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Abrasive Processes

Abrasive machining involves material removal by the action of hard abrasive particles that are usually in the form of a bonded wheel. These operations are generally used as finishing operations, although in some cases they are used for high metal removing rates rivaling of conventional machining operations. These processes include grinding, honing, lapping, super finishing, polishing and buffing.

Process Grinding Honing Lapping Super finishing Polishing buffing

Part Geometry Flat, External cylinder Round hole Flat or slightly spherical Flat, External cylinder Different shapes. Different shapes.

Surface roughness (Ra) in μm 0.406 – 1.6 0.203 – 0.406 0.102 – 0.813 0.0254 – 0.406 0.0127 – 0.203 0.0254 – 0.813 0.0127 – 0.406

The reasons for the commercial and technological importance of the abrasive processes are; 1. They can be used on all types of materials, ranging from soft to hard materials. 2. Some of theses processes can produce extremely fine surface finish. (see the previous table). 3. The dimension of the product can be held to extremely close tolerances.

Grinding it is a material removal processes in which the abrasive particles are contained in a bonded grinding wheel that operates at very high surface speeds. Grinding wheel Grinding wheel . The grinding operation is much like the milling operations. The peripheral grinding is much common than the face one. similar to the peripheral milling and face milling. Cutting occurs either the periphery or the face of the grinding wheel.

. Much higher Cutting speed Cutting angles Defined angles Reshaping of the cutting edges cuttingRandomly oriented and can possess very high negative rake angles The dull abrasive particles either fracture to create a fresh cutting edges or pulled out to expose a new grains.The difference between the milling operations and the grinding operations are. Milling The cutting edges Grinding Defined number ofThe abrasive is smaller and cutting edges (teeth) more numerous (undefined number of grains).

1. Grain size 3. Abrasive materials.). These two components and the way they are fabricated determine the parameters of the grinding wheel. Bonding materials. It consists of abrasive particles and bonding materials. Wheel structure . 2. (as shown in the Fig. Wheel grade 5. The bonding material holds the particles in place and build the shape and structure of the wheel. 4.Grinding wheel The grinding wheel is the tool with which the grinding action is performed.

Abrasive materials General properties of abrasive materials are. Wear resistance 3. Toughness 4. Friability. . High hardness 2. thereby exposing a new cutting edge (sharp cutting edge).1. 1. it is the ability of the abrasive material to fracture. when the cutting of the grain becomes dull.

other ferrous materials and high strength alloys. Cubic born nitride (CBN) Diamond B D Hard materials (hardened tool steels and aero space alloys). cemented carbides and glass). Ductile metals (AL. and stainless steel). and brittle materials (CI. brass.Abrasive materials Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Silicon carbide (SiC) Marking A C Using Steel. . and certain ceramics). Hard abrasive materials (ceramics.

Grain size surface finish 2. Grain size material removal rate . 1. The selection of the grit size must take into consideration the above 3 points.Grain size It’s an important parameter in determining the surface finish and metal removing rate. . Smaller grit size has larger numbers. 3.2. Harder work materials required smaller grain size while the softer materials required larger grit size. Grit size is measured using a screen mesh.

Hold abrasive material in place rigidly to accomplish the cutting forces while allowing the grain that are worn to be dislodged so that new grains can be exposed. Strength (withstand centrifugal forces). Temperature resistance (withstand high temperature). The desirable properties of bonding materials are. 2.Bonding materials The bonding material holds the particles in place and build the shape and structure of the wheel. 1. Hardness. 3. 4. 5. .3. Toughness (resist shattering in shock loads).

usually bronze. for good finish. Silicate bond Rubber bond Resinoid bond Shellac bond Metallic bond S R B E M most fixable.. relatively unaffected by water and oil that used in grinding fluids. . Very high strength. rigid. used for rough grinding and cut-off operations. used in cut-off wheels.Bonding materials Vitrified bond Marking V Using Strong. Strong but not rigid. Common for diamond and cubic born nitride. resist temp. Limited to situations in which heat generated must be minimized.

Vg + Vb + Vp = 1. Open is used for chip clearance. It is measured on a scale ranges from open to dense (the ratio between the grains proportion to bond materials proportion). Dense one is used for surface finish and dimensional control.0 Vg grains proportion Vb Vp bond materials proportion voids (pores) proportion .Wheel Structure Refers to the relative spacing of the abrasive grains in the wheel.4.

is used for high materials removal rates and when machining soft work material.Wheel Grade Indicates the wheel’s bond strength in retaining the abrasive grits during cutting. . Hard one. Soft one. retains the grains. It is measured on a scale ranges from soft to hard. is used for low materials removal rates and when machining hard work material. lose the grains readily. Dependent on the present of bonding materials (Vb).

Grinding wheel specification (ANSI 1977) .5.


Grinding wheel shapes .

N Lc  Dd MRR  Vw .d .Analysis of the grinding Process b (D) Vw w V   .w.D .

