09 2009 21 2.9. Report of EU Model Project Proposal Writing Workshop 21 Kumba community Health HIV/AIDS Program-KCP Kumba March 08th -09th 2009 21 2.10. Synthesis Report on the European Union Model Project Proposal Writing Workshop for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs): Fako and Mémé Divisions 08th – 09th April 2009 21 2.11. Report on Grand Public Workshop on the Role of Civil Society Organisations in the Development Process of the South West Region 21 3.1. Organisation and Moderation of 2 Workshops on Proposal Writing for CSO in the West Region 3.2. Report on the European Union Model Project Proposal Writing Workshop for Civil Society Organisationsin the West Region 3.3. Proximity Consultation of GADD in Dschang in the Menoua Division From 04 TO 09 MAI 2009 22 22 22

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3. West - ZENU-NETWORK, BAFOUSSAM

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4. North West - INADES BAMENDA

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4.1. Final Report of Proximity Audit for Angel of Mercy 23 4.2. Final Report of Proximity Audit of North West Association of Development Organisations (NWADO) 23 4.3. Summary Technical Report of the Workshops on Project Writing using the European Union Project Format (11th to 12th March 2009 and on the 24th to 25th March 2009) 23 4.4. Training of Trainer Workshop on Management and Associative Life 27th to 30th April 2009 23 4.5. Report of Training Trainers Workshop on Associative Life and Management - INADES Formation BAMENDA ON THE 26th to 28th of May 2009 24

5. Littoral Region

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5.1. Un Monde Avenir DOUALA 24 5.2. Training of leaders of Associations in Management of Organisations and Associative Life From 18 TO 20 JUNE 2009 24

6. Centre - ASSOAL
6.1. Workshop on Proposal Writing for Projects in general 6.2. Report of Proximity Audit of CPDR 6.3. Report of Proximity Audit of JEURAC

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CHAPITRE 6 : A CRITICAL LOOK AT PROJECTS SUPPORTED UNDER DP2
1. Adamawa Region 2. Center Region 3. Eastern Region 4. Extreme North Region 5. Littoral Region 6. Northern Region 7. North West Region

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8. Western Region 9. Southern Region 10. South West Region

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CHAPITRE 7 : LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE PROCESS CHAPITRE 8 : KEY CHALLENGES CHAPITRE 9 : MAIN CONCLUSIONS CHAPITRE 10 : LOOKING FORWARD RECOMMENDATIONS ANNEXES
Documents reviewed during the evaluation process
Documents in the PMU

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Reports from relay organisations
Far North – CDD Maroua North - SEP Garoua Adamaoua – SYDEV Ngaoundere South West Region – Reach Out West Region - ZENU-Network North West Region – INADES Formation Bamenda Littoral – Un Monde Avenir Douala Centre ASSOAL Yaoundé South Region - CANADEL

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Persons interviewed Persons interviewed

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Grand Public Gender Forum on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process of the South West Region
INTRODUCTION
1. Objectives of the forum 2. Programme of the forum 3. Methodology 4. Resolutions of the forum 5. Opening

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A WORD OF WELCOME BY MRS. OMAM NJOMO ESTHER ON THE OCCASION OF THE GENDER GRAND PUBLIC FORUM, HOLDING IN BUEA ON APRIL 30TH 2010 AT PANAFRICAN INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT

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ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR THE FORUM ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY”BUEA, 30TH APRIL 2010 43 DR. CHIEF ATEM-EBAKO, MD, MPH ADDRESS BY THE HEAD OF PASOC PROGRAM – MR. CHRISTOPHE COURTIN ON THE OCCASION OF THE GRAND FORUM ON GENDER OFFICIAL OPENING BY THE GOVERNOR OF SWR 43 45 46

AN ADDRESS PRESENTED BY THE GOVERNOR OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION, ON THE OCCASION OF THE OPENING CEREMONY OF A FORUM ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY”, ORGANISED BY REACH OUT (REO), 46 BUEA, FRIDAY 30TH APRIL 2010 46 CHAPITRE 1 : A PAPER PRESENTATION ON THE CONCEPT OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY." 48
1. Role Play 2. Analysis of Role Play 3. The GENDER Tree
3.1. The Leaves 3.2. The Trunk 3.3. The Roots

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4. Clarification of Terms

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CHAPITRE 2 : GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY” 54
1. Gender mainstreaming for development planning 2. The key steps of gender mainstreaming describe below : 3. Conclusion 57 58 59

CHAPITRE 3 : GROUP WORK ON GENDER GAPS AND STRATEGIES OF MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN THE SWR 60
1. Terms of reference for group work 2. Groups constitution 3. Presentation of group work results
3.1. Group 1 : Traditional rulers 3.2. Group 2 : Mayors and parliamentarians 3.3. Group 3 : Women’s Network / Associations 3.4. Group : Civil Society 3.5. Group 5 : Government and private institutions

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CHAPITRE 4 : EVALUATION/CLOSING
1. Evaluation results 2. Closing remarks

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PREFACE
The Gender Approach has become an issue to reckon with in development programs. PASOC on its part prefer to concretely talk about equality between women and men. Actually, the concept of gender has become an open-box infinitely variable concept. Equality between women and men will not be achieved through decreed equality. It is a principle that is being gradually implemented. Does a strong declared political willingness suffice? It is base on this issue that this ‘‘Cahier du PASOC’’ attempts an answer through two studies: The first is a survey carried out by a consultant on the gender approach implemented by PASOC for the past two years. She was interested in finding out how PASOC was treating this issue despite official speeches and literature. The second is the Gender Grand Public Forum organised by Reach Out, PASOC’s Relay Organisation in the South west Region. These two documents clearly show that gender is a work methodology instead of an ideology. The gender approach opens up a way to follow, and it would be concretely achieve through facts such as equality of treatment between women and men. All in all, these two studies clearly show that the distance yet to be covered is still a long one. Christophe Courtin Chief of project PASOC

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REPORT OF STUDY ON THE APPROACH TO GENDER EQUALITY IN THE ACTIVITIES OF CSOs IN THE CONTEXT OF PASOC

A CAPITALISATION DOCUMENT

By Tilder Kumichii NDICHIA Independent Consultant

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ACRONYMS
DP1 DP2 PASOC CSOs NGOs GAD PMU CBO FBO Devis Programme 1 Devis Programme 2 Programme d’Appui à la Structuration de la Société Civile Civil Society Organisations Non-Governmental Organisations Gender And Development Programme Management Unit Community Based Organisation Faith Based Organisation

In the body of this report, there are other acronyms that have not been explained on this page. This is simply because these are names of different CSOs that we were not able to trace the explanation.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report documents the results of an evaluation of how gender has been implemented in PASOC. The evaluation was carried out in a participatory manner, which included the consultation of documents, follow-up discussions held with staff and other stakeholders and analysis. The evaluation was as a result of a demand made by the PASOC administration, which had demonstrated a commitment to gender mainstreaming through:  Funding projects that are gender related in different CSOs  Having a manual of procedures though silent on gender issues, which allows for all the employees at PASOC to feel comfortable with the working environment and feel that they are respected and valued as members of a common team, regardless of their sex. The ease in voicing their opinions is a reflection of the already high level of comfort between men and women existing in the organisation.  Encouraging the participation of all CSOs regardless of their sizes or scope. This has given an image to some of the organisations that were not seen or heard before the programme. These positive actions, however, are not systematically developed or institutionalised. The evaluation results suggest that gender mainstreaming would be immensely enhanced through:  Targeted training of staff team and CSO relay organisations to empower them as leaders in gender mainstreaming for their respective regions;  The development of a coordinated and sequenced action plan to build an integrated program, which will enhance gender equality in the CSOs and reduce gender constraints in all aspects;  Paying greater attention to identifying substantive gender issues in the design of program activities, supported by creative thinking on gender sensitive monitoring, to begin active assessment of gender-related impacts of activities carried out in the structuring process of CSOs;  Sharing the successful efforts in gender mainstreaming and the achievement of gender equality in the activities of the programme.  Regarding gender as an important tool to enhance participatory development and promote social justice, not just as an issue of men and women Methodology used The evaluation was conducted using both primary and secondary methods to collect information. The primary data collection was as participatory as possible. Recommendations for next steps 1. Program management should provide proactive leadership and reaffirm PASOC’s commitment to gender mainstreaming to make gender actions carried out within the programme visible. 2. Retain gender mainstreaming programmatic strategy as well as gender-focused activities 3. Strengthen gender mainstreaming capacities of all stakeholders 4. Make adequate financial resources available for gender mainstreaming

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INTRODUCTION
A vibrant civil society is a key element in a democratization process, where Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play an important role. They articulate the needs and interests of citizens, work to hold governments accountable, lobby for change, carry out research, develop and mobilize constituencies and even provide direct services. In order to fulfill their role, civil society organisations (CSO) should be capable of representing the needs and interests of both their male and female members and make the concern for gender equality part of a broad social agenda to develop and change the society. There is a need therefore to look at the capacities of the civil society organisations to ensure that their activities involve and benefit both women and men, develop women (as well as men), and promote gender equality at all levels. Additional legitimacy for gender equality and gender equality advocates can be encouraged through the involvement of these organisations in the mainstreaming discussions, coalitions and activities. The civil society is made up of different generations of people, which necessitates an approach that will facilitate the taking into account of cross generational issues. Mainstreaming gender into the activities to structure the CSOs will improve the quality of outputs and performance of these CSOs in the field, take into account cross generational issues and in turn promote social justice.

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CHAPITRE 1 :

UNDERSTANDING GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

Over the years, the emphasis on women’s empowerment remained strong, but the turn towards a more inclusive approach recognises that efforts to include women will not succeed without simultaneously addressing men’s attitudes and practices. Achieving the full participation of women in development programs also requires transforming discriminatory institutional structures and legislation. This approach was most popular in the 1980s, before moving to the awareness that gender relations shape both men’s and women’s opportunities and constraints in the development process and thus promote participatory development. 1. Key Terms and Concepts 1.1. Gender Gender refers to the socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men in a given culture or location. Social roles are determined by gender, age, economic status, religion, family status, etc…… and Gender attitudes and behaviours are learned over time and can be changed. 1.2. Sex Sex is not gender. Sex refers to the biological differences between women and men. They are generally permanent, universal and therefore cannot be changed. For example, only women can conceive and only men can impregnate, only women can breast feed children, but both men and women can take care of children. 1.3. Gender Equality This refers to equal representation in women and men’s access to and control over socio-economic resources e.g. equal right to education, accepting potentials of men and women, equal participation, etc 1.4. Gender Equity This refers to fairness, changing norms, values, attitudes and perceptions in order to attain equal status, rights and responsibilities between men and women e.g. equal access to natural resources, equal job opportunities, equal access to political positions and representation, equal contribution to decisions concerning the people, etc. 1.5. Gender Mainstreaming This is the process of fully addressing gender from the beginning to the end of any planned action. It is a strategy for making women as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design and implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that inequalities can be reduced. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality and promote social justice. It is important to recognise that:

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The emphasis on gender equality …does not presume a particular model of gender equality for all societies and cultures, but reflects a concern that women and men have equal opportunities to make choices about what gender equality means and work in partnership to achieve it.

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CHAPITRE 2 :

METHODOLOGY USED

The evaluation was conducted using both primary and secondary methods to collect information. The primary data collection was as participatory as possible. In all the following was done :  A review of programme documents, reports of activities funded within the call for tender and direct support frameworks, document on internal procedures, reports of trainings carried out and types of projects carried out.  Interviews were held with some staff members of PASOC, Relay organisations and some beneficiaries from PASOC Support.

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CHAPITRE 3 :

GENDER IN THE WORK OF PASOC

The Support Program for the Structuring of the Civil Society in Cameroon (PASOC) has as a global goal to ensure the full and entire participation and contribution of the nonofficial actors in the definition, the programming, the implementation, the follow-up and the evaluation of the implementation of programs and national policies of economic and social development to fight against poverty. The main objective is the institutional strengthening of the civil society, through the development of the organizational and technical capacities and the improvement of its functioning. The programme extends to all the regions of the national territory. PASOC takes into consideration the different components of the civil society in the development and implementation of the program. CSOs are not simple beneficiaries of the programme but also active partners for the realization of the programme. Four significant results expected at the end of the program are :  The civil society organisations (CSO) know each other, generate and share strategic information and constitute themselves in networks by sectors themes and/or geographic area in order to concert and work out strategies and plans of action to implement within the framework of collective dynamics in synergy with the national public policies.  The capacities of the CSOs and their abilities when it comes to the political analysis and the dialogue are durably reinforced allowing them to play in concert and in a professional way, their role of partner.  The CSOs strengthen their experiences and competences by drawing up and effectively implementing projects supported for their structuring.  An encouraging legal framework able to promote the institutionalization of the partnerships between the CSOs themselves and also between the State or other partners of the development is known and applied. From our findings, PASOC generally touches on gender from a broad perspective but not in an elaborate manner. PASOC as a programme has Subvention funds, which have as themes - gender, youths and human rights. These funds can be accessed by organisations either through direct support or through tenders when there is a call for manifestation of interest based on the different themes of the programme. Because PASOC is a programme to structure the CSO and not to support projects of CSOs, this makes it difficult to support gender related projects. In the call for tenders , PASOC asked for projects in the areas of Environment, minorities, human rights etc. One can easily relate these areas to gender, but there is often a problem during selection because many projects come in on diverse themes and if gender related projects are not well elaborated, they are not selected for preference of other projects that might have stronger points and may tie perfectly with the request for tenders that was sent out. The main activities of PASOC are: 1. Trainings Different trainings and seminars are carried out on Advocacy, Management of associative life and Proximity audits with the Media, public agents and CSOs either directly or through Relay organisations. From reports reviewed, 90 civil society organisations were trained but it is not mentioned how many of the participants were men and how many were women.

