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This is the story of a self-made man, someone who conveys the simple and yet very important message that integrity, confidence, initiative, commitment, determination and hard work in ones dreams can bring success. UTTAM CHAND ADLAKHA; a man who came to India as a refugee with just Rs.16, and who was determined in his life, made a fortune for himself and his dependents. Everyone has his or her own dreams; perhaps there are very few who are ready to undergo through any circumstances to convert those dreams to reality. This person so wanted to convert his dreams to reality that from a labourer he became the respectable industrialist with his own courage. And it is his hard work and determination only that in the year 1962 he founded the Uttam Group Of Companies, which today has a turnover of $134.5 million. Believe in yourself. Do not give in to self-doubt. If you have any doubts about a new venture, do not embark on it. From early age you must have a goal in life. Otherwise you will lose your way such a remarkable line it is by Uttam Chand Adlakha. [1] On the 15th March, 1927; Bholaram Adlakhas wife gave birth to a son named Uttam Chand. Bholarams passion in life was farming; but his share of the land in Harnauli (a village in Sarhad, Pakistan) was hardly sufficient to provide for the needs of a growing family, and besides, the soil was sandy and unproductive. And then Bholaram would have to take work as a labourer in order to make ends meet. Besides the financial crises in the family; still just like every other child in the village, Uttam Chand Adlakha also started attending the local school from the age of five. Perhaps attending classes seemed to him to be an unprofitable way of passing the time. Instead he always been more interested in watching a semi skilled labourer set up a hand pump outside the window of his classroom. The worker even agreed to Uttam pleas and took him on as a helper. Perhaps, the worker ditched him; as he did not pay him any money for working with him as a helper. Thus, Uttams interest lay in acquiring a new skill. He started collecting wood in the desert and sold it to the villagers as the winters arrived. Then there was a day when after facing numerous problems in the desert, like no electricity, no water and chilling night; when sleeping, he dreamt of cool green pastures and running water, of fields of waving wheat and cane. And he was sure that one day his dream will come true. His mind was sharp and was focused to earn money to overcome the financial crises in the family. He did not hesitate to undertake any sort of work through which he could earn a little amount of money. He worked for sometime in a flour grinding mill for a daily wage of two annas. Then after that Uttam worked with a popular hakim in the town. He not only learnt the formulae of making medicines; but also gained some knowledge of human by meeting the patients. His familys financial status was still not well, the family still lived a hand to mouth existence; that is why Uttam preferred to work rather to go to school. After a two year experience working with a grocer in the village; he was asked by his Uncle to help him in his business. Then a year later it was the time when he decided to start up his own business. He started buying and selling dates and mangoes. Perhaps the actually profits were not as per his belief. Thus, he started working for a merchant, traded in gur (jaggery) and sugar. But after

saving some money out of the job; he left, as he was made to do various domestic tasks as well for the merchant, due to which he could not take proper sleep. Uttam proved to be a good pupil. He soon mastered the art of being a mason. Sardar Suba Singh initiated Uttam into the art of constructing defence towers from which people could protect themselves and their houses from attack by dacoits. Uttams work on the towers earned the praise and admiration of the people of Harnauli. Your boy will go far they told his father. [2] And indeed the words said by the people of Harnauli were true. Then the year 1947 came; it was the year when Partition took place. Uttam was just seventeen years old that time, and his father was shot dead. He wasnt even able to reach his dead fathers body due to constant firing from soldiers. Uttams chief concern was to get his other family members out of Pakistan. Uttam just had Rs. 16 and some jewellery given by his father. He knew that he would never see Harnauli again. He had the fear of the future. And was wondering would India have anything to offer a penniless refugee? Without any mishap; Uttam with his family were able to reach Mohinddpur; where a relative of him was already residing. There Uttam got a permanent job with good salary in the Ram Laxman Sugar Mills. Then he even stated depositing some part of the salary to postal savings. He soon even bought a house of his own for Rs.2000. He had this tendency of not sitting idle. During the off seasons and even except the factory hours, he always remained alert for the possibilities of a new venture; like: making potato chips and selling them in the trains, sold milk to traders in Delhi, sold cloths on a commission basis to Meerut cloth merchants and sold hay to farmers. Uttam agreed for a partnership company named Baba Vishwakarma Engineering Company on the Hapur Road with his two pals in the year 1960. For this Uttam had to resign his job at the sugar factory. But due to the poor financial condition of the company; Uttam had to end the partnership. Perhaps; Uttam took help of R.K. Dhawan an influential man who also closely associated with the Birla Group of Industries. Hence, Uttam started supplying grate bars to the power station and spare parts to the Sugar factories and he in fact changed his industrys name to Industrial Engineering Corporation. He had a good judgement of human character and hence the divisional heads he recruited lived up to his expectations resulting steady improvement and progress. He didnt believe in leisure or relaxation. Instead, he visited every sugar factory in the country and had generated goodwill amongst them. Soon Uttam Group of Companies became multiproduct and multi-location enterprise with interests in diverse fields. The Uttam Industrial Engineering Ltd. (1969) in Ghaziabad, Uttam Sucrotech (1980) in Ghaziabad, Lipi Boiler, Pune was taken over by the Uttam Group of Companies, Uttam School for Girls in Ghaziabad was established in 1995, even established Uttam Sugar Mills Ltd in 2000 in Roorkee, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Bijnore, setup


