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MANAGING BRANDS OVER TIME One of the challenges in managing brands is the many changes that have occurred

in the marketing environment in recent years. Undoubtedly, the marketing environment will continue to evolve and change, often in very significant ways, in the coming years. Shifts in consumer behavior, competitive strategies, government regulations, or other aspects of the marketing environment can profoundly affect the fortunes of a brand. Besides these external forces, the firm itself may engage in a variety of activities and changes in strategic focus or direction that may necessitate minor or major adjustments in the way that its brands are being marketed. Consequently, effective brand management requires proactive strategies designed to at least maintain - if not actually enhance - customer-based brand equity in the face of all of these different forces. Reinforcing Brands The advantage of creating a brand with a high level of awareness and a positive brand image is that many benefits may accrue to the firm in terms of cost savings and revenue opportunities. Marketing programs can be designed that primarily attempt to capitalize on or perhaps even maximize these benefits - for example, by reducing advertising expenses, seeking increasingly higher price premiums, or introducing numerous brand extensions. The more that there is an attempt to realize or capitalize on brand equity benefits, however, the more likely it is that the brand and its sources of equity may become neglected and perhaps diminished in the process. In other words, marketing actions that attempt to leverage the equity of a brand in different ways may come at the expense of other activities that may help to fortify the brand by maintaining or enhancing its awareness and image. At some point, failure to fortify the brand will diminish brand awareness and weaken brand image. Without these sources of brand equity, the brand itself may not continue to yield as valuable benefits. Just as a failure to properly maintain a car eventually affects its performance, so too neglecting a brand, for whatever reason can catch up with marketers.

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Within a short period of time. as follows. manufacturing.Reinforcing brand meaning may depend on the nature of brand associations involved. These innovations in product design and merchandising have significantly revived the brand's fortunes. showcased popular new models such as the Ironman in mass media advertising. Several specific considerations play a particularly important role in reinforcing brand meaning in terms of product-related performance and non-product-related imagery associations. after Timex watched brands such as Casio and Swatch gain significant market share by emphasizing digital technology and fashion (respectively) in their watches. 2 . and merchandising is especially critical to maintaining or enhancing brand equity. Product-Related Performance Associations For brands whose core associations are primarily product-related performance attributes or benefits. Timex also bought the Guess and Monet watch brands to distribute through upscale department stores and expand its brand portfolio. it made a number of innovative marketing changes. and launched new Timex stores to showcase its products. For example. innovation in product design. Timex introduced Indiglo glow-in-the dark technology.

backed by the slogan "Just being the best is enough. imagery may be an important means of differentiation. Perhaps as a result of being too much of a departure. Brand images can be extremely sticky. Because of their intangible nature. millions of dollars in advertising are spent to craft an image for a brand. Earlier ads showed simple scenes of the bottle or people peacefully drinking the beer. for example. relevance in user and usage imagery is critical. through a major new advertising campaign that communicates a different type of user or usage situation. were much artier—featuring a bright red star logo—and had a more prominent lifestyle component. For dramatic repositioning strategies to work. It is particularly dangerous to flip-flop between product-related performance and non-product-related imagery associations because of the fundamentally different marketing and advertising approaches each entails. Consider Heineken. Nevertheless. ill-conceived or too-frequent repositioning can blur the image of a brand and confuse or perhaps even alienate consumers. brand-associations already exist in memory. Consequently. and once consumers form strong brand associations. In categories in which advertising plays a key role in building brand equity. in the soft drinks category.Non-Product Related Imagery Associations For brands whose core associations are primarily non-product-related attributes and symbolic or experiential benefits. Significant repositioning may be dangerous for other reasons too. convincing new brand claims must be presented in a compelling fashion. the ads failed to really drive sales. ad campaigns have become a valuable branding tool in terms of crafting a brand image. in an attempt to make the brand more hip and contemporary." Subsequent ads. Club Med has attempted for years to transcend its image as a vacation romp for swingers to attract a broader cross-section of people. but different. non-product-related associations may be potentially easier to change. For example. they may be difficult to change. Consumers may choose to ignore or simply be unable to remember the new positioning when strong. One brand that successfully shifted from a primarily non-product-related image to a 3 .

