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The Ethiopian Liturgy: A Bird’s-Eye View

I. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT  First Phase (4th – 7th C.): Translations from Greek and Syriac Sources to Gə῾əz (Ethiopic)  The ordination of St. Frumentius (Abba Salama)  The Ordo Communis of the Alexandrian rite  Hippolytus’ Apostolic Tradition (Egyptian Church Order)  Sinodos (Ethiopian Church Order)  Anaphora of the Apostles  The Greek anaphora of St. Mark  The Testament of the Lord (Testamentum Domini)

Origin and development
 The flight of the Nine Saints to Ethiopia (ca.

Origin and development
 Second Phase (1270 – 14th C.): Translations

480); Justinian persecution.
 The anaphora of the Lord  Adaptation of various liturgical texts

(euchologion/Kidan; intercessory prayers [preparatory and post-communio]; Mystagogia [Baptismal text])  The anaphora of St. James the brother of the Lord.  Hymnaries of St. Yared (505-580): Dəggᵂa, the antipohnary of the year; Sunday Office/ matins and vespers.

from Arabic Sources  Didascalia (Didascalia Apostolorum)  The Coptic anaphora of St. Basil  Lectionary for the Passion Week  The Coptic Horologium (Book of Hours)  A book for funeral rituals (Mäṣǝḥafä Gənzät )  Praise of Mary (Wəddase Maryam), derived from the Copto-Arabic Theotokias of the Psalmodia.  Metropolitan Abba Salama II (1348-1388)


replacing the Coptic Horologium)  Homiliaries to be read during liturgical seasons (Abba Giyorgis’ Book of Mystery and the homiliary of Rətu῾a Haymanot on the Great Feasts of the Lord)  lex orandi. Gregory of Nyssa and Nazianzus). lex credendi Origin and development  Theological Controversies: antropomorphism.-first quarter of the 16th C. II. Anointing of the Sick. Origin and development  Final Phase (16th – 17th C. Cyril. and Syrian elements.  Book of Matrimony. Athanasius. Book of Ordination) revised. the Sabbath controversy. John Chrysostom. and Dioscorus of Alexandria. the anaphora of Abba Giyorgis  Purpose of gaining credibility by the Church.  Liturgical Reform  Abba Giyorgis’ Mäṣǝḥafä Sä῾atat (Book of Hours).): The Gondar Era  Theological controversies with Portuguese missionaries (Jesuits)  Revision of the Ethiopic Missal (Mäṣəḥafä Qəddase)  Addition of rubrics and hymns  Composition of festive hymnaries as parts of the Divine Offices  Sacramentaries (Book of Baptism. Coptic. named after the Fathers of the Church (Ss. CELEBRATION OF THE ETHIOPIAN DIVINE LITURGY (Qəddase)  Features:  Integration of Jewish.): The Golden Period.  Composition of local anaphoras (15)  Spurious designation of the Ethiopic anaphoras.  Mä῾aza Qəddase .2/11/2013 Origin and development  Third Phase (early 15th C. veneration of icons.  Prevalence of biblical symbolism  Exhibited note of joy and unity  Exuberant procession  Contemplative character  Variable melodies 2 .

hierarchy. Christology (AA. Holy. God Lord of hosts…)  Institution narrative  Anamnesis (remembrance)  Epiclesis (invocation of the Holy Spirit)  Prayer of fraction  The Lord’s prayer + Doxology. Celebration and structural pattern  Part Three: Anaphora (Liturgy of the Faithful)  Dialogue  Preface (creation + salvation history)  Intercessory prayers (diptychs)  Sanctus (Holy. Apophatic theology (AA. laity) Celebration and structural pattern  Creed (Niceo-Constantinopolitan or Apostolic Creed)  Lavabo The Ethiopic Anaphoras  5 of foreign origin and 15 indigenous. Paul. Holy. and the Acts of the Apostles  Trisagion  Gospel reading + homily  Dismissal of the catechumens  The three great litanies (for the peace of the Church. of SS. John the Evangelist and that of John Chrysostom). Celebration and structural pattern  Part Two: Liturgy of the Word (ordinary of the liturgy – ordo communis or synaxis)  Incense prayer  A reading from one of the epistles of St.  Communion and Post-Communion Service 3 . Epiphanius). Catholic epistles. Dioscorus and Cyril). Creation themes (AA. of St. the 318 Nicene Fathers and that of St.  theological depth and poetic beauty Tridology and theology of the incarnation (Anaphora of Mary).2/11/2013 Celebration and structural pattern  Structure:  Part One: Preparatory Service (Proskomedia)  Preparations at Bethlehem  The preliminary prayers of the celebrant  Offertory  The prayer of thanksgiving  The absolution of the Son  Intercessory prayer for the whole created order.

none/ 9th hour) (24. 4 . 102. interspersed with various antiphons. midnight. choir cane. 85) are chanted. 93.  Mäwäddəs (Sunday nocturn + matins): selected psalms and various biblical canticles. terce/3rd hour.2/11/2013 III.  Ṣomä Dəggᵂa: Fasting office. and sistrums. compline. drums.  Maḥəlet (cantillation): celebrated throughout the night at the third ambulatory of the Church. variable chants and lessons for each day of the Lent. The Divine Offices (Cathedral Offices)  Vigils for feast days (Wazema): selected psalms canonical hours of daily prayer (Sunset/vespers. 141. sext/ 6th hour. sunrise/prime/matins. THE LITURGY OF HOURS  I. Sä῾atat (Horologium)  Horologium of Daylight Hours  Nocturnal Horologium  Liturgy of the Word centered on Scripture  Lections and contemplative hymns for the 7 Liturgy of Hours  II.  Cantors.