Uttam Centrifugals in Ghaziabad and the group started the dealership of the car brand Toyota in 2001 in Ghaziabad, Noida and Delhi.

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BURNS MODEL Personal Character Traits Vision: A proper vision is the foremost thinking required for ones success. As it is due to vision only; you can rate your performance and see how farther you still have to go. If a person doesnt have a vision in life; other characteristics required for a successful entrepreneur arent of much use. Uttam used to say You must have an aim, a purpose in life. [3] Anyone would think that the success Uttam got in his life was due to the magic; but it is not. It was his vision, need, aim and dreams only which resulted in his great success.

Self Confident: A beautiful saying by Samuel Johnson it is that Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings. Dr. Johnson wants to convey that one must earn some self-confidence before earning a penny. If a person is not self confident; he cannot be a successful entrepreneur as he wont be able to face the uncertainties of life and business. Self-confidence shouldnt be there for once. A person must be self-confident throughout its life to be successful. If talked about Uttam; he never lost his self-confidence since he was five. In spite of the fact that Uttams family had financial crises and he even got bullied at work sometimes; he always had confident on himself that he would be a great man one day. Even after starting his partnership engineering company, which later ended up; he knew that he soon going to be a successful industrialist.

Pro-active and decision with high energy: Its upon an individual that what he wants to be. A person who wants to succeed have to look for the new opportunities all the time, rather than simply just relying on their luck. According to William Jennings Bryan Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice; it is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved. [4] To complete their task on time and to compete with the others; the entrepreneur generally perform their task twice the pace compared to a common. An example of pro-activeness and decisions with high energy from Uttams past was during the time when he worked at the Ram Laxman Sugar Mills. He not just used to work there only; he also traded for tapioca, flour and cloths, simultaneously worked in a pickle factory and sold potato chips and milk to earn a little more than just the salary.


Willingness to take greater risk: It is not that that a common man doesnt will to take risk, perhaps a true entrepreneur would will to take even more risk. It is sure that Uttam was a successful entrepreneur. To start up with his milk business, he withdrew Rs.70 from his Postal Savings leaving behind just Rs.5. He had such a great courage that he invested a huge amount for the new business. It is the sign of a true entrepreneur.

Opportunistic: Opportunistic; the word itself tells its meaning; the person who continuously seek out for new opportunities here and there in this challenging time. An entrepreneurs quality is that he or she generally sees opportunities where other people see problems. After a conversation with the youngest son of Uttam; a story from Uttams past had bring into light. And that story proves that how opportunistic Uttam really was. Severe flood hit Mohiuddinpur in 1954; and many sugar sacks were also destroyed in a sugar mill. Uttam purchased those sacks from the storekeeper at a concessional rate; Rs.90 per hundred bags. As he had been working in a sugar factory, he knew how he could make a condemned sacks look as good as the new ones. After doing so, he sold the same sacks of sugar to the same storekeeper at a profit of Rs. 30 to 50 per hundred bags.

Innovative: Almost every entrepreneur is aware of the fact that, to grow their business; they have to link innovation with the market place. Good fortune is not enough unless you know how to make good use of it by Ruskin Bond. [5] His words clearly tells that if you have the opportunity, do something innovative to make a good use of it; or else that opportunity is of no use. After working under many people one after another; Uttam wanted to start his own business. His family had an opportunity to start over with a new business but it was teenaged Uttams innovative mind only which thought of starting a transport service of delivering commodities to wholesalers on donkeys and camels. This shows the innovativeness of Uttam from his childhood. Antecedent Influences The burns model also conveys some antecedent influences; which are also the reason for successfulness of an entrepreneur. One of the influences that Uttam opposes is that; that education also plays a significant role in ones success. It is already clear that Uttam didnt attend the school much. But Uttam proves the other two antecedent influences right. That is; getting succeeded while living in a difficult environment and facing the hard times which therefore motivated him to earn for his dependents, so that at least they dont have to see the bad time. Another influence was his getting employed first which helped him to gain lots of practical knowledge indeed and then starting with his own business.