there are examples of once prominent and admired brands that have fallen on hard times or. In virtually every product category. showcased in well-designed ads. and leading-edge engineering of the cars. Reversing a fading brand's fortunes thus requires either lost sources of brand equity to be recaptured or new sources of brand equity to be identified and established. or any new development in the marketing environment can potentially affect the fortunes of a brand. These efforts. As these examples illustrate. such as the responsive performance. Coach. a number of these brands have managed to make impressive comebacks in recent years as marketers have breathed new life into their customer franchises. and by 1995 sales had approached their earlier peak. Although the specific tactics may change. even completely disappeared. Regardless of which approach is taken. marketing and advertising efforts switched the focus to BMW's product developments and improvements. brands on the 4 . Convinced that high status was no longer a sufficiently desirable and sustainable position. Reinforcing brand equity requires consistency in the amount and nature of the supporting marketing program for the brand.primarily product-related image is BMW. helped to diminish the "yuppie" association. Nevertheless. brands sometimes have had to return to their roots to recapture lost sources of equity. the emergence of new competitors or new technology. sales of the brand dropped almost in half from 1986 to 1991 as new Japanese competition emerged and a backlash to the "Greed Decade" set in. and Bally have all seen their brand fortunes successfully turned around to varying degrees in recent years. Boston Market. the key sources of equity for the brand should be preserved and amplified where appropriate. distinctive styling. Brands such a Reader's Digest. the meaning of the brand has had to fundamentally change to regain lost ground and recapture market leadership. Revitalizing Brands Changes in consumer tastes and preferences. in some cases. In other cases. Product innovation and relevance are paramount in maintaining continuity and expanding the meaning of the brand. Uniformly decreed to be the quintessential "yuppie" vehicle of the 1980s.

have been violated by product problems. cost reductions. It really isn't revitalization. and uniqueness of brand association and brand responses held in consumer memory. favorability. in fact. but the marketing program 5 . if so. which positioning to adopt. according to our definition. In profiling brand knowledge structures to guide repositioning. a special brand audit may be necessary. then chances of revitalization are good. it never really became a true brand. or to provide additional insight. Sometimes the positioning is still appropriate. and the nature of consumer-brand relationships. the first place to look in turning around the fortunes of a brand is the original sources of brand equity. If not.comeback trail have to make more "revolutionary" changes than the "evolutionary" changes to reinforce brand meaning. Often. chances are that the product or business strength in the past was a function simply of performance and spending characteristics and that. The brands most likely to respond to revitalization efforts are those that have clear and relevant values that have been left dormant for a long time. the strength. If you find that the brand really does not have any strong values. have not been well expressed in the marketing and communications recently. for example. Bringing these brands back to life is more like starting from scratch. because of some type of change in the marketing environment? Decisions must then be made as to whether to retain the same positioning or to create a new one and. and so on. Are positive associations losing their strength or uniqueness? Have negative associations become linked to the brand. Where there is evidence that these values exist and that they were indeed a part of the brand's magnetism during healthier days. it is important to accurately and completely characterize the breadth and depth of brand awareness. Of particular importance is the extent to which key brand associations are still adequately functioning as points of difference or points of parity to properly position the brand.