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2. Direct support PASOC structures CSOs through direct support to organisations. Some of the activities supported through direct support are – construction of Websites, trainings etc. The documents for Direct Support are submitted by organisations based on their needs. These documents are studied by the Chief of Programme, the Director of Administration and Finance and the Volunteers in carge of documentation in he Programme Management Unit. This selection is done based on how well the project ties with the terms of reference for selection, and no specific criteria for this selection process is related to gender. However, if there are gender related projects that conform with the modalities of direct support and are feasible projects, they are supported. 3. Subvention funds – through Tenders This component has 3 themes - gender, youths and human rights. PASOC as a programme seeks to structure the Civil Society and not to support projects of individual CSOs. This makes it difficult to support specific gender related projects, which do not fall under the structuring mission of the programme. In the call for tenders, PASOC requested for projects in different areas, for example Environment, minorities, human rights, etc.These projects must tie with the required criteria for selection. The project documents are studied by a committee and selection is done based on the recommendations made by the committee. The criteria given by PASOC for the selection of call for tenders do not have any criterion that is gender sensitive. And, the conditions for manifesting of interest do not clearly indicate whether female participants/organisations are encouraged to take active part or not. Under both Direct support and Subvention funds however, some projects have been supported that are related to gender. This however was just a coincidence and not because there was a specific focus on gender related projects and also expecially because no particular gender policy or process is there to be followed to ensure gender equality in actions carried out within the programme framework. From the database of organisations working on gender related issues within PASOC and also from different documents identifying organisations that have requested for support from the programme for projects on gender related issues, a total of 127 organisations have gender as a focus. It is clear from our findings that there is a conscious effort by PASOC to mainstream gender into their activities. This is shown in the choice of the 3 thematic areas which are as follows:  Equality between men and women;  The Youth (integenerational issues)  Acess to fondemental rights Though PASOC does not have a laid down document on how to mainstream gender within the programme, gender is taken into consideration to a certain degree in the types of projects and activities financed within the programme framework, either by direct support and/or calls for tenders. The challenge and difficulty to mainstream gender within the programme remains, based on teh following:  The absence of a gender policy, which should stipulate clearly how gender will be considered in the structuring process of the civil society,

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The fact that project support is based on how well the projects are presented by CSOs to tie with the requested requirements, which may make it difficult to select gender related projects if they are not well presented. The logical framework of PASOC, which offers 50% to gender projects (in principle) but does not provide an implementation and follow up strategy.

4. Gender in PASOC - Administration 4.1. The Programme Management Unit of PASOC The PMU-Programme Management Unit is composed of:  A steward coordinator (the Project Manager)  1 Accountant  An assistant accountant  An expert in management of grant funds  A voluntary support staff to the PMU for the animation of the Relay organizations  A voluntary documentation support staff  2 Secretaries  2 drivers  A maintenance worker / messenger Out of the 11 staff members 4 of them are women (2 Volunteers and 2 Secretaries) All top managment staff who make key decisions are men. However, the volunteer in charge of documentation gives her opinion to decision making but it is not clear if this is taken into consideration or not and there is no particular criterion that insists on the participation of female staff in the decision m aking process. 4.2. The Steering Committee The Steering Committee is essentially a resource forum that permitsw structures responsible for the implementation of PASOC to take responsibility with full awareness of environmental issues and activities undertaken. Its key objective is to ensure the inclusion of views of different actors in the program including those from civil society. The Steering Committee consists of six designated members, notably an observer member (the representative of the Delegation of the European Commission), the Project Manager, the RAF and the expert manager of grant funds to the PMU, making a total of 10 members. Depending on the subject matters on a proposal from the PMU, other people may be invited to meetings. Out of the 10 key members of this committee, 2 are women among whom is the president of the committee. 4.3. The Scientific Committee A Scientific Council to the PMU is composed of six members, appointed by the Project Manager; it ensures the consistency of the various scientific works of PASOC (monographs, diagnostics, and education). This committee proposes to the PMU programming monographs on civil society. They advise on the Terms of Reference of various studies that the PMU submits. Among the 6 members of this committee, one is a woman.

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CHAPITRE 4 : RESULTS OBTAINED FROM DOCUMENTS REVIEWED
1. Project Support within DP1 – Call for Tenders 32 projects were supported under DP1 through the call for tenders. Out of the 32 projects, 12 were gender related in general (for youths, refugees, handicapped persons, minorities...) Out of the 12 projects 4 are directly linked to women’s promotion. 2. Project Support within DP1 – Direct support DP1 45 projects were supported within the DP1 direct support framework. Out of the 45 projects, 9 were gender related with 2 directly related to women’s empowerment. The projects supported were JEURAC (to implant branches in the Regions/provinces, Horizon Femmes – to re-dynamize the organisation, OFSAD – to carry out an organisational and functioning audit, JOC – for preparation and organisation of a national committee, CAMNAFAW – ordinary general assembly and financial audit, CJARC – institutional reinforcement, GOODWILL Cameroon – structuring organisation of Handicapped persons, SYJEDEC – creation of information website for the youth, JCD – developing a website. 3. Project Support within DP2 – Direct support 33 projects were supported through the direct support framework. Out of the 33 projects, 10 projects were gender related with 1 project directly related to women’s empowerment. These projects were FCJ – organisation of University youths and the celebration of world youth day, EEPS – lobby for PLWHA and OVC in the North Region, RECAP+ -Holding of the network of organisations working with PLWHA, CENEH – General Assembly and planning workshop, Femme Rivivre – fight against violence and discrimination against women, JOC – general assembly for Christian youths in Cameroon, AJVC – structuring of networking, FESADE – finalising of the 3 year strategic plan for the organisation, ZENU Network – organisation of youth creativity festival, ASFROM – University youths participation in Spain, Femme Rivivre – fight against violence and discrimination against women . 4. Project Support within DP2 – Call for Tenders 32 projects were supported within the DP2 framework in all the 10 regions of the country. Out of the 32 projects, 12 of them were gender related.

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CHAPITRE 5 :

RESULTS FROM FIELD WORK

From the reports of the proximity auditing missions on human Promotion, consultation meetings and training workshops, it is clear that the activities were not planned and executed in a gender sensitive manner. The following information was highlighted from the different reports. 1. Extreme Nord Region 1.1. Tokombere Farmer’s house project - Report of Tuesday 05 May 2009  The team that carried out audits and inventory of stock was made up only of men  The recommendations arrived at the end of the activity were not gender related  Out of the 9 organisations in this association, it is not clear if any of them is dealing with gender issues because the domains of actions indicated in the reports are not gender related.  In this farmers house the cashier is a male and it is not clear how many women, men and youths are represented in the decision making process of the farmer’s house  On the presence lists during this activity, there were 9 participants with only one woman in attendance. 1.2. CADEPI consultation report           They had 7 objectives and none of them is gender related One recommendation made at the end of the activity was gender sensitive, relating to the youths The results obtained did not indicate any gender related issues. Out of the 10 activities carried out by CAEPI, one is gender sensitive (encouragement of equitable development) CADEPI had 6 target groups with one on gender issues (centre for women promotion) Their organisational structure is made up of 13 members with only 2 women in the structure who do not occupy any position of decision making. Of all the recommendations made to CADEPI after the exercise, non was gender related The recommendation to CADEPI partner associations does not encourage female headed associations and female related organisations. Out of the 6 people that made up the auditing committee, non was a woman On the lists of participants for the proximity diagnosis, 16 people were present with 2 women.

1.3. AGIR consultation report From the AGIR organisational and financial diagnosis, 24th April to 02 May 2009 for AGIR headquarters the following was seen as concerned gender:  The auditor was a man and no recommendation made at the end of the exercise was gender related.  Out of their 11 activities, 2 are gender sensitive which concerns women and youth.  They have 13 domains of intervention and none is gender related.  There are 11 persons in the organisational structure with one woman who is a coordinator  The objectives set up for the auditing exercise were not gender related

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1.4. ADEN Network Cameroon From the reports of activities carried out in this structure the following information was found:  There is no gender related objective amongst the set objectives.  On the internal organisational structure, none of the workers is a woman.  Organisations that the ADEN network relates to are not gender related organisations  The auditing objectives had no gender related issues  During the opening meeting, 4 people were present with no woman present and during the closing meeting, there were 7 participants, all men. From the terms of reference for a proximity consultation of the Telecentre communautaire Polyvalent (TCP) of Fotocol in the ADEN network in Extreme North Region, the following was found out.  4 objectives were set up for the exercise but none was gender related  None of the members of TCP is a woman  There are 22 partners of the Telecetre and none of them concentrated on gender issues  After the exercise, 5 results were obtained and none was gender related. 1.5. CDD (Relay Organisation) and WESDE From the report of the contact meeting between CDD (Relay Organisation) and WESDE Civil Society Organisations beneficiaries, the following was found out:  WESDE has 3 components and domains of intervention with none that is gender related.  7 objectives were set up for the exercise and non was gender related  There were 55 persons in the organisational structure but it is not stated how many of them were women and how many were men. 1.6. CDD – (Maroua) Extrême Nord Diverse/Auto Diagnostic/Proposal writing workshop From the report of activities carried out by CDD, the following information was found:  There are 8 members of the relay organisation with one woman  The conditions to participate in activities did not state clearly how gender is considered  The meeting that took place in Maroua between the relay member organisations was attended by 9 members with 3 women in attendance  Out of the 4 projects that were selected from the call for tenders, one was gender related (for marginalised people)  4 studies were finalised with one of them gender related and linked to the youth. 1.7. FORMDY - Fédération des organisations du Maya Danay a Yagoua    This organization is made up 23 Common Initiative Groups with 4 of them for women and 311 members with 13 of them women Their domain of activities as stated in the document are not gender related and their auditing objectives were not gender related. Out of 5 auditing results none was gender related

1.8. Fondation Action Généralisées pour l’Intervention Rurale From the summary report of workshops on project writing for call for tenders launched by PASOC on the 13th and 14th March and 21 March 2009 to CDD Maroua

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12 associations participated in this workshop, 4 of them were gender related with one directly a women’s association. There were 100 participants with 19 female participants.

From the technical reports of workshop on project writing for call for tenders launched by PASOC on the 20 and 21st of March 2009 to CDD Maroua  On the 20th of March 30 civil society organisations participated but the number of women or women organisations present is not mentioned  On the 21st of March 66 people representing the civil society organizations participated but the number of women who participate is not mentioned.  Looking at the cover pages of all the workshops, just few women are seen from the picture. 2. South West Region – Reach Out This is one of the Regions where the Relay Organization is active in the field of gender. This is the one Relay Organisation out of the 10 relays that is female headed and the organisation is one of the driving forces for gender within the programme. A gender conference with over 100 participants was organised in May 2010, for the South West Region to review the gender process in the region and pave a way forward for gender mainstreaming within the programme framework in their relay area. 2.1. Audit reports for Partners of Productivity Foundation (PFPF) BANGEM 18th - 24th MAY 2009. From the report of this activity the following details were found out:  The person who carried out the audit was a man  5 objectives were set up for the activity and none related to gender  7 recommendations were proposed after the auditing process but none was gender sensitive  6 staff members were interviewed and three of them were women  They have 8 domains of intervention and one of them is related to gender  7 problems were sorted out and none was gender related  They had 14 activities and 3 of these activities were related to gender 2.2. Proximity consultation of ATEM Ebako Center for Health and Development 25tH -30th may 2009    The person who carried out the audit was a man 4 objectives were set up for the activity and none was related to gender 8 persons participated in the exercise with 3 of them women

2.3. Auditing report Achev Kumba 15th -18th June 2009     The person who carried out the audit was a male 4 members were interviewed , 2 men 2 women 6 recommendations were made with none was related to gender 5 members participated and 3 of them were women

2.4. Report on Internal Audit of Earth Wide     The person who carried out the audit was a woman There were 8 objectives set for the exercise and none was gender related The results and recommendations after the exercise were not gender related The action plan elaborated after the exercise had no activity linked to gender

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2.5. Report on Action of Nkong Hill Top Common Initiative Group (NCIG)   The person who carried out the audit was a woman Their activities and objectives were not directly linked to gender but the results were gender related

2.6. Global Net Work for Good Governance (GNGG)   The person who carried out the audit was a man Their objectives were not directly linked to gender and the results were not gender related

2.7. Changing Mentalities and Empowering Groups (CHAMEG)   The person who carried out the audit was a woman Their objectives were not directly linked to gender and the results were not gender related

2.8. Report of EU Model Project Proposal Writing (Alliance Franco-camerounaise – AFC Buéa, March 08th -09th 2009     The workshop was led by a woman who gave the welcome address 30 people participated in the workshop and 7 were women 7 problems were identified with none related to gender On the 8th of April 2009, 30 people participated in the training and 8 of them were women

2.9. Report of EU Model Project Proposal Writing Workshop Kumba community Health HIV/AIDS Program-KCP Kumba March 08th -09th 2009     There were 7 expectations of the workshop with none related to gender 5 objectives were set for the activity and none related to gender There are 4 domains of intervention and one was gender sensitive and related to women The indicators of their logical framework were gender sensitive

29 organisations participated in the activity. Out of the 29 organisations, 4 of them were women. The participants were represented as follows:   On the 8th of April 2009, 31 people participated and 10 of them were women On the 09th of April 2009, 32 people participated and 9 of them were women

2.10. Synthesis Report on the European Union Model Project Proposal Writing Workshop for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs): Fako and Mémé Divisions 08th – 09th April 2009    5 objectives were set for the workshop and one was gender sensitive The activities and results of the workshop were gender sensitive The indicators on the logical framework were gender sensitive

2.11. Report on Grand Public Workshop on the Role of Civil Society Organisations in the Development Process of the South West Region  108 people participated in the workshop but it is not stated how many men and women were present.

