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UNIT: 8 CHAPTER NAME: DIGITAL CELLULAR NETWORKS Topics

LESSON PLAN PERIODS:

DIGITAL CELLULAR NETWORKS: GSM architecture, GSM channels, multiplex access scheme, TDMA, CDMA.
DISCUSSION TOPICS • History • Building Blocks • System Architecture • Features (Basic and Advanced) • Advantages of GSM • Future – what’s next HISTORY Early 80’s Europe was experiencing rapid growth in the analog cellular telephone systems 1982 Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) GSM (Groupe Special Mobile) group was formed to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system GSM mandate was to develop a standard to be common for the countries that created it – provide service to the entire European continent • GSM criteria – – Good subjective speech quality – Low terminal and service cost – Support for international roaming – one system for all of Europe – Ability to support handheld terminals – Support for range of new services and facilities – Enhanced Features – ISDN compatibility – Enhance privacy – Security against fraud Building Blocks • AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone System • TACS – Total Access Communication System • NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone System • AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone System analog technology used in North and South America and approximately 35 other countries operates in the 800 MHz band using FDMA technology • TACS – Total Access Communication System variant of AMPS deployed in a number of countries primarily in the UK • NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone System analog technology deployed in the Benelux countries and Russia operates in the 450 and 900 MHz band first technology to offer international roaming – only within the Nordic countries

Base Transceiver Station (BTS) 2. Base Station Controller (BSC) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) • Houses the radio transceivers that define a cell • Handles radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station • Speech and data transmissions from the MS are recoded • Requirements for BTS: • ruggedness • reliability • portability • minimum costs Base Station Controller (BSC) • Manages Resources for BTS • Handles call set up • Location update • Handover for each MS .System Architecture • Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) • Base Station Subsystem (BBS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) • Network Subsystem Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: 1. Mobile Equipment (ME) 2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Mobile Equipment Produced by many different manufacturers Must obtain approval from the standardization body Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) • Smart card containing the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services • Encoded network identification details • Protected by a password or PIN • Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key information to activate the phone Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers 1.

contains selected administrative information from the HLR .Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) .Notification of an incoming call while on the handset • Call Hold .tracks which customers have the phone on and ready to receive a call periodically updates the database on which phones are turned on and ready to receive calls • Authentication Center (AUC) .System Architecture Network Subsystem • Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • Switch speech and data connections between: • Base Station Controllers • Mobile Switching Centers • GSM-networks • Other external networks • Heart of the network • Three main jobs: • 1) connects calls from sender to receiver • 2) collects details of the calls made and received • 3) supervises operation of the rest of the network components Home Location Registers (HLR) .Made up of three sub-classes: The White List.Ki is the primary element • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) .Put a caller on hold to take another call • Call Barring .current location of the mobile • Visitor Location Registers (VLR) .authenticates the user .All calls.mainly used for security .data storage location and functional part of the network . or incoming calls • Call Forwarding . The Black List and the Gray List Optional database Basic Features Provided by GSM • Call Waiting . outgoing calls.contains administrative information of each subscriber .Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user • Multi Party Call Conferencing .Link multiple calls together • Calling Line ID .

Approaches can be broadly grouped into two categories: narrowband and wideband.) Random Access Channel Steering of channel entry with Aloha-procedure Paging Channel signalize incoming calls Multiple Access Techniques The transmission from the BS in the downlink can be heard by each and every mobile user in the cell. Multiple access schemes to allow many users to share simultaneously a finite amount of radio spectrum resources. differential encoding) units of 26 TDMA .Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) .Should not result in severe degradation in the performance of the system as compared to a single user scenario. . Multiple Accessing Techniques : with possible conflict and conflict.Random access .Virtual Office / Professional Office • Roaming . and is referred as broadcasting. . and is referred to as multiple access.tally of actual costs of phone calls • Fax & Data .one for personal calls . frequency order etc.free .Frames Half-rate traffic channel: for more efficient speech encoding with 7 kbit/s Control Channel Signal information Monitoring of the BSCs for reconnaissance of Handover Broadcast Control Channel BSC to MS (identity./ data channel (13 kbit/s brutto. cleaner quieter calls • Security against fraud and eavesdropping • International roaming capability in over 100 countries • Improved battery life • Efficient network design for less expensive system expansion • Efficient use of spectrum • Advanced features such as short messaging and caller ID • A wide variety of handsets and accessories • High stability mobile fax and data at up to 9600 baud • Ease of use with over the air activation.incoming telephone number displayed Alternate Line Service .services and features can follow customer from market to market Advantages of GSM • Crisper.one for business calls • Closed User Group . Transmission from the mobile users in the uplink to the BS is many-to-one..call by dialing last for numbers • Advice of Charge . and all account information is held in a smart card which can be moved from handset to handset • GSM: channel strucure Traffic Channel speech.