The unfortunate curse befallen some brands is that they are owned but not used.particularly consumer packaged goods -. 11-7-93). or loses its identity. Strengthening Purchase Attitudes Many of the attitude problems related to brands occur because the brand becomes dominated by other products. These problems can be addressed by modifying the product or package. Most revitalizable brands suffer from one of three problems: Low awareness. 35% of the households had vitamins that they had not opened in the past 12 months. Encouraging Consumers To Choose A Brand Clearly. Product and Package Modifications Although brand reformulations can be costly and risky.occur during the purchase decision and the consumption decision. Other successful modifications. like choosing. Briefly put.The Key To Revitalization: Choosing Vs. although 63% of the households in the Brand Revitalization Consumer Panel possessed Tabasco sauce. or by better understanding and leveraging the brand’s unique benefits. the moment of truth is when consumers choose brands and use brands. They are “cupboard captives. Simply encouraging purchase is not enough. loses its appeal. 32% of the homes had their bottle so long the sauce had turned from red to brown. Aqua Velva retained its trademark scent and color but developed a more convenient bottle and a snappier label. the challenge is to strengthen purchase attitudes and increase purchase salience. Similarly. and an unopened package of cookies lasted over 6 months in 41% of the homes without children. shifting consumer needs. such as some done by the Leaf Company 6 .” For instance. modifying a brand or its package can help regain lost sales. increased distribution can increase sales. Using Opportunities to revitalize mature brands -. or heavy competition. Similarly. Assuming that a brand is available for purchase. Lavoris generated sizable sales because the clear “crystal fresh” version of its product appealed to young customers who had never used it before. Using. reports Stuart Elliot (New York Times. is dependent on awareness and attitude.

is trying to communicate too much.Camden. a marketing professor at Duke Univeristy. A common problem. such gains may only be incremental. a marketing professor at Rutgers University -. When combined with emerging customer prototyping methods. With his method. consumers are first presented with three brands (including the revitalized brand) and asked to select the one they prefer. Although the insights from this technique can help a revitalized brand gain parity. however. 1. Heath bars. and extending familiar favorites into new forms. benefits. packaging. Zero. 7 . Understanding the deeper meaning of brands has been the focus of a method developed by Charles Gengler.(manufacturer of Good & Plenty. such as bite-sized Heath Sensations. Successfully leveraging these points of differentiation entail knowing what the brand stands for and making sure the consumers do too. or formulation when asked to compare the brand to others through a tripartite comparison. Understanding and leveraging the brand’s uniqueness and equity best generate bigger ideas . Consumers can provide valuable insights about changing a package. Multiple messages from multiple channels dilute equity and confuse consumers. clear. An in-depth laddering interview is then used to uncover how this brand’s points of differentiation are related to higher order values. involve reverting back to original recipes. A laddering algorithm then analyzes the resulting network of associations and determines the importance weights that various attributes. and values played in the choice process. leveraging these points of differentiation is most successful when advertising. Brand Uniqueness & Equity The most meaningful differences that separate one brand from another may not be the ones most evident to their managers. and promotions all emphasize a single. says Kevin Lane Keller. As a result. label. and Payday). this laddering procedure has been uncommonly reliable in discovering meaningful points of differentiation and clearly targeting the highest yield segments.

Increase Purchase Salience Salient brands are the brands that get bought. used a side panel to note complementary products on which Trix could be sprinkled. Point-of-Purchase Awareness Trade journals and retail associations consistently report creative ideas that generate point-of-purchase awareness. his advertising campaigns use testimonials that are broadcast frequently and consistently. Jeffrey Himmel claims his success in revitalizing brands is attributed to raising their topof-mind awareness and dominating their category’s share-ofvoice. Bright packages. . all increase our awareness of a brand. Salience can be generated at the point-of-purchase or can be developed into topof-mind salience that leads one to put the product on a shopping list or to make a special trip for it. . for instance. Similarly. . By focusing on a simple. and Murphy’s Oil Soap printed a series of different usage ideas under peel-off stickers that had been affixed to their spray bottles. a. Top-of-Mind Awareness. Brands with smaller ad budgets have more affordably targeted their users by advertising points of differentiation or new uses on their labels. catchy displays. wide shelf facings . A brand can have top-of-mind awareness because it was recently used or recently advertised. Trix Cereal. As part of this long-term perspective. it is necessary to carefully consider the role of different brands and the relationships among different brands in the portfolio over time. The sales successes of many of these ideas confirm our intuition. In 8 . single-minded point of differentiation. sales signs. Adjustments To The Brand Portfolio Managing brand equity and the brand portfolio requires taking a long-term view of the brand. What is less obvious are recent findings that simply putting a product on an endaisle display can increase sales even if it is not on sale. suggestive selling at the POP (“Buy 12 Snicker’s Bars for your freezer”) not only increases salience but can nearly double the number of units a person intends to buy.