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    

There were 9 facilitating organisations and 2 of them were related to women (RUDEC and FORWAD) They had 6 modules and none was related to gender There were 6 different groups with 6 different topics and no group had a topic linked to gender On the 30th of March 2009, 34 people participated and 5 of them were women On the 31st of March 2009, 30 people participated and 8 of them were women

3. West - ZENU-NETWORK, BAFOUSSAM 3.1. Organisation and Moderation of 2 Workshops on Proposal Writing for CSO in the West Region From the reports of the 1st session of workshop on proposal writing organsied on the 17th – 18th March 2009  They had 8 modules and none was related to gender  8 objectives were set for the workshop and one of them was gender sensitive  Their expected results were11 and none was related to gender  On their plan of action, no planned activity was gender related  During the workshop on the 17 to 18 March 2009, 43 people participated and 1 of them was women  There were 2 proximity consultants all men 3.2. Report on the European Union Model Project Proposal Writing Workshop for Civil Society Organisationsin the West Region From the report of the 2nd session of the workshop on proposal writing organised from the 24th to 25th March 2009, the following information was found:  4 objectives were set for the workshop and none related to gender  They had 12 domains of intervention with 3 related to gender  They had 11 expected results with one related to gender  Three group works were held during the workshop with participants as follows: Group one: 9 people participated and 1 of them was a woman, Group two: 9 people participated and 1 of them was a woman, Group three: 11 people participated and 3 of them were women.  3 topics were identified for the workshop and one of them was gender sensitive  8 organisations participated with one linked to gender (federation de femme de famla)  During the workshop of the 2nd and 3rd of March 2009, 49 people participated and 11 of them were women 3.3. Proximity Consultation of GADD in Dschang in the Menoua Division From 04 TO 09 MAI 2009 From the report of the 3rd proximity consultation the following information was found:  The objectives set for the exercise were not gender sensitive  There were 6 expected results and none was gender related  None of the activities of the organization was gender related  35 recommendations were made and none was gender related  They had 10 domains of intervention and none was related to gender  They had 16 effective realizations and none was related to gender In all 6 organizations - AMCODE in Dschang, Menoua division on the 6 / 11/2009, CHAMBRE DE ARTISANS (CHART) in Bafoussam 18/ 05/2009, DECAM in Banjoun, Koung Khi Division on the 22-07-

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2009, K.F.A at Mouda Bamboutos division on the 20-25/04/2009, L.D.L. in Bafoussam, Mifi Division on the 08-13 June 2009 - took part in the proximity consultations in the West Region but all of them had the same results as GADD in Dschang. Each of these organisations had one consultant and it was always a male. 4. North West - INADES BAMENDA The North West Regions is advanced in networking and gender sensitivity.Most of the organisations are using the gender approach in their work already and also have gender policies within thier organisations. The Relay Organisation, though headed by a man is a key actor in gender mainstreaming in the Region. From the reports of acitivities carried out in this region, the following information was found: 4.1. Final Report of Proximity Audit for Angel of Mercy    The leader of this organisation is a woman Out of 10 recommendations that were made, none was gender related They had 17 intervention domains with none related to gender

4.2. Final Report of Proximity Audit of North West Association of Development Organisations (NWADO)     The auditor was a male 10 recommendations were made with none was related to gender 6 objectives were set for the exercise and none was related to gender 7 people were interviewed and 3 of them were women

Other proximity audits were done with the National Development Foundation (NDEF) in May 2009, the Bamenda Mutual Health Organization (Bamenda MHO) April 27th to May 6th 2009, The North West Crafts Association (NOWECA) 22/05/2009 – 02/06/09, the United Councils and Cities of Cameroon: North West Region (UCCC-NWR) 13th-23rd/04/2009 and the results were the same like that of NWADO. 4.3. Summary Technical Report of the Workshops on Project Writing using the European Union Project Format (11th to 12th March 2009 and on the 24th to 25th March 2009)       The objectives of the workshops were not gender related All facilitators were male Out of 12 recommendations made none was gender related 29 people participated in the workshops and 7 of them were women 15 associations participated, one was gender related 2 people were trained on lobbying (a man and a women)

4.4. Training of Trainer Workshop on Management and Associative Life 27th to 30th April 2009     The picture on their cover page shows that 9 women and 10 men participated in the workshop. There were 2 facilitators, one man and a woman 3 groups were formed with 3 different topics and none was related to gender Out of 3 group representatives, one was a woman

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  

18 associations were represented by 18 people and 7 of them were women One of the associations that participated is gender sensitive in their activities 5 objectives were set for the activity and none was gender related

4.5. Report of Training Trainers Workshop on Associative Life and Management - INADES Formation BAMENDA ON THE 26th to 28th of May 2009      The picture on the cover page shows that there were 20 participants, 15 women and 5 men There were 2 facilitators, one woman and one man There were 3 groups with 3 different topics and none was gender related All the group representatives that made presentations were female From the attendance lists, 18 people participated and 9 of them were women

5. Littoral Region 5.1. Un Monde Avenir DOUALA From the training reports, the following information was got as concerns participation.  2 people were trained on lobbying and all of them were women.  21 people were trained on the 18/06/2009 on management and associative life and 5 of them were women.  On the 19/06/09, 20 people were trained and 3 of them were women.  On the 20/06/09, 20 people were trained and 4 of them were women. 4 workshops were held and the following information was found out:  On the 20/03/09, 36 people represented 36 organizations. 13 participants were female and 4 of the organizations present were gender related.  On the13/03/09, there were 44 participants representing 44 organistions with 12 women representatives and one organization was related to gender.  The picture on their general report on workshops showed that 15 participants were women and 22 participants were men. An auditing exercise was done for an organization that related to women (FEBAS) Femmes Battantes Oeuvrant dans le Social from 10-13/06/09. The auditor for this exercise was a male, 5 recommendations were made and none was related to gender. 6 people were interviewed and 3 of them were women. 5.2. Training of leaders of Associations in Management of Organisations and Associative Life From 18 TO 20 JUNE 2009    18 people were trained with 5 of them women All 12 organisations participated and none of them was gender related Their training had 5 modules and none was gender related

3 workshops took place on the 18-20/06/09 based on management and associative life and the participation was as follows:  On the 18/06/09, 21 people participated and 7 of them were women  On the 9/06/09, 20 people participated and 5 of them were women  On the 20/06/09, 20 people participated and 5 of them were women

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6. Centre - ASSOAL 6.1. Workshop on Proposal Writing for Projects in general  The workshop was facilitated by a male  3 groups were formed for the workshop and none of the groups had a gender related topic Participation in the workshop was as follows in relation to gender:  On the 9/08/09, 29 people participated and 6 of them were women  On the 20/03/09, 25 people participated and 5 of them were women  On the 24/03/09, 34 people participated and 6 of them were women  On the 25/03/09, 35 people participated and 5 of them were women 6.2. Report of Proximity Audit of CPDR      The auditor was a male They had 8 objectives and none was related to gender They had 3 domains of intervention and none is related to gender 20 people took part in the exercise and 3 of them were women 11 recommendations were made and one of them was based on gender (encouraging the participation of women)

6.3. Report of Proximity Audit of JEURAC      The auditing was done by a male 10 objectives were set for the activity and 5 of them were related to gender (youths) Their 3 domains of intervention were not related to gender 3 people were interviewed and 1 of them was a woman They made 11 recommendations on 11 different domains and one domain was gender related

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CHAPITRE 6 : A CRITICAL LOOK AT PROJECTS SUPPORTED UNDER DP2
Generally 32 projects were executed within the call for tender framework of the programme in DP2. Looking through the synthesis of the selected projects in all 10 regions, the following information also was highlighted: 1. Adamawa Region The projects were executed in Ngoundere by two organizations (APROSPEN and CODAS CARITAS). These two organisations were not gender related organisations and were all male headed organisations. The two projects executed were not gender related. 2. Center Region 10 projects were executed in Yaoundé under the following organizations: SNEPMA, REDS, PREESSE JEUNE, OFSAD, MSORAD, FISS-MST SIDA, FIDEC, COSADER, CEW, ADEM. 3 of the organisations (SNEPMA, PREESSE JEUNE and FISS-MST SIDA) implemented gender sensitive projects. The leaders of the 9 of these organisations were men except for COSADER which has a female leader. 3. Eastern Region In the Eastern Region, 1 project was executed in Bertoua by ASAD, a male headed organisation. This project was gender sensitive and related to women (lobbying for the amelioration of women’s participation in the management of public affairs and decision taking) 4. Extreme North Region 2 projects were executed in Maroua and Mokolo by ALVF and CAPROD respectively. The leader of ALVF is a woman while that of CAPROD is was a man. The project by ALVF was gender sensitive and related with women (fight against early and forced marriages). CAPROD’s project was also gender sensitive (a facilitation project to obtain official documents on gender) 5. Littoral Region 3 projects were executed in Douala by ANAJECAM, ARSE, MOSOH and SJEC, male headed organisations and the leaders of the 4 organisations were all male. The 3 projects were gender sensitive. 6. Northern Region 1 project was executed in Guider by CLUB DES JEUNES, a male headed organisation and the project was gender sensitive but not related to women. 7. North West Region 3 projects were executed in Bamenda by MBUSCUDA, SIBADEF and YOP, all male headed organisations. All 3 projects were gender sensitive (Advocacy for the improvement of the policy framework for the development of livestock activities in Cameroon to address minority problems, the studies of the socio economic, cultural and health management effects of funeral ceremonies

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and the violation of the right of widows and orphans on the living conditions and standards of the population to address women’s issues and Advocacy for youth participation in councils through the adoption of a youth policy, to address youth issues. 8. Western Region 5 projects were executed in Bafoussam by ADEID, CEPDL, CIPCRE, DK INTERNATIONAL and LDL, all male headed organisations. None of these projects was gender related. 9. Southern Region 3 projects were executed in Ebolowa by CAIPE-EBOLOWA, ONG FAGEP and VOLONTAIR DU DEVELOPPEMENT, all male headed organisations. None of these projects was gender related. 10. South West Region One project was executed in the South West Region precisely in Ekondotiti by AWEED, a female headed organisation. This project was gender sensitive and related to women (Advocacy for the enhancement of the rights of widows).

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CHAPITRE 7 :

LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE PROCESS

 It is clear that the structuring of the Civil Society is in itself a gender process because the Civil Society is made up of different categories of associations, organisations, trade unions, CBOs, FBOs, etc that take into consideration issues affecting a cross section of the society. To be effective therefore will mean securing the participation of all gender sub groups within the civil society. And to ensure that this happens, the mainstreaming of gender remains vital, as a tool for continuous monitoring and follow-up of the process. However, whether gender is taken into consideration in PASOC in a formal way or not, it will automatically come into context through the different activities that the programme supports and the approach used in working through Relay Organisations, who can easily institutionalise gender within their structures and actions in the field.  Gender is seen clearly in some activities of PASOC. This is as a result of individual interests and efforts rather than a systematic mainstreaming approach. The successes recorded have been based on: (1) A strong will to take into consideration gender by the chief of programme; (2) The type of projects that have been presented and financed; (3) The strong gender awareness already existing in some Relay Organizations  The holistic approach used by PASOC in her mission of structuring the CSOs has provided ample space for all classes of beneficiary CSOs to emerge positive. Through this, networking is being developed between the CSOs themselves and also between the CSOs and the Financial and Technical Partners for development, which facilitates mutual growth at all levels and promotes the credibility of the Cameroon Civil Society.

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CHAPITRE 8 :

KEY CHALLENGES

It is however important to observe that though there is a certain degree of gender sensitivity in PASOC and gender related activities have benefited from the support of PASOC, there are some challenges that must be overcome to ensure that gender is fully considered in the programme or in related programmes. The key challenges are: 1. Arriving at a common understanding of gender to be able to answer the underlying questions below concerning the gender sensitivity of the programme. The key questions to answer here are: a) Is gender only a male / female issue? b) Is gender really pertinent for a program like PASOC and can gender sensitivity enhance the attainment of PASOC objectives? c) How can gender be implemented in such a way that the main focus of the programme is not diverted? d) If gender is important in the Civil Society structuring process, which is the best approach to use for this, especially in the Call for Tender framework where best elaborated projects are required? 2. The evaluation showed that the usual confusion on concepts and terminology related to gender holds true also for PASOC. The differences between, for example, actions to respond to the practical needs of women, youths and minorities and those which can address strategic gender needs of the same groups remains a challenge. 3. Making gender visible and explicit. It is also clear that despite the degree of gender mainstreaming into the activities of PASOC, gender visibility has not been evident for the public to see, except in a case like this evaluation where one can analyze the different activities carried out and be able to identify that gender is gradually being taken into consideration to some extent. 4. Developing a gender policy that can actually cover the complexities of Civil Society Organisations and also promote the attainment of PASOC’s objective of structuring the Civil Society, without diverting from the main result oriented actions. 5. Awareness of gender mainstreaming as a collective program responsibility through the different thematic areas covered by the program and making allocations of financial resources to support CSO projects towards gender mainstreaming.