.Surface finish 2.There are two types of feed.Temperature of the work surface 4. parameters and the grinding wheel parameters have a direct effect into. the motion of the wheel into the work (d) .In the cutting. Cross feed.Wheel wear 5.Forces and energy 3. 1. motion of work table (w) In feed.Machining time.

1 to 10) • That mean that the increase of V and C for a given w increase the number of chips/time and improve the finish.Surface finish • It is affected by the size of the individual chips (note that small grit size get better surface finish). .C C is grits/mm2 (from 0. nc  V .w. • Number of chips formed.

2. Specific energy in the grinding operations is much greater that in other conventional machining because. The size effect in the machining. 8. Fig. 1. High negative rake angle of the individual grains. plowing.1 page 193 . 3. and rubbing.5). Example 8.Forces and energy FcV U Vw wd U specific energy. Fc cutting force. Not all the grits are engaged in actual cutting (cutting.

3. • This high temperature can have several damaging effects. 1. Bum is a discolorration on the surface Cracks are perpendicular to the wheel speed direction 2. this with high friction. Residual stresses. • The proper application of the cutting fluids reduce friction and remove heat and washing away chips. Bums and cracks.Temperatures at the work surface • The grinding process generates high temperature because the size effect and the high negative rake angle. Softening of the work surface. .

are increased and the grinding ratio is reduced with the surface finish. 8. 2nd region. • When the wheel in the 3rd region. Grain fracture.6). 1. Removing the chips. 3rd region. it should be re-sharping (dressing operation) to. 1. 3. depending on wheel speed which reduce the wear. 2. Breaking off dulled grits. Bond fracture. Attritions wear.Wheel wear In the grinding wheel there are three types of wear (Fig. . 1st region. • Grinding ratio (GR) is between 95 to 125. while at too high speed both wear and temp. 2.

Machining time 2 LiB Tm  1000Vw w Ll h i d w  2 / 3b w  1 / 3b B b l Δ work width grinding wheel width work length allowance (≈10mm) h d w total depth infeed cross feed Vw the work speed Example 8.2 page 199 .

internal and external cylinders.Grinding operations •Used to finish products created with other operations. as shown in the figure. are created by a special formed wheels. and contour surfaces. The peripheral grinding is performed with a horizontal axis machines. while the face grinding is performed with a vertical axis machines. 1. •The contour surfaces.Surface Grinding Performed using either the periphery or the flat surface of the grinding wheel (face grinding). •Shapes to be grinded are plain surfaces. such as thread. . which are created in the tool rooms.

Vertical spindle with rotary worktable.Horizontal spindle with reciprocating worktable. vertical spindle with reciprocating worktable. Note the direction of the cross feed and in-feed . Horizontal spindle with rotary worktable.

External cylindrical grinding the feed motions are either traverse feed (the wheel or workpiece or both) or plunge cut.cylindrical Grinding a.2.Internal cylindrical grinding . b.

then it used for high production rate machining. the feed rate of this wheel depending on its diameter. and its angle. External Centerless Grinding f r  Dr N rsin I . •The regulating wheel rotates at lower speed and is inclined at a slight angle I. rotating speed.3. no holding time.Centerless Grinding • The workpiece is not held between center.

Internal Centerless Grinding .•The internal centerless grinding has two supporting rolls instead of the rest blade in the external one.

1. Reduced temperatures.4. . d Feed • High MRR and productivity because of the continuous cutting. High MRR 2. • Advantages. Improve accuracy 3.Creep Feed Grinding • In-Feed are 1000 to 10000 times greater then conventional one • Feed rates are reduced about the same proportion.

and gun barrels. •Speed between 15 to 150 m/min. bearing. hydraulic cylinders. •Performed with a set of bonded abrasive sticks.Related abrasive processes 1. •Grit size between 30 and 600 Tool Operation .Honing •To finish the bores of internal combustion engines. •Its motion is combination of rotation and linear motion.

CI. lead and wood. .2. •The tool takes the inverse shape of the work part. and gages. •Used in production of optical lenses.Lapping •Used to produce surface finish of extreme accuracy and smoothness. metallic bearing surface. •Common abrasives are aluminum oxide and silicon carbide with grit size between 300 and 600. •It used a fluid suspension of very small abrasive particles (in oils or kerosene) between the work and the lapping tool. copper. •Materials such as steel.

Lower workpiece speed. 1. Smaller grit size. Shorter strokes 2. Higher frequancy. 5.3. Only one stick is used . lower pressure 3.Superfinishing Like honing but. 4.

•Speed ranging from 2400 to 5100 m/min.4. •Buffing is similar to polishing with softer wheels. felt and papers. finer abrasive materials.Polishing and Buffing •Polishing is used to remove scratches and burrs and smooth rough surfaces by means of abrasive grains attached to the polishing wheel rotating at high speed around 2250 m/min. 90 to 120 for finish. is made of leather. And grit size of 20 to 80 for rough. •The wheel. canvas. flexible wheel. .