entry-level brands are often critical in bringing in new customers and introducing them to the brand offerings Ideally. For example Aqua Velva introduced its Ice Sport aftershave sub-brand to appeal to a younger audience while still selling classic Aqua Velva to a loyal cadre of older consumers. Managing brand transitions is especially important in rapidly changing. Their sources of brand equity may have essentially dried up or. damaging and difficult-to-change new associations may have been 9 . These new product offerings for the brand can incorporate new technology. and brands such as BMW with its 3-. Retiring Brands Because of dramatic or adverse changes in the marketing environment. a brand migration strategy needs to be designed and implemented so that consumers understand how various brands in the portfolio can satisfy their needs as they potentially change over time or as the products and brands themselves change over time. technologically intensive markets. even worse. Migration Strategies Brands can play special roles that facilitate the migration of customers within the brand portfolio For example. brands would be organized in consumers' minds so that they at least implicitly know how they can switch among brands within the portfolio as their needs or desires change For example. 5.particular.and 7-series numbering systems to denote increasingly higher levels of quality are good examples of such a strategy Chrysler designated Plymouth as its “starter” car line. some brands are just not worth saving. a corporate or family branding strategy in which brands are ordered in a logical manner could provide the hierarchical structure in consumers' minds to facilitate brand migration Car companies are quite sensitive to this issue. Brand Extension and Sub-branding Another approach to attract new customers to a brand and keep the brand r modern and up-to-date is to introduce a line extension or establish a new sub-brand. such that Plymouth owners would then be expected to trade up in later years to high-priced Chrysler models. feature and other attributes to satisfy the needs of new customers as well as satisfy the' changing desires of existing customers.

who explained why Maytag was so reliable. He punctuated his story with the tongue-in-cheek admission that. First aired in 1967. Consistency should be therefore viewed in terms of strategic direction and not necessarily the particular tactics employed by the supporting marketing program for the brand at any point in time Changes over time are certainly not inevitable. At some point. the campaign's central message has changed very little. because he was the Maytag repairman. its position as "the dependability people" has been anchored by the "loneliest guy in town" campaign for almost three decades. Maytag's is the longest-running campaign on television featuring a real-life character. Marlboro has become part of marketing folklore Blessed with a strong identity and disciplined implementation. is still going strong as a symbol throughout the world. took over the role in the late 1980's. a prominent character actor. Marlboro has rarely had a misstep that has taken it away from its strategy. One of the most consistent brand strategies for durable consumer goods has been that of Maytag. free spirited. outdoor-lifestyle. Consistency Plan Brand consistency is critical to maintaining the strength and favorability of brand associations.created. and the actor has changed only once: Gordon Jump. who played the bumbling station manager in the "WKRP in Cincinnati" television series. nobody ever called him (which is why he was so lonely). A host of successful brands have had remarkable histories of a consistent identity/execution Perhaps the most visibly consistent strategy is that of Marlboro. the campaign featured Jesse White. 10 . The Marlboro man. decisive management actions are necessary to properly retire or milk the brand. the size of the brand franchise—no matter how loyal—fails to justify the support of the brand. Since its introduction. and masculine) and its visual image of the cowboy and Marlboro country. . With its strong brand personality (independent. rugged. introduced in the 1950s and refined in the 1960s. Consistency does not mean that marketers should avoid making any change in the marketing programs. In the face of such adversity.

