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Tuning of coupled-resonator filter is performed in this article by using the group delay response of the input reflection coefficient of sequentially tuned resonators containing all the information necessary to design and tune filters. To achieve high out-of-band rejection losses a single transmission zero is introduced producing a pair of finite frequency poles. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) is used to optimize and/or tune the bandpass filter resonse in a complete model by applying the new, fast MOR-Frequency Domain Solver. To speed-up the tuning process the entire model is split up into several sections and recombined in CST DESIGN STUDIO™ (CST DS) to get the overall filter response

The example presented here is a 6-pole folded combline bandpassfilter with a center frequency = 1793 MHz, a bandwidth = 170 MHz, a return loss of VSWR= 1.2 (equivalent to -21dB) and an out-of-band rejection for frequencies 1920 MHz of less than -30dB. The u-shape type was chosen to create a quadrupole section by introducing a pair of transmission zeros. Although the filter geometry looks quite simple, it is a very challenging tuning task since the posts are positioned in an open waveguide environment without any irises to confine the cavities. Also the tuning of the individual posts is performed by simply changing their lengths hereby varying their capacitances against the waveguide's walls.

The tuning process for the simple Chebychev response was started with the cross-coupling by optimizing the group-delay response of sequentially tuned resonators. The process is very well described in [1] and [2]. The procedure can be automated within CST MWS using PostProcessingTemplates allowing to compose complex goals for the optimizer. The beauty of this method is the limited number of varying parameters at each tuning stage: the coupling bandwidth and the resonance frequency.

Since the geometry is symmetric, only the first 3 resonators need to be tuned. The only additional missing parameter to be tuned is the coupling bandwidth between resonators 3 and 4. Overall there are seven free parameters to completely describe und tune the filter: the distance of the input coupling disk towards the first resonator, the distances between second and third resonators, the distance between resonator 3 and 4 and the resonator's lenghts. As the group-delay response is getting quite difficult to interprete, another method was chosen instead: Two discrete ports were positioned above the two resonators and the coupling distance was determined by the two adjacent peaks of the transmission parameter. The final geometry is shown in Figure 1.

Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG - http://www.cst.com

Page 1 of 12

cst.com Page 2 of 12 .http://www. Note. that the capacitive cross-coupling is made inactive by minimizing its length Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .Figure 1: Final geometry.

Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG . Figure 3 illustrates this procedure: Only four submodels are required to describe the complete filter. CST MWS is used to compute the required S-parameters.Figure 2: Typical Chebyshev.com Page 3 of 12 . Since the number of meshcells of the submodels is small compared to a complete model the runtimes are extremely short.http://www. the model was split up into several sub-sections. thus the meshdensity can be increased to achieve higher accuracy.response after completion of the tuning process Instead of performing the optimization with the complete filter.cst. wWaveguide ports considering a sufficiently large number of modes are assigned at the intersections . Since frequencies below cutoff are considered it is advisable to use the Frequency Domain solver within CST MWS: here the Model order Reduction solver (MOR) was used.

http://www. CST DS uses an interpolation scheme in order to avoid numerous recomputations of S-parameters for individual setups required by the optimizer.cst. These parameters can be used in an optimization process.Figure 3: Definition of the sub-models: At the common interfaces between the sub-models waveguide ports are assigned (not shown here) The sub-models are loaded into CST DS and linked together. Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .com Page 4 of 12 . The local sub-model parameters can be accessed and assigned to a global CST DS parameter.

com Page 5 of 12 .cst.http://www. Note the link to global CST DS parameters Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .Figure 4: CST MWS submodels and their connections via modes.

Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .http://www. the length of the capacitive cross-coupling stub is enlarged to increase the coupling bandwidth for a quadruplet type behaviour described in [3] and [4].com Page 6 of 12 .Figure 5: S-Parameter view of CST DS results In a next step.cst.

Figure 6: Enlarging the length of the stub reinforces the coupling bandwidth Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .cst.http://www.com Page 7 of 12 .

com Page 8 of 12 . resulting in a symmetric location of the transmission zeros above and below the passband.Figure 7: The transmission zeros are still in the upper stopband indicating that the coupling is too small. The next two figures show the geometry and the respective S-parameters. Shown here is also a comparison between a complete model and a sub-model result using CST DS Finally. Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG . the cross-coupling is further increased.cst.http://www.

com Page 9 of 12 .cst.Figure 8: Further enlargement of the cross coupling stub Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .http://www.

12. and Tuning of Coupled-Resonator Filters". and Techn. on MW Theor. John B. Vol 11. IEEE Trans. No 5.. Adding a diagonally positioned coupling would allow a more symmetric rejection shape References: [1] John B. [3] Raph Levy: "Filters with Single Transmission Zeros at Real or Imaginary Frequencies". Applied MWWireless. April 1998 [2] Peter Martin. April 1976 [4] Ralph Levy. No 4.Figure 9: Results of the CST DS model: Two transmission zeros appear above and below passband. Measurement. Dec.cst. 2001 Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .. Ness: "A Unified Approach to the Design. on MW Theor.. and Tech. Ness: "Coupling Bandwidth and Reflected Group Delay Characterization of MW Bandpass Filters". MTT-24.http://www. on MW Theor. No 4. IEEE Trans. Vol. and Techn. Peter Petre: "Design of CT and CQ Filters Using Approximation and Optimization". IEEE Trans.com Page 10 of 12 . Vol 46. Vol 49. No.

The cross-couplings requires slight changes of the theoretical Chebychev values resulting in very small geometrical modifications.Appendix: A bandpass filter can simply be described by low-pass prototype LC elements and by coupling coefficients of the inverter coupled filter.http://www. Approximation techniques can be used to get good initial values of the lumped elements [4] to find an optimal overall performance in a consecutive optimization loop.cst. A The next figure shows the equivalent network including also a cross-coupling admittance inverter with a negative C across the nodes 2 and 5. Figure 10: Circuit elements for inverter coupled filter structures Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .com Page 11 of 12 .

Figure 11: Optimized filter response of the bandpass filter within CST DS Figure 12: Parameter list of optimized LC lumped element values Six-Pole Bandpassfilter with Single Cross-Coupling © 2013 CST AG .com Page 12 of 12 .http://www.cst.

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