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Upadhyay In this article the attention is drawn towards the design of flexural members subjected to axial force. It is shown that while using the charts of SP-16 the design not only becomes uneconomical but also unconservative.

There are cases when a flexural member is subjected to axial force; compression or tension . The members having such combined stresses are building frames (when subjected to lateral loads), arches, wall of a box section subjected to lateral forces, etc. These flexural members should be designed for the axial force & moment as per basic equations derived here. If we use the charts of SP-16 for the columns subjected to uniaxial moment; we have to provide equal reinforcement on the both faces, because the charts have been prepared so& are primarily for compression members; obviously which is not economical. b fc 0.0035 (εcu) 0.002 xu (=nd) d g

The stress strain relationship for the concrete is given below as per IS 456 : fc = 0.446fck[2(εc/0.002)- (εc/0.002)2 ] fc = 0.446fck Area of the stress block = 3xu fc/ 7 + 8xu fc/ 22 0.80952383xu fc where fc can be equal to or less than 0.446fck depending upon the strain in the concrete. Suppose the member is subjected to a moment M & a compressive force F As total internal forces in the section are equal and opposite to the applied force 0.80952383 bxu fc - Astσst + Ascσsc = F As the depth of neutral axis can be represented as a fraction of effective depth (=nd) this equation becomes 0.80952383 bnd fc - Astσst + Ascσsc = F (1) when εc<= 0.002

(a)

when 0.002 <= εc <= 0.0035 (b)

M. C. Upadhyay, M.E. Str. Engr. (Sr. Design Engr) Jaiprakash Industries Ltd. N. Delhi

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This procedure also can be used for a section subjected to axial tension in addition to moment by putting negative value of F. (4). I made a program to solve these equations in Excel. M.Ascσsc(d-d′)] / 0. pt =0.0667 d′= 50mm d′/D = 0. depending upon the value of strain.com . Obviously the design requires trial & error.80952383 bnd fc (d-0.416nd) + Ascσsc(d-d′) = M + Fg (2) where g the distance between the center of gravity of the section & that of the tensile steel and d′ is effective cover to the compression steel From equation (2) we get stress in concrete as fc = [M + Fg.fineprint. (3).6594% (Ast =891mm2) total steel =1046 mm2 Using SP-16 Mu/fckbD2 = 150x106 /(20*300*5002) = 0.E. N.100 Pu/fckbD = 200x103 /(20*300*500) = 0.0 % M. Asc & Ast and first calculates the stress in concrete using eqn. using solver facility of the Excel.Taking the moment of the forces about c. of the tensile steel. (Sr.416nd) From equation (1) we get stress in steel as σst = [0. Assume grade of concrete M20. we get 0. D (overall depth)= 500mm We will design it as per exact solution explained above and by the charts of SP-16. Design Engr) Jaiprakash Industries Ltd. Engr. using this value of stress in concrete it calculates the stress in steel using eqn. the assumed value of variables is the correct. grade of steel fy 415 Solving this by above procedure we get n = 0.1 p/fck =0.g.05 hence p =1.1149% (Asc =155mm2) . (a) or (b).80952383 bnd fc + Ascσsc – F] / Ast (4) (3) We have n.4791. Delhi PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www. (3). Upadhyay. The program assumes the values of n. pc =0. Str. Example: Suppose a section of 300mmX450mm (effective depth) is subjected to an ultimate moment of 150 Knm and ultimate axial compression 200 Kn. Asc &Ast as variables for a given section and forces. The strain in steel is calculated as below εst = 0. If this value of stress in concrete comes out to be the same as one calculated by eqn.80952383 bnd fc (d-0.002 + σst /Est Est = 2x105 Mpa For an assumed value of n & εst as above we calculate the strain in concrete as εc = εstn /(1-n) We now calculate the stress in concrete corresponding to this value of strain using eqn. C.

Str.E. hence on tension side = 750 mm2 < 891 mm2 Hence we see that while we provide more total area by using SP-16 charts & in turn being unconservative on tension side. Engr. as the area provided on tension side is lees than the actually required. in which equal reinforcement is provided on both faces.fineprint. M. As per SP-16. e. Closing Remarks It is concluded that the design of flexural members with axial force should be carried out by basic principles not by any charts. M. for the points below the line fst = fyd the outermost tension reinforcement undergoes inelastic deformation i. N. the stress in the reinforcement is more than the design yield strength (0. (Sr. which is not economical for flexural members & sometimes unconservative too.com .87fy ). Upadhyay. C.Total Area = 1500 mm2 . Delhi PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www. Design Engr) Jaiprakash Industries Ltd.

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