all of which combine to provide a formidable competitive advantage. which might be a visual image. is both relevant and important to customers. The result can be a consistency of meaning and message through time that can provide the ownership of a position. In 1993. and Marlboro owns the masculine position for cigarettes. often one that is inherently less effective. An effort by a competitor to usurp Maytag's position on the dependability dimension. Benefits of Consistency Although change is sometimes appropriate and even necessary. in particular. 1. and it has staying power—it has not become obsolete because of technological change or consumer trends. 2. the competitor's communication efforts might actually be mistaken for those of Maytag by some. Ownership of Identity Symbol Brand identity/execution consistency over time provides an opportunity to own an effective identity symbol. The functional benefit. 11 . would not be believed. It would be difficult for competitors to be credible if they attached themselves to similar positions. Black Velvet owns the sensual/smoothness dimension for whiskey. It continues to command a significant price premium over competitors in an industry that has intense competition and severe margin pressures. slogan. Competitors are preempted and must therefore pick another route. thus giving Maytag free advertising. and dishwashers in the United States and Canada. of their childhood homes). The competitive power of the position is thus enhanced. ownership of an identity symbol. for some. metaphor. for example. Ownership of a Position A consistent identity/execution can lead to the virtual ownership of a position.The Maytag identity leads to a strong functional benefit of quality and dependability. Such a symbol makes the brand's identity easier to understand. to remember. and cost efficiencies. dryers. Worse. Maytag was rated as the preferred brand of washers. and to link with the brand. as well as emotional benefits (relief from worry and a reminder. or spokesperson. Similarly. jingle. there is no doubt that the goal should be to create an effective identity ' whose position and execution will endure and not become obsolete and/or tired.

Cost Efficiencies A consistent brand strategy supported by a strong identity symbol can produce an enormous cost advantage in implementing communication programs. when an identity symbol is strong. Consider the cost burden if General Electric. when it is reduced to cueing a visual image or slogan that is well known and closely associated with a brand. In fact. a Maytag competitor. can be shown playing video games or wearing an updated outfit. as well as creating and reinforcing an image or personality. Others include United Airlines' theme music (which conveys a sense of stature and quality). A competitor attempting to use a similar scene would likely only reinforce the Marlboro identity. competitors must go another route.The Maytag repairman and the Black Velvet lady are two examples of symbols that quickly and simply communicate the brand position. and Marlboro country. the Sprint pin-dropping image (which implies exacting technology). for example. position-appropriate symbol becomes closely associated with a brand. wanted to convince customers that it had surpassed Maytag in terms of dependability. The task of communicating. Ronald McDonald. plus have an attention-getting message. the dangers of consumer boredom are somewhat reduced. McDonald's Ronald McDonald (who communicates an image of family fun). While young brands need to entertain or do something outrageous in order to attract attention and become associated with a position. Even then. In addition. getting attention. Given the equity that Maytag has amassed on this dimension. it is likely that Maytag's strong reputation and loyal 12 . All brands—especially new ones—are faced with the problem of creating and maintaining awareness. successful mature brands often need only to refresh existing associations. when a simple. and changing perceptions becomes less expensive. the goal still might not be feasible. Thus. The Marlboro image is so well known that the company can sometimes place billboards that display only a "Marlboro Country" scene without the brand name or package. GE would have to buy an exposure intensity much larger than Maytag employs. 3. though. to even hope for any impact.