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CHAPITRE 9 :

MAIN CONCLUSIONS

The main conclusion that can be drawn from the evaluation exercise is that, PASOC needs a strategy to: (1) Provide visibility of gender mainstreaming actions within and outside of the programme; (2) Make Relay Organisations and their beneficiaries understand that PASOC takes gender mainstreaming seriously; (3) Permit the development of gender mainstreaming strategies, taking into consideration human resources and the programme as a whole; (4) Ensure gender accountability of CSOs involved in PASOC programme; (5) Facilitate the exchange of experiences on gender within the PASOC Relay Organizations.

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CHAPITRE 10 : LOOKING FORWARD
With the view that this process can be capitalized on, it will be important to consider the following forward looking points:  Mainstreaming gender will improve the quality of outputs and performance of the programme. PASOC as a programme therefore should have a gender policy and seek to facilitate its understanding and appropriation by all actors within the framework through appropriate capacity building in gender mainstreaming.  To harness these efforts PASOC should support Relay Organisations to coordinate collective work on gender indicators; stimulate further policy analysis work on gender equality; continue the Gender evaluation process and follow-up on evaluations already undertaken; assist in training and develop gender sensitive materials for the programme; prepare a compendium of good practices on gender mainstreaming and manage in-house gender resources and gender networking.  Strategies of support used by the programme, especially in the call for tenders needs to be reviewed and made gender sensitive not basing only on best projects from CSOs that tie with tendering criteria but also on gender targets that can promote the gender aspect of the programme.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings we have had from the review of documents, field work (interviews, questionnaires and observations), we have the following recommendations to make: 1) Program management should provide proactive leadership and reaffirm PASOC’s commitment to gender mainstreaming to make gender actions carried out within the programme more visible. This will entail that;  The programme should reiterate PASOC’s commitment to gender mainstreaming and reaffirm that gender is priority. This commitment should be matched with adequate resources.  PASOC Relay Organisations should make explicit gender mainstreaming commitments with a clear monitoring and follow up strategy to ensure gender mainstreaming in the field  The Chief of program should exercise leadership on gender mainstreaming within the programme team, the Steering Committee and the Scientific Committee. 2) Retain a gender mainstreaming programmatic strategy as well as gender-focused activities. This will entail;  The Elaboration and putting in place a functional gender policy for the programme and/or related programmes  Using gender mainstreaming as a means to gender equality in the CSO structuring process, where gender remains a “driver” or cross-cutting issue in the program in order to ensure the active participation of the all CSOs and enhance the structuring process;  Set and monitor specific programme targets for gender considerations within the programme and programme design;  Continuously support targeted initiatives to promote youth, women’s empowerment, minorities and gender equality. 3) Strengthen gender mainstreaming capacities of all stakeholders. This will entail;  Supporting a training workshop on gender mainstreaming for staff and relay organisation, to strengthen their gender expertise and upgrade their skills in gender mainstreaming;  Developing a database on gender sensitive indicators and gender actions carried out within the programme to provide a good information base for researchers on gender and CSO development. 4) Make adequate financial resources available for gender mainstreaming within the programme. This will entail;  That PASOC and/or related programmes allocate core resources for gender mainstreaming and scale up fundraising efforts for specific gender programmes.  That in future, such programmes ear mark and pre determine a percentage for gender related projects to be funded within the framework of Call to Tenders and Direct Support.

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ANNEXES
Documents reviewed during the evaluation process Documents in the PMU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. The Cahier du PASOC - DP1 The Cahier du PASOC No 6 – DP2 PASOC a destination des agents publics Devis Programme du PASOC No 2 Juin 2009 –Mai 2010 Rapport Quardrimestriel No 1-6 Devis Programme No 1 period du 1er Juine 2008 au 31 may 2009 Manuel du procedures PASOC List of projects funded Documents of projects supported through the direct support framework Documents of projects supported through the call to tender framework Capitalisation sur le prmier appel a proposition du DP1 Synthese analytique des appuis directs du DP1 et DP2 Evaluation a mis parcours du PASOC – documents d’analyse et de travail Jan 2010 Rapport d’evalaution des activities du PASOC au cours du devis programme No 1 The website of PASOC

Reports from relay organisations Far North – CDD Maroua 1. Rapport de la formation en gestion et vie associative des OSC de la region de l’Extreme Nord du 07 au Mai 2009 au CDD Maroua 2. Rapport de la formation en gestion et vie associative des OSC de la region de l’Extreme – Nord du 09 au 11 Avril 2009 au CDD Maroua 3. Rapport de la gestion en gestion et vie associative des OSC de la region de l’Extreme-Nord du 02 au 04 Avril 2009 au CDD Maroua 4. Offre technique pour la formation en gestion et vie associative du 02 au 04 Avril 2009 CDD Maroua 5. Liste des organisation a la formation en gestion et vie associative du 09 au 11 Avril 2009 au CDD Maroua 6. Offre technique pour la formation en gestion et vie associative du 07 au 09 Mai 2009 au CDD Maroua 7. Rapports renions grand public dans les Departements de Mayo Danay et de Mayo Kani Kaele: 29 Janvier 2009 Yagoua : 28 Janvier 2009 8. Rapport final reunion grand public sur la societe civil dans les 6 Departements de la Region de l’Extreme-Nord du 20 au 29 Janvier 2009 9. Raport de synthese des atelier d’ecriture des projets pour l’appel a proposition lance par le PASOC du 20 et 21 Mar 2009 au CDD Maroua 10. Rapport technique atelier d’ecriture des projects pour l’appel a proposition lance par le PASOC du 13 et 14 mars 2009 au CDD Maroua 11. Rapport financier des quartre renions grand public sur la societe civile dans les Departements de la Region de l’Extreme-Nord du 20 au Janvier 2009 12. Rapport intermediare des renions grand public sur la societe civile dans quatre Departements de la Region de l’Extreme-Nord

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North - SEP Garoua 1. Rapport atelier d’ecriture de projet PASOC no 2 du 26 au 27 mars 2009 (2eme atelier) 2. Atelier d’ecriture de projet PASOC region du Nord. rapport de synthese Garoua 18-19 et 2627 mars 2009 Adamaoua – SYDEV Ngaoundere 1. Offre technique relative aux sessions de formation a la gestion et a la vie associative a l’intention des membre des la SC dans la region de l’Adamaoua 2. Premier rapport d’etape relatif a la deuxieme session de formation a la gestion et a la vie associative prevue a Ngoundeere (Maison d’acceuil Diocesane les 26 et 24 mai 2009) 3. Compt rendu de la deuxieme reunion de la collegialite Adamaoua avec le PASOC tenue a Ngoundere le 14 Janvier 2009 4. Rapport synthese finale des reunions communales grand public dans la Region de l’Adamaoua Juillet 2009 5. Rapport du second atelier d’ecriture tenu les 03 et 03 Avril a Ngaoundere et rapport general de le prestation (Rapport technique et synthèse des deux ateliers et évaluation technique et logistique) 05 AVRIL 2009. 6. Rapport de l’atelier d’ecriture pour les osc de la region de l’Adamaua tenu le 18 et 19 Mars 2009 en vue de renforce leurs capacites en formulation de demande de subvention dans le cadre de l’appel a proposition lance par le PASOC South West Region – Reach Out 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Audit reports for partners for productivity foundation PFPF Bangem 18th - 24th May 2009. Proximity consultation of Atem Ebak center for health and development 25th -30th May 2009 Auditing Report ACHEV Kumba 15th -18th June 2009 Report on internal audit of Earth Wide Report on action of Nkong Hiill Top common initiative group (NCIG), Global Net Work For Good Governance (GNGG), Changing Mentalities And Empowering Groups (CHAMEG) Report of EU MODEC project proposal writing (Alliance Franco Camerounaise- AFC) Buea, March 08th -09th 2009 Report of EU model project proposal writing workshop Synthesis report on the European Union model project proposal writing workshops for civil society organisations (CSOS): Fako and Meme Divisions 08th – 09th April 2009 Report on grand public workshop on the role of civil society organisations in the development process of the South West Region

West Region - ZENU-Network 1. Organisation et moderation de 2 ateliers d’ecriture a destination de OSC dans la Region de l‘Ouest pour l’appel a proposition du PASOC 2. Rapport de la 2eme session de atelier d’écriture organise du 24 au 25 Mars 2009 3. Organisation et moderation de 2 atelier d’ecriture a des osc dans la Region de l’Ouest pour l’appel a proposition du PASOC 4. Rapport de 1ere session de l’atelier d’écriture organisée du 17 au 18 Mars 2009 5. Consultation de proximite de l’OSC GADD a Dschang dans le Department de la Menoua du 04 au 09 Mai 2009 6. Rapport finale 3eme consultations du proximité - AMCODE in Dschang, Menoua Division on the 6 / 11/2009 - CHAMBRE DE ARTISANS (CHART) in Bafoussam 18/ 05/2009

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- DECAM in Banjoun, Koung Khi Division on the 22-07-2009 - K.F.A at Mouda Bamboutos division on the 20-25/04/2009 –L.D.L. in Bafoussam, Mifi Division on the 08-13 June 2009 North West Region – INADES Formation Bamenda 1. Final rapport of proximity audit Angel of Mercy 2. Final report of proximity audit of North West Association Of Development Association (NWADO), National Development Foundation (NDEF) done in May 2009, Bamenda Mutual Health Organisation (Bamenda MHO) April 27th to May 6th 2009, North Wet Crafts Association (NOWECA) 22/05/2009 – 02/06/09, United Councils and Cities of Cameroon: North West Region (UCCC-NWR) 13th-23rd/04/2009. 3. Summary technical report of the workshops on project writing using the European Union project format (11th to 12th March 2009 and on the 24th to 25th March 2009) 4. Training of trainer workshop on management and associative life 27th to 30th April 2009 5. Report of training trainers workshop on associative life and management Littoral – Un Monde Avenir Douala 1. Report of training trainers workshop on associative life and management 2. summary technical report of the workshops o project writing using the European Union project format 3. Report of proximity audit 4. Formations de leaders associatifs en getion des organisations et la vie asociative du 18 au 20 Juin 2009 Centre ASSOAL Yaoundé 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Session de des formations OSC de la region du centre sur la vie associative Proposition technique pour l’organistion et l’animations des sessions (Avril 2009) Rapport general ateliers d’ecriture des projets Proximity auditing report of CPDR 2009 Proximity auditing OF JEURAC 2009

South Region - CANADEL 1. 2. 3. 4. Session de des formation osc de la region du Sud sur la vie associative Proposition technique pour l’organistion et l’animations des sessions Rapport general ateliers d’ecriture des projets Proximity auditing reports

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Persons interviewed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The Chief of Programme The Chief of Administration and Finance The Coordinator of Reach Out South West Region 1 member of the Steering Committe The Secretary of PASOC Representatives of Relay organisations through questionnaires President of CSP The representative of JERAC The Volunteer in PASOC in charge of documentation

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GRAND PUBLIC GENDER FORUM ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION

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INTRODUCTION
The Grand Public Gender Forum on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process of the South West Region: “Future Challenges for Sustainability” took place on the 30th of April 2010. The Forum was sponsored by PASOC and organised by REACH OUT. Participants of the Forum came from all works of life within the South West Region working in the area of Development such as: the Chiefs, Members of Parliament, mayors, South West Elite Association, the media, religious bodies, Civil Society Organisations, Youths Groups, government decentralised structures, private sector etc. (See Participants’ List in the annex) 1. Objectives of the forum General Objective To enable development agents to reflect and take necessary action to mainstream gender in the development process in the South West Region. Specific Objectives To acquaint development agents with the concept of gender. To enable development agents identify areas of gender gaps in the different sectors of development. To enable development agents understand the importance of gender mainstreaming. To enable development agents to reflect and come up with strategies of mainstreaming gender in the development process of the South West Region at all levels. 2. Programme of the forum TIME 8:00 – 8:30 am 8:30 – 9:30 am ACTIVITY Arrival of Participants and Registration  Official Opening  Introduction of Participants  Presentation of:  Objectives  Programme/Methods  Conditions of Work  Presentation of Paper on the Concept of Gender  Plenary Discussions Coffee Break  Presentation of Paper on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process  Plenary Discussions Group Work on Gender Gaps and Strategies of Mainstreaming Gender in the Development Process in the SWR Lunch Break

9:30 – 10:30 am 10:30 – 11:00 am 11:00 – 12:00 noon

12:00 – 2:00 pm 2:00 – 3:00 pm

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3:00 – 4:30 pm 4:30 – 5:00 pm 3. Methodology

Presentation of Group Work Results Evaluation/Closing

A variety of participatory methods and tools were used such as: Role plays, plenary discussions, visualisations, presentations, group work, presentation of group work results, animation and brainstorming. Alternation of methods also played an important role of increasing the level of attention and active participation of participants. Due to the approach used, the present report includes all the presentations, analysis, group work results, and evaluation of the Forum. 4. Resolutions of the forum The Forum was facilitated by Ekwoge Gladys with Mrs. Anu Gospel and Professor Joyce Endeley as resource persons. Resolutions:  Government should fully implement all international conventions and policies which fight against discrimination and inequality.  Awareness should be created in communities on gender issues.  There should be continuous advocacy towards gender balance in appointments and followup for women’s rights.  The civil society organisations should be responsible for data collection and reporting on gender issues in the South West Region.  The chiefs as custodians of traditional laws and practices should make an effort to considerable reduce negative socio-cultural practices towards women and the girl child.  Specific target tailored workshops on gender should be considered Way Forward: Capacity building was seen as a very important aspect. Organisations will be well equipped on gender issues.