Situational Factors Situational factors are another reason for an entrepreneurs growth according to the burns model. Uttam unintentionally could follow them. As from his childhood itself; he came across with so many people with different natures and qualities that at the time he started his new business he could easily judge the people with managerial qualities. Hence he built up a very strong and determined team of employees which helped him to grow a lot. And secondly; he started his business from a middle age only. That also happened as when he has to come to India; his father was dead already, he knew that he has to be the breadwinner for the family.

LIMITATIONS OF BURNS MODEL Barringer provided a framework which was also fruitful for an entrepreneur. His framework had factors like passion for Business, execution intelligence and positivity despite failures; which are important and are missing in Burns Model. Uttam had passion for business even after his partnership corporation ended up. He was ready to work alone as well but didnt want to get in to employment. As he was aware that ultimate success could be possible by doing business only. He was very intelligent. As throughout his life he attained lots of practical knowledge. He intelligently used his knowledge in getting succeeded by applying that in his business. Through his history it gets very clear that from his childhood; how many failures he had came across. But it could also be seen that he never got disheartened after facing the failures. Perhaps he always had some positive energy to earn more and overcome any of his weaknesses he discovered during his bad times.

SARASWATHY MODEL As per Saraswathy model; there are two types of persons, namely Effectual Rationalist and Causal Rationalist. Uttam was an Effectual Rationalist person. He had an objective that he wants to get succeeded in his life. Unlike his father he didnt want to be a labourer. Though during the initial phase he had to work as a labourer only; due to the financial crisis in the family. But as soon as any opportunity arose he didnt give a second thought on bearing a risk to earn out of it. Uttam moved along as the time changed and constantly made new goals for him, once he had achieved his previous targets. His success didnt come along because of some particular plan that he had thought of; but because of his willingness and determination towards his work.


SELF ANALYSIS Being an Entrepreneur requires a fine blend of traits like independence, self-motivation, optimistic attitude and willingness to take risks. I took a test named Entrepreneurial Personality Test. The result made me discover my dominant personality type, Collaborator. First factor in my drive to succeed is, Independence. Im independent at times, but on the other hand, I still tend to rely on others opinions. In spite of having my own set of rules, Im usually thankful for the guidance and structure of authority figures. To start a new business, one needs to be full of enthusiasm and Passion because this feeling is contagious and it gets people involved. This eagerness also helps me get through rough times. My high energy levels help would help me raise, an enterprise off-the-ground. Im not just a rat in the race. Im the one with my eyes on the prize and with a very strong goal-orientation which helps me win the race. Ive high aims and I enjoy challenges while remaining focussed on the ultimate target. I might lack Conscientiousness. I might be inconsistently reliable and authoritative. Good organisational skills and firm execution are mandatory to run a company. My inconsistency in this area might cost me. Another factor is the social networking skills I possess. I have respectable people-skills but they arent good enough for the area of social skills. Professionalism and vivaciousness in me would help attract clients. I have an assertive attitude, which makes me a good leader. Ill be the one leading my group because Im not apprehensive about taking decisions, even if the choices are detested. My ultimate aim is the progress of the team. My risk-taking abilities might take a toll, thats when my mentors/supporters come into the picture. Having number of friends and family by my side, makes me comfortable during tough times. My outlook on success is determined by being self-efficaciousness. Im fully aware of my strengths and weaknesses. I focus on my strengths instead of my weaknesses. My confidence in me and my product are the ingredients to success. Optimistic nature is another virtue. Positive thinking & Optimism reflects success in my business. Staying up-beat in front of obstacles is important. Entrepreneurship is my chance to soar high in terms of fortuneseeking. But that is rare. The love for my business should be the reason behind my business. My openness to new ideas determines my success. Im willing to learn new things and Ive high curiosity levels which help me pick up the knowledge and skills I need. Im innovative and I think out of the box. I like to seize opportunities, which others tend to miss. Im fond of a stable life but a fast paced life and fluent schedules can be handled. Risk-taking is another virtue, I possess. I understand the necessity to strike the right balance between taking risks and considering options. Identifying the good risks is brutally important. Another important factor is risk management. I sometimes take the road less travelled but only after considering calculated risks and the fact they seem to be appropriate for my future plans. I try sticking to my strategies, but taking the benefit out of an opportunity is equally important for me. And at times, it might also mean putting me in risky positions.


I need to determine my passion and should put in hard work to start a business based on it. I need to be self-sufficient and realise that Im my own boss and my own employee. Time management is another area I need to focus on. My clients should rely on me. I need to challenge myself and go beyond my own expectations. I need to know how my behaviour affects my business. I should put my best face forward and avoid bad-temper. Connections with local entrepreneurs, is vital. They are an amazing source for advice and support. I should read about other self-starters and get inspired by learning about their lives. I should learn from others mistakes. I should focus on my fortitudes and be aware of my weaknesses. I should anticipate my success and itll help me get through tough times. I need to be proud of my achievements and should share my happiness with the ones whove emotionally invested in me. I should keep coming up with new ideas and continue with the creative flow. I need to learn a new skill every week to increase my knowledge. I shouldnt be afraid of failure. Its the first step to success.