Awareness of these forces can help a firm avoid making ill-advised and premature changes in a brand identity/execution. Further. efforts to create a new identity are likely to be wasted in that they might not register or might only be effective at creating an identity that becomes obsolete. Consistency over Time – Why is it Difficult As already noted. Ivory. A competitor of Marlboro. or Black Velvet will have the same problem encroaching on their position. However. Consider the power and efficiency of the visual image of Marlboro country. or the Black Velvet lady. the second involves strategic misconceptions or false assumptions about the existing brand identity/execution. Maytag simply had the lonely repairman make a cameo appearance during the last few seconds of an ad introducing the refrigerator. In contrast. at least five very legitimate rationales can make a change in identity. One set of forces relates to psychological factors that influence managers' decisions regarding brands. It is likely that a competitor with no established position or visual imagery would have to spend five times as much (if not ten times or more) to make a significant dent. to other appliance Now consider Maytag's recent task of adding the dependability dimension to its new refrigerator line. 13 . position. That compact visual image cost so little and said so much. a bar of soap floating in a clear stream. there are substantial forces above and beyond these rationales that bias managers toward change and away from maintaining a consistent identity. There is no cumulative effect. or execution appropriate or even necessary.customer base has carryover effects characteristics such as performance. an effort to support and reinforce a long-running campaign will more likely be productive. Just a glance at the repairman brought back all of viewers' past dependability associations.

Owned by Predecessor Identity/Execution 14 . New trends in distribution. and that usually means changing one of the drivers of brand equity. Consider the Black Velvet brand manager who is asked at the annual planning meeting how he or she plans to improve the brand's flat sales (even though the overall category is declining). an obvious implication is that something must be done differently. will face dips and competitive pressures. position. An aggressive. and innumerable other areas are continually emerging. High Aspirations The problem-solver/action orientation is usually accompanied by aspirations to improve the performance of the brand. customer motivations. Managers are generally not expected to do only as well as last year. Market share. and take action—even when the "action" course may actually end up hurting the brand. "I have a dramatic plan for change that is likely to turn the brand around within twelve months" sounds both more professional and more exciting. 2. perhaps more important. especially in terms of sales and profits. creative people within a culture that emphasizes finding and solving problems and detecting and responding to trends in the market. The prime candidate for change is the brand identity. Changing the identity/ execution is one option. If the brand is to improve on prior performance. but it is not impressive or. the goal is always to do better. capable manager often believes he or she should be able to improve the situation. A response of "Well.Mindset of Managers Problem Solver/Action Orientation Those in charge of brands—from assistant brand managers to executive vice presidents—are generally bright. or execution. The temptation is to dig in. diagnose the problem or trend. I thought I would do the same thing as the prior five brand managers have done" may represent an optimal strategy that builds and protects brand equity. 1. much fun. even for the best of brands in the best of times. And there are always problems and new trends to address.

and the execution needs to be refined. transient brand manager will have no pride of ownership and little involvement in the identity/execution. Brand identities and their execution can also require some settling in. especially if the brand has had a reasonably long run. A brand identity is not unlike a TV show that starts slow. A major challenge is to determine which of 15 . the identity and its execution were likely developed by others (sometimes long gone). develops a growing following and only after two or three years becomes a hit. are always examining the market for trends. is thus personally painless. Strategic Misconceptions 1. However. for example." in which a great identity/execution is achieved but is not recognized as such. A new. deleted. started with a rugged man with a tattoo who only over time evolved into a cowboy. The conclusion that the brand and its message are not responsive to the current market. It took several years for Marlboro country to emerge. by instinct and training. During that time. and that a major improvement is possible. Research results may be ambiguous because several criteria may be relevant to brand performance. The New Identity/Execution is Ineffective Sometimes it takes time for an identity/execution to wear in. A New Paradigm Requires a New Identity/Execution Managers. and for the characters to find their niche and become familiar to the audience. Then there is the "blinders trap. A decision on the effectiveness of the embryonic Marlboro identity might have been premature. characters or other elements may be added. Competent people may differ in their opinions because they judge the identity/execution with different assumptions about the market. and a given study may not measure all of them. Customers need to get used to the concept. 2. It can take that long for the audience to build. or modified as the show settles into its style. Greatness is harder to judge than one might think. Marlboro.The pressure to change can best be resisted by people who are committed to the brand vision and its execution.