The Mayors, Chiefs, Civil Society

The Media: The media such as CRTV, STV, Canal 2, Radio Bonakanda, Ocean City, Voice of Manyu, and Lebialelm Community Radio will be used as channels to sensitize the population on gender issues. It is also important to set up an M & E System to collect data and report on gender issues in the region to assess the impact of the Forum.

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5. Opening

The Forum started with a welcome address by the Executive Director of REACH OUT. This was followed by speeches of the President of the Organising Committee and the Head of PASOC Programme. The Governor of the South West Region then officially opened the Forum.

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A WORD OF WELCOME BY MRS. OMAM NJOMO ESTHER ON THE OCCASION OF THE GENDER GRAND PUBLIC FORUM, HOLDING IN BUEA ON APRIL 30TH 2010 AT PAN-AFRICAN INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT
          His Excellency the Governor of the South West Region – here represented by the Social and Cultural Adviser, Your Royal Highnesses, Honourable Members of Parliament, The Head of PASOC, The Lord Mayors, The President of the S.W. Chiefs Conference (SWECC), The SG of South West Elite Association (SWELA), The President of South West Civil Society Organisations Network, All Protocol Respected, Ladies and Gentlemen,

Today unfolds a dream come true. Gender, Gender, a cause for thought in our Region – the reason you are all gathered here. Because your women are yours and you are theirs, there is need to harness efforts for the good of our dear Region, the South West Region. This Grand Public Forum on Gender is a culmination of discussions within the PASOC Relay Organisation and its Consortium and PASOC, and sponsored by PASOC. Let us think about development projects in this Region. In most cases, they are conceived at National and International levels and have always been gender blind. These development projects are not always sustainable because at beneficiary level the serving hands of women are left out. Even though women and men are legally empowered with the same rights to participate in the public arena, the place of women is little perceived in assignments in leadership functions in the political, economic and religious domains. Cultural stereotypes, household obligations, limited access to higher education, have led the women into the dummy streets of non-assertiveness and limited self-esteem. These and more have reduced the woman into a thud. Society expects women to limit their scope and bounds of activities by fulfilling their fundamental roles in the household economy as well as the community. Most women scarcely leave their homes or vicinities due to their reproductive duties in the household and restrictions by cultural stereotypes. If they do so, (as some obviously do), social sanctions or attacks by husbands, family or community members are meted against them. It is often said that development is people centered. Most often, during the conception of development projects, the question, “who are the people” is scarcely answered. Everyone thinks only about the project but not the people concerned and their needs. Our world comprises men, women, young boys, young girls, elderly men, poor and rich, and physically challenged persons. In order to achieve the goal of an equitable and sustainable

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development, the equal participation of men and women as decision-makers and beneficiaries of development activities are key factors. It is in line with this thought that we have the MPs, Mayors, SWELA, SWECC, Decentralized structures of the government, public and private corporations, women’s networks some which are market sellers, Association of youths, the physically challenged, all the media, human rights institutions, civil society organizations, women headed institutions, institution of learning such as UB and CEFAM, Associations of People Living with HIV and AIDS just to name these. We wish to sincerely thank PASOC for granting the South West Region the privilege of organizing this first-ever forum on Gender and set the ball rolling for the nation. We all should put our minds together and come up with major recommendations and why not strategies to improve on our perception of gender within the region in the context of decentralization. I know that after this forum, things will not be the same. Men and women of this region will be appropriately fused to foster the development of our dear region. We thank God Almighty who brought us here safely and pray that He will take us to our different destinations safely. We are here for you, be there for us. Welcome. Long live the Civil Society in the SWR Long live PASOC Long live Development Orientated Minds Long live Cameroon

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ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR THE FORUM ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY”BUEA, 30TH APRIL 2010 DR. CHIEF ATEM-EBAKO, MD, MPH
Your Excellency, The Governor of the SWR, here ably represented by the Social and cultural Adviser, The Head of PASOC Management Team, Mr. Christophe COURTIN, Your Majesty ENONE, President of the South West Chiefs Conference, The Secretary General of South West Elite Association, Mr. EPIE EKALE, Your Majesties, Ladies and Gentlemen, On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the Forum on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process in the South West Region, I have the privilege, indeed the honour, to convey to you all our appreciation for your response to our invitation. Your massive presence here today is clear and concrete evidence of the South West awakening to the call of development. It has been quite challenging to bring things at this level we find them today and for this reason I will like to mention our special thanks to the efforts of PASOC, their understanding and support. Of very special mention is the untiring leadership of Mme Esther OMAM of REACH OUT NGO. I am glad we have one more woman in the South West Region we can unmistakably be proud of. She is providing the direction and galvanizing the energies being released by the SWR CSOs as they struggle to structure and professionalize. Mme, very kindly accept my humble admiration. Your Excellencies, Your Majesties, Ladies and Gentlemen, I picked the following lines from a write up by Mme OMAM: “Even though women and men have legally the same rights to participate in the public sphere, leadership functions in the political, economic and religious domains are performed predominantly by men in almost all the cultures in Cameroon. Cultural stereotypes or customs, household, obligations, limited access to higher education, non-assertiveness and limited self-confidence prevent women from entering these spheres.” These statements bring to focus the MAPUTO Protocol Article 19: The Right to Sustainable Development wherein Women shall have the right to fully enjoy their right to sustainable development. Appropriate measures therefore must be taken to : a) Introduce the gender perspective in the national development planning procedures, b) Ensure participation of women at all levels in the conceptualization, decision-making, implementation and evaluation of development policies and programmes; c) Promote women’s access to and control over productive resources such as land and guarantee their right to property; d) Promote women’s access to credit, training, skills development and extension services at rural and urban levels in order to provide women with a higher quality of life and reduce the level of poverty among women;

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e) f)

Take into account indicators of human development specifically relating to women in the elaboration of development policies and programmes; and Ensure that the negative effects of globalization and any adverse effects of the implementation of trade and economic policies and programmes are reduced to the minimum for women.

PASOC conscious of the importance of gender in development and its frank efforts to capitalize on its mid-term evaluation report, organized a reflection meeting with its Relay Organizations to address among other important issues, the perceived gaps of gender in the mid-term evaluation report. As a result and in recognition of its vital contributions the SWR Relay Organization was selected by PASOC Management Unit to organize this forum, which invariably may serve as a pilot forum. The organizing committee has therefore carefully planned this workshop for maximum impact and for your satisfaction.  First is the choice of participants; we looked for quality and relevance. Ladies and gentlemen you all met that requirement. Please accept my congratulations.  We were equally extremely thorough and demanding on the choice of the resource persons to present to you papers on the Concept of Gender, and the other on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process: Future Challenges for Sustainability. I must tell you that we are very lucky to have just the best you can imagine of in the world. You will soon discover them. Their presence here has stamped the whole success of our forum.  In order to capitalize on the presentations of the resource persons we chose a very renowned expert in Gender and Development to facilitate this workshop. I know you just can’t wait for her to start. But before I hand over the microphone to our very able Master of Ceremonies, Mr. Mukwelle Aduma Princewill, may I say this, probably to conclude, that is in the fervent desire of the Organizing Committee, that you appropriate and completely own the proceedings and outcomes, successes or failures of this workshop; and to this effect, we have decided that you will be broken up into working groups and each group will examine the Gender gaps in the South West Region development process; the Future Challenges for Sustainability. Your Excellencies, Your Majesties, Ladies and Gentlemen, There can be no greater task for any development actors, be they state actors, private sector, or Civil society, than that of mainstreaming gender in the contexts of the process of Decentralization currently operating at the Council level. There can be no greater challenges in the development process of Cameroon than that of aligning the development of the South West Region to the Growth and Employment Strategy Paper GESP and Vision 2035 both documents which should inform and guide our development thinking in the South West Region. I have been very long, I know, Ladies and Gentlemen; but it not on matters as crucial as this that one can afford to be brief. Thank you for your very kind attention.

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ADDRESS BY THE HEAD OF PASOC PROGRAM – MR. CHRISTOPHE COURTIN ON THE OCCASION OF THE GRAND FORUM ON GENDER
PASOC, a French acronym, is the Support Program, for the Structuring of Civil Society in Cameroon. This support program is an initiative of the Cameroon government, financed by the UE. The program started in 2008 and will end in 2011. It aims to support the strengthening and the structuring of the civil society in the public area. To support the Cameroonian citizens, self organized in coalitions, to efficiently participate in the elaboration, the implementation and follow up of public policies for development. Through one relay organization per region (It is REACH OUT for the South West region) PASOC, since 2008 organized 90 (ninety) training on management of CSO for more than one thousand collective actors. It also organized 30 (thirty) training on advocacy and so more activities like financing 150 (one hundred and fifty) grants aiming to structure civil society actors on their partnerships through network or collective plat forms. In their approach, a specific tool, called advocacy, is promoted by PASOC. In that context, the issue of the place of the women in social processes, the question of their value added in terms of leadership or social change have to be seriously addressed. As soon as the program started, the PASOC team was aware of the need to integrate gender issues into the program activities. The PASOC’s midterm evaluation highlighted that gender was not enough visible in its activities. That is why the program management unit decided to have a more committed communication strategy in that direction. Within a short while two activities have been programmed.  First, to implement a survey on all the PASOC activities to capitalize on the best practices of the civil society organization on gender issues. The conclusions of the survey will be published in June; Secondly to ask the SW relay organisation, which is very concerned in this issue, to organize a workshop on gender main streaming? That is the reason we are here today.

These two activities, will serve as a basic ground for recommendation addressed to the UE and The MINEPAT for the implementation of the next civil society program after the End of PASOC in 2012. I will like to end by thanking Reach out, its consortium, the organization committee of this forum and also all the stake holders who came from and wide, to make this event a success. Gender integration into all components of development, concerns everybody. I hope that the outcomes of this forum will be useful and sustainably implemented.

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OFFICIAL OPENING BY THE GOVERNOR OF SWR

AN ADDRESS PRESENTED BY THE GOVERNOR OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION, ON THE OCCASION OF THE OPENING CEREMONY OF A FORUM ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY”, ORGANISED BY REACH OUT (REO), BUEA, FRIDAY 30TH APRIL 2010
It is for me a sign of honour and pleasure to be part of the opening ceremony of this workshop organized by REACH OUT (REO) in collaboration with PASOC on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process of the South West Region: “Future Challenges for Sustainability”. Ladies and Gentlemen, For every equitable and sustainable development to be achieved, the equal participation of men and women as decision makers and beneficiaries of development activities is a key factor. Meanwhile, we must accept the fact that development is sometimes retarded in our societies because the ideas of women and girls are not often taken into consideration since they are most often under-looked upon and have been exposed to all forms of discriminatory practices which are either physically, socially, culturally or economically oriented.

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It is in this light that the Ministries of Women Empowerment and the Family and Social Affairs have been created in Cameron to address the situation. Other instruments put in place to ensure that there exist non-discriminatory practices against women include: The constitution of the Republic of Cameroon. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and so on and so forth.

In fact, it has been proven beyond doubt that when men and women come together for a common goal, successes are always enormous than the reverse. Despite all the efforts of government to ensure gender equality and development in the democratization process in Cameroon, much still needs to be done. It is in this light that the 1990 Liberty Laws were put in place, for the civil society to organize herself into associations so as to compliment government actions to work as partners to bring men and women together through education forums like this for the building of this nation for sustainable development to be the end results. But how much has the civil society lived up to this expectation; when most associations and NGOs have soon forgotten the objectives for which they were created and have been transformed into anti-government organizations, inciting disorder here and there and retarding the development of this fatherland. Ladies and Gentlemen, This workshop seeks to draw the attention of the entire public on attitudes and behaviours tantamount to injustice and to discriminatory practices which help to retard our development. This exercise commits you and me, members of Parliament, Mayors, traditional rulers, associations, men and women here present, and requires the exalting task for you to be open during the deliberations of this workshop so that at the end we shall device strategies for development so as to foster greater achievement, peace, sustainable development which are the main ingredients to ensure that decentralization be a success in this Region. I have no doubt as to the efforts that you will all make towards the success of this workshop. Let me thank you in advance. Ladies and Gentlemen, Before, I come to the end of my speech, permit me to express my sincere gratitude to the Coordinator of REAC OUT and PASOC for organising this seminar and for all the benevolent services she has been rendering to the people of this country. In Christ-like fashion, she has chosen the sick, the poor and the down trodden to be her best friends. You are an epitome of a partner in development. I want to also thank the organizers of this workshop for the choice of Buea to host the workshop and you all the participants here present, who have braved all the difficulties to be part of this workshop. Thus, while wishing you success in your deliberations and a pleasant stay in the city of Buea, I hereby declare open, this workshop on Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process of the South West Region: “Future Challenges for Sustainability”.

Thanks for your kind attention.

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CHAPITRE 1 : A PAPER PRESENTATION ON THE CONCEPT OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY."
Pan African Institute for Development- West Africa (PAID-WA) By Mrs. Anu Gospel Gender Analyst

Clarification of the Concept of Gender 1. Role Play A role play on gender roles in the family, community and institution was acted.