This is called buffer-and-burst method. Requires digital modulation Features of TDMA Enables the sharing of a single radio channel among N users Requires high data-rate per radio channel to support N users simultaneously. but distinguishes the transmission through the use of a particular code Frequency Division Multiple Access Individual radio channels are assigned to individual users Each user is allocated a frequency band (channel) During this time. Symbol time is usually larger (low data rate) than the delay spread of the multipath channel (implies that inter-symbol interference is low) Lower complexity systems that TDMA systems.Time division multiple access (TDMA) example is Code division multiple access (CDMA) FDMA – Frequency band is divided into a number of frequency channels and each user accesses a particular channel for the length of a call. until its turn (time slot) comes to transmit. A channel is logically defined as a particular time slot that repeats with some period. TDMA systems buffer the data. no other user can share the channel Base station allocates channels to the users Features of FDMA An FDMA channel carries one phone circuit at a time If channel allocated to a user is idle. TDMA – Each user accesses the entire frequency band. Mobile and base can transmit and receive simultaneously Bandwidth of FDMA channels are relatively low. then it is not used by someone else: waste of resource.. Time Division Multiple Access The allocated radio spectrum for the system is divided into time slots In each slot a user can transmit or receive A user occupiess a cyclically repeating slots. . but only for a short period of time CDMA – Each user access all the frequency for all the time.

This brings extra flexibility and efficiency compared to FDMA systems. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) In CDMA. (low autocorrelation) Chip rate is oder of magnitude larger than the symbol rate. the narrowband message signal is multiplied by a very large bandwidth signal called spreading signal (code) before modulation and transmission over the air. It may depend on the traffic requirement of mobiles. symbol rate Spreading signal (code) consists of chips Has Chip period and and hence. àlarge overhead per slot. DSSS is a more general term.High data-rate on a radio channel with fixed bandwidth requires adaptive equalizers to be used in multipath environments (remember the RSM delay spread s parameter) Transmission occurs in bursts (not continues) Enables power saving by going to sleep modes in unrelated slots Discontinues transmission also enables mobile assisted handoff Requires synchronization of the receivers. . Need guard bits. Allocation of slots to mobile users should not be uniform. Message consists of symbols Has symbol period and hence. This is called spreading. sync bits. The receiver correlator distinguishes the senders signal by examining the wideband signal with the same time-synchronized spreading code The sent signal is recovered by despreading process at the receiver. chip rate Spreading signal use a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence (a pseudo-random sequence) PN sequence is called a codeword Each user has its own cordword Codewords are orthogonal. CDMA is also called DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum).

code set partitioning used mostly in wireless broadcast channels (cellular..CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) unique “code” assigned to each user.. code) to encode data encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “orthogonal”) CDMA Encode/Decode CDMA: two-sender interference .e. i. etc) all users share same frequency. but each user has own “chipping” sequence (i. satellite.e.

Y. Lee. S. 1989. Wireless Communications .. Rapport.L Signal Question posed to stimulate students learning: 1 . 2. 3.T. Mobile Cellular Telecommunications – W. 2nd Edn. Wireless Communications.References: 1.. MC Graw Hill. 2nd Edn.C.Theodore. Pearson education. 2002.