Appendix -1 Collaborator
Drive to succeed Social network Outlook on success (score = 60) (score = 72) (score = 78)

Openness to new ideas (score = 72) Graphic Results:

Overall Score = 71 Drive to succeed = 60 Social network = 72 Outlook on success = 78 Openness to new ideas = 72

Drive to succeed: Score = 60

Independence = 52 Passion = 77 Goal-orientation = 60 Conscientiousness = 52

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Social network: Score = 72

Social Skills = 57 Leadership = 75 Mentors/supporters = 85

Outlook on success: Score = 78

Self-efficaciousness = 70 Optimism = 82 Status-seeking* = 83 Openness to new ideas: Score = 72

Interest in knowledge = 78 Innovation = 72 Adaptability = 55 Risk-taking = 53 Risk-management = 100

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Appendix 2 Saraswathy Model

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The word effectual is the inverse of causal. In general, in MBA programs across the world, students are taught causal or predictive reasoning in every functional area of business. Causal rationality begins with a pre-determined goal and a given set of means, and seeks to identify the optimal fastest, cheapest, most efficient, etc. alternative to achieve the given goal. The make-vs.-buy decision in production, or choosing the target market with the highest potential return in marketing, or picking a portfolio with the lowest risk in finance, or even hiring the best person for the job in human resources management, are all examples of problems of causal reasoning. A more interesting variation of causal reasoning involves the creation of additional alternatives to achieve the given goal. This form of creative causal reasoning is often used in strategic thinking. Effectual reasoning, however, does not begin with a specific goal. Instead, it begins with a given set of means and allows goals to emerge contingently over time from the varied imagination and diverse aspirations of the founders and the people they interact with. While causal thinkers are like great generals seeking to conquer fertile lands (Genghis Khan conquering two thirds of the known world), effectual thinkers are like explorers setting out on voyages into uncharted waters (Columbus discovering the new world). It is important to point out though that the same person can use both causal and effectual reasoning at different times depending on what the circumstances call for. In fact, the best entrepreneurs are capable of both and do use both modes well. But they prefer effectual reasoning over causal reasoning in the early stages of a new venture, and arguably, most entrepreneurs do not transition well into latter stages requiring more causal reasoning. Figure 1 graphically depicts the different forms of reasoning discussed above.

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[1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Ruskin Bond, 2009, The Uttam Chand Story, page #8, New Delhi, Rupa &Co. Ruskin Bond, 2009, The Uttam Chand Story, page #19 & 20, New Delhi, Rupa &Co. Ruskin Bond, 2009, The Uttam Chand Story, page #71, New Delhi, Rupa &Co. Shiv Khera, 2004, You Can Win, page #57, 5th edition, New Delhi, Macmillan India Ltd. Ruskin Bond, 2009, The Uttam Chand Story, page #57, New Delhi, Rupa &Co.

Barringer, B.R., and Ireland, R.D., (2010), Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, 3rd Edition, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall Burns, P., (2006), Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Ruskin Bond, 2009, The Uttam Chand Story, New Delhi, Rupa &Co. Image 01: (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 7th April, 2012) Image 02: (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 7th April, 2012)

Image 03: (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 7th

April, 2012)

Image 04: (Accessed from Internet:

(Accessed on 7th April, 2012)

Image 05: (Accessed from Internet:

(Accessed on 7th April, 2012)

Image 06: (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 7th April, 2012) Rae, D and Carswell, M. (2001). Towards a conceptual understanding of entrepreneurial learning. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 8 (2), p150-158. Sarasvathy, S.D. (2001). What makes entrepreneurs entrepreneurial? Harvard Business Review. 1 (1), p1-9. The Little Giant Encyclopedia of Inspirational Quotes (Accessed from Internet: idence&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DkJ_T_bsKJGjiAfZnbigBA&ved=0CEsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=quotes%20on%20self%20confidence&f=false) (Accessed on 6th April, 2012)

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The Entrepreneur Next Door (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 6th April, 2012) Uttam Group (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 8th April, 2012) Uttam Sugar Mills Ltd (Accessed from Internet: (Accessed on 8th April, 2012)

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Following is an approval of Mr. Ranjan Adlakha for using the content from the book The Uttam Chand Stroy; as it was specified in the book that no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the RajKumar, Rajan, Ranjan Adlakha sons of Uttam Chand Adlakha.

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