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2. Analysis of Role Play What did we see/What happened?  Women do not make use of our natural resources – streams  Saw harassment and intimidation towards women  Saw how women always have excuses  Saw a situation where a female mayor did not call for a public hearing to the water crisis, but instead went to an expensive hotel  The man looks only after himself. In problems of water he goes out to a hotel to eat  A situation where a woman brought in good solution  I saw a male dominated society  Saw a ruler rather than a leader in the man  Saw a case of violence against women  Saw the mother and girl child carry out all household chores  Saw a woman quarrelling with a man  Saw a woman push the husband to the wall  Verbal abuse on women in the house and in the office  Saw a ruler rather than a leader  Only male children are given opportunity to become stars like Etoo Fils.  Saw situation where water and light disturbs the work of woman  The woman was not able to seek for alternative solution to the problem in the home  Saw a woman more qualified than the man  Saw a situation where a woman was fed up and decided to break the silence  Lack of initiative by the woman to dialogue  Had a look at the audience. Men and women reacting differently to responses  Men unhappy with what women were happy with  Saw how men get involved only when the situation concerns them  Saw a female mayor because of emancipated state, came into advise  Men always on the expectation side, always expecting things to be done for them  Men and women could not sit together to seek for possible solution  Men are insensitive to the situation of the house – uses it as excuse to go out Why is the situation like that?  Men are ego-centric  The woman is the weaker sex (from the bible)  Women don’t know their rights  Cultural stereotypes – see women’s education to end in the kitchen  Lack of genuine love  Women have a soft spot for mankind  Men are afraid of competition  Men have remained passive because of cultural beliefs  Imbalance economic power between men and women  The man is imposing his own ideas on women  The women’s labour is not rewarded  Action of Eve and Jezebel cause men to be cautious of their wives  Lack of education and information  Women have neglected their God given potentials to pocket men  Misinterpretation of the Bible  Society believe that women cannot contribute good ideas  Because men feel they should be given the upper hand  The socialisation process of men and women from birth  Strength is conceived as physical force

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  

Submissiveness of the woman Woman has seen men as obstacles and not challenges Lack of communication between men and women

What can we do to improve the situation?  Educate both sexes  Enact and implement genuine laws  Women should be assertive  Negative cultural barriers should be eradicated  Christianity will solve the problem  Give women equal opportunities as men in all facets of life  Offer free education to the girl child  Men and women sit together and seek for solutions  Allow women take decision at home  Increase their participation in development  Avoid discriminations in the socialization process  Men and women come together for equal participation  Awareness creation amongst men (uneducated men)  Government should fully implement all international conventions and policies which fight against discrimination and inequality  Special laws to protect women and girls in society  All factor which reinforce inequality should be eradicated  Women should learn to be self-reliant and stop being on the receiving end  Continuous advocacy and follow up for women’s rights What are typical proverbs, sayings and taboos in the society which defines the roles of men, women and youths in the society?  A woman’s place is the kitchen  You behave like a woman  Women are of the weaker sex  A woman’s urine does not cross the threshold  The devil is a woman  God was drunk when he created the woman  Woman left hand and woman right hand What are the effects of these as seen in the society?  Low level of education for the girl child  Division of labour with female associated with low value activities/jobs/occupations  School rules and regulations in disfavour of girl child in case of pregnancy leading to drop out  Girl child remain second place to the boy  Women lose their self-esteem, as such  Women’s potentials are not recognised and not use consequently retarded growth, stress on men for fiancés and other expectations What are typical proverbs, sayings and taboos in the society which define the roles of women men and youths?  The woman’s urine does not go across the door  Don’t marry a woman you have not seen  The Woman’s education ends in the kitchen  A woman cannot urinate in a bottle  A woman is the property of a man  A woman should be taken for marriage free until she is fruitful

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             

Two cocks do not crow in the same house It is no news item when a man beats a woman it is when a woman beats a man Meat does not rot in a country that has dogs A Woman takes over the name of her husband and not vice versa. A woman does not belong to a particular country Rats play when the cat is not around The shoulder cannot go above the head If money is put on a tree the woman will become a monkey Women don’t eat gizzards Like mother like child A woman is an inferior sex Don’t throw stones on a tree that has no fruits Women are seen as money A woman place on the bed is at the back.

How are these sayings, taboos and proverbs transmitted in the society?  Schools  Celebrations  In the family  Drinking places  Traditional council  In churches  Government institutions What are effects of these as seen in the society?  Reduced respect for the woman  Women are discouraged  Inferiority complex for women and superiority for men  Attitude change difficult  Hidden talents of women  Difficult for women to inherit property  Women cannot talk in public  High illiteracy rate among women  Woman’s progress in society is slow  Woman’s potential not exploited  High dependency rate for the woman From the sayings, taboos, and proverbs, how they are transmitted in society and the effects of these seen in the society a gender tree was constructed.

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3. The GENDER Tree

3.1. The Leaves The leaves of the gender tree symbolize the visible behaviour of individuals and groups. They represent the actual reality. 3.2. The Trunk The trunk symbolizes the institutions in the society. They have been shaped by the people who are, themselves influenced by tradition (roots). The institutions provide rules and regulations, which are necessary to provide social order. 3.3. The Roots The roots are invisible. They symbolize the norms and values of a society, their beliefs and taboos. Based on root factors the structures are shaped, which result to visible gender behaviour sometimes with imbalances.

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Social Construction of Gender Immediately after birth, a child is educated and it’s behaviour is channeled according to social expectations. The shaping of male and female character is often unconscious. The term “social construction” refers to how society prepares boys and girls for their future roles. How it ensured that girls and boys follow the orientation, which is provided by the traditional pictures of a “good woman” and a “good man”? The process of educating a child according to the expectations of a society is called “SOCIALISATION”. Social roles are learned through imitation, observation and even from books. Responsible Agents for the Socialization of Roles 1. “Family, relative, community”  At birth  Household chores  Naming  Access to and control over resources  Presents  Beliefs and taboos 2. Schools  Curriculum  Access to schools  Sports  Duties in schools 3. Religion  Leadership  Interpretation of the Bible, Koran, etc. 4. Media  How men and women are portrayed 5. Legal Structure  Traditional laws  Modern family laws

4. Clarification of Terms Sex: Refers to the biological differences between women and men. They are unchangeable.

Gender:Refers to socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men in a given culture or location. These roles are learned and change with time. Gender versus sex SEX Biological Given by birth thus cannot be changed Examples: - To impregnate - Breast feeding - Child bearing

GENDER Cultural Learned through socialisated thus can be changed Examples: - Taking care of children - To be medical doctors, mechanics, Head of State - Taking decisions/ policy formulation - Inheriting property

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CHAPITRE 2 : GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE SOUTH WEST REGION: “FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY”
By Professor Joyce B. Endeley, Ms J. Ayuk, D. Forsac Tata & H. Akum Ngwa University of Buea, Director of Academic Affairs, Head of Department, Women and Gender Studies P.O Box 63, Buea, Cameroon Before I delve into the subject of this forum, I will first, like to congratulate the organisation – REACH OUT (REO) not only for the timely intervention but also for the apt theme of the forum. I say apt because by Law No. 2004/17 of 22 July 2004 on the Orientation of Decentralisation, we note that this is the current policy context for Cameroon; it states in, Section 2: (1) Decentralization shall consist of devolution by the State of special powers and appropriate resources to regional and local authorities. (2) Decentralization shall constitute the basic driving force for promotion of development, democracy and good governance at the local level (Official Gazzette of the Republic of Cameroon, July 2004:13) Section 4: (1) Regional and local authorities shall be corporate bodies governed by public law. They shall be endowed with administrative and financial autonomy for the management of regional and local interests. In that capacity, the mission of their councils or boards shall be to promote economic, social, health, educational, cultural and sports development in their respective areas of jurisdiction” (Official Gazzette of the Republic of Cameroon, July 2004:13). It is no secret that the post-SAP era has witnessed many different development policies and interventions, all in an effort to foster Cameroon’s economic recovery. However, I remind the organisers that they would have failed, if there were no planned workshops to build the capacity of the diverse groups of development actors at this forum on gender mainstreaming. The forum is just a tip of the ‘ice bug’. This brief (paper) examines the raison d'être, concept and usefulness of gender mainstreaming, and raises question with the hope of exposing participants attending the forum to challenges associate with using gender mainstreaming to promote sustainable development. The primary goal of this exercise is to familiarise and engage policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to discuss and identify ‘entry points’ for gender mainstreaming strategy in their local context. It is clear that the adoption of the GM strategy will help in bringing a gender perspective into the mainstream decentralisation policy framework, which is very silent on gender, in short is gender blind. The million-dollar concern that should preoccupy, authorities, gender advocates and development practitioners is making sure that the decentralisation process is gender responsive. How do we integrate women’s as well as men’s life courses, experiences, realities (needs and interests) in the process, promote gender-aware policy and planning, gender-responsive budget and gender-sensitive activities so that we make full use of our human and material resources to attain sustainable development in the South West region? It is certain that engaging the participatory approach in the traditional planning methodology cannot achieve the desired goal of gender equality in development. This approach cannot guarantee the level of inclusiveness by persons and sectors

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because it is susceptible to prevailing power, class, ethnicity structures and relationship in our communities and society. While we expect to identify generate more contextual specific gender issues from participants in this forum, the author reveals multitudes of gender issues and gaps that disfavour females compare to males in the development process in Cameroon. It is a soft reminder that Cameroon is far from achieving gender equality and to authorities of the obstacles that wait them in the course of decentralisation process. At no point in time does the document refer to she; this is not the case for he. There is no quota for women/men in the council or regional boards/committees; no call for gender-responsive budgeting, use of sex-disaggregated and gender-sensitive indicator in planning. Do we leave policy matters of this nature, policy that can make or unmake a person and development of a region unattended? Because these issues hinge on human rights concern, regions might want to establish guidelines that demand planning to respond to gender equality. Engendered by national and transnational development policies and interventions it is of interest for the government to consolidate, enhance and sustain the development process and benefits within a just social framework. A just framework is imperative because of the widespread gender gaps and gender inequalities in access to and control of resources, to economic opportunities, to power, and to political voices that characterise the development process in Cameroon. The UN committee CEDAW country, government of Cameroon’s and Cameroon NGOs Shadow reports – all attest to the nature and extent of gender discrimination in Cameroon. The following are major areas of concern to development:  No definition of discrimination against women: we are told that the draft law which carries the definition of discrimination is not yet a law unless it is enacted; there are many laws that are discriminatory against women; Obligation of the state to eliminate discrimination against women and to implement principles of equality between men and women: plethora of discriminatory laws; draft bills on Family Code and law on gender Based Violence have not been adopted; The development and advancement of women: good will of government as indicated in the PRSP report is not backed by effective structures, adequate resources and gender budgeting framework; Special measures for acceleration of equality between men and women: effort by government to accelerate equality between men and women are inadequate; lack of monitoring mechanisms; lack of adequate policies and programmes aimed at accelerating equality; Gender roles and stereotypes: age-old cultural practices, customs and traditions continue to be hindrance to actions of government and NGOs aimed at improving the status of all, especially women; Women in political and public life: very poor representation of women in decision making corridor; Education: low level of enrolment for girls and literacy for women; Employment: women dominate the informal sector, which is given minimal attention compared to the formal sector; paucity of women in the formal sector; husband can oppose wife’s employment by invoking the interest of children/household;

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Equality in access to health care: rural women have problems accessing quality health services and medical , mortality rate is of concern, higher rate of HIV/AIDS infections, etc; Social and Economic benefits: women do not have the right to freely exercise economic activity, especially married women; husband can object to wife’s exercise of her interest to trade if he thinks it is contrarily to the welfare of their children or marriage; Rural women: face numerous problems including lack of access to basic social entitlements, voiceless and limited participation in the decision-making rural structure; access to education, agricultural technology, credit, loans, health, etc. Equality before the law in civil matters: ignorance of existing laws, prevalent of discriminatory laws, etc; Equality in marriage and family law: vexation and harmful traditional practices, gender based violence and family code, etc.

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We are aware that women and girls bear the largest and most direct costs of these inequalities. Beyond the female gender, many research studies by Cameroonians and transnational agencies such as the World Bank make it clear that the costs of gender inequality cut more broadly across society, ultimately harming everyone. Thus inequality remains a serious development goal because of the wide spread nature of the problem; we are informed by the World Bank that in no region of the developing world are women equal to men in legal, social, and economic rights (World Bank, 2001: 1). Considering that gender inequality is costly, it is imperative that the necessary precautions and devices are put forth so that it does not bug down the full and effective implementation of the policy of decentralisation. Other policy context/frameworks for development in Cameroon are: the National Programme on governance for Cameroon, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme (PRSP); at transnational level, we have the Millennium Development Goals (MGDS), Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) and NEPAD. The irony is that development framworks embodies the principle of equality as defined in the preamble of the 1996 Constitution as amended in April 2008. In addition, there are several international instruments that the government has adopted and or ratified by Cameroon. Of significance is the Bill of Rights for women, known as the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discriminations Against Women (CEDAW). CEDAW is a landmark global convention for the promotion and protection of women’s human rights. The Cameroon government is a party to CEDAW because it did not only adopt it but ratified it without reservation on August 26th 1994. What does this mean and what is the implication for development? According to the Women in Research and Action (WIRA) report: Ratification bestows on the government the obligation to promote and protect the rights of women as well as denoting its will to guarantee women the full enjoyment of their rights. It also requires the government to meet its obligation of reporting by submitting periodic reports on the level or degree of implementation of CEDAW (WIRA 2008:8). Consequently, the convention is binding to all structures and processes including the decentralization process and bodies – regions and councils. The promotion and protection of women’s rights is one very important gender issues that impinges on equal opportunity for all in and stifle development. Therefore, regions that opt to engender the decentralization processes through gender equality in

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rights, resources and voices have in turn chosen to engender the development process of their councils. In which case, the State is enabled to meet up with its statutory obligation to its constitution and global commitments; the region is also able to make use of the full potential of its human and material resources to promote sustained development. It is true that discrimination takes the form of other social axis such as class, ethnicity and location/space. Nevertheless, discrimination by gender is the most wide spread because of the intersection between class, race and ethnicity; it has also proven to be the most disputed and conflictive. In addition, gender inequality in development poses severe cost to productivity, wellbeing and economic growth. In specific terms refer below:  Cost to well being : - Poverty, malnutrition and other illness stem from unequal rights to own land and apply for credits; - Inequality in education and urban employment accelerate the rate of HIV in Africa on men, women and children; - Mother’s illiteracy and lack of autonomy affects well being of children and family-case of drug administration, immunization etc - Gender roles and expectations produce reactions and behaviours that lead to violence (UNICEF, 1996)  Cost to productivity and growth - Gender inequalities impose a direct cost by hindering productivity and efficiency and economic progress - Hampers the accumulation of human capital through prejudice in the home and in the labour market - Impedes development through systemic exclusion of men from access to resources, public service and certain productive activities - Diminishes and economize capacity to prosper and provide for its people  Cost to governance - Gender inequality weakens the quality of governance in the country and thus weakens the effectiveness of development policies - Research on corruption suggest that policies promoting gender equality can help clean up governments and businesses The gravity of the situation is probably why UNDP (1997:7) concludes,” If development is not engendered, it is endangered” and World Bank (2001:1) said, ---gender equality is a core development issue – a development objective in its own right. It is believed that it strengthens countries’ abilities to grow, reduce poverty, and govern effectively. Promoting gender equality is thus an important part of a development strategy that seeks to enable all people – women and men alike – to escape poverty and improve their standard of living. 1. Gender mainstreaming for development planning In search for a comprehensive structure that can bring gender perspective to bear on the mainstream of government policies, plans and programmes, gender mainstreaming emerged in mid90. Championed by the Commonwealth secretariat, the Gender Management System (GMS) is a comprehensive network of structures, mechanisms and processes to bring about gender mainstreaming. It is considered a means to transform structures, policy, programmes, projects and attitudes that discriminate, subordinate and oppress vulnerable groups in society, while empowering. Two fundamental questions for participants include why is gender mainstreaming an issue for your community/organisation? Why now? Why do you want or need to learn about gender mainstreaming?

