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3/6/13

Strength of Materials - Part 1
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Chapters
Home Topics Chapter 1 : Simple Stress and Strain Chapter 2 : Principal Stresses and Strains Chapter 3 : Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams Chapter 3 : Part 2 Chapter 4 : Simple Bending of Beams Chapter 5 : Torsion Chapter 6 : Thin Cylinders and Spheres Chapter 7 : Columns and Struts Chapter 8 : Slope and Deflection

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Chapter 3 : Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams (Part 1 )

3.1 CONCEPT OF A BEAM Any member of a machine or structure whose one dimention (length) is very large as cothjared to the other two dimensions (width and thickness) and which can carry lateral or transverse loads in the axial plane is called a beam. A beam may be of rectangular, square, triangular, hexagonal and circular, etc. cross-sections. A beam is a very important member in structural mechanics to withstand the transverse loads. A beam may be made ‘-of timber, flitched beam, i.e. timber reinforced with mild steel strips, steel, and reinforced conc•rete. The reinforced concrete beams are mostly used in building construction, bridges and flyovers. 3.2 CONCEPTS OF BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE 3.2.1 Bending Moment The bending moment (B.M.) at any point along a loaded beam is the algebraic sum of the moments of all the vertical forces acting to one side of the point abcut the point. Consider a simply supported beam AB carrying concentrated loads as shown in Fig. 3.1 Lé R and RB be the vertical reactions at supports A and B respectively. Consider a section x—x at a distance x from end A. The clockwise moment at this sectioh due to all the loads acting on the beam to the left of the section is:

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If we consider the forces to the right of the section x—x, then anticloc4wise moment is: For equilibrium of the beam, the B.M. given by equations (1) and (2) are equal. The SI units of B.M. are N.m or kN.n. 3.2.2 ShearForce The shear force (S F) at any point along a loaded beam is the algebraic sum of all the vertical forces acting to one side of the point. Thus, for the beam AB shown in Fig. 3.1, the shear force at cross-section x—x as measured from the left hand side is: The shear force as measured from the right hand side is: Since the beam is in equilibrium, the S.F. given by equations (1)

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F DIAGRAMS FOR A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM ptumech. the B. where the bending moment becomes zero.D.2 S. Diagram The first three steps for the S.D. Some authors consider point of inflexion and point of contraflexure to be synonymous. Draw the B. the S.D where the B. AND S.. sign convention has to be followed for B. the following procedure may be followed: 1.M.M.M. Of course. Contraflexure means opposite and flexure means bending.M. Point of Inflexion. Ignore that term which becomes negative on substituting the value of x. DIAGRAMS 3. to a convenient scale using the sign convention.. 4.I.P. Point of Contraflexure. are the same as for the B.M.F.M. Calculate the reactions at the supports by applying the equations of equilibrium. For u.3 Sign conventions 3.. i. EF.F. Calculate the B. 3. 5. for the beam on a convenient scale.M. 2. 0 and EM0 =0. has to be calculated along the length of the load.3. 3. Draw the S. =0.ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials . Draw the beam along with loading to an appropriate scale. Take a sheet of graph paper.4 B.3 B.3. Choose a section x-x at a distance x from the left hand support. Calculate the S. 3.Dlagram To draw the B. For udi.2. and need not be repeated.F. . the section may be taken within the load. beneath every concentrated load.D.F. may be calculated along the length of the load.M. changes slope from an increasing one to a decreasing one. For udi.D.M AND S.M. 3. It is the point on the beam in the B. 5. The section may be chosen either after every concentrated load or before the right hand support.loremate. 4.M.M.F.F.com/som1/node/5 .1 B.Part 1 and (2) are equal. beneath every concentrated load just to the left and to the right.d.e.D. It is the point in the B.

3.5 (a) ptumech.loremate.ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials .4.Part 1 3.com/som1/node/5 3/15 .2 Uniformly Distributed Load Consider a beam AB of span 1 simply supported at the ends and carrying a uniformly distributed load of intensity w per unit length as shown in Fig.

com/som1/node/5 4/15 .3 Uniformly Varying Loads Consider a simply supported beam AB of span 1 carrying udi which varies from w1 per unit length at end A to w2 per unit length at end B as shown in Fig. ptumech. 3.loremate.Part 1 3. The varying load can be considered as the sum of two loads.4.6 (a). one of uniform intensity w1 and the other triangle variation from zero to (w2 — w1).ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials .

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5 SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM SUBJECTED TO A COUPLE 6/15 .ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials .Part 1 3.

6 CANTILEVER BEAM 3.Part 1 3.com/som1/node/5 7/15 .ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials .loremate.6.1 Concentrated Load at Free End Consider a cantilever beam AB of span 1 carrying a concentrated load P at the free end ptumech.

ce Diagrams (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials . The S.7 OVERHANGING BEAMS 8/15 . Consider a section x-x at.F.Part 1 It represents a straight line giving linear variation. 3.11(a). 3. 3.6. 3.10 (c).D is shown in Fig.3 Uniformly Varying Load Consider a cantilever beam AB of spand 1 carrying a uniformly varying load of intensity zero at the free end to O at the fixed end as shown in Fig.

loremate. It is a linearly varying B.7. Span AB : At a distance x from C near to B. as it produces tension on the top fibres. 3.ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials .M.com/som1/node/5 9/15 .1 Concentrated Loads This is a negative B.M.Part 1 3.2 Uniformly Distributed Load ptumech.7.

3 UnIformly Varying Load Consider a beam A13CD with equal overhangs on both sides of the supports and carrying uniformly varying load from zero at end A to o per unit length at end D as shown ptumech.ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials .com/som1/node/5 10/15 .Part 1 3.7.loremate.

ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials . we have ptumech. is negative as it produces tension on the top fibres of the beam. Span CD: At a distance x from D.loremate.Part 1 It represents a cubic curve. The B.com/som1/node/5 11/15 .M.

3. 3.D. SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT Consider a simply supported beam carrying audi of intensity w per unit length as shown in Fig. is parabolic in nature.com/som1/node/5 12/15 . is shown in Fig.F.8 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOAD.F.15. The S. Consider an elementary length of the beam of length ox between crossSections ptumech.loremate.14 (c).ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials . 3.Part 1 The S.

1 Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams for the simply supported beam loaded as shown in Fig. the rte of change of bending moment with respect to x is equai to the shear force. Therefore. Taking the derivative again.loremate.16(a).com/som1/node/5 13/15 .3/6/13 Therefore. 3. Whenever. we get Example 3. the first derivative of shear force with respect to x at a point gives the intensity of loading at the point. ptumech. bending moment is maximum or minimum. the shear force is zero.

Part 1 Example 3.2 Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams for the simply supported beam shown in Fig. 3.loremate.ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials . ptumech.17(a).com/som1/node/5 14/15 .

is shown in Fig.D.F.5 kN.com/som1/node/5 15/15 .ce Diagrams 3/6/13 (Part 1 ) | Strength of Materials . 3.loremate.18 (c) to a scale of 1 mm = 0.Part 1 . The S. ptumech.