too late or because it was executed badly. A similar pitfall is the aspiration trap. Weight Watchers could have chosen to stick to its professional weight control identity. In addition. Further.these trends represent a fundamental shift in the market. and may at best result in similar share and profitability figures. Both they and the "forces" that drove their short-lived success have faded. or is it only a fad? Wine coolers (such as California Coolers) and clear. A Superior Identity/Execution Can Be Found Managers evaluating whether to change identities sometimes overlook the fact that much more is known about the existing strategy and execution than about any proposed alternative. often making the proverbial grass seem greener almost anywhere else than where the firm is now. The problem is that "genius" identities and executions are difficult to achieve. It can be a compulsive and futile waste of resources. might have resulted in a healthier (albeit smaller) business. in part because people capable 16 . For example. Even when a paradigm shift is accurately detected. which although painful. in which a brand team engages in an endless search for perfection and a dramatic improvement in performance when the probability of achieving either is actually very low. This "consistency option" would have resulted in downsizing to a niche brand. Customers lost may return after the glow of the new paradigm recedes and there is a resurgence of the old one. when it came under attack by Healthy Choice. alternatives are not necessarily better. even if found to be inappropriate for a major segment. it is not always clear that the brand strategy should change. sweetened carbonated beverages (such as Clearly Canadian) are examples of fad products that failed to live up to their promise. Thus the warts of the existing strategy are clear while problems with the untried proposal | cannot yet be predicted. 3. The old strategy. there is an upside to maintaining an existing identity in the face of a new paradigm. Nevertheless. Will the change in consumer tastes endure and grow. it avoids the risk that the revised identity will fail because it is too little. may still represent a better strategy than alternatives.

The fact is that insiders can get bored and even irritated with an execution—and when they do. the brand management team should do the research necessary to see if consumers really are the ones who are bored. those who work with the brand have probably seen it (or alternative versions of it) hundreds of times. image. An execution can be changed without changing the position or identity.of generating them are ran and the environment that allows such people to thrive is rarer still. Many managers are likely to see more repetition of their brand's advertising than any target group. Customers Are Bored with a Tired or Stodgy Identity/Execution Often it is those managing the brand. REBRANDING Rebranding is the process by which a product. 4. who are bored with an identity or execution. company or product line affiliation is marketed or distributed with different identity. they assume that customers are as well. by the time a consumer first sees a new campaign. Advertising giant Ross Reeves once claimed that if he had the second-best advertising in a market. And remember that consumer boredom is not necessarily bad: Brands from Bayer to Charmin have built a flourishing business by "boring" consumers with the same consistent message. IV. he would always win. When asked why his agency was billing its Anacin client so much. logo. These changes are aimed at the repositioning of the brand/ company. he replied that it was expensive to convince the client managers not to change the advertising. brand. If boredom is being claimed as a reason for changing strategy. given that it just kept running the same commercial. not the customers. This may be through major changes to the brand’s name. because the competition would get bored and change theirs. service is developed with one brand. with the specific purpose of either distancing itself from certain negative 17 . In fact. It is important to distinguish between the wearing out of a position or identity and wearing out of a particular execution. marketing strategy and advertising themes.

emerged situations such as corporate restructuring. still in development. 18 . They may enter a new market. The process can occur intentionally through a delibrate change in strategy or occur unintentionally from unplanned. which they did not go earlier. However they realised that there is a market of middle class price sensitive consumer. ENTERING NEW MARKETS A Brand can enter new markets in two ways: 1. (Tata Motors is known for Heavy vehicles and medium vehicles. For example Shopper’s Stop Logo from rounded to Flat. For Example Global branding or entering a new territory. 2. Mc-Donalds had to adjust with the product and match the Indian taste. They may enter the existing market with a new brand. change of name of UTI Bank to Axis Bank. V. Rebranding can be applied to new products.connotations of the previous branding or to move the brand upmarket. mature products. they innovated and came out with the AAM JANTA Compact car NANO.