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What is Gender mainstreaming? The Commonwealth Secretariat (2004) said gender mainstreaming is all about change, but change with a difference because the product is to transform policies, systems and structures that perpetuate gender inequality, discrimination and oppression. Simply, gender mainstreaming is a “process of integrating a gender perspective into all policies, programmes and activities” or “process of bringing a gender perspective into the mainstream activities of government at the policy, programme and project levels”. It is a means by which we address gender concerns within existing development policies, strategies, and priorities and integrating them throughout project cycle; and a means for agenda setting, which implies transformation of the existing development agenda using gendered perspective (Action Guide Unit1, p 3). As a multipurpose tool/strategy, it serves the interests of different types of institutions and programmes such as listed below:  A development strategy aimed at addressing inequalities in all aspects of development, across all sectors and programmes, especially in decision making structures (Taylor, 1999);  An organizational strategy to bring a gender perspective to all aspects of an institution’s policy and activities through gender capacity and accountability (Reeve and Badem, 2000)  A process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes in area and at all levels  a strategy for making Women’s as well as men’s concerns and integral dimension in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and social spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated (UNDP, 1997) 2. The key steps of gender mainstreaming describe below : Step 1: Sex-disaggregated data and gender analytical information (for both groups and implementing organisation)  establish habit of collecting disaggregated information by sex and gender analysis (document women’s and men’s experiences, needs and priorities;  commission gender analysis to examine issues and address information gaps;  Information identifies gender difference and inequality; make the case for taking gender equality seriously; design policies and plans that meet women’s men’s needs; and monitor the differential impacts of policy, project and budget commitments on women and men Step 2: Women as well as men influence the development agenda  Promoting the involvement of women and men in decision-making at all levels;  Ensuring that men and women committed to the promotion of gender equality are influencing decision-making;  Gender advocates within govt., NGOs, civil society, organisation work to collaborate, identify and develop strategic ‘entry points’ for the promotion of gender equality Step 3: Context-specific action to promote gender equality  Promote greater equality of influence, opportunity and benefits;  Based on context-specific sex-disaggregated data and gender analytical information  Based on the understanding of women’s and men’s priorities;  Needs to be: explicitly included in policy and project documents/frameworks; backed up with staff and budgets; monitored and reviewed through appropriate change indicator

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Step 4: Organisational capacity building and change  Develop appropriate understanding, commitment and capacity – as well as address issues of gender inequality within development organisations  Long term process of organisational change  Needs to be: explicitly included in policy and project documents/frameworks; backed up with staff and budgets; monitored and reviewed through appropriate change indicator In all of these steps, there are negotiations between actors at several levels. Also available, are gender-planning tools to support efforts in carrying the various actions such as gender analysis, formulating gender-sensitive policy for development, and planning, securing resources, implementation of gender-sensitive sector plan (agriculture, health, education, economy, finance, etc.), gender impact assessment, and monitoring and evaluation of programmes/activities. 3. Conclusion At best, this paper introduces participants attending the forum to the concept of and steps in gender mainstreaming, as a strategy for addressing gender inequality in order to promote gender equality. Government, organisation, technical ministry, NGOs and civil society organisation can employ the strategy to integrate gender in the development policies, programmes, projects and activities, and within their organisations. Our desire was to raise awareness, especially of authorities, here present such as Mayors and Councillors on the potential utility of the gender mainstreaming strategy with the hope that they would want to commitment to building capacity in gender mainstreaming. There is no doubt that the implementation of the decentralisation process is an ‘entry point’ for gender mainstreaming; the opportunity to promote gender responsive development at regional and local levels should not be missed out. What are the gender issues in your different context that can serve as an entry point for gender mainstreaming? Perhaps, the different participants will be able to situate themselves and identify the role they can play in promoting the idea of gender mainstreaming. There are local and international resources (human and material) that can assist regions in doing gender mainstreaming such as the Department of Women and Gender Studies, Commonwealth Secretariat and European Union. References  Commonwealth Secretariat. 2004. Action Guide: GMS Toolkit. Commonwealth Secretariat and Commonwealth Secretariat.  Official Gazette of the Republic of Cameroon. 2004. Yaoundé: Cameroon  United Nations. 2009. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW/C/CMR/CO/3:UN  WIRA. 2008. Cameroon Non-Governmental Organisations Shadow Report to CEDAW. The implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women. Yaoundé: UNIFEM  World Bank. 2001. Engendering development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, resources and Voices. Oxford University Press

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CHAPITRE 3 : GROUP WORK ON GENDER GAPS AND STRATEGIES OF MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN THE SWR
1. Terms of reference for group work  From your experiences and the presentations: o Identify areas of gender gaps in the South West Region:  Family  Traditional Councils/Municipal Councils  Community Projects  Civil Society Organisations  Government and Private Institutions etc.  Examine the gender gaps and come up with strategies of mainstreaming gender at community and institutional (councils, civil society, government and private institutions) Levels to enhance the development process in the South West Region of Cameroon Working Time Presentation Time 2. Groups constitution Group 1: Group 2: Group 3: Group 4: Group 5: Traditional Rulers Mayors/Parliamentarians Women’s Networks/Associations Civil Society Government and Private Institutions : : 2 Hours 10 Minutes

3. Presentation of group work results 3.1. Group 1 : Traditional rulers Gender Gaps 1. Family a) Succession b) Roles 2. Traditional Councils a) Composition b) Representation c) Participation d) Information e) Administration 3. Community Projects a) Project formulation b) Project management c) Implementation 4. Civil Society Organisation 5. Government and private institutions Strategies of Mainstreaming Prepare girl child (princes) to marry prince Prepare boy to become king and girl to become queen 30% of post reserved for woman 30% representation Give voice to the women Share information equally with women 30% reserved for women Involve women from conception Involve women in management 30% Equal representation Equal consideration Equal consideration

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3.2. Group 2 : Mayors and parliamentarians Gender Gaps in Local Councils Responsibility of children’s education lies mostly on the women in some council areas Leadership gap in school enrolment in favour of the boy children in some council areas Representation in decision making in traditional councils/municipal councils in favour of the men Some traditional councils are strictly male dominated Most council committees are chaired by men More female secretaries general and few female municipal treasurers Few female mayors/parliamentarians What Strategies could be put in place to redress Gender Gap in Local Councils? Councils should embark on sensitisation programmes to educate parents on the importance of educating children especially the girl child Councils should award scholarship to the underprivileged and deserving pupils and students Full implementation of the 30% quota for women in all council lists/committees Appointments to various local council positions should reflect gender equality Women should be educated in order to increase their representation in decision making position Councils should institute capacity building for councillor/workers

3.3. Group 3 : Women’s Network / Associations Areas of gender gaps in the families A man is seen as a bread winner while a woman is seen as a home maker, a child bearer and a nurturer A man is the head of the family, as such he is authoritative and sees himself as the sole decision maker in the family Women do not have reproductive rights On the other hand male children are socialised to be breadwinner, they are encouraged to go to school and take up leadership roles while the female children’s socialisation is geared towards marriage and domestic work Women are seen as property of the men Strategies Gender roles should be harmonised Men should see their wives as a partners and not as subjects who odd to be too submissive Civil children should given equal right to education Traditional rules should revise if not change our negative customs and believes which relegate women to the back ground Gender gaps TC/Municipal council Women are not represented in TC. The few that are there occupy minor positions such as treasurer A few of them can be mayors or deputy mayors but the number is often insufficient The 30% of women representation should be respected Women should be given capacity building to take up leadership roles

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Community Projects Women are hardly consulted during the award of community projects and do not take part in the management committee Strategies Women should take part in the award, implementation and monitoring of community projects They should also constitute part of the follow up in management committee 3.4. Group : Civil Society Family House chores done mostly by women/children Children sex selection Economic violence on men Tired woman still charged with a lot of household chores Strategy Sex education Home Governance imbalance Strategy: Same toys for all Traditional/Municipal Council Inequitable representation Lack of municipal laws sensitive to gender issues – Need to make such laws Land ownership – Equal access to land ownership Lack of gender consideration in hiring staff – Need to adopt gender when hiring staff Community Projects Limited gender sensitive project – Need for more gender sensitive projects Low level of women participation in projects – Improve women participation Civil Society Insufficient skilled human resources – Basic awareness/capacity building Inadequate government support – Advocacy toward adequate allocation of resources Government/Private Institution Poor implementation of government strategy – Effective implementation of strategy Lack of gender sensitive policies – Put in place gender sensitive laws/policies Gender inequality in government appointment – Advocacy toward gender balance in appointments base on the Maputo Protocol Private Sector Under-presentation of women in top position – Advocacy 3.5. Group 5 : Government and private institutions Gender Gaps (Delegate of Forestry): Gender Gap in representation in decision-making positions. (Same in all government institutions/private) Only 5 female Regional Delegates in the south West Region Gender gap in technical services

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Women are majority in menial positions (cleaners, secretaries, etc) Gender gap in number of principals in schools Strategies Come up with statistics to bring out the actual situation Parliament should come up with laws to address gender inequality Sensitize the community (parents/teachers) as to the importance of equal opportunities for boys and girls in education Regional heads should propose women for positions of responsibility (most often their opinions are sought before appointments) Institutions should come up with a gender policy Institutions should come up with gender-sensitive programms and projects to reverse the situation Institutions should have gender focal points to follow-up Needs for gender action plan to implement the programmes and projects Need for capacity-building and in house training on gender issues Periodic evaluation and reports on the situations (rates of bridging the gaps) Reward persons who are making efforts to reduce gender gaps

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CHAPITRE 4 :
1. Evaluation results

EVALUATION/CLOSING

NB : Most participants left with their evaluation forms. These statistics reflect only the minds of those who were mindful to submit theirs before leaving. Are you? (tick/put a cross) With the material workshop 87 87 The workshop animation techniques The Logistics 63 23 14 80 2 2 10 1 1 Satisfied Indifferent Not Satisfied

The workshop content

Which aspects of the workshop content were interesting to you?  The plenary discussions by the presenters  The general open participation open to all delegates  All  The explanation on the concept of gender  Gender gaps  Gender tree  The concept of gender mainstreaming  The two presentations on gender were interesting, well structured and well explained  The aspect of gender mainstreaming especially the issue of girl child inheritance in our chiefdoms  Every aspect of the workshop was interesting but if I have to choose, I will choose the group work  Gender mainstreaming in the development of the South West Region by Prof. Joyce B. Endeley and co.  The presentation of the experts  The participatory approach during the plenaries  Group work and plenary presentation  Introductory role play  Paper on the concept of gender  The presentation of workshop papers  Mrs. Joyce B. Endeley’s presentation – eloquent and empowering and informative  Proverbs and sayings  The presentation made by the Chiefs  The active participation of facilitators and participants  Presentations were very interesting and an eye opener to me  That girl child must become a chief to avoid gender bias. Can the future husband accept to stay in the father-in-law’s palace? The dramatic debate was interesting  All  Group work presentation  Gender mainstreaming in the traditional council

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All aspects were quite interesting Some cards (yellow) on the gender tree were imposed on the chart Role play Key steps on gender mainstreaming Paper presentation and group report The various interventions The interactive phase as well as the presentations The question and answer session was very exciting The aspect of gender gap identification Concept of gender Mainstreaming of gender in development processes All presentations Report back after discussion Mainstream gender Gender representation in councils The drama/sketch The group work, and the various types of claps given to the speakers Gender gaps The contribution/participation of the traditional rulers The presentation of Dr Endeley Gender mainstreaming costs and benefits The topics (content) All aspects of the workshop especially the presentation of Pro. Endeley The drama (sketch) it arouse interest of participants Various debates/interviews Presentation of the two presenters Presentation. Hand outs All the contents were interesting Topics and issues presented Participatory method engendered by strategic question of the facilitator The paper which the South West Chiefs presented Group work presentation as well as questions to groups The introduction (the drama at the start of the presentation which explained everything) Explanation of gender as a concept All the aspects because it enhances my knowledge as a reporter, to know how to report a gender balance news Insufficient time as far as the group work was concerned The facilitators and presenters educated the participants excellently on issues of gender mainstreaming The concept of gender. Drawing aspiration from the sketch was so inspiring and educative Everything, in fact it was good Group work presentation and paper presentations Plenary discussions Presentation of group work results and the discussions that followed The dramatic presentation of gender issues Every aspect of the activities The two presentations and plenary discussions Gender mainstreaming emphasizing the difference for man, woman and youth The animation technique and presentation manner Every aspect were very interesting Paper on the concept of gender Paper on gender mainstreaming in the development process Animation techniques, presentations and interactive discussions among participants

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 The group work  Presentations by the various facilitators What aspect of the workshop content do you think would have been developed more?  Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process “Future Challenges for Sustainability” in our families  Participation by the chiefs and very important stake holders  Paper on the concept of gender  The aspect of developing gender and sex disaggregated data. Participants present should be thought more on how to do this  Aspect of gender mainstreaming  Gender analytical information  Considering the huge debates and contributions from participants, I think the workshop should have been programmed for two days  The presentation on gender mainstreaming in development process  The role of the media in gender issues  The material was very bulky we needed at least two days of work  Root factors as to the parables and taboos given to women  Group work exercises  Gender mainstreaming  The process and means of gender mainstreaming in development  How to get the root causes removed  Time  Different partners/stakeholders were involved – broad leaning process  Knowledge and awareness about gender mainstreaming and concerns in the gender science  That of traditional rulers since culture is the main cause of gender in clans  For me I think it was okay. May be because I am gender sensitive  More time would have been devoted to the presentations of Prof. Joyce Endeley to provide greater insight into the concept of gender  Presentation of the topic by participants must be given more time for lectures  The aspect of mainstreaming gender in development  The theme itself: Gender mainstreaming in the development of the South West Region “Future challenges for sustainability”  The gaps which government creates with respect to administrative appointments  I think it was ok for me  Gender tree  Cost to well being  Capacity building for the councils  I feel that gender equality be more developed  Course content should be expansive  The aspect of planning and strategies to resolve gender gap  Both papers if time could permit, depending on recommendations  Ok for the time  Can’t expect much for a one day workshop  Practical work  Personal presentation in writing to be looked upon so as to have and develop many hidden ideas  I think all the topics were well developed and educating  Content of gender mainstreaming in development  The sketch  Gender mainstreaming techniques in the decentralization process of Cameroon  More on gender issues  RAS

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Creating awareness on gender issues All aspect meet their target goal The gender aspect Legislations/enactments to enhance gender equality Gender mainstreaming in the development process All but for time constraints The paper on gender mainstreaming development process, future challenges for sustainability The time was short Group work Group work could have been given more time Gender mainstreaming The proverbs, taboos and sayings of the society which defines women To develop more the tools to be used to access the need, priorities, experiences of women and men in the society How to do gender programming planning budgeting and execution Materials All but time isn’t the essence All the chiefs in the SWR should have been enacted The content on gender mainstreaming Rooms for plenary discussions should be extended The time frame on group work The timing of participant to contribute was not well organised Keys for the forum were not set at the beginning for this reason there was rudeness and rowdiness, phone calls etc Strategies for mainstreaming gender Mayors and parliamentarians should not be bulked into one group None Workshop organizers should be time conscious Group work participation, little time Ways to eradicate the root causes of gender inequality Timing All was very detailed Raising of the woman’s potentials Acknowledging of the woman’s output Embracing the strengths and self-esteem of the woman The group work needed more detailed analysis. Terms of reference and also more time All was well understood Logistics Time was not respected I suggest that another or subsequent workshop of this nature be organised in the days ahead Logistics

What is it that you would have loved to be added to the workshop content?  Gender Mainstreaming in the Development Process “Future Challenges for Sustainability” in Leadership  Targeted area and people who are victims  Comments would have contributed to encourage more participants  More grassroots women should be involved  Certificates should be given  The workshop should be organized for more than one day so that the material could be better understood  House keeping

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PASOC : A Gender Approach

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Setting of rules Introduction of participants Enough time to participants to contribute Some testimonies on men and women victim of gender gaps Capacity building to communities on gender issues Girl child in youth leadership movement Advocacy for the girl child They should have invited school children to talk on the issue of unwanted pregnancies and sex A follow up workshop at least after 6 months to engender change The budget as a tool in mainstreaming gender (gender budgetary) Rules of the workshop Mettre à la disposition des participants tous les exposés ceci pour leur permettre de transmettre à leur communautes Issues of management of human and financial resources More chiefs, mayors, administrators should have been invited More dramas New laws, law implementation, developments, societal and political – discussion and evaluation Representative of the government ministries’ responsibility for gender to present papers Many more chiefs would have attended as they are the custodian and auxiliary of the administration To share food in two tables to reduce time used for coffee break In-depth of strategies to mainstream gender in all sectors, programmes and policies of development It would have been for about two days How all participants can push government to take immediate action Vulnerable/underprivileged people More days for positive assimilation Budget I am suggesting that more facilitators be invited to future workshops especially to Mrs. Ekwoge Gladys and Mrs. Omam Esther The link between gender mainstreaming, violence and human rights I would have loved that we add child-trafficking which also is gaining grounds in our society today Detailed hand out Chief whip to stop especially those sleeping during the seminar How to come up with council policies in order to direct the functioning of council issues More of this workshop’s topic should have added time The decentralization concept: definition, types and implications RAS More chiefs should be included in such workshops The role of the chiefs in gender mainstreaming Action plan on how more of these forums can be organized at divisional and sub-divisional levels The areas in the society which by boy’s creation and nature a woman must respect for the man. Being unquestionable I can’t think of any now A workshop of development should be given good time. I think it should be for 2 days Economic deprivation of women The time should be strictly followed Provision should have been made for laws, texts, conventions governing gender

Les Cahiers du PASOC N°12

68

Août 2010

PASOC : A Gender Approach

 The idea of love between women and men, to better understand themselves, not jealous and hatred  None  Specific gender issues like gender and agriculture, genders and power, gender and resource control  Time  More people should be invited in order to get the message across to a broader spectrum  Gender mainstreaming training be programmed and given to civil society organizations  Gender empowerment and the means and area of improvement  None  More village chiefs and actors should be included  Pediems for participants/transportations  Presentation and representation from the Ministry of Women Affairs  Reach out to more organized groups  In order to encourage objective participation, women and men should be given the opportunity to state their shortcomings and proposals for possible improvements  Gender approaches and grassroot participation, roles of mayors within the process of decentralization taken into account gender issues  Males also suffer from gender inequality. This should have been reflected in the content of the workshop  Specific questions would have been given to each of the groups during the group work. Statistical data needed covering the SWR  I think the facilitators were equal to the task so there was nothing to add there  The issue is delicate and big for an only one day seminar  Presentation of key informant whose life experiences could inspire others  The dos and the don’ts General comments and suggestions  The workshop was strenuous because the time for short breaks to relax man’s brain was not taken care of  Sitting arrangement should be clearly stated by the organising committee to prevent embarrassment after sitting  There should be more of this workshops and time respected  More of such workshops at grassroot levels  The general expression was very good  The workshop was good and well organized  Involve grassroot women and men more  Time management should be respected  Need more of this type of seminar  The seminar was unique  Congratulations and thank you  Separate tables should be set for coffee break to safe time  The facilitator should not entertain too many questions. It makes participants tired  Rules should be set at the beginning of the workshop  Such workshops should be organised often and practical work done in the field  Quite interesting forum. Should be organized in a regular basis in order to educate our communities  The workshop content was good but the one day duration is inadequate  The workshop was a nice one despite the fact that it started late  Reach Out should be empowered to move this workshop to the 6 divisions for greater impact  Good coordinating and organisation set up  Good

Les Cahiers du PASOC N°12

69

Août 2010

PASOC : A Gender Approach

 Generalize this action in some administrative centers of the departments (Ndian, Manyi, Lebialem, etc)  The forum was a very laudable one. I kindly suggest that such forums should take place in all the divisions of the region wherein all the stakeholders would be involved  More workshop should be organized  It was good especially with the fact that we had experienced presenters.  Carry to rural areas as well  Well done  Don’t start for more than 2 hours too late – too big time delay  Distribution of food during coffee break was insufficient  Good workshop structure and innovative ideas (role play)  Good and should be done at most twice a year  It was wonderful so training should be multiplied and dissemination to the grassroots population  The exercise was good, but there should be less stratification of participations in all aspects  Bravo.  Forum of this nature should be specially organized for chiefs for they hold important post in the community  More of such workshops should be organized for chiefs  It is a welcomed initiative by the organizers coming when decentralization is ongoing. We look forward to having similar workshops of this nature  The forum was rich and I believe more of such forums should be organized  Time allocated for this workshop is short, two days would have been better  Not all the participants had received transport but all gave active participation  All the resource persons were women. It is good to mix the presenters/require persons  A strong law on gender issues should be discussed, signed and implemented with an evaluation process in the society  Very interesting, and educative  Many more forum should be organized  Many chiefs’ invited especially from all divisions  Encouragement to have more conferences at different levels to have strategic focus on gender issues and policies  I will first of all thank the sponsors PASOC, Reach Out. I will suggest that more workshops be organized  Increase the duration and presentation on advocacy  The forum was good and satisfactory and suggest more of this kind of forum be called to intensify the issue of gender gap  Very good, attentive participants, very interesting presentations  It is a very good seminar  Good forum, more should be planned  The presentation would be more understood when the paper works is distributed before the start of the workshop  This workshop has been very enriching and will help to create better awareness to future development  All participants should have equal rights, that is in terms of payments because all contributed to the success of the workshop and their time spent should be considered  Late start and late closing  Satisfaction for the participation but the date was not properly taught of because of the labour day the next day  Forum was rich. Animation by presenters was good. Participants alert. Presentation to participants lauded. Improved on coffee break contect and quality  The workshop was very essential and timely

Les Cahiers du PASOC N°12

70

Août 2010

PASOC : A Gender Approach

 I would be proposing that more seminars on this nature come up regularly as it is a good forum to keep the people aware of the states at hand  More grease on your elbows – bravo  More chiefs should be invited so that grassroot problems should be solved, if a policy for gender mainstreaming is produced  I am suggesting that after here more seminars should be organized for a follow up of what we have learned  I want to appreciate and thank Reach Out and PASOC for this wonderful initiative  Women empowerment centres be created in all the sub-divisions of the South West Region  More of these workshops should be organized  We should not defuse the Bible laws and should respect God’s command and instructions  Multiply such forums  When next most chiefs should be invited to a forum like this because they control the grassrot population  The forum was a wonderful initiative but the time (just one day) was too small and as a result everything was rushed over  An important issue brought to the limelight  More seminars are needed on this domain  The workshop was good  Could be increased to cover two days  I am satisfied with the way the workshop has been conducted  The only problem I want to present is the timing which was not good  Cut down the number of participants. Criteria to be used for participants in further workshop should be properly taken into consideration  Seminar should start in time and be strict to time  Enough refreshing periods should be included to enable participants to follow what’s on  More workshops like this should be organized  The need to go down to the councils in other divisions in the SWR  Need for more such seminars for longer periods  Excellent  Host the write-ups on websites, social networking sites, etc.  We have heard the talks, what next? We need real action  Excellent. More forums should come up to actually exploit this issue of gender mainstreaming  The seminar has been very enriching and educative  A follow up is necessary to check on gender balance  I am satisfied with the workshop but in due course, it should be organized for two days so that all materials are digested  The workshop was good and timely  Please improve and work on time  The transport cost for a participant from Kumba is almost equal to that from Limbe so people within Fako should be considered  All the presentation and the intervention of the participants were good.  As a suggestion time should be respected  Overall the workshop was quite interesting and educative  It is the first forum on gender mainstreaming that I have attended. It is educative and inspiring, so it should be repeated and followed up  Lodging should be discriminated only against participants on whose division, workshop is holding  Workshops be organized at the divisional/sub-divisional levels  This workshop should also be organized in our divisions because of our tribal considerations and organization with different cultural backgrounds

Les Cahiers du PASOC N°12

71

Août 2010

PASOC : A Gender Approach

 A very timely forum. Traditional rulers should be targeted in a specific manner for change of mind-set  I would like to be called up again to participate in such workshop  The workshop was so interesting. I wish to be invited in any other workshop  Special gratitude to PASOC and REO. Anxiously looking forward for such experience forums and this is highly informative which makes it different  Successfully organized forum  Time management still highly to be desired  There was no time keeper so the time was not respected  Ensure that everybody eats something. Breakfast was not enough  I want to say that this same workshop be organized at traditional, divisional levels  The workshop was very good and timely. It is only left for the follow-up to make sure that there is implementation  Generally it was OK  The workshop was fruitful and interesting  There should be First Aid for the health care  Suggest that more workshops like this should be held in the rural areas 2. Closing remarks The Director of REACH OUT heartily thanked participants for sharing their experiences and developing strategies for gender mainstreaming. She further encouraged them to implement the strategies in order to reduce gender imbalances hence accelerating the development process in the South West Region. She wished everybody a safe journey and God’s blessings.

Les Cahiers du PASOC N°12

72

Août 2010